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Theory Critique of Jean Watson
Introduction and Historical Context
Jean Watson developed the theory of transpersonal caring or the theory of human caring in the year 1979. The theory points at the humanistic characteristics of nursing in relation to the scientific knowledge in the world. Watson developed this theory with the aim of communicating meaning, and making nursing a unique health profession. We consider caring as the core responsibility to nursing; therefore, we must be ready to preserve human caring within activities; within our administrative stations, within the clinic, at our educational facilities and during research work. The theory has evolved over time, but the concepts remain the same (Earle, 2010). Various changes in the health care strategies and systems have intensified the need of nursing responsibilities. Nurses have to look after patients with care and concerning their healthcare situation. Jean Watson's theory tries to explain how nurses cope with…
George, J. (2011). Nursing theories: The base for professional nursing practice. (6th ed.).
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
Watson, J., & Smith, M.C. (2002). Caring science and the science of unitary human beings: a trans-theoretical discourse for nursing knowledge development. Journal of Advanced
Nursing, 37(5), 452-461.
I would agree with this statement, since theory and practice, when applied to each other appropriately, inform each other and cannot in fact be separated into two distinct entities. It is vitally important to use theory for informing practice, while practice would further inform theory, making the statement that a good theory is, in fact, practically true.
Benedict Spinoza, a post-Cartesian philosopher in the 17th century, held ideas of which many are still applicable to research and knowledge today (Dutton, 2005). One of these is his assertion about facts and theory. Specifically, the philosopher said: "if the facts conflict with the theory, either the theory must be changed or the facts." In practice this means that the concept of "facts" are not necessarily as static as the word suggests. Facts can change if the theory that conflicts with them is stronger than facts that have been proven by previous…
Anderson, R., Moore, T., Nagaraja, S., and Ozment, a. (2007, May 23). Incentives and Information Security. Retrieved from: http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~rja14/Papers/book-chapter-agt-1.pdf
Dutton, B.D. (2005, Jul. 7). Benedict Spinoza. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from: http://www.iep.utm.edu/spinoza/
Vansteenkiste, M. And Sheldon, K.M. (2006). There's nothing more practical than a good theory: Integrating motivational interviewing and self-determination theory. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 45. Retrieved from: http://www.self-determinationtheory.org/SDT/documents/2006_VansteenkisteSheldon_BJCP.pdf
Theory X and Theory Y
Select organizational leaders analysis activity current research. Critique leader Douglas MacGregor's Theory X Theory Y Identify proper category leader assessment. Include examples situations actions reflect type leader .
Theory X versus Theory Y: Apple vs. Google
According to Douglas McGregor' analysis of managerial personality styles, managers fall into two basic 'types,' that of Theory X or Theory Y Theory X managers tend to exert authority through a traditional authoritarian approach. The Theory X assumption is that people are basically lazy and desire to avoid work, rather than seek it out for self-enrichment. In contrast, Theory Y managers take a positive view of human nature and view human beings as basically desirous of self-improvement. Theory X suggests that human beings can be internally as well as externally motivated.
Despite the fact that both companies have been highly praised for the positive changes they have wrought, regarding…
Allen, Frederick. (2012). Steve Jobs broke ever leadership rule. Don't do it. Forbes.
Merchant, Nilofer. (20120). Apple's startup culture. Businessweek. Retrieved:
Nature and Use of Theory in Academic esearch
Corley and Gioia (2001) call theory the, "currency of our scholarly realm" (p. 12). The authors further explain that theoretical contribution is a requirement for a manuscript to be considered for publication. It appears that all scholarly writing hinges on the theoretical worthiness of the material. Corley and Gioia defined theory as a statement of concepts and their interrelationships that together, demonstrate how or why something occurs (p. 12). This analysis establishes theory as a necessity of empirical research. However, as these authors point out, it is not enough simply to have a theory. The idea or concept must be original and have utility, alluding to the idea that it must serve some function. Originality and utility are necessary elements for the historical progression of theory in a field of study.
Originality and Utility
The advancement of knowledge in a…
Corley, K.G., & Gioia, D.A. (2011). Building theory about theory building: What constitutes a theoretical contribution? Academy of Management Review, 36(1), 12-32.
Suddaby, R. (2010). "Construct clarity and theory development." Academy of Management
Sutton, R. And Straw (1995). What Theory is Not. Administrative
Feminist theory can get very political and insistent, but that can and should be tempered by a realistic understanding of what can be accomplished when people all agree to work together in order to see a positive change in the way people are treated.
When people become focused on the race or gender of a person, or they become too focused on the words used without clarifying the intent of those words, communication can break down and (incorrect) value judgments can quickly be made. There are ways to avoid that, of course, but some people are not aware of how to avoid those kinds of things and other people are simply not interested in avoiding them. People who do not want to avoid those kinds of problems with communication and judgment or do not see that there is even a problem sometimes have trouble separating their opinions, thoughts, and feelings…
Barnlund, D.C. (2008). A transactional model of communication. In C.D. Mortensen (Eds.), Communication theory (2nd ed). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
Berkin, C.R., Pinch, J.L. & Appel, C.S. (2005). Exploring Women's Studies: Looking Forward, Looking Back. New York, NY: Pearson Education.
Berko, R.M., et al. (2010). Communicating. 11th ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
Heyman, R. (1994). Why Didn't You Say That in the First Place? How to Be Understood at Work. 1st. San Francisco, Ca: Jossey-Bass Inc.
Free Market Fairness for the Free New World
When choosing between theories of distributive justice, awls' "Justice as Fairness" and Tomasi's "Free Market Fairness," Tomasi's theory best expresses the democratic ideal of society as a system of social cooperation between free and equal persons. In the 21st century global economic landscape, a very popular and profitable trend is "going green." Going green includes making improvements to operations of organizations that promote conversation of various forms of energy, reusing and/or recycling materials and products, as well as reducing the carbon footprint of the organization in general. Green technology and the trend of going green are worldwide phenomena that prove itself extremely financially rewarding for those who implement those strategies effectively. With regard to competitors, peers, and consumers, going green increases loyalty and augments reputation. Going green is an example of free market fairness. Green companies absolutely are in business to…
Alden, William. "Americans Vastly Underestimate Wealth Inequality, Support 'More Equal Distribution of Wealth': Study." The Huffington Post, 2011, Available from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/09/23/americans-support-wealth-redistribution_n_736132.html . 2012 April 19.
Chakrabarti, Amanda, S., & Chakrabarti, Bikas, K. "Statistical Theories of Income and Wealth Distribution." Economics, Vol. 4, 2010. Available from http://www.economics-ejournal.org/economics/journalarticles/2010-4. 2012 April 21.
Davies, James, B., & Shorrocks, Anthony, F. "Chapter 11 -- The Distribution of Wealth." Handbook of Income Distribution: Volume 1. Atkinson, A.B., & Bourguignon, F. (eds), Elsevier Science B.V., 1999.
Fields, Gary S. "Accounting for Income Inequality and its Change: A New Method, With Application to the Distribution of Earnings in the United States." Articles and Chapters, Page 265, 2002. Available from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/articles/265 . 2012 April 19.
Theory & Context: Institutional Choice and Public Administration
This brief study examines the writing of individuals such as Meier and Krause (nd), Meier (nd), Moe (2011) and others for the purpose of constructing knowledge of the theoretical framework and context of institutional choice and public administration. The normative theory is examined and how that theoretical bases can be viewed to run throughout the fabric of the various theories and models used to explain institutional choice and public administration.
Meier and Krause (nd) report that the literature on how bureaucratic performance is subjected to the control of political institutions through "ex post and ex-ante methods" is such that has been fully developed and as well there have been a great many studies conducted that examined how tools of budgeting, appointing, and oversight serve to affect the performance of bureaucrats. It is stated that bureaucratic performance in term of the…
Derthick, M. (1990) Agency under Stress: The Social Security Agency in American Government. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
Meier, K and Krause, G (2003) Conclusion: An Agenda for the Scientific Study of Bureaucracy, u in Krause and Meier (eds.) Politics, Policy and Organizations: Essays in the Scientific Study of Bureaucracy.
Miller, Gary (20000 Rational Choice and Dysfunctional Institutions.u Governance: An International Journal of Policy and Administration 13 (4): 535-547.
Moe, T. (1990) Political Institutions: The Neglected Side of the Story. Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 6: 213-253.
Theory X & Theory Y
Douglas McGregor's Theory X Theory Y are a set of dichotomous views about human nature that guide management. Theory X holds that humans generally dislike work, are irresponsible and require close supervision to do their jobs; Theory Y holds that humans are generally industrious, creative and able to assume responsibility (eNotes, 2006). These theories are said to guide management styles, because they imply that the role of the manager is going to be significantly different depending on which theory the manager subscribes to. Managers therefore need to approach team-building with a vision of the types of role definitions, control mechanisms and team construction that will fulfill the theory the manager believes in (Mind Tools, 2012).
The questionnaire from Business Balls (Chapman, 2002) had my former company score a 47. This score correlates with a "generally Y-theory management." Although the job was actually fairly regimented, and…
Chapman, A. (2002). 'x-y theory questionnaire. BusinessBalls. Retrieved February 10, 2012 from http://www.businessballs.com/mcgregorxytheorytest.pdf
eNotes. (2006). Theory X and theory Y eNotes. Retrieved February 10, 2012 from http://www.enotes.com/theory-x-theory-y-reference/theory-x-theory-y
Mind Tools. (2012). Theory x and theory Y MindTools.org. Retrieved February 10, 2012 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_74.htm
It should also make sure that the managerial members have a consistent and constructive association with the team member to ensure success of the firm. They should also make sure that the team formed has an appropriate level of conformity in terms of the attitudes, principles and work ethics. The company should also make sure that there are no ego clashes within a team and that it stays united for the company's bets interests and goals. It should also focus on having informal and honest communicational interactions amongst the employees as well as be able to bring together a large team instead of a small one. Lastly, they should also focus on making sure that the team members have can tackle common problems through the creation of familiar bonds (Adair and Thomas, 2004).
Having read the aforementioned facts, I feel that before a company chooses to adopt this group…
Adair, J.E. And Thomas, N. (2004). The Concise Adair on Teambuilding and Motivation. Thorogood. London.
MCB University Press. (1997). Perspective: Teamwork and the high performance company. Management Development Review. 10 6/7 pp. 236-238.
Natale, S.M., Libertella, A.F. And Rothschild, B. (1995). An international journal. 1; 2.
Theory at Work
" (Teasdale, 1995, pg. 25) These elements are important, because they are showing how this form of treatment can be effective in dealing with patients that are recovering. The problem is, making sure that there is: consistent follow up and dealing with some of the changing the thoughts they will experience over the long-term. (Teasdale, 1995, pp. 25 -- 39) As a result, this approach is effective at dealing with substance abuse. The key to ensuring any kind of long-term success is to make certain that there consistent discussions with the therapist. If this can occur, it will help to ensure that the addict is able to make a full recovery.
The biggest strength of emotional behavior therapy is that it is dealing with: the pent up emotions and feelings that many individuals will have associated with their addiction. This is because it is helping them to: understand what they…
Drug Related Emergency Room Hospital Visits. (2010). National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Beck, J. (2007). Cognitive Therapy. Handbook of Homework Assignments in Psychotherapy. 1, 51 -- 63.
Bhruga, D. (1998). Psychotherapy for Ethnic Minorities. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 14 (3), 310 -- 326.
Chan, J. (2003). An examination of family-involved approaches to alcoholism treatment. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 11(2), 129 -- 138.
The theory is also highly generalizable, as it can be applied to truly any body of knowledge yet is especially suited for nursing knowledge, which occurs along common lines throughout the profession (Chinn & Kramer, 2008; Fawcett et al., 2001). At the same time, the theory is quite abstract, and implementation can be difficult without a great deal of self-awareness, self-confidence, and a thorough understanding of the non-concrete and theoretical underpinnings of nursing knowledge as it is constructed by these researchers (Chinn & Kramer, 2008; Fawcett et al., 2001).
In order to implement this theory in nursing practice, the nurse practitioner must first take time to reflect on past and current learning experiences, which should of course be ongoing throughout the nurse's life (Chinn & Kramer, 2008). Through this reflection, the patterns of knowing and certain of the more detailed elements discussed by the researchers should become apparent to the…
Chinn, P. & Kramer, M. (2008). Integrated theory and knowledge development in nursing. New York: Mosby.
Fawcett, J., Watson, J., Neuman, B., Walker, P. & Fitzpatrick, J. (2001). On nursing theories and avidence. Journal of Nursing Scholarship 33(2): 115-9.
Theory X and Theory Y
When working with people, regardless of the organization, one must be cognizant of the way individuals are motivated. Motivation, in fact, is one of the basic driving forces that allow individuals to work, change, and even actualize their internal and external goals. Much of the background on motivation is based on the work of Maslow, not only surrounding human needs, but the manner in which those needs are individualized and met within the particular cultural context of the contemporary world. In this, for most developed countries, the context is the workplace. Individuals spend more time at work and often feel that the workplace is really their culture -- regardless of their own uniqueness. Within this culture, the idea of incentive theory supposed that a tangible or intangible reward has the potential for allowing the individual to be motivated, and thus for the organization to receive…
Box, R. ed., (2007). Democracy and Public Administration. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
Chapman, A. (2010). Douglas McGregor -- Theory XY; The Psychological Contract. Businessballs.com. Retrieved from: http://www.businessballs.com/mcgregor.htm
Denhardt, R. And Denhardt, J. (2008). Public Administration: An Action Orientation. Belmont, CA: Thompson Higher Education.
Fisher, K. (2000). Leading Self-Directed Work Teams: A Guide to Developing New Team.
Identify some possible questions for research study, the answers to which would serve to generate theory.
The field of nursing is constantly evolving. This is because they are playing an important part in helping stakeholders to reach key objectives and enhance the quality of care patients are receiving. After conducting different forms of research, it is clear that these individuals will continue to be a major component in all healthcare teams and organizations. However, many of the various theories are not taking into account those skill sets. That is necessary for these professionals to succeed in the future. Some of the different areas include: their role in controlling costs, improving communication, reaching out to patients and serving as a liaison between colleagues / administrators. (Sitzman, 2010) (Butts, 2011)
As a result, there are several different questions which need to be examined to improve a nurse's ability to achieve numerous…
Butts, J. (2011). Philosophies and Theories for Advanced Nursing. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Melesis, A. (2011). Theoretical Nursing. Philadelphia, PA: Walter Kluwer Health.
Sitzman, K. (2010). Understanding the Work of Nurse Theorists. New York, NY: Molloy.
The one question I have about my behavior was the fact that, as her advocate, I called and spoke to the patient's father with her permission. I stressed the fact that she was dying and if he wanted to see his daughter alive, he should come shortly. In retrospect, I wonder if I pressured her too much to make the call. Ultimately, it was all for naught, as she died before he was able to see her alive. But I wonder if I was overly interventionist and impositional of my beliefs in the need for her to make that final connection with her father. I feel good that I was able to facilitate what was important to the client, and allow her to take control of her end-of-life arrangements with dignity. I think that Parse would approve of my behavior, however, as I did validate my decision with the patient…
Alligood, M.R. & a.M. Tomey. (Eds) (2006). Nursing theory: Utilization and application. 3rd
Best Practice Nursing Guideline. (2008). RNO. Available in full-text November 27, 2008:
Professional socialization in Nursing
The professional socialization in nursing is the process that helps a person to adopt to the systems and norms of a profession. The process helps the individual learn those things that support the job but are not the written part of the job (Lai & Lim, 2012). In nursing too, not everything is learnt about patient care through books. There are environmental and cultural factors that are understood by socializing with other professionals in the system. For example, the response to the patients in emergency is learnt when the nurse actually interacts in the system and observes other nurses and physicians treating patients. Likewise, the punctuality and robustness is learnt by mingling with the peers.
In the health care clinic under consideration, the socialization occurs formally and informally. The peers and professionals socialize in wards, cafeteria and offices. They discuss their medical and health…
Butts, J.B. And Rich, K.L., (2011), "Philosophies and Theories for Advanced Nursing Practice,"
Green, J., (2000), "The role of theory in evidence-based health promotion practice," Health
Education Research, 15(2), pp. 125-129.
IV. What Might be Suggested by John Dewey
John Dewey would heartily approve of the teaching practice of Ms. Thompson. She is teaching in the 'present moment' utilizing that which is available for use instead of lamenting that which is not present. The students feel cared for by Ms. Thompson, they are thriving under her instruction. John Dewey would challenge Ms. Thompson to always keep in focus in terms of her educational practice, the fact that she must always be open to the learning experience.
Ms. Thompson demonstrated the application of 'inquiry based' learning for not only herself but leading the students and thereby having simultaneously opened learning's door allowing the students to make a cognitive and conscious decision to utilize inquiry-based learning to the benefit of their own learning experience. Ms. Thompson further would have the approval of John Dewey in her classroom environment that allowed self-governance to develop…
Dewey, John (1916) "Democracy and Education: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education (1966 edn.) New York: Free Press
Dewey, John (1932) Moral Judgment and Knowledge -Ethics (LW.7.262-83) 1932 Revision.
Dewey, John (1933) "How We Think: A Restatement of the Relation of Reflective Thinking to the Educative Process" (Revised edn.) Boston D.C. Health.
Dewey, John, "The School and Society:" Lectures & Supplement Statement of University Elementary School. Chicago, Univeristy of Chicago Press. (1907)
Nursing in the contemporary society needs a lot of skills, knowledge and even proficient practice. Unfortunately, there is lack of implementation of what the text book says/research findings in the daily practice application of the nursing profession. Unfortunately this goes even to the ethical spheres where the nursing practice ethics are not observed and implemented in the nursing profession. Almost all nurses find themselves in this theory-practice gap once in a while, though it is generally claimed that the nursing students are more prone to find themselves in this situation (Scully, 2011).
The stand I adopt on the entire issue is that there is a significant gap between the theory and the practice that is experienced in the daily nursing arena. This gap does a lot of injustice to the growth and development of nursing practice since the theoreticians and the research outcomes are hence left…
Margaret G.A., (2013). Florence Nightingale's Influence on Nursing. Retrieved September 7, 2013 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1805929/
Scully, (2011). The theory-practice gap and skill acquisition: an issue for nursing education. Retrieved September 7, 2013
Theory & Context: Public Administration and the Rule of Law
The purpose of this study is to integrate the arguments including the strengths and weaknesses of the works of Lynn (2009), Moynihan (2009) and Rosenbloom (1992) and to compare and contrast these works. Rosenbloom (1992) in the work entitled "The Constitution As a asis for Public Administration Ethics" wrote that public administrators and government officials are under an expectation to "adhere to a variety of ethical codes and approaches. Insofar as these are consistent, can be learned, and are realistic, they present few difficulties for administrative practice. When codes or requirements are vague, however, unrealistic, and in conflict with one another, they complicate the issues involved in acting ethically under all circumstances." (p.49) The two primary ethical requirements for practically all of U.S. administrative history are reported as being those as follows: (1) refraining from the use of public property…
Lynn, LE (2009) Restoring the Rule of Law to Public Administration: What Frank Goodnow Got Right and Leonard White Didn't'. Public Administration Review, Volume 69, Number 5, September/October 2009, pp. 803-813
Moynihan, DP (2009) Our Usable Past: A Historical Contextual Approach to Administrative Values, Public Administration Review, Volume 69, Number 5, September/October 2009, pp. 813-822
David H. David H. (1992) Rosenbloom: The Constitution as a Basis for Public Administrative Ethics, in Essentials of Government Ethics, ed. Madsen and Shafritz, (Meridian, 1992), pp. 48-64Theme 2:
The appeals process is needed by those institutions that were rejected by the accreditation body after the external evaluation. PIM& standards do not include such a step in the accreditation process.
The accreditation is only valid for 3 to 5 years, after which it must be repeated.
Despite accreditation's numerous advantages, it cannot totally replace federal regulation. The accreditation body is not responsible for uncovering, investigating and sanctioning any violations committed by the applicant.
egarding the standards for accreditation, their primary features should be flexibility, which would allow them to be applicable to various institutions, and rigorousness, which would ensure that their enactment would enhance protection of human research participants. Also, "they must be clearly written, relatively straightforward to execute, consistently applicable, and measurable."
The three ethical principals discussed in The Belmont eport represent the basis for ethical requirements human research. These principles are: respect for persons, beneficence, and justice.…
Preserving Public Trust: Accreditation and Human Research Participant Protection Programs (2001). Committee on Assessing the System for Protecting Human Research Subjects, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine.
Preserving Public Trust: Accreditation and Human Research Participant Protection Programs (2001). Committee on Assessing the System for Protecting Human Research Subjects, Board on Health Sciences, Policy, Institute of Medicine. p. 45.
That is not the case, though, and even a 'grass roots' movement that begins in the bottom levels of a company or a government can make a big difference as to whether changes are made in the higher levels. The reason for this is that people really do want to see the changes that are necessary, but they are often too shy or concerned for their job to start making the changes themselves. Gardner (1990) also argues that there are many selfish people who are leaders, and because they are not as concerned with the good of the group as they should be, they fail to be effective.
The self-centered ideals that a lot of people hold when they reach and maintain positions of power often stop them from continuing to do what they know they really should in order to help the people whom they lead. This seems like…
Burns, J.M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics.
Gardner, J.W. (1990). On Leadership. New York: Free Press.
Theory into Practice: The Case Studies Project" covers how California developed their model for "theoretically sound" bilingual education project in 1980, which they called the "Case Studies Project." The author notes it was an ambitious project at the time, and that the California Board of Education solicited help and information from many different sources as they created the project. The author lists the basic principles of the Case Studies Project, which included language proficiency for bilingual students, basic communication skills in their second language (English), and suggestions for bilingual teachers to attain the competencies the project hoped to attain. Then, the writer notes the project was quite successful, but also created much controversy. One reason the project created controversy was that it tended to teach students in their native language, while attempting to develop ESL skills. In fact, teachers were encouraged not to bring children along too early into second-language…
Theory into Practice: The Case Studies Project."
Theory into Practice: The Case Studies Project" by J. Crawford covers the 1980 California model for "theoretically sound" bilingual education, which they called the "Case Studies Project." The main beliefs of the Case Studies Project were intended to make bilingual education in the classroom more successful, and included language proficiency for bilingual students, basic communication skills in their second language (English), and suggestions for bilingual teachers to achieve the student competencies the project was intended to attain. Unfortunately, the project initially seemed quite successful in the classroom, but the methods used also created controversy throughout the state. Most of the controversy centered on the teaching of foreign students in their native language. Therefore, they actually grew more competent in their own language while they were attempting to learn English. Studies showed the children actually learned more effectively in their own language before they began to adapt their skills to English.…
Crawford, J. "Theory into Practice: The Case Studies Project."
Theory vs. Creativity in Design
Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.
How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates
American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluators association guiding principles for evaluators. American Evaluation Association. Retrieved from http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51
Bogan, C.E., & English, M.J. (2010). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. New York [u.a.: McGraw-Hill.
Burton, R.M. (2008). Designing organizations: 21st century approaches. New York: Springer.
DiMaggio, P. (2011). The twenty-first-century firm: Changing economic organization in international perspective. Princeton, NJ [u.a.: Princeton Univ. Press.
Theory vs. Ideology
What is ideology?
Ideology is a belief system that supports and promotes personal or a group's social or religious agenda. In some cases its nature will be obvious to most people, but in other cases an ideology will be disguised as scientific fact based on nonexistent or reinterpreted empirical evidence. Ideologies are invariably supported by personally- or collectively-held religious or political beliefs, rather than extant empirical evidence or objective observation. Concepts within the ideology are typically framed in a black and white manner, such as right vs. wrong, just vs. unjust, and Evil Empire vs. God's Country. The use of such terminology has the effect of erasing the inherent complexity common to most social issues. From the perspective of a social scientist the most important characteristic is that ideologies are refractory to scientific inquiry and may go so far as to attack opposing beliefs to preserve its…
Cusac, Anne-Marie (2009). Cruel and Unusual: The Culture of Punishment in America. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Long-Term Employment -- Japanese organizations tend to have longer employee cycles than U.S. companies. Many U.S. companies treat employees as replaceable parts. It is far more cost-effective and efficient to retain expertise than continually retrain. This keeps the knowledge base inside the company. Providing incentives for long-term employment, then, is an essential component of Theory Z
Consensual Decision Making -- hen employees feel that they have input into decisions that affect them, their jobs, and their daily processes, they are more likely to buy into those decisions and support change management.
Individual responsibility -- Moving away from 'the union mentality' and accepting measurement based on individual performance is tough for many Americans, but the balance between the group and the individual's participation actually empowers both.
Slow Evaluation and Promotion -- Rather than taking the short-term approach, as many American company's do, it is about the long-term strategy, not the monthly…
Barney, J. (2004). "An Interview with William Ouchi." Academy of Management
Executives.18 (4): 108-117.
Daft, R. (2004). "Theory Z: Opening the Corporate Door for Participative Management."
Academy of Management Executives. 18 (4): 117-22.
English for academic purposes approach focuses on the reader, too, not as a specific individual but as the representative of a discourse community, for example, a specific discipline or academia in general. The reader is an initiated expert who represents a faculty audience. This reader, particularly omniscient and all-powerful, is likely to be an abstract representation, a generalized construct, one reified from an examination of academic assignments and texts (aimes, 1991).
Partnership Teaching is not just an extension of co-operative teaching. Co-operative teaching consists of a language support teacher and class teacher jointly planning a curriculum and teaching strategies which will take into account the learning needs of all pupils. The point is to adjust the learning situation in order to fit the pupils. Partnership Teaching is more than that. It builds on the notion of co-operative teaching by linking the work of two teachers with plans for curriculum improvement…
Davison, Chris. (2006). Collaboration Between ESL and Content Teachers: How Do We Know
When We Are Doing It Right? International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 9(4), 454-475.
Grover, Sam. (2009). Methods for Teaching TESOL. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from e-How
Web site: http://www.ehow.com/way_5403572_methods-teaching-tesol.html
Theory Methodology and Human Development
Analyze a selected topic from a social scientific perspective by doing the following
Explain the significance of a suitable question, which you have formulated, for social scientific analysis.
The impact that video games, as a form of media entertainment, have been a matter of concern for politicians, parents, and legislators. However, the results generated from the scholarly literature are not in agreement; researchers continue to disagree about the impact that video games have on people.
Analyze three research problems (i.e., subordinate questions) that will help answer the social scientific question that you have formulated.
For purposes of this research, a quantitative research design is utilized.
What is the relationship of playing video games to increased levels of obesity?
Walsh, Gentile, Walsh, & Bennett (2006, p. 2) found that "children who spend more time playing video games are heavier, and are more likely…
Bergman, E.F., & Renwick, W.H. (2008). Introduction to geography: People, places and environment (4th ed.)
Brown RIF. (1991) Gaming, gambling and other addictive play. In Kerr JH, Apter MJ, eds. Adult play: a reversal theory approach. Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger, pp. 101 -- 18.
Brown RIF. (1993) Some contributions of the study of gambling to the study of other addictions. In Eadington WR, Cornelius JA, eds. Gambling behavior and problem gambling. Reno: University of Nevada, pp. 241 -- 72.
Perry, J.A., & Perry, E.K. (2009). Contemporary society: An introduction to social science (12th ed.)
On the part of his fellow scientists, Snow's research was resisted because it was conducted with intellectual 'leaps' of logic in his determination to find the cause, as opposed to Farr's more technical and methodological approach. Farr had the more comprehensive health surveillance program, but Snow's hypothesis and instincts were correct. Snow drew upon past studies involving smallpox, cowpox, and syphilis, to extrapolate parallel examples of how the disease was transmitted, while Farr clung to the airborne model of disease transmission popular at the time even after reviewing such studies. Farr stated that non-living or zymotic material was transmitted through the air, and hence the closer the quarters of the affected, the more apt the material would be transmitted through the air.
The commonly-held belief was that fecalized air and water were the primary conduits of the disease. Farr believed primarily that the transmission was "miasmatic" and the prevalence in…
Generally I feel the easiest and bets way of memorizing a poem is to hear it out aloud and form a mental picture of the sea described in the poem and the activities of the sea.
Types of ehearsals
In trying to memorize information, there are basically two types of rehearsals that people engage in; the elaborative rehearsal and the maintenance rehearsal.
The elaborative rehearsal is a detailed manner of memorizing concepts by relating the words to the meaning and even their relations to other concepts within the discipline. This is as opposed to constantly repeating the word or the chunk of information in order to memorize (Craik, F.I.M., & Lockhart, .S. (1972). For instance looking at a word like 'cell' you look up the meaning in the anatomy dictionary, you also find out what the purpose in the body is, you also look at the shape and draw it…
Craik, F.I.M., & Lockhart, R.S. (1972). Levels of processing. A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 11, 671-684. Retrieved February 23, 2013 from http://penta.ufrgs.br/edu/telelab/3/elaborat.htm
Jeffry Ricker, (2013). Working Memory and Elaborative Rehearsal. Retrieved February 23, 2013 from http://sccpsy101.com/home/chapter-5/section-10/
Jennifer Mishra, (n.d). Correlating Musical Memorization Styles and Perceptual Learning Modalities. Retrieved February 23, 2013 from http://www-usr.rider.edu/~vrme/v9n1/vision/Mishra%20Final.pdf
A relationship exists between theories, research, practical application, and education. The latter three, in fact, ought to be directed by the former. Further, research works inform education as well as practical application through offering evidences for nursing instruction- and care provision- related best practices. Education forms the context for learning. Educators need to base their teaching on scholarly evidences in the areas of learning/teaching, learning/teaching theories, and practice arena requirements. Practice contexts are where learners are taught, patients are provided evidence-based care, and nurses acquire experiences to aid them in formulating novel nursing theories and topics for future studies. Theory is the foundation for:
· How to learn and teach nursing concepts like nursing theories, brain-based education, neurocognitive studies, principles/frameworks, learning approaches, adult learning models, and educational models.
· How to frame researches and understand findings within professional settings, and how to develop the profession for ensuring most…
Theory Management Organization Development
Theory and Management of Organization Development
I work for a medium-sized company that provides services to more than 500 clients. The company was founded by the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the company and has been in operation for more than a decade now. In particular, I work for the IT department of my organization as an IT/network administrator. In essence, my main task is to ensure that different devices across different departments in the organization are connected together to create networks that are not only fast, but also efficient. More so, I am accountable for maintaining the links and solving any issues that might come about with regard to computer networks.
One of the issues perceived within the job realm is compensation handed towards the employees within the IT department. It is imperative to point out that the IT department is well structured and fitted…
Cummings, T., & Worley, C. (2014). Organization development and change. Cengage learning.
French, W. L., Bell, C. (1999). Organization Development: Behavioral Science Interventions for Organization Improvement (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
c. Other theorists (Modern Attachment Theories)
Upon the establishment and strengthening of Bowlby and Ainsworth's Attachment Theory, other theorists have developed new studies which either tested the theory or sought to apply it in different contexts or scenarios. Inevitably, most scenarios and contexts that new theorists and psychology researchers took is the path to explaining grief and bereavement. Others, however, have centered on specific aspects of the theory and sought to expound and/or test it, as Ainsworth did when Bowlby was still in the process of strengthening his attachment theory.
One such study was conducted by Schore and Schore (2008), which explored the emotion regulation aspect of the theory. In their study, the authors realized the potential of attachment theory in developing a "therapeutic intervention" from which coping on the loss of the attachment figure would be a healthier process for the individual. The authors shifted from the issue of…
Ainsworth, M. (1984). "Attachment across the life span." Bulletin of New York Academy of Medicine.
Ainsworth, M. And J. Bowlby. (1991). "An ethological approach to personality development." American Psychologist, Vol. 46, No. 4.
Bartholomew, K. And L. Horowitz. (1991). "Attachment styles among young adults: a test of a four-category model." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 61, No. 2.
Bartholomew, K. And P. Shaver. (1998). In Attachment theory and close relationships. J. Simpson and W. Rholes (Eds.). NY: Guilford Press.
Theory Help You to Make Sense of Your Own Organization and the Management Practices in Your Organization?
Too often, individuals get an idea stuck in their heads and they cannot dislodge it no matter how hard they try. In actuality though, most people who can only contrive a particular system for working, whether that be managing or running an organization, and there is no interest in change. I realize that falling back to a secure position is comforting, but it is also damaging from a growth standpoint. And, growth is the object in business; that is, aside from the fact that making money is probably the primary concern.
But making money has led to some troubling consequences in the world as businesses have grown greedy and managers have become overly authoritarian and sure of their stagnant methods. The reality is that "managing and organizing are not isolatable objects of study…
Akella, D., (2008). A reflection on critical management studies. Journal of Management and Organization, 14(1), 100-109.
Bourn, D. (2011). Global skills: From economic competitiveness to cultural understanding and critical pedagogy. Critical Literacy: Theory & Practice, 6(1), 3- 20.
Das, H., & Long, B.S., (2010). What makes management research interesting?: An exploratory study. Journal of Managerial Issues, 22(1), 127-140.
Delbecq, A.L., (1999). Rethinking management education. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 439-442.
Lee (2003) says that insecure attachments have been linked to psychiatric disorders to which the children are exposed to after the loss of the attachment figure. These children will form inability to form secure attachments, react with hostility and rejection to their environment according to Pickover, (2002). This is a phenomenon found among many immigrant children, especially who had the attachment figure back in their country of origin and yet they remained there. They tend to have a problem re-attaching themselves to any other person, hence may grow up to be violent and develop criminal trends Pickover, (2002).
Shortfalls of the attachment theory
The idea that the parents shape the personality and character is misplaced and instead it is the peers who influence character and behavior of the child. According to Harris (1998:Pp2) "parents do not shape their child's personality or character. A child's peers have more influence…
Chris Fraley, (2010). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved March 12, 2012 from http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htm
Harris, J.R. (1998). The nurture assumption: Why children turn out the way they do. New York: Free Press. In Lee J., (2003). The Attachment System Throughout the Life Course: Review and Criticisms of Attachment Theory. Pp.2 http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/lee.html
Klaus, M.H., Kennell, J.H., & Klaus, P.H. (1995). Bonding. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
Pickover, S. (2002). Breaking the cycle: A clinical example of disrupting an insecure attachment system. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24, 358-367.
While there are clearly circumstances where the civil society sector is at odds with the state, there are at least as many where the relationship is one of interdependence and mutual support…. The state has thus emerged in the modern era not as a displacer of nonprofit activity but as perhaps the major philanthropist… (Salamon & Anheier 1997, p. 63-64).
Calprig is an independent statewide student organization that works on issues such as environmental protection, consumer protection, hunger and homelessness. In essence, members of Calprig desire to build a better society through a plethora of volunteer activities. The group also provides students with the opportunity to practice their effective citizenship both on and off campus. This semester, the organization focused primarily on six campaigns: The Ocean and Plastic Ban is a short-term goal to ban plastic bags in Los Angeles California; Big Agriculture, although not a lot planned for…
Addams, Jane. Democracy and social ethics. United States, 1889.
Chung, L., & P. Gibbons. Corporate entrepreneurship: the roles of ideology and social capital. Group and Organization Management 22 (1997): 10-30.
Coleman, James. Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94 (1988): 95-120.
-. Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
theory discussed attempt explain a real criminal crimes. Gary Ridgeway America's notorious serial killers. Your assignment analyze Ridgeway's criminal life Hans Eysenck's theory Personality.
hen considering Gary Leon Ridgway's (The Green River Killer) criminal case in the context of Hans J. Eysenck's theory on personality and crime, one is likely to observe a series of parallels between the murderer's personality and behavior and a series of events that occurred throughout his life up to the moment when he became a serial killer. Eyseneck considered that genetics plays an important role in shaping one's personality and this thus points toward the belief that Ridgway was probably influenced by biological factors when he put across criminal thinking. According to Eyseneck, individuals like Ridgway have a neurophysiologic structure that influences them to express certain attitudes when they come across particular circumstances.
hile someone might be inclined to think otherwise consequent to consulting the…
Hadden, B, & Luce, H.R. (2002). Time, Volume 159.
Putwain, D., & Sammons, A. (2013). Psychology and Crime. Routledge.
Marsh, I. (2006). Theories of Crime. Routledge.
Morehead, P. (2012). The Green River Serial Killer. eBookIt.com.
What are the major concepts of Ainsworth's theory?
Ainsworth's attachment theory is rooted in Bowlby's research on the bonds that develop between parent and child. Building on Bowlby's research, Ainsworth conducted a groundbreaking experiment known as the Strange Situation. esults of the Strange Situation experiment revealed three different categories of attachment styles. Ainsworth found secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment (Cherry, n.d.). Moreover, four categories of attachment style behaviors were observed. These four categories include separation anxiety, which refers to the emotional reaction to the caregiver leaving. The infant's willingness to explore in the caregiver's absence is another feature of attachment. Stranger anxiety refers to how the infant responds to strangers when the primary caregiver is absent. Finally, Ainsworth studied reunion behavior, which was how the child reacted to the return of the caregiver. Using these four parameters of attachment-related behaviors, Ainsworth developed the three primary attachment styles:…
Benoit, D. (2004). Infant-parent attachment. Pediatric Child Health 9(8): 541-545.
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Attachment theory. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01.htm
Fraley, R.C. (n.d.). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved online: http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htm
Main, M. & Solomon, J. (1986). Discovery of an insecure-disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern. Affective Development in Infancy. 95(124).
Theory of Group Development
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Cognitive Behavior Therapy is one of the group development theories or models that are used in today's societies and institutions. The validity of making and developing groups is geared towards equitable management of the available group and behavior of people within an institution or place of work. According to Cognitive Behavior Therapy, group development is a lucrative endeavor that has to be worked on in every institution. Group behavior development refers to the concept of relaying equitable avenues of growth and development within a unified sector of human and material togetherness. There is no doubt that all human beings exist in a form or the form of groups in society. The existence and services of these groups is detrimental to the general performance and productivity of the people.
Group working and development surpasses individual performances in many regards. This is the…
Agazarian, Y. (2004). Cognitive Behavior Therapy. London: Karnac.
Agazarian, Y., & Peters, R. (1995). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Two perspectives on group psychotherapy and group process. London: Karnac Books.
Arrow, H., Berdahl, J.L., & McGrath, J.E. (2000). Small groups as complex systems:
Formation, coordination, development and adaptation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
In ode to get beyond such shallow viewpoints, they need to meely use such diffeences as the stating point fo thei conception of people fom othe ethnicities, and actually get beyond that bing about an impovement in inteacial elations.
As such, it is extemely inteesting to note how sociological concepts of standpoint theoy and systems of pivilege typify many of the esponses that Chistenson had to opinions and statements voiced by othe men in the video. Fo the most pat, Chistenson's esponses eithe contained an element of ignoance o outight disbelief to many of the social baies and misconceptions that the men of colo spoke about. These poclivities of Chistenson can widely be ationalized via standpoint theoy, which poses the notion that people's system of beliefs is geatly affected by the social goup they ae a pat of. Moeove, this theoem places a fai amount of emphasis on hegemony, a…
references within this article, he explains how people tend to follow those who are in authority, and also display the tendency to not desire to deviate from the norm. Doing so within the social context of interracial relations, for instance, would require regarding people with less power and privilege in a manner in which there is social equality -- which is a character trait that is not generally part of human nature, which tends to follow an established tradition. Meyer's article implies that nice people would rather go along and do what everybody else is doing, adhering to any authority figures along the way, that deviate and actually think for themselves and treat people differently as a result. This article denotes all the more reason why it is important to merely use the differences in various ethnic groups as a starting point for the nature of interracial relations.
In summary, there is a plentiful amount of evidence that denotes that there are pronounced differences afforded to people of different social standings. Privilege theory and standpoint theory indicate that these differences can account for the bulk of the way that people view and, ultimately, treat other people. Johnson's first two chapters in his manuscript confirm the degree of privilege afforded to those of historical majority groups in the U.S. Meyers' indicates that people will tend to conform to such unfair treatment of others -- unless they make a conscious decision to only use ethnic differences as a starting point, not ending point, for the basis of treatment between races.
Earth evolves Around the Sun
Is this idea/theory/episode/question an example of scientific activity? Why or why not?
It's important to bear in mind that the philosophers of hundreds of years ago didn't always believe that the Earth revolved around the sun. Many of these thinkers believed that the sun revolved around the Earth and that the Earth was the center of the universe -- with the sun and all the stars and planets revolving around it. However, the complicated movement of the sun made this a very difficult theory to support. "The Sun, however, does not merely rise in the east and set in the west. You can see for yourself that the Sun only rises directly in the east on the equinoxes: at all other times of the year, it rises in the northeast (summer) or southeast (winter). Also, the Sun moves with respect to the stars: the Sun…
Cain, F. (2010, March 30). Earth's Orbit Around The Sun. Retrieved from universetoday.com: http://www.universetoday.com/61202/earths-orbit-around-the-sun/
Cuk, M. (2002). Is there a proof that Earth moves? Retrieved from Cornell.edu: http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=190
Motz, L. (2003). The Unfolding Universe: A Stellar Journey. New York: Perseus Books.
Tate, J. (2009, December 10). Stellar Parallax. Retrieved from Universetoday.com: http://www.universetoday.com/47182/stellar-parallax/
Locke's Theory Of Punishment
John Locke was an English philosopher, who is undoubtedly the philosopher of modern times and the originator of concepts like self and identity, human nature and understanding, theory of mind and several other concepts regarding political philosophy and ethics. orn in 1632 and died in 1704, Locke is unanimously termed as the Father of Classical Liberalism since during the enlightenment era; he was amongst the most influential and widely followed scholars. Many of his works regarding liberalism and republicanism have been included into the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution, due to their authenticity and practicality in real terms.
Locke also performed as a government official who was authorized to collect information regarding to trade with the entire colonies. This experience allowed him to be in close contact with the political activities and eventually led him to write upon the authorization and legislation customs for the…
Locke, J. (1924). Of civil government: Two treatises. London: J.M. Dent & Sons.
I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, and this sometimes scares people away. (Fraley, 2004)
Fraley relates that it was found in the study of Hazan and Shaver "...based on this three-category measure...that the distribution of categories was similar to that observed in infancy. In other words, about 60% of adults classified themselves as secure; about 20% described themselves as avoidant; and about 20% described themselves as anxious-resistant." (2004) While measurement in this manner was "a useful way to study the association between attachment styles and relationship functioning, it didn't allow a full test of the hypothesis in the same kinds of individual differences observed in infants might be manifest among adults." (Fraley, 2004) Fraley states that the findings of rennan "suggested that there are two fundamental dimensions with respect to…
Borelli, Jessica L.; and David, Daryn H. (2003-2004) Imagination, Cognition and Personality. Volume 23, Number 4 / 2003-2004. Attachment Theory and Research as a Guide to Psychotherapy Practice. Yale University. Online Baywood Publishing Company, Inc. Amityville, NY. Online available at http://baywood.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,2,6;journal,14,102;linkingpublicationresults,1:300311,1
Tuovila, Pirjo (2007)What Are Fathers for? Attachment Theory and the Significance of Fathers. European Centennial Conference to Celebrate the Birth of Dr. John Bowlby, the Founder of Attachment Theory. Tampere Hall, Finland, 1-2 February 2007.
Levine, Robert a. (2002) Attachment Research as an Ideological Movement: Preliminary Statement. Revised from presentation at the ISSBD, 2002, Ottawa. Harvard University.
Blizard, Ruth a. (1997) the origins of Disassociate Identity Disorder from an Object Relations and Attachment Theory Perspective. Journal of Dissociation. Vol. X No. 4, December, 1997.
theories currently being used in the field of nursing today. While each has their respective positive and negative points, all are useful in certain nursing settings, and can assist nurses in their positions. This paper will discuss two of those theorists, Jean Watson and Jean Piaget. Each theory will be discussed and explained, and examples of how each can be applied in the field of nursing will be discussed. This paper will show that both theories, though very different, can be useful in the field of nursing.
The Theory of Human Caring, created by Jean Watson, was originally developed based on Watson's experiences as both a teacher and in the nursing profession. According to Watson, the theory was created to explain those values of nursing that differ from the values of "curative factors," those of doctors and specialists. The Theory of Human Caring is devised based on the explicit values,…
Erci, B., Sayan, A., Kilic, D., Sahin, O., & Gungormus, Z. (2000). The effectiveness of Watson's caring model on the quality of life and blood pressure of patients with hypertension. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 41 (2), 130-139.
Evans, R. (1973). Jean Piaget: The Man and His Ideas. New York, N.YE.P. Dutton & Co., Inc.
Watson, J. (1979). Nursing: The philosophy and science of caring. Boston, M.A.: Little Brown.
Watson, J. (1988). Nursing: Human science and human: A theory of nursing. New York, N.Y.: National League for Nursing.
Both observation and experiment provided the underpinning for Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation. Maslow (1943) posits, “man is a perpetually wanting animal,” leading to the constant striving to fulfill goals (p. 370). If and when anything prevents the fulfillment of a goal—whether the obstacle is internal or external—discomfort or psychopathy can occur (Maslow, 1943). Although Maslow’s original research was conducted decades ago, recent research on motivation and human behavior continues to substantiate Maslow’s core claims. Researchers continue to operationalize Maslow’s definitions of needs and motivation, leading to a strengthening of the original theory and expanded applications in the social sciences. Maslow himself wrote extensively to develop and mature a comprehensive theory of human motivation based on the hierarchy of needs model. The original needs hierarchy consists of five fundamental needs: for physiological comfort and fulfillment, for safety and security, for belongingness, for esteem, and for self-actualization. Although definitions of…
theory: Its usefulness in the workplace today
Attachment theory has its origins in the study of animals. Watching geese 'imprint' upon the first living being they encounter after hatching or researchers observing how baby monkeys thrive when given terry cloth mothers, as opposed to wire mothers, are all examples of attachment theory in action. Attachment theory reinforces the psychodynamic notion that early experiences are seminal and seismic in shaping the human psyche and the way human beings relate to one another. As applied to humans, attachment theory suggests that parents who respond in a positive way to their infant's needs formulate the character of the child in such a way to enable him or her to feel secure in his or her relationships. In contrast, parents who create bonds of insecure attachment by being smothering or rejecting will foster behavioral patterns in their children that are negative, rather than positive.…
Attachment theory. (2002). Great ideas in personality research. Retrieved from:
Hinde, Robert A. (1976). On describing relationships. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 17, 1-19. Retrieved from:
Theory vs. Practice
When it comes to working in any sort of organization or corporation, one of the obvious chasms that becomes clear here is the relationship between theory and what is practiced in a small business setting. To truly look at and assess that paradigm, the author of this report has interviewed an owner/manager at a small business to discuss what they do to make things work, what is suggested in theory and scholarly literature and how those frameworks and lessons do or do not work for their particular situation. The author of this report will personally be making a comparison and contrast between what is asserted within the literature and compare it to the feedback and personal experience narrative of the owner/manager. A common refrain seen in the blogosphere and elsewhere is that there is a disconnect between what is suggested in the minds of theorists and within…
The advantages of network use are apparent enough and from such an obvious position, it is interesting that there is an inadequacy in the understanding of the processes by which networks function. Thus, the article focuses on the role of network governance and its impact on network effectiveness.
The authors demonstrate that network effectiveness while not entirely illusive is a difficult prospect. This phenomenon is multifaceted and multi-tiered and consequently the solutions that are engaged to create network effectiveness must align themselves with this particular reality. The problems of explicating effectiveness begin at the level of conceptualization and measurement. They note that despite these theoretical impediments effectiveness requires a measure of articulation.
The authors contrast organizational as opposed to network governance and suggests that most of the literature on the subject of governance does not specifically address the issues of the role of networks in the governance dynamic. The establishment…
Dwyer, P.D. And Minnegal, M. (2006). The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: Risk, Uncertainty and Decision-Making by Victorian Fishers. Journal of Political Ecology 13:1-23
Emerson, R. (1962). Power-Dependence relations. American sociological review 27 (1):31-41.
Newcomer, K.E. (2007). Measuring Government Performance. International Journal of Public
Administration, 30: 307 -- 329.
theory about something, but not many people realize exactly what defines a theory. While there are as many definitions of a "theory," "generally speaking, a theory is an abstract system of concepts with indications of the relationships among these concepts that help us understand a phenomenon." ("SPC3210, Chapter 1") When discussing a theory, it is important to understand that the application of a theory is dependent upon the level of generality. For instance, a theory about communications can apply to the all humans in general, or a specific group of people, or just very specific people in specific circumstances. But whether the theory is "Grand," "Mid-Level," or "Narrow," it must contain a number of specific goals which "can include explanation, understanding, prediction, and social change…." ("SPC3210, Chapter 1") Theories attempt to explain certain phenomena, then based on patterns recognized by the theory, predict something, and finally can cause social change…
"SPC 3210: Contemporary Human Communication." McGraw Hill/Florida
State University. Retrieved from http://ezto.mhecloud.mcgraw-
One of the features of patient-centered care in which the patients are thought to be partners is when the patients are handed over with the help of their participation. It is very important for the nurses to understand the thinking and perspectives of their patients as this can help them in adjusting their bedside manner to suit the expectations and needs of the patients. This involvement can also enable the patients to get more involved in the decision-making process. There is very little detailed evaluation of the bedside manner present in the literature particularly from the perspective of nursing practice. There are particular provider behaviors that have been noticed to be taken as positive or negative on a continuous basis according to the concept analysis. Compassion, care, warmth and support are some of the positive behaviors while disrespect, arrogance and indifference are some of the negative behaviors. The…
Bedside manner (n.d.). The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Retrieved from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/bedside-manner
Finch, L. (2008). Bedside Manner: Concept Analysis and Impact on Advanced Nursing Practice. The Internet Journal of Advanced Nursing Practice. 10(1).
Gilbert, P. (2010) The Compassionate Mind: A New Approach to Life's Challenges. Constable. London.
McMurray, A., Chaboyer, W., Wallis. M., & Johnson. J. (2010). Patients' Perspectives of Bedside Nursing Handover. Retrieved from http://www98.griffith.edu.au/dspace/bitstream/handle/10072/40081/68872_1.pdf;jsessionid=3089DAF1AC9C366501436C4A0ABA2C05?sequence=1
Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…
Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.
Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.
Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.
Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
theory counseling exist, giving a background fit views personality. My views: Life experiences play a vital role's life. These experiences negatively positively effect future. Our life choice, decide destiny.
In today's mental health services, almost anyone either with a university degree or by paying some fees upon following specific courses, can call himself a therapist or a counselor. That professional training is not required when practicing psychotherapy is either something to be worrying us a lot or something we should be thankful for. In the first case, people may be misleading themselves into thinking they can treat patients with mental health issues simply because they've been accredited by nonaccredited training programs. When information is poor and experience is less, we must consider that patients' situation can either not improve or even worsen. On the other hand, there may be a lot of individuals out there with prolific abilities into treating…
Corey, G. (2012). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
May, R. (1950). The meaning of anxiety. New York, N.Y.: The Ronald Press Company.
Stewart, I. (1992). Eric Berne. London, California, New Delhi: SAGE Publications Inc.
According to Finn and Jacobson (2008), "Theory is thought of as intangible, highly academic, and entirely intellectual." In other words, we study "theory" while rarely making the connection to how we apply it in our practice. In discussing the "child's-eye view" of theory, Finn and Jacobson refer to the question we so often hear from little children: But why? It seems like a simple enough, straightforward question. However, if this is the case, why is it often so difficult for adults to come up with a simple, straightforward response?
In my early life experience, I do have memories of trying to understanding events, situations, and behaviors that did not seem to make sense to me, and of the ways I tried to deal with them. For the most part, my childhood seemed to be a happy one. I had two biological parents and two siblings, and outwardly we functioned…
Social Control Theory of Juvenile Delinquency
Travis Hirschi's Social Control theory of deviance assumes that deviant behavior is largely a function of the connectedness of the individual to his or her society; more specifically, Hirschi's assumptions are that juvenile delinquency, and criminal deviance more generally, are inversely related to the following elements of connectedness between the individual and the community: involvement, commitment, attachment, and belief (Akers & Sellers, 2004; Huebner & Betts, 2002).
Structure of Theory
Hirschi used the concept of involvement to describe the manner and extent to which the individuals takes part in the so-called "conventional" activities, such as extracurricular school functions and other organized opportunities for socially productive youth recreation available in the community (Macionis, 2008). Hirschi used the concept of commitment, to describe the basic "acceptance" in the most general senses, of fundamental social and behavioral norms, values, and expectations in the individual's community…
Akers, R.L., and Sellers, C.S. (2004). Criminological Theories: Introduction,
Evaluation, and Application. California: Roxbury Publishing Company.
Button, D.M. "Social Disadvantage and Family Violence: Neighborhood Effects on Attitudes about Intimate Partner Violence and Corporal Punishment." American
Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 33 (2008):130 -- 147.
Psychology in Group Work
There are many theories that describe the process of human development. Most of us have identified with the learning theory. The learning theory has been given credit because it makes sense. In this article, we shall discuss one theory, which the author developed in an educational setting. The focus is on Bandura who is the key theorist in his learning theory (Agnew, 2007). Behaviors are taken into focus in Bandura's learning theory. The theory is significantly useful offering techniques of teaching and modifying of behavior. In the following sections, examples are going to be provided. This study will begin with clarification of the basic concept of the specified theory. This will be followed with a discussion of the theory's practical use: both classroom and clinical application (Bandura, 2006).
The learning theory of Bandura
The learning theory of Bandura provides that we learn from one…
Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strained theory of delinquency. Social Forces 64 (1): 151-167. doi:
Bandura, A. (2006). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
Behavior Management Theories and Applications
The Theory of Planned Behavior & Theory of easoned Action
The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is one of the most commonly mentioned and used behavior management theories. It is one of a carefully interrelated family of concepts, which follows a cognitive strategy to describing behavior, which centers on individuals' behavior and values. The TPB progressed from the Theory of easoned Action, which posited intention to act as the best forecaster of behavior. The intention is itself a result of the mixture of attitudes towards behavior (Dunlap, 2012). That is a good or bad assessment of the behavior and its predicted results, and very subjective standards, which are the social pressures used on a person as a result of their views of what others think they should do and their tendency to adhere to these. The TPB included a third set of aspects…
Dunlap, L.L. (2012). What all children need: Theory and application. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
Ellis, S. & Tod, J. (2013). Behaviour for Learning: Proactive Approaches to Behaviour Management. New York: Routledge.
Florian, L., & Hegarty, J. (2007). ICT and Special Educational Needs. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill International (UK) Ltd.
Henley, M. (2010). Classroom management: A proactive approach. Boston: Pearson.
Behaviorist and Cognitive Theory
Psychology took a center stage and significant change in the early 20th Century when the behaviorism school of thought became dominant. This was a major change from other theoretical perspectives that existed before hence rejecting emphasis on unconscious and conscious mind. Behaviorism strove to see that psychology becomes a more scientific discipline in that focus will be mainly on observable behavior. This approach to psychology whereby the elements of philosophy, methodology and theory are combined. The primary tenet of behaviorism as it was expressed by JohnB.Watson, B.F Skinner in writing is that the primary concern in psychology should be the behaviors that can be observed both in humans and animals and not the unobserved events which take place within the minds of individuals. This school of thought maintains that behaviors can easily be described scientifically without recourse either to any psychological events that occur internally or…
Leahey, T.H., Greer, S., Lefrancois, G.R., Reiner, T.W., Spencer, J.L., Wickramasekera, I.E., & Willmarth, E.K. (2014). History of Psychology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education. ISBN-13: 9781621785682
Fritscher, L. (2014). Cognitive Theory. Retrieved September 17, 2014 from http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/cognitivethedef.htm
Gonzalez-Prendes, A. & Resko, S. (2009). Cognitive-Behavioral Theory.
Organizational theory refers to the behavioral and social theories which help in the understanding of both informal and formal organizations. It makes references to a number of fields - anthropology, sociology, psychology, semiotics, economics, communications science, history and cybernetics (Sage Publications, n.d). The field has become popular with sociological researchers. Many of these researchers, drawn from such fields as medical sociology, social movements, political sociology and education, have realized the need to study this concept because of the role in empirical research that big organizations play. Scholars out of this field have always found discussions regarding organizational theory arcane. These scholars also hold the view that all that organizational theory concerns itself with is firms and so it is not applicable in other social situations. The formal or complex organization is the study object in organizational theory. Assumptions are made that there exists goals, rules, hierarchy and definitions of membership…
Ascher, W. (2000). Applying classic organization theory to sustainable resource & environmental management. Retrieved from http://law.duke.edu/news/papers/ascher.pdf
Boundless. (2014). Why Study Organizational Theory?. Retrieved from https://www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-management-textbook/organizational-theory-3/why-study-organizational-theory-28/why-study-organizational-theory-163-7564/
Cohen, D, & Prusak, L. (2001). In Good Company. How social capital makes organizations work. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Conner, D. (1990). The changing nation: Strategies for citizen action (Handout materials). Atlanta: ODR, Inc.ent document.
As the sessions proceeded, the therapist debriefed the client with the aim of de-escalating her psychologically. This enabled the client to explore and express a feeling of guilt and perception that she had failed to give her best to maintain her job. During the debriefing process, it was evident that the client believed that she was responsible for her job loss. She had been experiencing notable difficulties maintaining concentration and sleeping. Ultimately, this led to significant distress in social function.
After a week, the client reported to the therapist that she felt that she was not alone in the first time. As a result, she reported that she no longer needed the sedative medication, but remained compliant to the prescribed medication. After a while, the client related her belief in her ability to apply for new job opportunities. It is evident that the client's experience achieved the diagnostic criteria for…
Hillman, J.L. (2012). Crisis intervention and trauma counseling: New approaches to evidence-based practice. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Wainrib, B.R., & Bloch, E.L. (2008). Crisis intervention and trauma response: Theory and practice. New York: Springer.
Ziegler, S.M. (2010). Theory-directed nursing practice. New York: Springer Pub. Co.
For the 21st century, I feel that the Theory of Community Empowerment is a model that will work well. When we consider the challenges of health care in the 21st century, we realize that technology advancements and new drugs are doing a lot of the technical work on physical healing, but these are the sorts of remedies that come about only after someone gets sick. Ultimately, medical procedures and drugs are not a pathway to sustainable health. As I understand the Theory of Community Empowerment, one of the most important roles of the nurse is to work with people, connect with them, and then help them to help themselves. We, as a community, are responsible for our own health, for making the right choices that can help us avoid having health problems in the first place.
This theory has been expounded upon at length in nursing literature. To…
Fawcett, S., Paine-Andrews, A., Francisco, V., Schultz, J., Richter, K., Williams, E., Lewis, R., Harris, K., Berkley, J., Fisher, J., Lopez, C. (1995). Using empowerment theory in collaborative partnerships for community health and development. American Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 23 (5) 677-697.
Persily, C. & Hildebrandt, E. (2008). Theory of Community Empowerment, excerpt from Middle Range Nursing Theories. Springer.
Rappaport, J. (1987). Terms of empowerment/exemplars of prevention: Toward a theory of community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 15 (2) 121-148.
Work and Management
The objective of this study is to compare House's Path-Goal theory of leadership with the Situational Leadership model. This study will make provision of an example or application of the two theories utilizing the writer's work situation.
This study will describe the leadership styled utilized by the writer's boss or other CEO or high level personnel in the work organization. For part two of this study examined is how causes of conflict can be found in the organizational and personal characteristics of those involved in the conflict.
This study will answer as to the similar organizational and personal factors and provide examples using the organization the writer is most familiar with.
For part three of this study, Chapter 17 on Career Management will be examined and the following questions answered: (1) What aspects of9 the New vs. Old Career Paradigms can you relate to your…
Free Personality Test (2014) 16 Personalities. Retrieved from: http://www.16personalities.com/free-personality-test Basu, C. (2014) Difference Between Situational Leadership & Path Leadership Theories. Small Business Chronicle. Retrieved from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/difference-between-situational-leadership-path-leadership-theories-33446.html
Chapter 17: Career Management (pp. 278-0) Career Management: Chapter Objectives, 2007 Cengage Learning Inc.