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Describe and discuss the basic characteristics, tenets and methods of investigation/research for psychodynamic and cognitive perspectives regarding personality psychology, and the benefits/strengths and limitations/weaknesses of each approach.
The challenge that the researchers and personality theorists will face is to parsimoniously capture the process-oriented and dynamic nature of personality. Dweck (1996) in an earlier study asserts that "trait theorists have addressed some of the more static, descriptive aspects of personality-how people may be concisely described in terms of a set of global characteristics" (Dweck, 1996, p. 348). We are yet at the place where we can briefly express the context-sensitive and process-driven patterns belonging to the personality. Probably one way to do this is by understanding the predominant goals of people as well as their beliefs regarding the process through which the realization of these goals can be carried out (Dweck, 1996, p. 348).
Almost all the classic theories…
Adler, A. (1927). The practice and theory of individual psychology. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
Block, J.H., & Block, J. (1980). The role of ego-control and ego-resiliency in the organization of behavior. In W.A. Collins (Ed.), Minnesota symposia on child psychology (Vol. 13, pp. 39-101). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bri88s, S.R. (1989). The optimal level of measurement for personality constructs. In D.M. Buss & N. Cantor (Eds.), Personality psychology: Recent trends and emerging directions (pp. 246-260). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Buss, D.M. (1987). Selection, evocation, and manipulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 1214-1221.
Personality Theory Analysis
The trait theory and the psychoanalytic theory are two theories that attempt to explain personality and behavior, but are two entirely different approaches. The trait theory approaches personality with combinations of personality traits and measurements of individual traits in attempting to explain personality and behavior. On the other hand, the psychoanalytic theory explores the unconscious through behavior, feelings, self-esteem, and social contexts in attempting to explain personality and behavior (Beystehner, 1998). Each of the theories have strengths and limitations in their approaches.
The trait theory assumes people are born with inherited traits and trait combinations combined with a degree of measurement of individual trait characteristics shape personality (Trait Theory, 2013) and are composed of a broad set of dispositions (Henriques, 2011). This theory groups individuals into personality type groups to determine individual behavior. One approach to this theory is the "Big Five," which uses the characteristics of…
Beystehner, K. (1998, Aug). Pshychoanalysis: Freud's revolutionary approach to human personality. Retrieved from Northwestern University: http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/beystehner.html
Buchanan, L. (1998, Feb). The impact of big five personality characteristics on group cohesion and creative task performance. Retrieved from Virginia Tech: http://www.scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/public/etc.-32198-18285/Materials/etd.pdf
Henriques, G. (2011, Apr 11). Another Big Five for Personality. Retrieved from Psychology Today: http://www.pschologytoday.com/blog/theory-knowledge/201204/another-big-five-personality
Legrand, R.W. (1989). Alleged behavior indicators of sexual abuse. IPT, vol. 1, Retrieved from http://www.ipt-forensics.com/journal/volume1/j1_2_1.html .
One that is in love will only recognize the good object of their love, and typically for a while at least be not capable or extremely reluctant to recognize the rest. This occurrence is called splitting, and is measured a much undeveloped defense instrument (19 Borderline Personality Disorder: A Theory of Borderlines, 2010).
Splitting seems to be the major defense apparatus of the borderline. A borderline sees others in expressions of black and white or as good or bad. The major difficulty in treatment of borderlines is to manage their impractical visions of other people and in their efforts to generate self satisfying predictions to make everything else fit with their insights. If a borderline thinks one as a superior object, they will go to immense actions in supplying circumstances or accepting this outlook (19 Borderline Personality Disorder: A Theory of Borderlines, 2010).
19 Borderline Personality Disorder: A Theory…
19 Borderline Personality Disorder: A Theory of Borderlines. (2010). Retrieved November 24,
2010, from Web site: http://stason.org/TULARC/health/mind/psychology/19-Borderline-Personality-Disorder-a-Theory-of-Borderlines.html
Carl Jung. (2006). Retrieved November 24, 2010, from Web site:
It is more common than many would like to think. It is a disorder which affects behavior in a way which goes against typical norms of social acceptance, and it is also a disorder which has no reliable treatment.
This disorder separates afflicted individuals from the behavior of normal people, "Antisocial Personality Disorder is a condition characterized by persistent disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood" (Long 2005). Many who are diagnosed with Antisocial Personality Disorder have trouble conforming to the norms and mores of the society in which they were born.
Thousands of those diagnosed do not follow the legal laws of their culture and exhibit other types of taboo behavior. Individuals diagnosed excerpt tell-tale signs. Many show high levels of deceitfulness and mal-intended manipulation. They lie, cheat, and steal; anything that the average person would…
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders, fourth ed. Washington, DC. American Psychiatric Association.
Long, Phillip M.D. (2005) "Antisocial Personality Disorder." Internet Mental Health. http://www.mentalhealth.com/dis/p20-pe04.html
Psychology Today. (2005) "Antisocial Personality Disorder." Suusex Publishers. New York. http://psychologytoday.com/conditions/antisocial.html#Treatment
From my point-of-view, I see Erik Erikson's epigenetic principle to be the most appropriate theory to most individuals that explains how personality develops. From an online source, the epigenetic principle states that,
This principle says that we develop through a predetermined unfolding of our personalities in eight stages. Our progress through each stage is in part determined by our success, or lack of success, in all the previous stages. A little like the unfolding of a rose bud, each petal opens up at a certain time, in a certain order, which nature, through its genetics, has determined. If we interfere in the natural order of development by pulling a petal forward prematurely or out of order, we ruin the development of the entire flower.
Erikson's theory is usually manifested in our life experiences. How an individual surpasses a stage in his life affects his personality in facing his…
Boeree, G.C. Erik Erikson.
Retrieved on January 03, 2005, from SHIP.EDU Online.
Web site: http://www.ship.edu/%7Ecgboeree/erikson.html
Attention Deficit and Hyperkinetic Disorders in Children and Young People
The objective of this study is to focus on two perspectives of personality theory and for this study chosen are the two of: (1) traits; and (2) psychodynamic. The limitations and weaknesses of each will be examined and a preference for one chosen and the reason provided.
The work of Johns, Robbins, and Pervin (2008) states in regards to the question of 'what does it mean to know a person?' that the way one knows another involves knowing what extent are the narratives related by a patient in clinical hours are best understood as: (1) a record, albeit an imperfect one, offered from one point-of-view, of something usually interpersonally insignificant that occurred in the patient's life; (2) an index of the patient's ways of experiencing the self and others ( a central aspect of personality); or (3) an index of the efforts of two people to come…
Clark, LA, Watson, D. And Mineka, S. (1994) Temperament, Personality and Mood and Anxiety Disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Vol. 103 No. 1.
Johns, OP, Robins, RW and Pervin. LA (2008) Handbook of Personality Theory and Research. 3rd Ed. The Guilford Press, New York, London.
Rothbart, MK (2007) Temperament, Development, and Personality. Association for Psychological Science. Vol. 16. No. 8.
Rueda, R. And Rothbart, MK (2009) The Influence of Temperament on the Development on Coping. The Role of Maturation and Experience. In E.A. Skinner & M.J. Zimmer-Gembeck (Eds) Coping and the Development of Regulation. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development 124, pp.19-31. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Describe the most important points in object relations theory that differentiate it from Classical (freudian) Psychoanalysis.
Object relations theory is a more recent development of psychoanalysis that attempts to explain the mechanisms that work to shape the id, ego, and super ego. Many of Freud's theories have stood the test of time in some circles in psychology; however the theories lack a physical component that can explain the mind and body interaction. The object relations theory seems to target some of the vagueness in the way the mind forms its psyche during development.
The theory proposes that during early development, the mind forms "objects" that develop in a response to the environment in infancy. These objects form in the subconscious that follows a person throughout adulthood. The object is the thing that the subject is related to through experience. For example, I love my children. My…
To me, man is shoved into the future where his perfection waits, but which at this time, waits for his apt choices that will insure and accelerate that perfection. It would be anti-life to contradict that pristine urge placed within each of us by the Hand that created us and the Spirit that continues to indwell each creature through that inner light.
My personality theory's sense of the future out of the now is more than just blind adherence to a life in the hereafter. The future is not seen by the person as a pie in the sky or some lofty but unreachable prize for good behavior in this world and in this fumbling life. The future sense of the person under my theory actually makes a deliberate choice to be perfect in a momentary sense right here and right now. And that is by deliberately choosing the worthiest,…
Boeree, GC (1997). Personality Theories: Alfred Adler (e-text).Shippensburg University.
-: Sigmund Freud
-: Abraham Maslow
The ceased to exist when the star stops to expand and melts -- when it can will itself to shine again and starts looking for ways to become a shining star again -- when it becomes a star, it becomes a nuclear reactor. A nuclear reactor is defined a device in which a nuclear fission chain reaction occurs under controlled conditions so that the heat yield can be harnessed or the neutron beams utilized and all commercial reactors are thermal reactors, using a moderator to slow down the neutrons (Glossary of Uranium Industry Terms, n.d.). The human existence will have no say at the time of our death for we are just particles -- a tiny piece of an atom that can all be destroyed with a nuclear reactor.
The humans evolved through the dreams made by the singularity, each vision it sees creates what we have now. If it…
Barrow, J. (1994). The Origin of the Universe: To the Edge of Space and Time. Phoenix.
Glossary of Uranium Industry Terms (n.d.) Retrieved on March 15, 2009 from TradeTech: http://www.uranium.info/index.cfm?go=c.page&id=44
Hawking, S. (1988) a Brief History of Time. New York: Bantam Dell Publishing.
Hawking, S., & Ellis, G. (1968). The Cosmic Black-Body Radiation and the Existence of Singularities in our Universe. Astrophysical Journal, 152, 25-36.
Personality and Stereotyping Theories
Taking a leadership or management role in the workplace is inherently challenging. This is because it falls upon leadership to manage a wide variance of personalities and needs. This is why it's important to develop a complete understanding of the various theories describing workplace behavior. In the case of this discussion, Personality Theory and Stereotyping Theory offer the opportunity for insight into management the specific workplace challenges of Anger Management and Conflict.
Of the topics selected, Personality Theory was selected for its versatility. According to Cherry (2008), this is a theoretical model in which a wide range of lenses can be used to understand individual motivations. Behavioral, psychodynamic, humanist and trait theories can all be used to understand individual personalities and to work within the scope of their respective needs. Cherry traces personality theory to models proposed by Erickson, Piaget, Freud and Skinner, all in…
Cherry, K. (2008). Theories of Personality. About Psychology.
Levy, S.R.; Stroessner, S.J. & Dweck, C.S. (1998). Stereotype Formation and Endorsement: The Role of Implicit Theories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(6), 1421-1436.
personality theory is based on the writings of John Watson. Behaviorism, the idea that human actions are the true indicator of human behavior, denies the existence of the mind or related mental activities. In his book, Does the Center Hold, Donald Palmer illustrates three distinct ways of looking at behaviorism: hard, soft and logical. Hard behaviorism is the strictest of the three; it holds that there is absolutely nothing that can be considered any bit related to the mind or mental states because there is no mind. Logical behaviorism purports that all mentally related behaviors must ultimately lead back to their source as an actual, physical act. Soft behaviorism, according to Palmer's (2002) description states that there is "no need to include minds in the scientific study of humans, whether or not minds exist. The study of behaviors and their physical causes is sufficient for a complete psychology" (p. 445).…
Palmer, Donald. (2002). Does the Center Hold? An introduction to western philosophy. Boston:
Boeree, C.G. (1998a). Sigmund Freud. Retrieved November 10, 2005, from http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/perscontents.html .
Boeree, C.G. (1998b). Carl Jung. Retrieved November 10, 2005, from
The idea of personality is broadly accepted as being fundamental in psychology, but its dynamics as well as the ways that it may be identified and assessed are questions in which psychologists have been in substantial disagreement. Millon had been focused on perpetually creating a systematic program to describe standard as well as abnormal personality functioning and also to determine various kinds of personality types and conditions according to deductive thinking. This varies with the rising inductive technique that identified proportions of personality functioning and realignment according to factor evaluation of the personality lexicon qualities. The present system consists of 13 personality designs or kinds according to groups generally observed in a number of communities to varying degrees. The primary personality designs established by Millon had been all variants from the Passive, Active along with Pleasure-Pain proportions. Over his years of analysis, Millon has produced a powerful theoretical design…
Pincus, A. L., & Krueger, R. F. (2015). Theodore Millon\\\\'s contributions to conceptualizing personality disorders. Journal of personality assessment, 97(6), 537-540.
Millon, T., Millon, C. M., Meagher, S. E., Grossman, S. D., & Ramnath, R. (2004). Personality disorders in modern life. John Wiley & Sons.
Rossi, G., & Derksen, J. (2015). International adaptations of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory: Construct validity and clinical applications. Journal of personality assessment, 97(6), 572-590.
O’Connor, B. P., & Dyce, J. A. (1998). A test of models of personality disorder configuration. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107(1), 3.
Lecic-Tosevski, D., Gavrilovic, J., Knezevic, G., & Priebe, S. (2003). Personality factors and posttraumatic stress: Associations in civilians one year after air attacks. Journal of Personality Disorders, 17, 537–549.
Strack, S., & Millon, T. (2007). Contributions to the dimensional assessment of personality disorders using Millon\\\\'s model and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI–III). Journal of Personality Assessment, 89(1), 56-69.
Bajraktarov, S., Gudeva-Nikovska, D., Manuševa, N., & Arsova, S. (2017). Personality Characteristics as Predictive Factors for the Occurrence of Depressive Disorder. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 5(1), 48–53. http://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2017.022
Huck, N. O. (1998). Psychological reactance and Millon\\\\'s personality theory: An integrative comparison (Order No. 9835414). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: The Sciences and Engineering Collection. (304452298). Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.libaccess.sjlibrary.org/docview/304452298?accountid=10361
Describe and discuss the nature-nurture dichotomy as it relates to personality psychology; the key associated areas of research; and the key research findings.
The study of personality progresses in tandem with advances in neuroscience and behavioral studies, fields that reflect the nature-nurture dichotomy of human development. The word dichotomy is misleading in that it describes a division between two mutually exclusive and contradictory elements or conditions. Yet, contemporary research in personality indicates that there is not an actual nature-nurture dichotomy. Instead, experts assert that, "Both genetic and environmental factors are important to personality" (Krueger & Johnson, 2008, p. 287). Indeed, new conceptual and methodological advances have shifted research questions from a focus on which influences are the strongest in personality development and expression to a focus on determining how "genetic and environmental influences actually come together to shape personality" (Krueger & Johnson, 2008, p. 287).
A molecular psychology…
Canli, T. (2008). Toward a "Molecular Psychology" of Personality. In O.P. John, R.W. Robins, R.W., and L.A. Pervin, Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research. (3rd ed.) (pp. 311-323). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Krueger, R.F. And Johnson, W. (2008). Behavioral genetics and personality: A new look at the integration of nature and nurture. In O.P. John, R.W. Robins, R.W., and L.A. Pervin, Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research. (3rd ed.) (pp. 287-310). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
According to the assessment, my personality type is ISTJ (Introversion, Sensing, Thinking, and Judging).
List at least two characteristics for each personality type using the descriptions provided by the TypeFocus assessment under “Personality Theory: What Your Four Letters Mean.”
Introversion refers to having an inward focus. An introverted person prefers to spend time alone, or at least needs time alone. The introverted person feels drained after social experiences like parties, and draws energy from solitude.
Sensing refers to the way I perceive the world. A sensor relies primarily on the concrete data received from the five senses, rather than living in a fantasy world or daydreaming.
Thinking refers to how the person processes information. Whereas a feeling person relies on gut instinct, a thinking person like me analyzes or uses logic when making decisions.
Judging refers to how I take action. A judging person weighs all the information available and…
United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (2017). Actuaries. Retrieved online: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/math/actuaries.htm
Psychologists have described personality as specific way of feeling, thinking and self-conduct (Mcleod, 2014) of an individual. Personality is the constantly changing system in the minds of individuals and made up of specific psychological traits that influence their specific self-conduct and thinking. Personality is the combination of behavior that distinguishes a person. The personality of a person is affected by genetic and biological factors as well as factors such as upbringing, environment etc.
Personality theories are broken down into two classes:
• Trait theories of personality that believe that personality depends more on biological factors
• State theories, which see upbringing and societal factors as the major determinants of personality
This paper will be exploring two personality theories: Hans Eysenck's Personality Theory and Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory.
Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
This theory of personality believes that our differing personalities arise from the communication between what Sigmund Freud…
Boundless. (2016, August 17). Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality. Retrieved December 14, 2016, from Boundless Psychology: https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/personality-16/psychodynamic-perspectives-on-personality-77/freudian-psychoanalytic-theory-of-personality-304-12839/
McLeod, S. (2014). Theories of Personality. Retrieved December 14, 2016, from Simply Psychology: http://www.simplypsychology.org/personality-theories.html
PERSONALITY VS SITUATION
Personality refers to the unique set of relatively constant behaviors and mental processes in a person and his or her interactions with the environment (Kevin 2011). It is generally accepted that personality is influenced by genetics in the form of dispositions or temperament at 40-60% and by the environment. The tasks of the psychologist are to characterize and describe personality traits, investigate the relationship between these traits and behavior, and understand and predict behavior from these traits. The approaches to the study of personality are descriptive; biological or genetic; learning; psychodynamic; and humanistic, existential or phenomenological (Kevin).
Existentialism vs. Humanism
Existentialism is difficult to define as those who conceived it denied they started it or it even started (Corbett, 1985). It can be vaguely described as a spirit or atmosphere of one's response to human existence. Among its precursors were Soren Kierkegaard and Fredrich Nietzsche.…
AllPsych (2002). Personality synopsis. Chapter X Humanist Theory. Heffner Media
Group, Inc. Retrieved on May 31, 2011 from http://allpsyc.com/personalitysynopsis/humanistic.html
Boeree, C.G. (2006). Abraham Maslow. Personality Theories. Retrieved on May 31,
2001 from http://webspac.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html
Personal interviews -- especially what the respondent actually says in them -- can be extremely useful to humanist practitioners. They also share a reliance on objective tests -- where the respondent attempts, in a guided way, to assess their own behavior and/or personality, with the two remaining branches of personality assessment.
Trait-based and social-learning psychology have vastly different approaches to assessing personality, but there are also some commonalities insofar as how they assess personality. Trait-based theorists believe that people exhibit specific behavioral traits, and that these can be analyzed to determine personality. Tests like the Big Five indicator are trait-based assessors. Social-learning theorists, on the other hand, believe that certain cognitive patterns are set early on, and that behavior (and personality) is determined by these unique cognitive processes working with the sum experience as well as the current environment and interactions. For this reason, social-learning theorists do not see behavior…
Theories of Personality
This paper analyses the process of personality development in detail. It discusses how various genetic, environmental, cognitive, unconscious and socioculture factors affect the process of personality development in different individuals.
Theory of Personality
Personality can be defined as the sum total of all the characteristics that make an individual unique and different from other individuals. In order to analyze one's personality you do not necessarily need a psychologist to speculate and observe it. In our day-to-day dealings we refer to a large number of personality traits that various individuals possess. Different authors and playwrights usually use key figures and role models in their novels and plays to attract people. The word 'personality' is frequently used in day-to-day conversations nowadays. All of us develop our own theories of personality, each and every time we answer the question ' how is he or she like?'. There are five…
Houston, D. Islamic Azad University, (2005). Personality. Retrieved from Islamic Azad University website: http://dralizadeh.iauq.ac.ir/imagesMasterPage/Files/dralizadeh/file/chapter14.pdf
Keltikangas-Jarvinen, L., & Jokela, M. (2010). Nature and nurture in personality. The Journal Of Lifelong Learning In Psychiatry, 8(2), 180-184. Retrieved from http://psychiatryonline.org/data/Journals/FOCUS/1842/foc00210000180.pdf
Pearson Education, (2002). Personality theories. Retrieved from Pearson Education website: http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1530/1567154/278-316_CH08_61939.pdf
Personality: social learning, humanistic, and socio-cultural perspectives. (2010). Unpublished manuscript, Psychology, Weber State University, Retrieved from http://faculty.weber.edu/eamsel/Classes/Introduction 1010/Lectures/8. Personality/Lectures/Lecture 26-27 Personality - Social Learning others.pdf
Dispositional and Evolutionary Theories
What makes some people extraverted and others introverted? Why are some people mellow and calm, while others lose their tempers at the drop of a hat? Personality psychology tries to answer questions like these by performing a twofold role. The first role of personality psychology is to explain how clusters of traits work together to cause behavioral or cognitive effects, and the other role is to simply explain individual differences or classify people according to clusters of traits (American Psychological Association, 2015). There are several schools of personality psychology, including dispositional and evolutionary theories. Dispositional theory is quite common in popular psychology and has been a prevalent mode of thinking in the history of philosophies throughout different societies. According to dispositional theory, people have immutable traits and personality "types." Occasionally a person might act out of character, but generally people have strong, innate personalities that remain…
American Psychological Association (2015). Personality. Retrieved online: http://www.apa.org/topics/personality/
Cherry, K. (n.d.). The Big Five personality dimensions. About Education. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/personalitydevelopment/a/bigfive.htm
"General Strengths and Limitations of Trait Perspectives," (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/personality-16/trait-perspectives-on-personality-79/general-strengths-and-limitations-of-trait-perspectives-312-12847/
McAdams, D.P. & Pals, J.L. (2006). A new Big Five. American Psychologist 61(3): 204-217.
Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors. Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.
Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory. The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Nomothetic…
Personality and Behavior: Changing for the Better
Hundreds of thousands of years of instinctive programming influence the behavior of modern humans in ways they do not fully understand, and in many cases, people may not even be aware of these influences on their behavior. This is not to say, of course, that modern humans are incapable of thoughtful and purposeful action, but it is to say that such unconscious influences on behavior can cause problems if they are not recognized and dealt with in a meaningful fashion. To gain additional insights in this area, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning personality and behavior, followed by a discussion concerning how behavior can be influenced by personality in ways that can cause individual problems such as risky behaviors that lead to substance abuse or unprotected premarital sex. Finally, an examination concerning how the interactionism view…
Aizen, I. (2005). Attitudes, personality and behavior. Maidenhead, England: Open University
Carver, C.S. & Sheier, M. (2004). Perspectives on personality, 6th ed.
Livesley, W.J. (2001). Handbook of personality disorders: Theory, research, and treatment.
Jet Li-Psychological Personality Analysis
The Image of Jet Li: Development of a Wu-Shu Master
For many years, Asian actors have not been given enough opportunities to break into the entertainment industry in the United States, popularly called the Hollywood. Only few Asian actors have made it big in Hollywood, of which the famed martial arts master ruce Lee is considered as the first Asian who brought fame in the Asian entertainment industry through his martial arts movies. Jackie Chan, similarly, shares ruce Lee's glory but in a different genre, where Chan uses martial arts not as a form of physical violence, but a form of art movement. Also, Chan's movies are mostly humorous, illustrating Chan's penchant for a feel-good movie for his audience.
Another name that has emerged as another potential Asian martial arts actor is Jet Li, a wu-shu expert who hailed from eijing, China. Jet Li is popularly…
Maier, H. (1969). Three Theories of Child Development. New York: University of Washington.
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
The causes of human actions and behavior are generally sought for in the psyche of the individual or in the social environment.
Ewen obert B. ( 1998) An Introduction to Theories of Personality. 5th ed. Mahwah,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Boeree C. ABAHAM MASLOW: 1908 -1970. etrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html
Guy T.M. (2004) Freud's Theory of Culture: Eros, Loss, and Politics. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology; 3/22/2004. etrieved from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-125869018.html
Jantzen, Grace M.(2004) Death and the Displacement of Beauty. New York: outledge.
McKeachie W. And Doyle C. ( 1971) Psychology. New York: Addison-Wesley.
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Strachey, James, ed. (1961) Civilization and Its Discontents. 1st ed. New York W.W. Norton.
The Final Struggle and Victory of Science - Pinel and Tuke. etrieved from http://www.cscs.umich.edu/~crshalizi/White/insanity/pinel.html
The Genetic Self. etrieved from http://www.trans4mind.com/transformation/transform7.1.htm
The Scope Of Psychology.…
Ewen Robert B. ( 1998) An Introduction to Theories of Personality. 5th ed. Mahwah,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Boeree C. ABRAHAM MASLOW: 1908 -1970. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html
Guy T.M. (2004) Freud's Theory of Culture: Eros, Loss, and Politics. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology; 3/22/2004. Retrieved from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-125869018.html
Humanistic and Existential Personality Theories Worksheet
Abraham Maslow proposed the Hierarchy of needs theory of personality.
According to Maslow, self-fulfillment and realization of one's full potential are examples of self-actualization needs.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs proposes that basic needs must be satisfied before secondary/higher level needs will become motivators for behavior.
The belief that matter evolves from simpler to more complex forms is evolution.
The ideal self according to Rogers, is one's view of self as one wishes to be.
Carl Rogers believed that conditions of worth, incongruence, defensiveness, and disorganization are all considered undifferentiated.
Rogers believed that counselor congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy are necessary elements of psychotherapy.
Intentionality is the structure that gives meaning to experience and allows people to make decisions about the future.
May proposed that existential freedom is the freedom of action, whereas essential freedom is the freedom of being.
10. The basic concepts…
Humanistic and Existential Personality Theories Worksheet
Abraham Maslow proposed the _humanistic__ theory of personality.
According to Maslow, self-fulfillment and realization of one's full potential are examples of _self-actualization____ needs.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs proposes that _lower____ needs must be satisfied before ____higher____ needs will become motivators for behavior.
The belief that matter evolves from simpler to more complex forms is formative tendency.
The _actualizing tendency, according to Rogers, is one's view of self as one wishes to be.
Carl Rogers believed that conditions of worth, incongruence, defensiveness, and disorganization are all considered _shattered self-concept__.
7. Rogers believed that ____empathy____, ____unconditional positive regard____, and ____congruence____ are necessary elements of psychotherapy.
8. ____Intentionality____ is the structure that gives meaning to experience and allows people to make decisions about the future.
9. May proposed that __self-awareness____ is the freedom of action, whereas _essential freedom____ is the freedom of being.
10. The basic concepts…
Theoretical Perspective of the Approach
The approach's personality models are grounded on biological models. The models are based on empirical human and animal findings concerning the associations between neurological system functions and personality dimensions. Traits that are measured are reward-dependence, harm avoidance, novelty-seeking etc. The hypothesis is that they are grounded on genetic and neurochemical influences. For instance, sensation-seeking and explorative tendencies like drug usage make use of dopaminergic pathways, and such a characteristic corresponds to novelty-seeking behavior in Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TQP). People who are high on the novelty-seeking spectrum tend to be impulsive and take a lot of risks. Serotonin is linked to harm and punishment avoidance. Lower serotonin levels result in a "neurotic" personality. eward dependence is linked to noradrenaline. People that lean more towards harm avoidance tend to be more affectionate and sentimental. Those on the other end of the scale tend to be pragmatic and…
Allport, G. W. (1937). Personality: A psychological interpretation. New York: H. Holt and. Company. Biological Approaches.(n.d.). Retrieved November 11, 2015, from http://www.sparknotes.com/psychology/psych101/personality/section5.rhtml
Cattell, R. B. (1965). The scientific analysis of personality. Baltimore: Penguin Books.
Eysenck, H. J. (1952). The scientific study of personality.
Eysenck, H. J. (1966). Personality and experimental psychology. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society.
Personality Theories: A Road to the Self
Knowing oneself is not an easy task by any stretch of the imagination; and being able to definitively describe one's own personality is even more difficult. However, the basic groundwork in truly knowing oneself is in one's ability to fully understand the concept of personality. Before garnering embarking on a possible endless journey deciphering the endless labyrinth of available personality theories it is best to start from a more sociological perspective, namely the one proposed by Charles Cooley and known as the "Looking Glass Self" for it is on the basis of how one perceives the self, how others perceive the self and how one would like others to perceive the self that personality is born.
Knowing the self is molded from three perspectives continuation in, and the depth of, knowing the self is brought about through the study of personality. Regardless of…
Her wellness did not allow participation in the second that took place in 1977; however Isabel Myers took pleasure in the other 2 extensively, though sometimes she would be dismayed at the different ways that the analysts treated her information. She understood that the intuitive 'kind' or personality indexes will need to alter the MBTI [instrument] as that is in their nature but she hoped that prior to the time when they altered it, they will initially attempt to comprehend exactly what had been done as the foundation of the theory because her reasons for choosing a certain structure were logical and justified. In 1975, publication of the Indicator was presumed by CPP, Inc. For the first time, the MBTI [instrument] was readily available as an instrument prepared for use in assisting individuals (Kirby and Myers, 2000).
In the last months of her life, when she invested much time sleeping…
Bowdon, T.B. (2010). 50 Psychology Classics. Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
Drucker, C.T. (2007). Once Upon a Type: Mythological Dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. ProQuest Publications.
Kirby, L.K. And Myers, K.D. (2000). Introduction to Type. Cpp Publications.
Myers, I.B. (1962). The Myers-Briggs type indicator. Consulting Psychologists Press.
Trait and Factor Theories:
Personality trait and factor theories have been developed as a means of identifying common elements within the personality of different people, indeed the entire populace. Within any given group of people there are common threads of experiences, similar nurturing, and even shared genetic, yet the personality of each member is a unique construction individual elements which work together. Among those who have produced work in this area are aymond Cattell and Hans Eysenck. Each used scientific factor analysis to identify common traits or permanent dispositions of people. Cattell has identified a large number of personality traits, whereas Eysenck's research extracted only three general factors.(mcgraw-hill.com, online) Like Freud who identifies the id, ego and superego as the measurements of the personal mind, will and emotion, the categories identified by these researchers give men the ability to understand the unique functions of the person, emotions and desires.…
Theories of personality, dispositional theories. (2002) McGraw Hill higher education. Accessed 23 Nov 2003. Web Site: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072316799/student_view0/part4/chapter13/chapter_outline.html
Ver Wys. C.
2001) Department of Cognitive Science Renesslear Polytechnic Institute. Accessed 23 Nov 2003. Web Site: http://www.rpi.edu/~verwyc/bandura.htm .
Boeree, G. (1998) Albert Bandura: Personality Theories. Accessed 23 Nov 2003. Web site: http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/bandura.html .
theory discussed attempt explain a real criminal crimes. Gary Ridgeway America's notorious serial killers. Your assignment analyze Ridgeway's criminal life Hans Eysenck's theory Personality.
hen considering Gary Leon Ridgway's (The Green River Killer) criminal case in the context of Hans J. Eysenck's theory on personality and crime, one is likely to observe a series of parallels between the murderer's personality and behavior and a series of events that occurred throughout his life up to the moment when he became a serial killer. Eyseneck considered that genetics plays an important role in shaping one's personality and this thus points toward the belief that Ridgway was probably influenced by biological factors when he put across criminal thinking. According to Eyseneck, individuals like Ridgway have a neurophysiologic structure that influences them to express certain attitudes when they come across particular circumstances.
hile someone might be inclined to think otherwise consequent to consulting the…
Hadden, B, & Luce, H.R. (2002). Time, Volume 159.
Putwain, D., & Sammons, A. (2013). Psychology and Crime. Routledge.
Marsh, I. (2006). Theories of Crime. Routledge.
Morehead, P. (2012). The Green River Serial Killer. eBookIt.com.
personality - Sigmund Freud.
In a healty person, parts interact? 3) In unhealthy person, interact? Give a faulty interaction lead problems a person? 4) In ur words Defense Mechanisms? 5) Give 2 examples Defense Mechanism: Repression Displacement Rationalization Regression Projection Reaction Formation Sublimation.
Sigmund Freud's personality theory describes the three parts of the personality as the id, the ego, and the superego. The Austrian psychoanalyst considered that people are born with an id, a feature that assists them in getting them whatever pleasures them. The Id will stop at nothing from accomplishing an individual's basic needs and does not allow him or her to express any interests in things other than his or her own well being. As a child's understanding of the world evolves, the ego starts to govern his or her thinking as he or she starts to notice that other people's interests are also important. The ego…
"The work of civilization has become increasingly the business of men, it confronts them with ever more difficult tasks and compels them to carry out instinctual sublimations of which women are little capable" (Rosenfels 21).
When considering leaders and their followers, Freud believed that some people were meant to be controlled as a result of their laziness and of their instinctual abandonment. These individuals influence each-other in adopting an indifferent attitude with regard to their own fate. They are saved by people who are capable to set an example through their strength of will and who take on managerial positions in order to control the masses (Rosenfels 21).
One of the reasons for which Freud expressed dissatisfaction with his experience in the U.S. was the fact that he did not appreciate the attitude that American husbands had in regard to their wives. He believed that one had to control his…
Rosenfels, P. (1980). Freud and the scientific method. Ninth Street Center.
Paul Rosenfels discuses Freud's determination to consider that inequality governed the human society. In addition to expressing his opinion regarding the "men are superior to women" concept that was common at the time, he also related to a series of other relationships that he considered imbalanced. Freud practically considered that there was no relationship that did not involve an inequality rapport, as he typically focused on people's problems and tried to emphasize them in order for individuals to understand the reason for their inferiority while in a relationship. Rosenfels also speaks about how Freud used personal experience in producing theories regarding social inequalities.
Boeree, George. "Sigmund Freud." Retrieved October 16, 2011, from the Shippensburg University Website: http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/freud.html
Boeree describes some of the basic characteristics of Freud's personality theory and focuses on the importance of the unconscious in comparison to the conscious and the preconscious. The doctor also relates to how Freud came to consider that human behavior is determined by factors that are not immediately accessible. Boeree also relates to each trait of the personality theory in particular and explains the way that it functions in regard to people's activities. This source recounts Freud's determination to discuss a subject that people living contemporary to him generally considered to be unimportant, especially given that most individuals were inclined to favor easy explanations when trying to come up with a solution for some mental illnesses.
This approach assumes that the psychological apparatus of the mind is dependent upon some type of energy to make it function (Personality pp). This energy is used in psychological work such as planning, thinking, feeling, and remembering (Personality pp). Everything that happens in an individual's mind and everything he or she does have a specific, identifiable cause, which is referred to as psychic determinism (Personality pp). According to Freud, "people are driven, fundamentally, by unconscious, animalistic, instinctual urges, particularly lust and aggression" (Personality pp). The unconscious is understood to be the large part of the mind that is hidden from view, and the internal structure of the mind is divided into three separate motivations, the Id, which is the irrational and emotional part of the mind, the Ego, which is the rational part, and the Superego, the moral part (Personality pp).
The basic assumption of the learning perspective is that…
Boeree, C. George. Personality Theories: Introduction. http://www.ship.edu/%7Ecgboeree/persintro.html
Evolutionary Perspectives on Personality. http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:UxKqbHF4VjwJ:www.bsu.edu/web/00t0holtgrav/317/evolution.ppt+Perspectives+on+Personality&hl=en
Kagan, Jerome. Personality Development.
Gale Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2602/is_0004/ai_2602000429
There are several theoretical approaches that are utilized in explaining personality based on the different traits relating to an individual. These theoretical approaches are divided into two major categories i.e. the five domains and complex models domains. The five domains (psychodynamic, humanistic, behavioral, trait and type, and learning) are approaches that focus on how individual traits are developed and how behavior is formulated. On the other hand, the complex models domains basically focus on how traits could impact an individual's personality. These two categories can be utilized in developing a personality profile of an individual based on interactions with him/her and the information on he/she posts on social media.
TinaShazzy's Personality Profile
The chosen theoretical approach that I will utilize in developing TinaShazzy's personality is the behavioral domain, which suggests that an individual's behavior is a reflection of his/her personality trait since personality is behavior (Phelps, 2015). Additionally,…
Personality Development in Immigrant Children
Personality development is one of the most commonly researched areas of psychology. At first blush, the relation between personality and the cognitive development of immigrant children may appear somewhat nebulous. However, as contemporary research moves ever closer to an integrative approach, the fields of social and biological science -- once regarded as discrete disciplines -- are merging like the overlapping disks of a Venn diagram.
The cognitive development of children has historically been analyzed through the lens of nature-nurture theorists. The utility of this line of thought weakens under the brilliant new discoveries in the field of neuroscience, and cognitive psychologists have deepened and broadened their inquiries to encompass new findings that point to a greater integration of disciplines.
This discussion will touch on the influence that classic theories of personality development have on contemporary personality theory, referencing seminal work by pioneers in psychology and…
Almy, M. (1976). Review of 'Memory and intelligence; Understanding causality;' and' The origin of the idea of chance in children'. American Journal Of Orthopsychiatry, 46(1), 174-177. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.1976.tb01239.x
Baxter, G.D., & Rarick, C.A. (1987). Education for the moral development of managers: Kohlberg's stages of moral development and integrative education. Journal of Business Ethics, 6(3), 243. Retrieved http://search.proquest.com/docview/198088703?accountid=25340
Bandura, Albert (2001, February). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52 (1), 1 -- 26.
Berry, J.W., Phinney, J.S., Sam, D.L., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant Youth: Acculturation, Identity, and Adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 55(3), 303-332. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2006.00256.x
Personality Theory Blog
Personality Theories and Conducting Assessment
According to the humanistic psychologist's theory of personality, people in their endeavor, try to reach superior levels of mental functioning and personal growth that they also evaluate through objective measures and individual reflections. Even though objective measures are not biased, they do not offer a lot of information. An objective measure of personality is one that uses research to get results. For instance, a pen and paper pre-employment test is very likely an objective measure, other examples of which include: the Second Edition (MMPI-2), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and other major assessments of personality/intelligence (Heffner, 2015). Humanistic psychologists use objective tests to understand better how the patient views his/herself. In these tests, choices that when chosen by the patient will give a clear description of the patient are presented as compared to the unstructured and structured personal interviews…
Boeree, C. G. (2006). Personality Theories. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/persintro.html
Evans, R. (2012, November). Japan and blood types: Does it determine personality? Retrieved from BBC News Magazine: http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-20170787
Fletcher, R. (2014, August 21). Cross Cultural Personality Research. Retrieved from Randall Fletcher: https://randallnf.wordpress.com/2014/08/21/cross-cultural-personality-research/
Heffner, C. L. (2015, Novemeber 1). Assessment Theories. In AllPsych (Ed.), Personality Theory: An Introduction. AllPsych. Retrieved from All Psych: http://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/assessment_theories/#.VjZkw1TnUV4
Personality Psych Analysis of Tony Soprano
Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality
Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality makes the argument that human behavior is resultant of the interrelations amongst three constituent parts of the mind including the id, ego, and superego (Petocz, 1999). This theory of personality lays substantial significance of the manner in which conflict, more often than not unconscious, amongst the areas of the mind end up shaping an individual’s behavior and personality. The Id deals with instantaneous satisfaction of basic physical needs and desires and it functions completely unconsciously. The Superego takes into account social rules and morals, and is largely referred to as a person’s conscience. The Superego develops as a child progressively learns what is deemed to be right or wrong. Lastly, the ego, unlike the instinctive Id and the ethical superego, the Ego is the sensible, realistic part of an individual’s personality…
Personality traits make up the characteristics of the individual. Schmutte and yff (1997) define personality traits as describing, "individual propensities toward stable patterns of behavior and thought, that often are neither inherently good nor inherently bad." Psychologists generally assess five factors of the personality, known as the Big Five personality factors. These five factors include neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness. There are multiple scales designed to measure such factors. This paper will examine four major instruments used to measure personality, specifically, the Big Five personality traits; the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), the Five Factor Personality Inventory developed by Somer, Korkmaz & Tatar in 2002 (Tok, 2011), and the Big Five Inventory (John, Donahue & Kentle, 1991).
Discussion of Topic
When deciding on an instrument to measure personality, a researcher must take into account the scale's validity, reliability and preferred methodology. For this reason,…
Costa, P.T., Jr., & McCrae, R.P. (1992). The revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Goldberg, L.R. (1992). The development of markers for the Big-Five factor structure. Psychological Assessment, 4, 26-42.
Salami, S. (2011). Personality and psychological well-being of adolescents: The moderating role of emotional intelligence. Social Behavior and Personality, 39(6), 785-794.
Schmutte P, Ryff C. (1997). Personality and well-being: Reexamining methods and meanings. Journal Of Personality & Social Psycholody, 73(3), 549-559.
Personality, Motivation, And Managing Staff
This discussion aims to address the intricacies and detail of workplace conducts as the course theory presents and explains them. The reports explore the character of Andrea Sachs that Anne Hathaway depicts in the movie the "Devil Wears Prada," in presenting this relationship. Using the behaviours and experiences of the character, the discussion explains the way different individuals operate and perform in the work environment. Through an analysis of Andrea Sachs, the discussion also establishes the nature of managerial conducts that would prove appropriate in improving Andrea's level of motivation. This report is worth reading considering the choice of character and the in-depth analysis that the report provides. Besides settling on a character with traits that are open to numerous interpretations, as that the movie presents splendidly, the discussion extensively and vividly establishes the characters experience and behaviours with the theory in use. The reader…
Although interpersonal and group level communications reside at a lower level than organizational communication, they are major forms of communication in organizations and are prominently addressed in the organizational communication literature. Recently, as organizations became more communication-based, greater attention was directed at improving the interpersonal communication skills of all organizational members. Historically, informal communication was primarily seen as a potential block to effective organizational performance. This is no longer the case is modern times, as on-going, dynamic, and informal communication has become more important to ensuring the effective conduct of work
It is also widely accepted that top managers should communicate directly with immediate supervisors and that immediate supervisors should communicate with their direct reports. In regard to issues of importance, top managers should then follow-up by communicating with employees directly. The Communication Accommodation Theory supports this rationale. In terms of supervisor-employee communication, one researcher argues the difficulty of trusting…
Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37, 122-147.
Blumberg, A. (1970). A system for analyzing supervisor-teacher interaction. In A.
Simon & G. Boyer (Eds.), Mirrors for behavior, 3, 29-45.
Davis, T. & Landa, M. (1999). The trust deficit. Management Accounting, 71(10), 12-
Erik Erikson postulated that personality is a progress through a number of stages and facing conflicts in the course of progression and the in order to pass through a process, the individual has to overcome these conflicts. These internal conflicts therefore aroused defense mechanisms that thereafter dictated the personality of an individual (Kendra, 2010).
Humanistic approach emphasizes the individual worth and the centrality of the value of a person. It is pegged on the philosophy of existentialism and emphasized on creativity, spontaneity and activeness of human beings. The approach focuses on the development and possibility of humans to defeat hardship and misery as opposed to defeat and pessimis.
Under this approach, there is emphasis on free will and the experience of an individual to be fundamental in the shaping of the personality. It looks at the concept of self-actualization, which is an internal natural need for personal growth…
Kendra Cherry, (2010). Theories of Personality. Personality Psychology Study Guide. Retrieved June 10, 2010 from http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologystudyguides/a/personalitysg_3.htm
Warren & Carmichael, (1930). Elements of human psychology (Rev. Ed.; Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin, 1930), p. 333. Cited in Allport, Pattern & growth in personality (1937/1961, p.36). retrieved June 10, 2010 from http://www.thepersonalitysystem.org/PFA%20What%20Is%20Personality/How%20Is%20Personality%20Defined.htm
Like most people, I have experienced ups and downs, highs and lows. The major upheavals in my life have revealed some of the core personality traits that have been with me since childhood. I believe that crisis and stress challenge us, and also bring to light our true selves. However, I also believe strongly in the power of each person to change. I used to have anger management problems and other emotional issues, just like most people. Mainly these problems were related to my not having in place a set of established coping mechanisms in my life. Part of this is related to the culture and upbringing, and part also to personality traits. Yet after I was divorced from a husband of 22 years, it was a shock. I did not feel like myself because my emotions were getting the best of me. Knowing this, I…
Collins, W.A., Maccoby, E.E., Steinberg, L. & Hetherington, E. (2000). Contemporary research on parenting. American Psychologist 55(2): 218-232.
Jussim, L. (2012). Social Perception and Social Reality. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lalande, Kathleen M.; Bonanno, George A. (2011). Retrospective memory bias for the frequency of potentially traumatic events: A prospective study. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, Vol 3(2), Jun 2011, 165-170.
Lewkowitz, D.J. (2011). The biological implausibility of the nature-nurture dichotomy and what it means for the study of infancy. Infancy 16(4): 331-367.
Personality and Individual Differences
Max is an individual who has long been interested in acting. He gained this interest when he took part in a school play at age 12. After Max completed his secondary schooling, he wanted greatly to enroll in a local arts college, but his parents protested. They communicated to him that they desired him to gain a "real career," or in other words, follow in their footsteps and become an engineer. Max relented and kept his interest in theatrical arts strictly as a hobby. Through the years, Max studied hard. He rarely complained, and eventually he graduated with an engineering degree. Max now got along with his parents and the three maintained a stable relationship. However, Max sometimes felt empty and wondered if a different life may be awaiting him. Two years into Max's first engineering job, Max learned that his close friend had been diagnosed…
Personality Social Psychology
Suzanne Kobasa's Personality and Social Psychology article entitled "Stressful Life Events, Personality, and Health: An Inquiry into Hardiness" builds upon past research to examine individual and group differences regarding responses to stressful life events. The author provides extensive reviews of past literature, pointing out the limitations that led to her conducting the current study. Much literature has shown a correlation between stressful life events and physical illness; namely, that "stressful life events precipitate somatic and psychological disease," (Kobasa 1979, p.1). The current article in particular examines personality as a major mediating factor in the presence of physical illness following a series of stressful life events. Because prior research has shown that "the recent life histories of hospitalized persons contain significantly more frequent and serious stressful events than do histories of matched controls from the general population," Kobasa designed the current research to discover which personality factors were…
Kobasa, Suzanne C. (1979). "Stressful Life Events, Personality and Health: An Inquiry into Hardiness." Personality Social Psychology. Vol. 37, No. 1. pp. 1-11.
It has been a long controversy about how nature and nurture imply to personality traits and human behavior. Nature means that genetic factor and the system of organs control the personality, while nurture means the personality is a result of conditioned circumstances where a person is brought up. It includes the personality of other people, like family, includes the teaching, and lessons a child gains during his/her mental development process.
Recent studies find more in human biological system that genes are related to people's behavior. McInerney (2001) shows, many researchers believe that genetics factors determine how someone will act and think in his or her life. Animal and human are born with specific character linked with the genetic information in the genes. It shapes each individual trait exclusively including the performance in social, interaction, intelligence, and adaptability to the surrounding community.
ehavior may change, he states, as a…
Azar, B. 1997. Nature, Nurture: Not Mutually Exclusive. APA Monitor. American Psychological Association. http://www.snc.edu/psych/korshavn/natnur02.htm (March28, 2002).
Cosgrove, C. May 30, 2000. Researchers Seek Explanations, Coping Strategies For Bad Childhood Behavior. CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/2000/HEALTH/children/05/30/born.bad.wmd/ (March28, 2002).
Fujita, F. May 1, 1996. The Nature/Nurture Controversy. Sci.Psychology.Personality FAQ. http://www.iusb.edu/~ffujita/Documents/nn.html (March28, 2002).
Gendlin, E.T. A Theory of Personality Change. Chapter Four in Personality Change,
The Jungian personality inventories are to some degree 'Westernized' one could argue, in the sense that they were originally developed by the psychoanalyst Carl Jung, around Western archetypes of personality. The MMPI also makes use of such tests in its more extensive survey, but more flexible use of the Jung system has yielded less dogmatic career recommendation and personality type instruments. After answering a series of questions, the tester receives a certain personality 'typing,' based upon whether he or she is primarily extroverted or introverted, sensing or intuitive, thinking or feeling, judging or perceiving. The tester can use this typology as a guide, not a diagnosis set in stone, on his or her path to achieve clearer self-understanding.
Jungian psychological typology. (2009). Personality tests. etrieved October 20, 2009 at http://www.mypersonality.info/personality-types/
Jungian psychological typology. (2009). Personality tests. Retrieved October 20, 2009 at http://www.mypersonality.info/personality-types/
The two interpersonal scales are Dominance and Warmth. Many of the clinical scales, as well as the aggression scale, also have a number of subscales to provide more nuanced information bout each of the clinical conditions. For example, the Borderline Features scale has four subscales: Affective Instability, Identity Problems, Negative elationships and Self-Harm.
The resulting score profiles can be compared to either normative or clinical populations. aw scores are converted to T-scores using tables provided in the scoring manual. These tables were generated using either normative or clinical samples that were census matched and standardized (Morey, 2007). The manual provides average scores for each of the subscales, for example, the average T score for Borderline Traits is 59, indicating that individuals falling below this number are emotionally stable and do not reflect borderline traits. The individual mean scores for each scale vary and are presented within the testing manual (Morey,…
Blais, M.A., Baity, M.R., & Hopwood, C.J. (2010). Clinical applications of the Personality Assessment Inventory. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group.
Butchner, J.N. (2010). Personality assessment from the nineteenth to the early twenty-first century: Past achievements and contemporary challenges. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 1-20.
Morey, L.C. (2007). The Personality Assessment Inventory: Professional manual 2nd Edition. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Morey, L.C. & Hopwood, C.J. (2007). Casebook for the Personality Assessment Inventory: A Structured Summary Approach. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
As the individual grows, the extended family becomes an increasing part of his or her life. At a certain age, the individual goes to preschool or primary school, and thus becomes part of society as a whole. This is where the primary relationship with the first family unit plays its most important role.
I believe that object-relations theory has much to offer in terms of ensuring the healthy development of the individual during his or her first years. This development should be seen as the basis of future development, rather than the basis of all other relationships during the individual's life. Furthermore, I also feel that the theory can be used in combination with other theories in order to achieve a balance between the importance of the individual as self, as well as the individual as part of other entities, or "wholes," including the family, school, work, as well as…
Personality Type Explained
According to the Jung Typology Test I am an INFP—but really just barely. I am only 3% introvert, 9% intuitive, 3% feeling and 9% perceiving. I am right in the middle on most questions. However, the career choices that fall under the INFP category are actually all choices that I have considered in the past, so the test does seem to work. The recommended career choices for the INFP are: “Social workers, psychologists, life coaches, addiction rehab counselors, mental and community care staff, children education, teaching, and also creative script writing” (INFP Career Choices, 2018).
The INFP Learning Style also describes me to a “t”—a enjoy learning but usually only when it relates in some way to human behavior. I can study manuals and information that is purely mechanical—such as how to change oil in a car—but I do find it to be tedious and more like…
Echo finally died of old age, and the raw emotion from the park rangers and zoologists just brought tears. Similarly, he thinks that now that he is older he can sift through the "B.S. In advertising and media hype," and enjoys such cynical, but rather realistic, portrays of modern society in Mad Men, Weeds, and Breaking Bad.
As far as personality development, Tom believes that children get a pretty good grounding from their parents and early school experiences. Concepts like empathy, morality, situational ethics, and reliability are built when one is young. However, that being said, Tom does not see himself as a rule follower like his parents. Both believed that if something said x in the rules, then x it was. They both also believed that a person should get a job and stay with that job until retirement. Tom has already had two careers, and estimates he will…
"41 Questions -- 1 Personality." (2010). 41q.com Cited in:
Capraro, RAM 2002, 'Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability', Educational
And Pyschological Measurement, vol 62, no. 3, pp. 560-302.
Cliff likes to challenge people to games, sometimes making bets. Yet when he loses, he does not take the situation too seriously. Cliff does not avoid conflict or argument, and yet he also tries to create win-win situations. Cliff is frequently portrayed as the voice of reason in the show, such as when he tries to talk his wife out of having another baby. He points out where his children are acting on their impulses, and proves to be a good disciplinarian. A psychoanalytic personality perspective suggests that Cliff Huxtable is an ideal person with a healthy, well-developed ego.
In the Cosby Show, the Huxtable children are developing their superegos based on what they learn from their parents and Cliff serves as an excellent role model for them. Cliff Huxtable is a well-adjusted man who does not demonstrate any apparent neuroses. Difficult emotions such as anger, fear, and embarrassment are…
Stevenson, D.B. (1998). Freud's division of the mind. The Victorian Web. retrieved April 30, 2010 from http://www.victorianweb.org/science/freud/division.html
In psychology, personality can be described as the "the patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion unique to an individual, and the ways they interact to help or hinder the adjustment of a person to other people and situations" ("personality," 2013). Psychologists may make use of idiographic or nomothetic techniques in order to study personality of an individual. Many characteristics of human behavior can be examined while studying one's personality. To put in simple words, personality theories are utilized for organizing what is known, stimulating new research, and specifying a view of personality in a formal way (Kasschau, 1985). Psychoanalytic theory, person-centered theory and existential theory are three such theories which have been developed in the precedent century and cover a lot of information regarding the pathology, health/wellness, treatment and the weight or significance of early life.
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
The Psychoanalytic Theory was put forwarded by Sigmund Freud…
Diem-Wille, G. (2011). The Early Years of Life: Psychoanalytical Development Theory According to Freud, Klein and Bion. London: Karnac.
Gurman, A.S., & Messer, S.B. (2003).Essential Psychotherapies: Theory and Practice. New York: Guilford Press.
Kasschau, R.A. (1985). Psychology: Exploring Behavior. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs. Print.
Kitano, M.K., & LeVine, E.S. (1987). Existential theory: Guidelines for practice in child therapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 24(3), 404-413. doi:10.1037/h0085732
("Kelly Psychology of Personal Constructs," 2005)
Social Cognitive theories are a primary focus in today's clinical world. The person is seen as a proactive vs. reactive organizer of his or her life. Utilizing the main concepts of this theory explain why Jane is having such difficulty coping with life? How would Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck intervene in Jane's lifestyle?
The social cognitive theory is when there is focus on learning by watching what others do. The successes and failures that they experience are used to shape how the individual will view the world around them and their role in it. This is accomplished by teaching them techniques during the process that can be applied to their daily lives. (Santrock, 2008, pp. 26 -- 30) When this occurs on a regular basis, is the point that the person will begin to use these events as experiences that will shape how…
The Beginning of Cognitivist. (2002). All Psych. Retrieved from:
Kelly Psychology of Personal Constructs. (2005). Find Psychology. Retrieved from:
There are many different theories pertaining to the development of one's personality. While our personalities develop, we adopt different habits over the years. Some of the habits stay with us for the rest of our lives, while the others we abandon either because of social pressure or because our personality is evolving continuously and therefore our habits change. One of my habits that I would like to analyze in this paper that I have a habit of making 'things-to-do -- list."
Analysis of my habit
From the very beginning, since I was a child, I have been very organized. I always make sure that all my tasks are completed and done on time. As I grew up and life became complex and busier, some of the things that I had to do would get missed every now and then. Also, I would feel very confused as to what I…
Cherry, Kendra. (2013). "Theories of Personality - Personality Psychology Study Guide." About.com Guide.
Sincero, Sarah M. (2012). "Social Cognitive Theories of Personality."
Etiology of Theories on Addiction
There are different sorts of addictions and substance abuse methods that plague the world today. However, in order to cure an addiction, one needs to go down to its root cause, and eliminate it, after which the damages caused can be mitigated and prevented. There are several theories and approaches to tackle an addiction problem. Most trained professionals use these theories in their treatment plan to get a better understanding of when and how the addiction came into being. After which, along with therapy, counseling and medication, the road to recovery can begin.
Medical etiology is the study of causes of an illness or any psychological condition. When a diseases is uncovered which the doctors are unable to explain and understand, an etiologist is responsible for determining the reason for its origin and being (Alcoholism, 2005). In this manner, the etiologist and the doctors are…
Alcoholism, N.I. (2005). Module 2: Etiology and Natural History of Alcoholism. National Institute of on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
O' Farrell, T., & Fals-Stewart, W. (1999). Treatment models and methods: Family models. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sheehan, T., & Owen, P. (1999). Addictions: A comprehensive guidebook. New York: Oxford University Press.
I would like to explore Jungian theories about personality (as might be found in Meyer-Briggs instrumentation) and consciousness with respect to recall while writing memoir and the phenomenon Jung (2006) referred to as collective consciousness.
This little slice of memoir was interesting because in the writing, I experienced recollection. I had not thought about these events in my childhood for sometime. In fact, the last time I remember trying to recall the details of these happenings was during a visit with my brother. My older brother has digitized many slides that our father took during the period of time when we were growing up. He is fond of getting out his binder of enlarged slides, now in print format, and encouraging the development of our mutual memories about our halcyon days of our childhood in a small town.
Cohen, and Cohen, (Producers and Directors) (1996). Fargo. [Film]. Los Angeles:…
Cohen, and Cohen, (Producers and Directors) (1996). Fargo. [Film]. Los Angeles: Polygram Filmed Entertainment, Working Title Films. Retreived http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0116282/
Cobb-Clark, D.A. And Schurer, S. (2012). The stability of big-five personality traits. Economics Letters, 115, 11-15. Retrieved http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1922015
Jung, C. (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society. New American Library, 23. ISBN 0-451-21860-4
Ephron, N. (1980). Wallflower at the orgy. New York, NY: Bantam Books.
Psychological theories of criminal behavior focus on the individual, rather than on contextual factors (as sociological theories of crime do) or on biological factors (such as genetics). Personality, traits, and cognitions are all covered under the rubric of psychological theories of crime. One of the prevailing and most widely accepted psychological theory of crime is rational choice theory. ational choice theory " is perhaps the most common reason why criminals do the things they do," accounting for a wide variety of criminal behaviors (Dechant, 2009). The theory was first suggested and developed by William Glasser, and has since become a default theory of explaining everything from petty theft to white-collar crime.
ational choice theory is relatively straightforward. The individual is believed to be acting rationally, making decisions based on personal need, convenience, and expediency. The theory permits for individual differences, as each person may be motivated by different…
Dechant, A.B. (2009). The psychology of criminal behavior: Theories from past to present. Coastline Journal. Retrieved online: http://coastlinejournal.org/2009/04/13/the-psychology-of-criminal-behaviour-theories-from-past-to-present/
Gul, S.K. (2009). An evaluation of the rational choice theory in criminology. Sociology and Applied Science 4(8): 36-44.
Li, H., Zhang, J. & Sarathy, R. (2010). Understanding compliance with internet use policy from the perspective of rational choice theory. Decision Support Systems 48(4): 635-645.
Scott, J. (2000). Rational choice theory From Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of The Present, edited by G. Browning, A. Halcli, and F. Webster. Sage Publications.
andura's social cognitive theory is similar with Skinner's behaviorist theory, in so far as the role of the external environment on the individual is concerned. However, andura's theory differs from Skinner's in that the former extended the relationship between the individual and external environment to include, at the same time, the influence that the individual's behavior has on his/her external environment. andura's theory illustrates a seemingly 'reciprocal' relationship between the individual and the external environment: the latter affects the former in exchange for a positive outcome, while the former affects the latter as part of his/her continuous cycle of personality development (424).
From the discussion of these three perspectives of the psychology of human personality, significant differences that highlight the importance of each tradition emerge.
The humanistic tradition looks into the internal traits of the individual, positing that these internal traits are what ultimately shape the personality of a person.…
Buber, M. And C. Rogers. (1997). The Martin Buber-Carl Rogers Dialogue: A New Transcript with Commentary. Albany: University of New York Press.
Freedheim, D. And I. Weiner. (2003). Handbook of Psychology, Volume 1: History of Psychology. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill.
When one thinks about Freud's theory one has to presume Freud's conscious thoughts or his theory regarding an Oedipus complex represents not his real thoughts but his defensive condensations, displacements, reversals, omissions, and distortions of his real thoughts. If one wishes to look inside his real thoughts regarding an Oedipus complex, one has to analyze and interpret the manifest content of his thought with these defenses in mind. According to Freud, a person must use this method of analysis to overcome such defenses and resistances. The first rule of Freud's technique was to reject the manifest content or the apparent meaning of the dream, symptom, or activity as merely a distorted substitute for one's real thoughts (Freud's Theory Analyzed -- a eport on esearch n.d).
Freud thought that one's conscious thoughts would be unconsciously determined and distorted by what one had censored. One's conscious thoughts condensed, displaced, reversed, omitted, covertly…
A Brief Outline of Psychoanalytic Theory, n.d., Available at:
Bridle, S. And Edelstein, a., 2009, Was ist "das Ich"?, Available at:
The research on HPD causes is clearly linked to personality theory, and can help to understand each theory. By first examining causation research, and then by locating personality theory which supports the research, it was easy to see the validity of personality theories, and how they can be used in real world research. The research also tied in to course material by again forcing real world situations to be applied to theoretical perspectives.
As research surrounding the causes of HPD is undertaken, more is learned about factors that affect those with HPD. If a definite cause, or a list of possible causes, can be discovered through such research, treatment options specifically designed to address those causes can be developed, resulting in a higher possibility of success. This type of research is vital if those with histrionic personality disorder are to ever be fully cured. Therapy without certain cause can reduce…
American Psychological Association. (2000). Desk reference to the diagnostic criteria from DSM-IV-TR.
Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., pg. 293.
Aston-Jones, G.D. (2002). Chapter 4. In K.L. Davis (Ed.), Neuropsychopharmacology: The fifth generation of progress (pp. 133-167). Nashville, TN: American College of Neuropsychopharmacology.
Britton R. (2004, Sept). Narcissistic disorders in clinical practice. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 49(4), 477-490.