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THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL
Marilyn Wedge. (2015, April 15). Help, Am I a Narcissist? etrieved from Psychologist Today: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/suffer-the-children/201604/help-am-i-narcissist
Many are unaware that there is a big difference between the names narcissism and ordinary selfishness which have a lot to do with personality disorders. That article talks about how in the American culture today, mental distress is a big deal. The author also add that personality disorders are another issue that people are dealing with today. Each appear to have leaked from the offices of psychiatrists into the general talks. The author made a good point that people usually think of themselves in labels. For example, rather than being sad, a lot of times people are depressed. ather than being orderly, people are just OCD. ather than being energetic and active, even the children of families appear to be ADHD. The author then hits the main topic…
Marilyn Wedge. (2015, April 15). Help, Am I a Narcissist? Retrieved from Psychologist Today: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/suffer-the-children/201604/help-am-i-narcissist
Zimmer, E. (2009, April 15). Teen Angst Turns Deadly. Retrieved from Psychology Today: https://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200901/teen-angst-turns-deadly
Personality, a term rooted from the Latin word "persona" means 'mask'. According to Allport (1937), personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to the environment. It also refers to the characteristic set of views, feelings and behaviors constantly reflected in an individual's conduct over time (Flanagan C., 2004). These characteristics are relatively stable, implying that a certain human being generally behaves in a typical manner. Further elaborated by Allport (1937), there are two ways to study personality, namely, the 'nomothetic' and the 'idiographic'. The former of the two studies personality by contriving general laws that can be applied to different people, such as the traits of 'self-actualization' or 'extraversion'. The latter of the two approaches to study personality uses all the unique attributes of a certain individual to understand personality.
There are three methods to study personality…
Allport, G. (1937). Personality: A Psychological Interpretation. Journal of Personality, 30, 405-422.
Carducci, B. (2006). The Psychology of Personality: Viewpoints, Researches and Applications. Retrieved from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=1gJPXv5wQbIC&pg=PA14&lpg=PA14&dq=three+main+methods+of+studying+personality+psychology&source=bl&ots=rmJu0uEBsj&sig=d-4tlTKJTEKfwGycCKtQn1npN6w&hl=en&sa=X&ei=lw3rT6LYBK3a4QSUmMXDAg&ved=0CFoQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=three%20main%20methods%20of%20studying%20personality%20psychology&f=false , Google Books.
Flanagan, C. (2004). Social and Personality Development. In Psychology (pp. 586 -- 588). London, UK: Collins Publishers.
Character: Patrick aterman- 'American Psycho'
A unique concept of personality theories is generated in American Psycho. This character has been cross examined through the principles of psychoanalytic theory. There character exhibits a super ego driven by skewed moral patterns and an id (self-perception) that lets out all the deeply held fantasies of which it has been deprived. The case demonstrates the possibility of the superego and the id coalescing to stir sadistic violence and failure to distinguish between the real and that exists only in perception. This unique predisposition also means that self-actualization is seen to be a possibility for any form of behaviour. Although it is easy to class aterman as an evil person, his needs are met in line with the hierarchy of needs. This happens until his heinous and violent acts emerge a continuation of the skewed ideals shared in a way with his victims.…
Ellis, B. E. (1991). American Psycho (1st ed.). New York: Vintage.
Friedman, H. S., & Schustack, M. W. (2009). Personality: Classic theories and modern research (4th ed.). Allyn & Bacon
Pearce, J. (2014, November 30). Patrick Bateman of American Psycho: A sexual profile. Retrieved from Lapsus: http://lapsuspsych.com/2014/11/30/patrick-bateman-of-american-psycho-a-sexual-profile/
Schaffer, C. (2013). Examining the Personality of Patrick Bateman of. Walden University.
Erik Erikson postulated that personality is a progress through a number of stages and facing conflicts in the course of progression and the in order to pass through a process, the individual has to overcome these conflicts. These internal conflicts therefore aroused defense mechanisms that thereafter dictated the personality of an individual (Kendra, 2010).
Humanistic approach emphasizes the individual worth and the centrality of the value of a person. It is pegged on the philosophy of existentialism and emphasized on creativity, spontaneity and activeness of human beings. The approach focuses on the development and possibility of humans to defeat hardship and misery as opposed to defeat and pessimis.
Under this approach, there is emphasis on free will and the experience of an individual to be fundamental in the shaping of the personality. It looks at the concept of self-actualization, which is an internal natural need for personal growth…
Kendra Cherry, (2010). Theories of Personality. Personality Psychology Study Guide. Retrieved June 10, 2010 from http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologystudyguides/a/personalitysg_3.htm
Warren & Carmichael, (1930). Elements of human psychology (Rev. Ed.; Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin, 1930), p. 333. Cited in Allport, Pattern & growth in personality (1937/1961, p.36). retrieved June 10, 2010 from http://www.thepersonalitysystem.org/PFA%20What%20Is%20Personality/How%20Is%20Personality%20Defined.htm
e. social transitions in historically changing environment.
The next section discusses Sociology. In this section, the researchers discuss the significance of sociology in this study and the world of psychology. It has been stated that the view of sociology is necessary and useful. The finding suggest that personality can in fact be tested using actual life consequences and that it is possible to organize life data by articulating the social meanings of roles according to age linked expectations. The researchers believe that sociological treatment of personality in the life course can shape the analysis and interpretation of data presented.
The last section discusses the question of why history. The answer is that in fact over a life span each individual is exposed to various historical experiences during ones transition through the "age-graded roles." Researchers further conclude that it is extremely important that when making historical generalizations that age be considered…
Dispositional and Evolutionary Theories
What makes some people extraverted and others introverted? Why are some people mellow and calm, while others lose their tempers at the drop of a hat? Personality psychology tries to answer questions like these by performing a twofold role. The first role of personality psychology is to explain how clusters of traits work together to cause behavioral or cognitive effects, and the other role is to simply explain individual differences or classify people according to clusters of traits (American Psychological Association, 2015). There are several schools of personality psychology, including dispositional and evolutionary theories. Dispositional theory is quite common in popular psychology and has been a prevalent mode of thinking in the history of philosophies throughout different societies. According to dispositional theory, people have immutable traits and personality "types." Occasionally a person might act out of character, but generally people have strong, innate personalities that remain…
American Psychological Association (2015). Personality. Retrieved online: http://www.apa.org/topics/personality/
Cherry, K. (n.d.). The Big Five personality dimensions. About Education. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/personalitydevelopment/a/bigfive.htm
"General Strengths and Limitations of Trait Perspectives," (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/personality-16/trait-perspectives-on-personality-79/general-strengths-and-limitations-of-trait-perspectives-312-12847/
McAdams, D.P. & Pals, J.L. (2006). A new Big Five. American Psychologist 61(3): 204-217.
Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors. Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.
Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory. The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Nomothetic…
There are six approaches for studying the personality development of a person. Two of the most popular ones are the biological and humanistic approaches. The other four of these approaches include the trait, cognitive, behavioral and psychoanalytic. Each of these approaches are used to describe the system through we acquire our personality and factors that influence this personality development. The use of the approach is determined by the psychotherapist as well as the client, as they can differ from one person to another with respect to their effectiveness. However, it is the responsibility of the therapist to make sure that the approach used by him would be appropriate for the particular client he is dealing with. Even though it is not expected of the therapist to specialize in all the approaches, he should at least have an idea about each one of them. In this paper, we will…
Lawrence, Sawyer (2009). "Biological vs. Humanistic Approach to Personality." University of Phoenix.
Vigil, Jeremy (2002). "Biological v. Humanistic." Psychology 250.
" Earlier, in Leary et. al.'s article, it was stated how thoughtless commitment of an activity is vital to the success of self-control, since at this stage, the individual loses his/her concept of self-awareness. However, in Hoyle's analysis, impulsivity is a factor that hampers the individual's performance of an activity with a high level of self-control. Thus, the relationship between impulsivity and self-regulation are inversely proportional to each other: as the individual increases his/her level of impulsivity, the level of self-regulation decreases.
Combining both factors, Hoyle then created a bigger picture of his interpretation of and perspective about self-regulation. For him, in order to fully gain self-regulation in the self, there should be an "alignment" of both the real and ideal self. The real self are actions and behavior that the individual observes on a daily basis, while the ideal self could be a part of the individual's personality, or…
Hoyle, R. (Dec 2006). "Personality and self-regulation: Trait and information-processing perspectives." Journal of Personality, Vol. 74, No. 6.
Leary, M, C. Adams and E. Tate. (Dec 2006). "Hypo-egoic self-regulation: Exercising self-control by diminishing the influence of the self." Journal of Personality, Vol. 74, No. 6.
In psychology, personality can be described as the "the patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion unique to an individual, and the ways they interact to help or hinder the adjustment of a person to other people and situations" ("personality," 2013). Psychologists may make use of idiographic or nomothetic techniques in order to study personality of an individual. Many characteristics of human behavior can be examined while studying one's personality. To put in simple words, personality theories are utilized for organizing what is known, stimulating new research, and specifying a view of personality in a formal way (Kasschau, 1985). Psychoanalytic theory, person-centered theory and existential theory are three such theories which have been developed in the precedent century and cover a lot of information regarding the pathology, health/wellness, treatment and the weight or significance of early life.
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
The Psychoanalytic Theory was put forwarded by Sigmund Freud…
Diem-Wille, G. (2011). The Early Years of Life: Psychoanalytical Development Theory According to Freud, Klein and Bion. London: Karnac.
Gurman, A.S., & Messer, S.B. (2003).Essential Psychotherapies: Theory and Practice. New York: Guilford Press.
Kasschau, R.A. (1985). Psychology: Exploring Behavior. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs. Print.
Kitano, M.K., & LeVine, E.S. (1987). Existential theory: Guidelines for practice in child therapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 24(3), 404-413. doi:10.1037/h0085732
Like most people, I have experienced ups and downs, highs and lows. The major upheavals in my life have revealed some of the core personality traits that have been with me since childhood. I believe that crisis and stress challenge us, and also bring to light our true selves. However, I also believe strongly in the power of each person to change. I used to have anger management problems and other emotional issues, just like most people. Mainly these problems were related to my not having in place a set of established coping mechanisms in my life. Part of this is related to the culture and upbringing, and part also to personality traits. Yet after I was divorced from a husband of 22 years, it was a shock. I did not feel like myself because my emotions were getting the best of me. Knowing this, I…
Collins, W.A., Maccoby, E.E., Steinberg, L. & Hetherington, E. (2000). Contemporary research on parenting. American Psychologist 55(2): 218-232.
Jussim, L. (2012). Social Perception and Social Reality. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lalande, Kathleen M.; Bonanno, George A. (2011). Retrospective memory bias for the frequency of potentially traumatic events: A prospective study. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, Vol 3(2), Jun 2011, 165-170.
Lewkowitz, D.J. (2011). The biological implausibility of the nature-nurture dichotomy and what it means for the study of infancy. Infancy 16(4): 331-367.
I believe I have learned many things in class that will help make me more effective and successful in my personal life. Perhaps the most evident thing I have learned is how to determine my own conscious motivators and recognize how my unconscious beliefs and morals may impact my attitudes, beliefs and behaviors. This falls more into the realm of social psychology. I have learned exactly how critical environment can be to ones success or distress.
With regard to my profession, I believe that I can use psychology in many ways. Psychology is an important tool for employees and managers alike. When used correctly it can help foster a collaborative and open work environment that encourages individual thinking, behavior, and goal setting. It can also be used to mitigate and problem solve. Psychology can also be used to address more difficult aspects of the workplace environment.
A learned for example…
Personal interviews -- especially what the respondent actually says in them -- can be extremely useful to humanist practitioners. They also share a reliance on objective tests -- where the respondent attempts, in a guided way, to assess their own behavior and/or personality, with the two remaining branches of personality assessment.
Trait-based and social-learning psychology have vastly different approaches to assessing personality, but there are also some commonalities insofar as how they assess personality. Trait-based theorists believe that people exhibit specific behavioral traits, and that these can be analyzed to determine personality. Tests like the Big Five indicator are trait-based assessors. Social-learning theorists, on the other hand, believe that certain cognitive patterns are set early on, and that behavior (and personality) is determined by these unique cognitive processes working with the sum experience as well as the current environment and interactions. For this reason, social-learning theorists do not see behavior…
Paranoid/Schizoid personality disorders are difficult to treat via insight-oriented therapeutic approaches, mainly because the patient is prone to doubt the motives of the therapist by virtue of the nature of the symptoms of the disease itself: namely, paranoid delusions that convince the patient that the therapist is part of a larger "conspiracy" against the patient (Shapiro 1999).
Narcissistic, histrionic, borderline, and antisocial disorders are treatable via several insight-oriented, one-on-one psychoanalytic psychotherapeutic approaches conducted by specialists in those types of disorders, as are many obsessive-compulsive and avoidant disorders (Gerrig and Zimbardo 2005). Alternatively, obsessive- compulsive, dependant, and especially, avoidant disorders are treatable in group settings as well. Avoidant and dependent personality disorders, in particular, may be best-suited to cognitive behavioral therapeutic approaches where the roots of the patient's disorder relates to distorted self-perceptions capable of being addressed directly (Coleman, Butcher and Carson 1994).
Where paranoid or schizophrenic personality disorders are associated…
Coleman, J., Butcher, J., and Carson, R. (1994). Abnormal Psychology and Human Life. Dallas: Scott, Foresman & Co.
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005).
Psychology and Life 18th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Shapiro, D. (1999). Neurotic Styles. New York: Basic Books.
Know the predominant features of each personality disorder = Such knowledge will help the therapist to identify assistance strategies ahead of time, which can be modified as necessary.
Know about the link between borderline personality disorder and suicide attempts = an awareness of this link will help the therapist to identify warning signs and provide assistance in a timely way.
Know that group therapy is useful for treatment of avoidant personality disorder = Knowing this avoids the intuitive tendency to reinforce the patient's avoidance.
Patients with which disorder are most likely to seek treatment on their own? Depression sufferers are most likely to seek treatment for their condition.
Problems in using the DSM-IV-TR to diagnose personality disorders = the main concern is that some guidelines are very specific. Some personality disorders may overlap or display atypical symptoms.
Are boys or girls more likely to have a diagnosable psychological…
In principle, Freud views the development of human personality as largely attributable to neurological functions representing particular components of personality rather than neurological structures, and in that sense, his prescient views predating the technology that would later confirm the neurological basis of human perception and behavior by a full half-century (Dennet 1991). On the other hand, the detailed descriptions provided by Freud for the precise conflicts and interactions among and between the Id, Super Ego, and the Ego amount more to arbitrary characterizations rather than to the precise neurological processes envisioned by Freud (Dennet 1991).
That is not to deny the existence of the various urges emphasized by Freud and the factors responsible for their degree of expression in human conduct. Contemporary psychologists acknowledge the profound role played by various neurological components of human behavior as well as their general connection to specific parts of the brain, all of which…
Dennet, D. (1991). Consciousness Explained. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005). Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Pinker, S. (2002). The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature. New York: Penguin.
Personality and Individual Differences
Max is an individual who has long been interested in acting. He gained this interest when he took part in a school play at age 12. After Max completed his secondary schooling, he wanted greatly to enroll in a local arts college, but his parents protested. They communicated to him that they desired him to gain a "real career," or in other words, follow in their footsteps and become an engineer. Max relented and kept his interest in theatrical arts strictly as a hobby. Through the years, Max studied hard. He rarely complained, and eventually he graduated with an engineering degree. Max now got along with his parents and the three maintained a stable relationship. However, Max sometimes felt empty and wondered if a different life may be awaiting him. Two years into Max's first engineering job, Max learned that his close friend had been diagnosed…
The review assesses the book's strong points, and gives good information on personality disorder, but does not point out any weaknesses, which makes it seem a bit biased. In addition, the review does not include the reviewer's qualifications for writing the review, and that would have made the review stronger as well.
It is clear the reviewer understands personality disorder and agrees with the findings of the author of this book. The review is helpful if a student is looking for a definitive text on the issue of personality disorder, but the review does leave out some key points that could have made an even stronger argument for purchasing this book and learning more about personality disorder.
Baer, M. (2002). The personality disorder. Annals of the…
Baer, M. (2002). The personality disorder. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 5(6), 27.
During this process is when they could become traumatized, based upon different events surrounding their bodily functions (such as: wetting the bed). At which point, the individual may exhibit a host of behaviors later on life to include: shyness, domination and compulsive disorders. In the phallic stage (which lasts from 3 -- 5 years old), the child becomes aware of their gender. It is at this stage that the personality is fully developed, with the child cultivating a love for their mother or father (commonly called the Electra or Oedipus complexes). Latency is when there is little to no development in the personality during this part of someone's life. The genital stage begins at the age of 12 years old. During this part of an individual's life, is when the person will begin to a have a renewed interest in: their sexual orientation and those who they are attracted to.…
Incentive Theory. (n.d.). Academics. Retrieved from: http://academics.tjhsst.edu/psych/oldPsych/ch9-2/inct.htm
Bell, R. (1991) Women of Classical Mythology: A Biographical Dictionary. London: Oxford University Press.
Cherry, K. (2011). Hierarchy of Needs. About. Retrieved from: http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/hierarchyneeds.htm
Deci, E. (1985), Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior, New York, NY: Plenum.
This 14-year-old male is currently in the ninth grade. In the demographic portion of the test, he identifies "restless/bored" as the problem that is troubling him the most. A tendency toward avoiding self-disclosure is evident in this adolescent's response style. This nondisclosure may signify characterological evasiveness or an unwillingness to divulge matters of a personal nature, problematic or not. Also possible are broad deficits in introspectiveness and psychological-mindedness, owing to either emotional impoverishment or thought vagueness" (Millon 2005).
As evidenced in the above, sample assessment, the Millon devices are all-encompassing, giving a diagnosis and analysis of a multitude of different factors relating to an individual's state of mental health. A statistical recording of all responses and how they correlate to different mental health conditions is included and incorporated into the assessment. The assessment can make judgments about an adolescent's developmental state, as for example the above 9th grader's lack…
Dana, Richard Henry. (2005). Multicultural assessment. New York: Routledge.
Millon, Theodore, Carrie Millon, Roger Davis, & Seth Grossman. (2008). MACI:
Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory. Pearson Assessments. Retrieved 11 Nov 2008 at http://www.pearsonassessments.com/tests/maci.htm
Millon, Theodore, Carrie Millon, Roger Davis, & Seth Grossman. (2008). MCMI-III:
In the year 2005, United States experience one of the biggest, deadliest and costly hurricanes of that period. The hurricane was named Hurricane Katrina; it cost loss of lives, property and flooding across different states. The emergency situation had to be dealt with immediately and strategies to do so had to be all rounded. This is because those affected were either directly involved or witnessed the occurrence. This discussion is aimed and analyzing the victims of the emergency following two approaches that is humanistic and behavioral while comparing and contrasting their effectiveness.
How do therapists using each of these perspectives view the client and client's problem?
Behavioral approach is concerned with theoretical and measurable aspects of human behavior. Human behavior can either be learnt or unlearnt depending on whether they are acceptable on a social and cultural basis. Humanistic approach in the other hand is concerned with individual responses…
Cervone, D., & Pervin, L.A. (2010). Personality: Theory and research. Hoboken;NJ: . Wiley.
Plante, T.G. (2011). Contemporary clinical psychology. Hoboken, NJ:: Wiley.
Sue, D., & Sue, D.M. (2008). Foundations of counseling and psychotherapy: Evidence-based practices for a diverse society. Hoboken, N.J:: John Wiley & Sons.
The Jungian personality inventories are to some degree 'Westernized' one could argue, in the sense that they were originally developed by the psychoanalyst Carl Jung, around Western archetypes of personality. The MMPI also makes use of such tests in its more extensive survey, but more flexible use of the Jung system has yielded less dogmatic career recommendation and personality type instruments. After answering a series of questions, the tester receives a certain personality 'typing,' based upon whether he or she is primarily extroverted or introverted, sensing or intuitive, thinking or feeling, judging or perceiving. The tester can use this typology as a guide, not a diagnosis set in stone, on his or her path to achieve clearer self-understanding.
Jungian psychological typology. (2009). Personality tests. etrieved October 20, 2009 at http://www.mypersonality.info/personality-types/
Jungian psychological typology. (2009). Personality tests. Retrieved October 20, 2009 at http://www.mypersonality.info/personality-types/
These people have been seen to have rigidity towards people who are struggling in life and are going through a tougher time or with people who are already emotionally weak or vulnerable in case where they might be going through a tough relationship. It has been reported that if these people are asked for advice for better parenting with a troubled teen, the advice from an overtly controlling person would be to cast the teen away, leave him in a church or be hard on him in a physical manner. In the case of marital issues, the advice would be to make sure that the wife being a weaker person should be made to submit to the much stronger husband. If a depressed individual asks such controlling person for an advice, it would be repent on sins making sure that such sins are not committed again.
These individuals are overtly…
Bancroft, Lundy. Why does he do that?: inside the minds of angry and controlling men. Berkley Books, 2003.
Braiker, B. Harriet. Who's Pulling Your Strings?: How to Break the Cycle of Manipulation and Regain Control of Your Life. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2004.
Evans, Patricia. Controlling people: how to recognize, understand, and deal with people who try to control you. Edition 3. Adams Media, 2002.
After reviewing the "Vignette Miles "case study, using the five axis of the DSM-IV-T, it is clear as Axis I provides anxiety because he has been distressed after the holidays due to financial set backs. His financial situation has been gradually deteriorating during the past six months, and he has been feeling a great deal of anxiety. Miles demonstrated tolerance, loss of control, and denial. This also included trying often to cut down going out but to no avail. Axis II and Axis III shows no symptoms. However, Axis IV provides marital problems and legal involvement. His work as a tree cutter is seasonal, and his income varies from month to month. The child support payments for his two children have recently been increased, and his new wife of two years has no job. She is unwilling to work outside the home. Miles reports that his marriage is otherwise…
Corsini, R. & Wedding, D. ( Eds.). (2008). Current Psychotherapies (8th ed.). California: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
Hirsch, I. (2010). Discussion: On some contributions of the interpersonal tradition to contemporary psychoanalytic praxis. American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 70(1), 86-93. doi: 10.1057/ajp.2009.47
Magnavita, J.J. (2012). Theories of Personality. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Psychology -- Aspects of the Self
As a women, I have been intimately familiar with interdependency for the majority of my life. It is only in the last few years that I have embraced a level of independence that rivals that of the men I know. Triandis (1994) suggests that we draw on the interdependent and independent aspects of ourselves as we need to, but I suspect that these construals are also established by the moment-by-moment interactions we have with others. My independence is represented by the social roles that I adopt: I am a sister and a girlfriend. In these roles, I proceed from a relational construal. My actions are fundamentally considered to be my own, reflecting well or poorly on me -- not on my brother and not on my girlfriends. Similarly, my interdependency is reflected in my role as a daughter. Social and familial regard for me…
Kitayama, S., Marcus, H.R., Matsumoto, H., & Norasakkunkit, V. (1997). Individual and collective processes in the construction of the self: self-enhancement in the United States and self -criticism in Japan. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1245-1267.
Kuo, B.C.H., & Gingrich, L. (2004). Correlates of self-construals among Asian and Caucasian undergraduates in Canada: Cultural patterns and implications for counseling. Guidance and Counceling, 20, 78-88.
Triandis, H.C. (1994). Culture and social psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Psychology -- Erikson and Rogers
Chaim is a Hasidic Jew who hung out in the underground scene and became a very creative underground rock star. However, Chaim was internally conflicted: the underground lifestyle was the polar opposite of his Hasidic lifestyle and he tried to live Hasidic-by-day and underground rock-star-by-night. Chaim left it to God to determine whether he would get a Hasidic wife or a record contract first. Eventually, he chose a Hasidic married lifestyle, moved upstate and would not touch the underground lifestyle again because he cannot have it and would lose everything by trying to get it back. An Ego Psychologist like Erik Erikson and a Humanist Psychologist like Carl Rogers would view Chaim's dilemma differently.
Erik Erikson believed that a person's life has 8 stages and develops by the interplay of the body, mind and culture influences. Erikson would believe that Chaim was in Stage…
The subject promises to
approach issues of theology, sociology, ethicality and behavior with
sychology: rofessional Ethics and Legal Issues (523), though an elective,
seems to be an absolutely indispensable channeling of study time. The
examination of issues of ethical and legal centrality to the research or
practice of psychology should arm future professionals with the underlying
information and philosophical orientation needed to approach this complex
field with sensitivity, objectivity and integrity.
Teaching Introduction to sychology (GIDS 524) is an elective which should
serve to further the knowledge and information obtained in Advanced
Educational sychology (GIDS 521), continuing to refine the ideas and
theories instructed through my larger course of study into a set of tools
for the demonstration of this knowledge. Here, I anticipate sharpening the
skills which I already possess to serve in the instructional capacity on
the interdisciplinary relevance of psychology.
This first phase…
Psychology: Professional Ethics and Legal Issues (523)
Advanced Educational Psychology (521)
Teaching Introduction to Psychology (GIDS 524)
Research into the value of critical thinking probably came about when reud became influenced by Charles Darwin's theory of the behavior of early human societies. Later theorists in the field of psychology, such as Hyman Spotnitz, a modern psychoanylist, and William Graham Sumner, expanded reud's theory to include the ability of the human mind to think critically, or to bend one's mind (forgetting the bad and remembering chosen events) to form one's impression of life. Melanie Klein theorized that a child's perception of what is occuring around them determines whether they develop into depressive or schizoid-depressive personalities, or whether, with proper guidance, they develop normally. (Klein, 1966) it is important that research continue in the field of psychology to determine what techniques of critical thinking may aid the disturbed patient.
reud, Anna (1966-1980). The Writings of Anna reud: 8 Volumes. New York: IUP.
reud, S. (1913) Totem and…
Freud, S. (1913) Totem and Taboo. London: Dover Publications (Reprinted in paperback: September 23, 1998).
Persons, S. (Ed.). (1963). Social Darwinism: Selected Essays of William Graham Sumner, Englewood Cliff, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
Scriven, M. And Paul, R. (2004). The Critical Thinking Community, Foundation for Critical Thinking. Dillon Beach, CA.
Chapter 5 of the Abnormal Child Psychology textbook is about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity (ADHD). The chapter provides a brief description and history of the disorder. Then, core characteristics of ADHD are listed, such as inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. This information is helpful for understanding how ADHD is diagnosed. The authors also give information on the DSM criteria, which are critical for an actual diagnosis of the disorder. A section on associated characteristics refers to cognitive deficits, speech and language impairments, tic disorders, and medical concerns associated with ADHD.
The authors also talk about accompanying or related psychological disorders such as conduct disorder, anxiety disorders, and mood disorders. Prevalence, course, and outcomes of ADHD are discussed along with social variables including gender. There is a section outlining various theories as to why ADHD exists, such as genetics, diet, and family influences. Finally, treatment options are listed including medications, parent management training,…
It may also be appropriate for psychology not to be a science because data for it will always be internal. Psychology is the study of people and what drives people is internal and not observable. If psychologists all took a scientific approach like the behaviorists, science might know a lot about what people do and how they behave. However, scientists would know nothing about why. Finally, it is worth considering that psychology is often studied and applied for the purpose of helping people. In this case, does it matter if a theory cannot be proven if it is effective in helping a person control anger or overcome depression or recover from anorexia? In this way, psychology becomes an applied science where the results and outcomes are important regardless of whether any type of theory can be scientifically proven.
Appiah, A. (1989). Necessary questions: An introduction to philosophy. Englewood Cliffs,…
Appiah, A. (1989). Necessary questions: An introduction to philosophy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Brown, T.L., LeMay, H.E., & Bursten, B.E. (1994). Chemistry: The central science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Freud, S. (1991). On Metapsychology. New York: Penguin.
Pavlov, I. (1927). Conditioned reflexes. London: Oxford University Press.
(Humans are often called 'social animals'). However, the test construct acknowledged the fact that no one is perfectly social or asocial but a mix of both characteristics. Extroversion and introversion are not necessarily either/or qualities, which has been one of the critiques of the Myers-Brigg assessment. In future forms of this extroversion inventory, creating a typology of different types of introversion and extroversion would be useful. For example, some people are very extroverted with friends, but are more socially reserved in a work context. Others are very introverted in the sense that they like to be alone, but can still 'get by' in social environments and perform like extroverts. It is also possible to be very confident speaking in public to large groups of people, but to feel more uncomfortable one-on-one, in personal social contexts.
Additionally, positive forms of sociability -- such as compassion -- and negative forms -- such…
DISC assessment. (2010). DISC homepage. Retrieved September 17, 2010 at http://www.churchangeldisc.com/definitionofdisc.html
Measuring the big five personality factors. (2010). Department of Psychology. University of Oregon. Retrieved September 17, 2010 at http://www.uoregon.edu/~sanjay/bigfive.html#where
Myers, Isabel Briggs & Peter B. Myers (1995). Gifts differing. Mountain View, CA: Davies-
The two interpersonal scales are Dominance and Warmth. Many of the clinical scales, as well as the aggression scale, also have a number of subscales to provide more nuanced information bout each of the clinical conditions. For example, the Borderline Features scale has four subscales: Affective Instability, Identity Problems, Negative elationships and Self-Harm.
The resulting score profiles can be compared to either normative or clinical populations. aw scores are converted to T-scores using tables provided in the scoring manual. These tables were generated using either normative or clinical samples that were census matched and standardized (Morey, 2007). The manual provides average scores for each of the subscales, for example, the average T score for Borderline Traits is 59, indicating that individuals falling below this number are emotionally stable and do not reflect borderline traits. The individual mean scores for each scale vary and are presented within the testing manual (Morey,…
Blais, M.A., Baity, M.R., & Hopwood, C.J. (2010). Clinical applications of the Personality Assessment Inventory. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group.
Butchner, J.N. (2010). Personality assessment from the nineteenth to the early twenty-first century: Past achievements and contemporary challenges. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 1-20.
Morey, L.C. (2007). The Personality Assessment Inventory: Professional manual 2nd Edition. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Morey, L.C. & Hopwood, C.J. (2007). Casebook for the Personality Assessment Inventory: A Structured Summary Approach. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Important Theorists and their Contributions:
roca contributed greatly to the initial recognition of the importance of specific brain regions to particular aspects of human psychology and behavior in the middle of the 19th century. Shortly thereafter, William James published one of the first formal academic explanation of biopsychology just before the turn of the 20th century, titled the Principles of Psychology (Dennet, 1991; Pinker, 2002). James acknowledged that personal experience and external environmental factors played a role in human psychological development, but only in so far as they represent sets and types of automatic, involuntary, and inherent biological responses to circumstances (Dennet, 1991).
Approximately 60 years later, Walter Hess pioneered a method of directly exploring the role of specific brain regions and structures through the use of electro- stimulation (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2005). y implanting electrodes into anesthetized laboratory animals, Hess demonstrated that specific behaviors could be triggered by electrically…
Dennet, D. (1991). Consciousness Explained. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Dennet, D. (1996). Kinds of Minds: Toward an Understanding of Consciousness. New York: Basic Books
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005). Psychology and Life. 17th Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Pinker, S. (2002). The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature.
The abnormal psychologist is trained to treat people with social and physical disorders such as schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and delusional disorders. Usually, the disorders have become so aberrant the patients may no longer be able to function in society, or at least function normally. Abnormal psychologists may also study the causes of the abnormalities in some people, and develop research to understand why some people develop these disorders and others do not. They may create behavioral studies, personality tests, case studies, or surveys to help them in their research, and eventually, they may be able to solve the mysteries of what causes much abnormal behavior in the brain.
Butler, G. And McManus, F. (2000). Psychology: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Smith, D.L. (1999). Approaching psychoanalysis: An introductory course. London: Karnac Books.
Wade, C. And Tavris, Carol. (1999). Invitation to psychology, Third Edition. New…
Butler, G. And McManus, F. (2000). Psychology: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Smith, D.L. (1999). Approaching psychoanalysis: An introductory course. London: Karnac Books.
Wade, C. And Tavris, Carol. (1999). Invitation to psychology, Third Edition. New York: Addison-Wesley.
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.
Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. http://www.eqiq.nl/eqivol.htm .
Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.
Personality Social Psychology
Suzanne Kobasa's Personality and Social Psychology article entitled "Stressful Life Events, Personality, and Health: An Inquiry into Hardiness" builds upon past research to examine individual and group differences regarding responses to stressful life events. The author provides extensive reviews of past literature, pointing out the limitations that led to her conducting the current study. Much literature has shown a correlation between stressful life events and physical illness; namely, that "stressful life events precipitate somatic and psychological disease," (Kobasa 1979, p.1). The current article in particular examines personality as a major mediating factor in the presence of physical illness following a series of stressful life events. Because prior research has shown that "the recent life histories of hospitalized persons contain significantly more frequent and serious stressful events than do histories of matched controls from the general population," Kobasa designed the current research to discover which personality factors were…
Kobasa, Suzanne C. (1979). "Stressful Life Events, Personality and Health: An Inquiry into Hardiness." Personality Social Psychology. Vol. 37, No. 1. pp. 1-11.
Therapeutic communities are important and valuable tools, but certainly not for all patients. Often, the community is made up of a certain ward or unit of the hospital, rather than the entire facility. Clearly, some patients, such as those suffering from serious debilitating diseases such as dementia or severe schizophrenia might not be physically or mentally able to exist in such a facility. However, for others, who have specific issues or health problems, and are in the facility hoping for a cure, the community concept can help them become more sure of themselves, more able to function outside the facility, and give them confidence in their decision-making abilities.
Often this term describes those in a substance abuse facility, but it can relate to other disorders and treatment facilities as well. Some of these communities are all group based, while others combine individual counseling and therapy with group activities. The main…
Butler, Gillian, and Freda McManus. Psychology: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Smith, David L. Approaching Psychoanalysis: An Introductory Course. London: Karnac Books, 1999.
The Impact and Importance of Psychological Testing
Defining Psychological Testing
A test is defined as a method or procedure for critical evaluation or as a means of establishing the quality, truth, or presence of something. (Webster's Dictionary, 2011). According to the American Educational Research Association (AERA), the National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) and the American Psychological Association (APA) (1999), psychological test or psychological testing is a discipline most frequently characterized by the use of behavior samples in order to assess various psychological constructs such as the emotional and cognitive functioning of individuals. The psychological test itself is an instrument most often designed to measure constructs that are not observed, and often involve a series of problems or tasks that the participant or respondent must solve. These tests can resemble questionnaires; however, what makes psychological tests different is that they require the respondents' maximum cognitive performance (AERA,…
American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and Psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
Cohen, r., & Swerdlik, M. (2009). Psychological testing and assessment. McGraw-Hill.
Meeker, W., & Escobar, L. (1998). Statistical methods for reliability data. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
Messick, S. (1995). Validity of psychological assessment: Validation of inferences from person's responses and performances as scientific inquiry into score meaning. American Psychologist, 50, 741-749.
Personality Theories: A Road to the Self
Knowing oneself is not an easy task by any stretch of the imagination; and being able to definitively describe one's own personality is even more difficult. However, the basic groundwork in truly knowing oneself is in one's ability to fully understand the concept of personality. Before garnering embarking on a possible endless journey deciphering the endless labyrinth of available personality theories it is best to start from a more sociological perspective, namely the one proposed by Charles Cooley and known as the "Looking Glass Self" for it is on the basis of how one perceives the self, how others perceive the self and how one would like others to perceive the self that personality is born.
Knowing the self is molded from three perspectives continuation in, and the depth of, knowing the self is brought about through the study of personality. Regardless of…
Despite the fact that the field of forensic psychology was formally recognized by the American Psychological Association (APA) as a "subset" in 2001 (Salfati, 2009), aspects of this science have influenced law enforcement long before that. One of the most salient ways it does so is in terms of interviewing people for certain positions -- whether they be formal positions such as an appointment to a law enforcement position or informal ones such as witness and eyewitness testimony.
Various branches of the law have been made cognizant of the fact that individuals who work within law enforcement have a very tenuous, difficult job. There is a significantly greater amount of work -- and psychology -- involved in working as a police officer. Therefore, within the past several years law enforcement officials have included personality tests as part of the testing for police officers (Salfati, 2009). Although these tests are far…
Huss, M.T. (2001). "What is forensic psychology? it's not silence of the lambs." Eye on Psi Chi. Retrieved from http://www.psichi.org/pubs/articles/article_58.aspx
Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2009). "Introduction to forensic psychology." Baltimore: Author. "Foundations of Forensic Psychology" with Dr. C. Gabrielle Salfati.
Trait and Factor Theories:
Personality trait and factor theories have been developed as a means of identifying common elements within the personality of different people, indeed the entire populace. Within any given group of people there are common threads of experiences, similar nurturing, and even shared genetic, yet the personality of each member is a unique construction individual elements which work together. Among those who have produced work in this area are aymond Cattell and Hans Eysenck. Each used scientific factor analysis to identify common traits or permanent dispositions of people. Cattell has identified a large number of personality traits, whereas Eysenck's research extracted only three general factors.(mcgraw-hill.com, online) Like Freud who identifies the id, ego and superego as the measurements of the personal mind, will and emotion, the categories identified by these researchers give men the ability to understand the unique functions of the person, emotions and desires.…
Theories of personality, dispositional theories. (2002) McGraw Hill higher education. Accessed 23 Nov 2003. Web Site: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072316799/student_view0/part4/chapter13/chapter_outline.html
Ver Wys. C.
2001) Department of Cognitive Science Renesslear Polytechnic Institute. Accessed 23 Nov 2003. Web Site: http://www.rpi.edu/~verwyc/bandura.htm .
Boeree, G. (1998) Albert Bandura: Personality Theories. Accessed 23 Nov 2003. Web site: http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/bandura.html .
Humanism takes the position that the human intellect is sufficient to deduce moral principles and that all human beings have the same natural right to dignity and personal autonomy.
The humanistic perspective does not absolutely reject the underlying principles of psychoanalytical theory, but places more focus on conscious self-reflection than on any assumption that the roots of all human conduct is necessarily a function of repressed trauma, sexual urges, and unresolved psychological conflicts. Humanism also rejects anthropocentrism in that it does not consider human life to be different in kind from other biological life forms, but only different in degree of development and complexity.
Existentialism rejects many of the same concepts as humanism in the realm of religious or supernatural sources of human morality. Whereas humanists start with an assumption that human beings are inherently good and that the prosperity of human societies is necessarily good, existentialism recognizes no…
Self-Concept is what one believes about themselves. These beliefs stem from the notion of unconditional positive regard and conditional positive regard. Unconditional positive regard takes place when individuals, especially parents, demonstrate unconditional love. Conditioned positive regard is when that love seems to only come when certain conditions are met. ogers's theory states that psychologically healthy people enjoy life to the fullest and thus they are seen as fully functioning people (Humanistic Perspective, n.d.).
Abraham Maslow felt that individuals have certain needs that must be met in a hierarchical fashion. These needs are grouped from the lowest to the highest. These needs are seen as including basic needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, achievement needs, and ultimately, self-Actualization. According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, these needs must be achieved in order. This means that one would be unable to fulfill their safety needs if their physiological needs have not been…
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Survey Method. (2009). Retrieved September 28, 2009,
from Colorado State Web site:
Anxiety Attacks and Disorders. (2008). Retrieved from Helpguide.org Web site:
It also means that people don't have free will necessarily because behaviorism believes that feelings and thoughts don't cause people to behave in certain ways. Classical conditioning can be best understood by the example of Pavlov's dogs. Pavlov's dogs were discovered salivating by the mere sound of the people with food coming rather. In other words, they were reacting to a neutral stimulus. Operant conditioning, on the other hand, is more about reward and punishment (Donaldson 2008). Operant conditioning works because sometimes the subject is rewarded and sometimes not and this has found to be very successful (the most successful, in fact) in conditioning. For example, if one sometimes gives dogs food off their plate and sometimes not, the dog will be conditioned to wait always for the food because sometimes he gets it.
The term 'mental illness' is a culturally bound term. What is considered a mental illness in…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (4th edition).
Donaldson, J. (2008). Oh, behave!: Dogs from Pavlov to Premack to Pinker. Dogwise Publishing.
Mitchell, S.A. & Black, M.J. (1996). Freud and beyond: A history of modern psychoanalytic thought. Basic Books.
Piaget, J. (2001). The psychology of intelligence. (2nd edition). Routledge.
Provide a brief statement that clearly defines the term: Schema; and, an explanation of how they are developed.
A schema is a cognitive pattern or structure comprised of beliefs and perceptions. Worldview is a type of schema, which can be formed by cultural cues, family socialization, and identity. Schemas can change over time, and they can be helpful for organizing the complex world. Some schemas are helpful in that they anchor the mind and emotions in the midst of an overwhelming amount of information and stimuli in the environment. However, schemas can easily become maladaptive. Examples of how schemas become maladaptive are most noticeable with regards to stereotyping, biases, and paranoia. Abuse and trauma can significantly and adversely impact an individual's schemata. Conflicting schemata can also lead to experiences of cognitive dissonance or confused identity.
Statement of how the themes that are evident in the client's presenting problems contribute…
Young, J.E. (1998). Cognitive Therapy for Personality Disorders. 3rd edition.
Psychologists have described personality as specific way of feeling, thinking and self-conduct (Mcleod, 2014) of an individual. Personality is the constantly changing system in the minds of individuals and made up of specific psychological traits that influence their specific self-conduct and thinking. Personality is the combination of behavior that distinguishes a person. The personality of a person is affected by genetic and biological factors as well as factors such as upbringing, environment etc.
Personality theories are broken down into two classes:
• Trait theories of personality that believe that personality depends more on biological factors
• State theories, which see upbringing and societal factors as the major determinants of personality
This paper will be exploring two personality theories: Hans Eysenck's Personality Theory and Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory.
Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
This theory of personality believes that our differing personalities arise from the communication between what Sigmund Freud…
Boundless. (2016, August 17). Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality. Retrieved December 14, 2016, from Boundless Psychology: https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/personality-16/psychodynamic-perspectives-on-personality-77/freudian-psychoanalytic-theory-of-personality-304-12839/
McLeod, S. (2014). Theories of Personality. Retrieved December 14, 2016, from Simply Psychology: http://www.simplypsychology.org/personality-theories.html
Echo finally died of old age, and the raw emotion from the park rangers and zoologists just brought tears. Similarly, he thinks that now that he is older he can sift through the "B.S. In advertising and media hype," and enjoys such cynical, but rather realistic, portrays of modern society in Mad Men, Weeds, and Breaking Bad.
As far as personality development, Tom believes that children get a pretty good grounding from their parents and early school experiences. Concepts like empathy, morality, situational ethics, and reliability are built when one is young. However, that being said, Tom does not see himself as a rule follower like his parents. Both believed that if something said x in the rules, then x it was. They both also believed that a person should get a job and stay with that job until retirement. Tom has already had two careers, and estimates he will…
"41 Questions -- 1 Personality." (2010). 41q.com Cited in:
Capraro, RAM 2002, 'Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability', Educational
And Pyschological Measurement, vol 62, no. 3, pp. 560-302.
Because of the speed of change in today's society, as well as the ramifications from psychological problems such as major depression, suicide, violence toward others and substance abuse, there is a need to help people more quickly and effectively deal with their psychological issues. The emphasis in more modern approaches is in self-development and self-actualization.
Cognitive behavior therapy, CBT, for example, is an approach for people to better handle the here and now, rather than dealing with the past and what has actually caused the psychological problems in the first place. Behavior therapy helps a person reduce the linkages between troublesome situations and the habitual reactions to them, such as fear, depression or rage, and self-defeating or self-damaging behavior. It also teaches individuals how to calm the mind and body, so they can feel better, think more clearly, and make better decisions. This is combined with cognitive therapy, which teaches…
These hidden issues influence our conscious decisions. So, people may have both conscious and unconscious reasons for behaving as they do. People might be able to give what seem like rational reasons for behavior. Someone who sets fires might say he or she enjoys seeing the flames and likes watching the fire department put the fire out. Those may be the factors the individual is conscious of, but a psychologist might find that there were other reasons driving the person's behavior as well.
One of the things that often makes it hard for one person to understand another person's actions is that we have only observable behavior to go on. We can't examine the internal mental processes that take place. This makes it easy to judge people as acting in ways that suggest a moral flaw or lack of character. A woman who dresses very suggestively might be considered to…
This means that for both parent-acquaintance and self-other consensus, it was observed that increased length of acquaintance leads to high stereotype accuracy.
This study on the relationship between length of acquaintance and stereotype accuracy highlighted the importance of length of acquaintance in relationships in order to best assess an individual's personality. Through this study, it was found out that, among other factors, length of acquaintance is indeed a determinant that could determine a person's accurate assessment of an individual's personality. The study conducted demonstrated how length of acquaintanceship is a function of stereotype accuracy.
Part 4- the Role of Mood Regulation
In this study conducted by Eid and Lischetzke, the authors delved into the components that act as mediators of individuals with extrovert personalities. In assessing these mediators, the authors determined pleasant-unpleasant trait mood and mood regulators such as mood repair and mood maintenance as its main factors. Through regression…
Medelein N. Moody, (2013). A Relational Aggression Intervention in Early Childhood. University of Nebraska. ProQuest LLC.
The paper was aimed at interrogating the relational aggression in early childhood and if there are interventions within the school setting that can act to reduce the aggression. This intervention is referred to as the Early Childhood Friendship Project and entailed taking stock of the changes in the behavior of the children as they undergo the study and the project. The preliminaries within the article indicates that there is usually a significant differences between the relational aggression between the boys and girls in school with the later recording a higher rate of aggression.
The study was conducted through a survey method and formal testing as the children went through the project and the teachers concerned recorded the results and any noticeable changes over time.
The results that were observed showed…
Sebastian H. Scharf, (2013). Chronic social stress during adolescence: Interplay of paroxetine treatment and ageing. Neuropharmacology 72 (2013) 38e46
The research is centered on the effect of exposure to chronic stress during development especialy at the adolescent and the possibility of developing psychiatric disorders. This was motivated by the fact that little is known about the long lasting effects of the exposures to stress and their relation to age.
The study was focused on the direct and long-lasting impact of chronic social stress during adolescence as well as the chronic treatment of SSRI. Adult and aged animals were used since the experiment could potentially harm human subjects. There was use of CD1 mice at the age of 28 days and these were subjected to a chronic social stress for 7 weeks among other treatments with chemicals. It was observed that the chronic stress as well as the antidepressant treatment at the end of the development period could have a significant and long-lasting impact which is very relevant to healthy ageing.
Her wellness did not allow participation in the second that took place in 1977; however Isabel Myers took pleasure in the other 2 extensively, though sometimes she would be dismayed at the different ways that the analysts treated her information. She understood that the intuitive 'kind' or personality indexes will need to alter the MBTI [instrument] as that is in their nature but she hoped that prior to the time when they altered it, they will initially attempt to comprehend exactly what had been done as the foundation of the theory because her reasons for choosing a certain structure were logical and justified. In 1975, publication of the Indicator was presumed by CPP, Inc. For the first time, the MBTI [instrument] was readily available as an instrument prepared for use in assisting individuals (Kirby and Myers, 2000).
In the last months of her life, when she invested much time sleeping…
Bowdon, T.B. (2010). 50 Psychology Classics. Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
Drucker, C.T. (2007). Once Upon a Type: Mythological Dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. ProQuest Publications.
Kirby, L.K. And Myers, K.D. (2000). Introduction to Type. Cpp Publications.
Myers, I.B. (1962). The Myers-Briggs type indicator. Consulting Psychologists Press.
PERSONALITY VS SITUATION
Personality refers to the unique set of relatively constant behaviors and mental processes in a person and his or her interactions with the environment (Kevin 2011). It is generally accepted that personality is influenced by genetics in the form of dispositions or temperament at 40-60% and by the environment. The tasks of the psychologist are to characterize and describe personality traits, investigate the relationship between these traits and behavior, and understand and predict behavior from these traits. The approaches to the study of personality are descriptive; biological or genetic; learning; psychodynamic; and humanistic, existential or phenomenological (Kevin).
Existentialism vs. Humanism
Existentialism is difficult to define as those who conceived it denied they started it or it even started (Corbett, 1985). It can be vaguely described as a spirit or atmosphere of one's response to human existence. Among its precursors were Soren Kierkegaard and Fredrich Nietzsche.…
AllPsych (2002). Personality synopsis. Chapter X Humanist Theory. Heffner Media
Group, Inc. Retrieved on May 31, 2011 from http://allpsyc.com/personalitysynopsis/humanistic.html
Boeree, C.G. (2006). Abraham Maslow. Personality Theories. Retrieved on May 31,
2001 from http://webspac.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html
THE STUFF IT'S MADE OF
Psychological Profile of a Terrorist
More than four decades of investigation on the profiling of terrorists yielded two major findings (Hudson, 1999; Nance, 2008). First, there does not seem to a single terrorist personality by which they can be profiled. Terrorism psychologists, political scientists and sociologists shared this consensus. Terrorist personalities are as varied as practitioners in the legal profession or any group. Terrorists do not possess neatly identifiable personality traits by which they can be visibly detected. Second, terrorists are not typically diagnosably psychopathic or mentally sick. Although they act and proceed with their task out of a delusional view of the world, they are actually and ironically sane and quite deliberate (Hudson, Nance).
Terrorist groups are carefully and highly selected during recruitment, although their top leaders may possess psychopathic traits (Hudson, 1999; Nance, 2008). ut members cannot depose a…
Alexander, D.A. And Klein, S. (2005). The psychological aspects of terrorism: from denial to hyperbole. Vol. 98 # 12, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine: The
Royal Society of Medicine Press. Retrieved on December 7, 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1299349
Hudson, R.A. (1999). The sociology and psychology of terrorism: who becomes a terrorist and why? Federal Research Division: Library of Congress. Retrieved on December 7, 2013 from http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/Soc_Psych_of_Terrorism.pdf
Kershaw, S. 2010). The terrorist mind: an update. The New York Times: The New York
Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.
Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…
Fall, K.A., Holden, J.M. & Marquis, A. (2004) Theoretical models of counseling and psychotherapy New York: Taylor and Francis.
Freud, Sigmund. (1926). Inhibitions, symptoms, and anxiety, SE, 20(14): 111-205.
Kohlenberg, R.J., Bolling, M.Y., Kanter, J.W. & Parker, C.R. (2002) Clinical behavior analysis: where it went wrong, how it was made good again, and why its future is so bright. Behavior Analyst Today. 3(3): 248-253
Martz, E (2002) Principles of Eastern philosophies viewed from the framework of Yalom's four existential concerns. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling. 24(1): 31-42
Although interpersonal and group level communications reside at a lower level than organizational communication, they are major forms of communication in organizations and are prominently addressed in the organizational communication literature. Recently, as organizations became more communication-based, greater attention was directed at improving the interpersonal communication skills of all organizational members. Historically, informal communication was primarily seen as a potential block to effective organizational performance. This is no longer the case is modern times, as on-going, dynamic, and informal communication has become more important to ensuring the effective conduct of work
It is also widely accepted that top managers should communicate directly with immediate supervisors and that immediate supervisors should communicate with their direct reports. In regard to issues of importance, top managers should then follow-up by communicating with employees directly. The Communication Accommodation Theory supports this rationale. In terms of supervisor-employee communication, one researcher argues the difficulty of trusting…
Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37, 122-147.
Blumberg, A. (1970). A system for analyzing supervisor-teacher interaction. In A.
Simon & G. Boyer (Eds.), Mirrors for behavior, 3, 29-45.
Davis, T. & Landa, M. (1999). The trust deficit. Management Accounting, 71(10), 12-
It has been a long controversy about how nature and nurture imply to personality traits and human behavior. Nature means that genetic factor and the system of organs control the personality, while nurture means the personality is a result of conditioned circumstances where a person is brought up. It includes the personality of other people, like family, includes the teaching, and lessons a child gains during his/her mental development process.
Recent studies find more in human biological system that genes are related to people's behavior. McInerney (2001) shows, many researchers believe that genetics factors determine how someone will act and think in his or her life. Animal and human are born with specific character linked with the genetic information in the genes. It shapes each individual trait exclusively including the performance in social, interaction, intelligence, and adaptability to the surrounding community.
ehavior may change, he states, as a…
Azar, B. 1997. Nature, Nurture: Not Mutually Exclusive. APA Monitor. American Psychological Association. http://www.snc.edu/psych/korshavn/natnur02.htm (March28, 2002).
Cosgrove, C. May 30, 2000. Researchers Seek Explanations, Coping Strategies For Bad Childhood Behavior. CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/2000/HEALTH/children/05/30/born.bad.wmd/ (March28, 2002).
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Gendlin, E.T. A Theory of Personality Change. Chapter Four in Personality Change,
Next, researchers corroborated the results of the study with other relevant facts on the subject. To achieve this objective, they would look at a number of different pieces to confirm the underlying effect. A good example of this is when researchers would study the classic piece of literature on human psychology, Man Search for Meaning. In the book, the author (Viktor Frankel) says, "There is nothing in the world, I venture to say, that would so effectively help one to survive even the worst conditions as the knowledge that there is a meaning in one's life" (Davis, 2003) This is significant, because Frankel is saying that humankind can survive some of the most horrific conditions, if they are given a reason to endure. As a result, one could effectively argue that the research and the subsequent examination of the different pieces of literature confirm the effect that religion…
Cline, A. (2010). Karl Marx on Religion. Retrieved June 15, 2010 from About.com website: http://atheism.about.com/od/weeklyquotes/a/marx01.htm
Davis, K. (2003). Meaning, Purpose and Religiosity in at Risk Youth. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 31.
Erick Erikson's Theory of Socioemotional Development
Erik Erikson, American psychoanalyst, is known in the field of psychology for his contribution in studying the socioemotional aspect of development among humans. Called the theory of socioemotional development, Erikson posits in his theory that, "people grow and develop "socialized by and socialize others -- parents, siblings, peers, teachers... processes that involve changes in an individual's relationships with other people, changes in emotion, and changes in personality" (Santrock, 2001:338). Erikson identified different dichotomies that specifically delineate positive and negative aspects of socioemotional developments among individuals. These dichotomies are placed at various levels, where different socioemotional characteristics are manifested at each level of the individual's development.
Erikson's theory is an essential tool to understanding human behavior because it serves as a guideline for people to understand the different changes in socioemotional characteristics of people as they grow older. Of course, there are certain exceptions…
Dundy, E. (1976). "Life is all ups and no downs on this carousel." New York Times Web site (NYTimes.com). Available at http://www.nytimes.com/books/99/08/22/specials/erikson-carousel.html .
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Low emotion level - this is an area that will need improvement considering that a perspective employer may view me as an individual that is not overall enthusiastic in nature, this can also be perceived as a lack on enthusiasm in my work and corporate morale. Low trust level - Work is needed in this area in order to make interactions with others more fulfilling. If everyone is perceived as selfish and potentially dangerous, this will put a strain on cooperation in-group work and in building positive personal and business relationships. Low altruism level - Being viewed as a person that does not like to help others. In a work setting or search for employment, this can be seen as a deterrent to hiring me if the perception of ill will towards helping others exists. Low tenderness level- if I want to pursue a career in Counseling & Psychology, this…