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The metaphysical constructivists who are successful hardly take the truth of a substantive normative claim for granted.
In his phenomenological descriptions, Levinas used various accounts of transcendence to refer to the tradition and divergence of phenomenology in relation to Heidegger. His transcendences enacted the irreducible urge by oneself to get past the limitations of their social and physical states or conditions. Transcendence of the Other as described by Levinas is the state beyond materialism and within finite being. Through this, Levinas established the limits of phenomenology from within its boundaries. Totality and Infinity, therefore, transcends to "ethical optics," which seek to fulfill and surpass phenomenology metaphysically, reaching out to the Other. In his explanations, Levinas develops his philosophical beginnings of phenomenology through the inflections of transcendence as the need for escapism, variations on eing, responsibility and beyond and Other-in-the-same. Rational ideologies from these aspects depict human experience conjoined to…
Bergo Bettina, "Emmanuel Levinas," Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2011): URL Accessed on 24th November, 2012.
Bergo Bettina, "Emmanuel Levinas," Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2011): URL http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/levinas/#InfTraVarBei Accessed on 24th November 2012.
Carla Bagnoli, "Constructivism in Metaethics." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2011): URL Accessed on 23rd November.
Dalton Drew, the Vaccination of the Infinite: Levinas Metaphysical Desire and the Call of the Other, New York: print, 2011.
Ethnography, case study, narrative, phenomenology, grounded theory
The qualitative research format of the ethnography began in the discipline of anthropology. Ethnography "is a long-term investigation of a group (often a culture) that is based on immersion and, optimally, participation in that group" (Ethnography, 2013, Colorado State University Writing Guides.). The researcher embraces his or her outsider perspective and contrasts his or her own responses to participating in group rituals and actions with the reactions of the 'inside' representatives of a different culture. The potential subjects of ethnography may span from an obscure African tribe to a group of high school football players. One of the most famous ethnographies ever written was Margaret Mead's Coming of Age in Samoa, although ethnographies are often criticized if they provide insufficient depth about the culture being studied and promote rather than prevent misunderstanding.
One example of ethnography might be a study of adolescents…
Ethnography. (2013). Colorado State University Writing Guides. Retrieved:
Grounded theory. (2013). Colorado State University Writing Guides. Retrieved:
Intellectually my mind was saying: how could this happen in an open and public place with dozens of people walking in the area? There was also a sense of moral anger at the way that social rules and norms were being so openly being flouted. This feeling was strong and related to the physical sense of disgust and distress that I felt at the situation.
The above aspects, the physical, mental and emotional, were certainly intertwined in this experience. It is difficult to say which was more dominant; however, the physical and the bodily sensations where central and seemed to inform the intellectual and social aspects.
hat is clear for the experience is that the physical and bodily aspects and feelings were a cardinal factor in the understanding or the comprehension of the situation as a whole.
The experience recounted above shows the validity and the importance…
Liu, Xiusheng. Mencius, Hume, and Sensibility Theory, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 52, No. 1 (Jan., 2002), pp. 75-97
Social Theory in the View of Phenomenology: Alfred Schutz
ho was Alfred Schutz, and why was his work on social theory and phenomenology so important? This is an important question that must be answered here, and will be answered, but there are other issues that must be examined as well. It is important to have an understanding of social theory and an understanding of phenomenology before Schutz is discussed too thoroughly, or what kind of contribution he made will not be as evident. Since he is no longer living, what he has done can only be discussed in the context of the past, up until the year he died, which was 1959. However, many of the works that bear his name and involve him very strongly were published after that time. This would indicate that those that published these works found that they were still very relevant.
This is similar…
Barber, M. 2002. Alfred Schutz. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://www.plato.stanford .edu/entries/schutz
Brandom, R. 1994. Making it eplicit. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
Embree, L. 1997. What is Phenomenology? Center for Advanced Research in Phenomenology. http://www.phenomenologycenter.org/phenom.htm
Embree, L. 1999. The ethical-political side of Schutz: his contributions at the 1956 institute on ethics concerned with barriers to equality of opportunity. In Schutzian Social Science, ed. L. Embree.
Grounded theory and phenomenology
Phenomenology and Grounded theory are the most widely recognized methodologies to qualitative research utilized by medical practitioners. Despite the fact that there are distinctions between the two, they have share much in common.
Both assume an interpretivist strategy in which the researcher tries to investigate genuine scenarios, and require a high level of face-to-face interaction between the researcher and the group or individual being analyzed. This is manifested in form of observations or interviews. Phenomenology and Grounded theory aim to gather and investigate information from participants' viewpoints and attempt to guarantee their feelings are not affected by preconceived ideas. For them to realize this, they include participants in data analysis to expand the validity of the findings frequently. In short, Phenomenology and Grounded theory both look to investigate people's encounters in the setting of the world in which they live (Cassell & Symon, 2009).
Boswell, C., & Cannon, S. (2014). Introduction to nursing research: Incorporating evidence-based practice. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Cassell, C., & Symon, G. (2009). Essential guide to qualitative methods in organizational research. London: SAGE Publ
Tesch, R. (2010). Qualitative research: Analysis types and software tools. New York: Falmer Press
grounded theory and phenomenology differ in how the data is treated (Creswell, Hanson, Plano, and Morales, 2007, p. 248-255). While both collect information from a large number of participants, grounded theory results in the development of a theoretical model based on the data. This model is then tested for its ability to predict a specific outcome. By comparison, researchers using a phenomenological approach try to identify common experiences among the study subjects.
An example of a grounded theory approach would be researchers examining how therapists use cognitive-behavioral therapy when treating victims of trauma. One or more outcome measures would typically be identified, such as patient quality of life improvements. The goal would be identifying common factors that increase the efficacy of treatment, thereby validating the model. By comparison, a phenomenological study design would collect the experiences of therapists and patients in order to identify the essence of a successful treatment…
Carr, Catherine, d'Ardenne, Patricia, Sloboda, Ann, Scott, Carleen, Wang, Duolao, and Priebe, Stefan. (2012). Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 85, 179-202.
Creswell, John W., Hanson, William E., Plano, Vicki L. Clark, and Morales, Alejandro. (2007). Qualitative research designs: Selection and implementation. Counseling Psychologist, 35, 236-266.
Questions and answers coding also enhances the ability of the researcher to debrief the interview process effectively and efficiently thus the opportunity to facilitate data collection process (Compton, 2009).
There are several categories in the execution of interviews in the process of collecting data. This interview falls under the category of individual interview. This is because of its nature and coding method thus a reflection of face-to-face encounter between the interviewer and the interviewee. The interviewer in this category focuses on the achievement of in-depth information in relation to the research questions and objectives. The researcher also focuses on the description of the experience of the participant with reference to the military encounter thus the opportunity to understand the developments and interactions within the military context. This category of interview is vital for the enhancement of understanding of the relevant events and concepts in relation to the research questions…
Pringle, J., Drummond, J., McLafferty, E., & Hendry, C. (2011). Interpretative
phenomenological analysis: a discussion and critique. Nurse Researcher, 18(3), 20-24.
Pringle, J., Hendry, C., & McLafferty, E. (2011). Phenomenological approaches: challenges and choices. Nurse Researcher, 18(2), 7-18.
Clifton, J. (2012). Conversation Analysis in Dialogue With Stocks of Interactional Knowledge:
Philosophical Overview and Underpinnings
The way we think about a phenomenon has greatly and definitely been influenced by phenomenology which is a school of philosophy with wide spread recognition. Phenomenology which has its origins in European disciplines remains one of the most debated and most sought after interesting debates of this century. It has received immense worldwide recognition and it has application in nearly all subjects such as science and technology, medical science and education in general. Due to the philosophical and methodological strengths it enjoys, it has remained relatively free from fierce criticisms, unlike other research designs that employ the qualitative approach. It is an all-encompassing term that covers all areas in a wide range of research approaches and philosophical movements (Kafle, 2013).
Initiated by Husserl (1859-1838), the phenomenological movement is a new and radical way of approaching philosophy. Theorists who came later such as Heidegger (1889-1976) remodeled the…
Caelli, K., (2000). The changing face of phenomenological research: traditional and American
Crotty, M., (1996). Phenomenology and Nursing Research. Churchill Livingstone, Melbourne.
Dowling, M. (2007).From Husserl to van Manen. A review of different phenomenological approaches. International journal of nursing studies, 44(1), 131-142.
Englander, M. & Robinson, P. (2009). A phenomenological pedagogical method for educating nurses and caregivers how to increase their own sensitivity to their empathic abilities. Nordic Journal of Nursing Research & Clinical Studies, 4/2009, No. 94, Vol. 29, 38 -- 40.
equal amount of studies are conducted using qualitative methodologies. Each of the approaches has its own advantages and disadvantages.
Quantitative research involves a numerical approach with quantitative data abounding. Qualitative research involves an approach that calls for a more thought or ideal process focusing on the participant's perceptions, ideals and feelings. Phenomenology certainly falls into the qualitative approach to research. As one recent study determined "phenomenology is a qualitative method of inquiry in which researchers attempt to discover the meaning of lived experiences by human beings as they exist in the world" (Chamberlain, 2009, p. 52).
In conducting an interview like the one for this paper, the author used a phenomenological approach and was rewarded accordingly, and it did lead to some reflective questions. One of the first questions that popped to mind was "how did this woman feel once she had gone through such an experience?" It seems that…
Chamberlain, B.; (2009) Phenomenology: A qualitative method, Clinical Nurse Specialist, Vol. 23, Number 2, pp. 52-53
Gee, J.; Loewenthal, D.; Cayne, J.; (2013) Phenomenological research: The case of empirical phenomenological analysis and the possibility of reverie, Counseling Psychology Review, Vol. 28, Issue 3, pp. 52-62
Moody, S.; Kostohryz, K.; Vereen, L.; (2014) Authentically engaged learning through live supervision: A phenomenological study, Counselor Education and Supervision, Vol. 53, Issue 1, pp. 19-33
Rocha, P.H.; (2012) Rigour in phenomenological research: Reflections of a novice nurse researcher, Nurse Researcher, Vol. 19, issue 3, pp. 16-19
Allocate Funds in Order to educe Teacher Turnover and Improve Struggling Schools: An Analysis of 5 Academic Studies
The problem identified in this study is that the public school district receives Title One and Title Two funding, which goes to support 5 low-income schools that are struggling to show academic improvement in its student body. The funding has mostly gone to compensation for teachers, though some has also been used to support summer programs, data-driven professional development opportunities, etc. egardless of how the funds are spent, the 5 schools have not improved: in fact, these schools have the highest rate of attrition and teacher burnout among any in the district. The result is that new staff of educators is constantly being hired and trained in these schools -- the majority of them new and inexperienced. The expected outcomes of allocating funds to these schools have not, in other words, been…
Caldwell, P. (2012). Marxist Criticism of Public Education Funding and Social
Reproduction. Colgate Academic Review, 2(10): 54-58.
Fryer, R. (2014). Injecting charter school best practices into traditional public schools:
Evidence from field experiments. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 129(3): 1355-1407.
pirit" that explains paragraphs 484 to 490. Your aim should be to identify the philosophical question or problem that the section under question raises, explain it, and address its significance to the broader portion of the text in which it appears, to the text as a whole, or to other themes raised in the course.
There are two parts to the individual will (or to free will):
these are the duties that are universal where free will is joined to reason and certain necessities are imposed that are applied not only to self but also to self-effecting others. In a larger sense, it refers to all the conditions of existence, the 'ought to' standards that are imposed on the self
Usage - This is seen in the realm of 'Manners' where the self-will adopts aspects that Hegel calls 'temper and habit' (486)
Liberty comes from the purposive will realizing its…
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Hegel's Philosophy of Mind The Project Gutenberg EBook, March 5, 2012 [Ebook #39064]
Phenomenological psychology focuses on the subjective experiences of individuals. The “founder” of phenomenology, Edmund Husserl presented a cohesive methodology and philosophical framework that laid the foundation for phenomenological psychology. One of the greatest challenges of phenomenological psychology is differentiating between the unique subjective experiences and perceptions of individuals and the need to discern an objective, shared reality. Phenomenological psychology is almost easier to define by what it is not: it is not about using the scientific method to study human behavior, and it is not about studying personality or psychoses. Rather, phenomenological psychology is about understanding the nature of reality itself, through an evaluation of both individual and collective human psychological experience. Husserl set forth principles for ontology in psychology as well as epistemology, which can be especially useful when studying the divergent experiences of those with psychotic disorders like schizophrenia, whose sense of reality is radically different…
Husserl and Heidegger’s Phenomenology
Phenomenology refers both to philosophical framework and to epistemological orientation. As epistemology, phenomenology has had major implications for the social sciences, providing the fundamental tenets and methods for qualitative research. Originator of the phenomenological approach, Husserl proposed that human consciousness undergirds experience, but that both must be transcended, acknowledged, and set aside in order to reach the truth of any given phenomenon. Husserl therefore favored the use of descriptive methods, which aim for objectivity as much as possible. Husserl’s student Martin Heidegger rejected the notion that it was even possible at all to ascertain some objective understanding (Reiners, 2012). Instead, Heidegger celebrated what individual ascriptions of meaning had to offer when interpreting phenomena. Whereas Husserl’s epistemology is concerned with how and why people feel, think, or believe what they do, Heidegger’s ontological and hermeneutical methods are more concerned with discerning the nature of consciousness itself and…
Phenomenology and Hermeneutics
Aside from positivism or quantitative research paradigm, two other paradigms are considered essential in the conduct of research or simply, knowing and understanding a particular event or phenomenon using a particular 'lens'or paradigm / perspective. These two (2) paradigms are qualitative in nature, namely the interpretive and critical paradigms. Critical paradigm is closely associated with the Marxist, feminist, and psychoanalytic schools of thought, while interpretive or symbolic interactionism paradigm is linked with hermeneutics and phenomenology. The focus of the discussions that follow will be on this second paradigm, interpretive paradigm, particularly exploring the hermeneutic and phenomenological schools of thought (Fossey, 2002, p. 719).
In order to understand these schools of thought, it is important to also understand the tradition from which these ideas emerged. Under the interpretive paradigm, truth is considered subjective and variable. In truth-seeking, the researcher recognizes that there are many "truths," and these…
Fossey, E., C. Harvey, F. McDermott, and L. Davidson. (2002). "Understanding and evaluating qualitative research." Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 36.
Laverty, S. (2003). "Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: a comparison of historical and methodological considerations." International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Vol. 2(3).
This object, though, sets in human consciousness in many divergent ways -- perception, memory, retention, etc. Depending on the manner in which the idea is intentional, the object may be identical but interpreted different and thus a divergent sense of reality for individuals. Opposite of Descartes and Kant, there is no one finite way of describing this object and it is entirely dependent upon the method of reduction and interpretation in which we find meaning. hen we reference a thing, this object, then, we are closer to representing a Platonian version of forms or ideas in that thing -- the thing's essence or idea. Some say that when we describe an identical thing as what we really "see" or measure, it does not mean that this is the entirety of the thing. The ultimate goal of phenomenology, then, is to understand how these different aspects are merged into the actual…
Phenomenology. (2008). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/phenomenology /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Imagining architecture as the structure upon which meaning grows and contributes to the phenomenon of a place is particularly helpful when investigating Holl's Linked Hybrid, because the design expresses a desire to meld the objective, concrete of the building itself to the experience of the residents living and moving within.
Construction on Linked Hybrid began in 2003 and completed in 2009, when Holl's design won the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat's award for Best Tall Building (CTBUH 2009). Part of a slew of new developments born out of Beijing's revitalization as a result of its hosting of the 2008 Olympic games, Linked Hybrid is a mixed-use development consisting of "a ring of eight 21-story towers, linked at the 20th floor by gentling sloping public sky bridges, lined with galleries, cafes, restaurants, bars and shops" (Busari 2008). Each tower is rectangular, with some towers being additionally linked at the…
Busari, Stephanie. CNN, "Beijing embraces Brave New World of buildings." Last modified June
24, 2008. Accessed November 6, 2011.
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, "2009 Awards." Last modified October 2009.
German philosopher Hegel developed a philosophy that can be called phenomenology, or Philosophy and the Actual World. Whereas previous philosophers concerned themselves with abstractions, Hegel wanted to apply philosophical inquiry to the world that we can know directly. Hegel appears to be more concerned with effects than with causes. However, Hegel is a philosopher and as such he is eminently concerned with reason.
Like the ancient Greeks, Hegel appreciated the method of the dialectic. The dialectical tool is effective in philosophy because it phrases issues in a question and answer method. The reader places himself or herself in the role of the inquirer, and a knowledgeable philosopher can answer the probing philosophical questions. Using dialectic, Hegel was also able to "converse" with his predecessors in philosophical tradition such as Kant. The dialectic allowed Hegel to grapple with complex philosophical contradictions. Hegel could resolve those contradictions using the tool…
Phenomenology, meanwhile, takes into account lived experiences as basis for analysis and interpretation of an event or phenomenon. It takes these experiences in a collective manner, and determines the nature and dynamics of the phenomenon through these collective experiences.
Grounded theory is theory development based on different stages of analysis, starting from the identification of data points which will become codes for the researcher. Codes will then be developed into concepts, and concepts would then be grouped and determined under different categories. From these categories, the researcher would be able to develop a theory that is responsive to the information generated from the even/phenomenon. Ethnography is the observation and/or documentation of everyday life based on the observations of the researcher, either through participant observation, interviews, or group discussions. This method takes note of everything about everyday life, from the mundane and trivial to the extraordinary and significant.
In determining which…
Progress of History: Hegel, Nietzsche and Heidegger
For Hegel, the idea of the progress of history was tied to his immersion in the world of Enlightenment and Romantic writers and thinkers. He lived at a time when the French Revolution occurred and reshaped the direction of history. The Revolution expressed and institutionalized new ideas about Reason (literally deified by the Revolution) as well as socio-political philosophy regarding fraternity, equality and liberty. Hegel came to maturity during this era and for him, philosophy consisted of a clash of forces -- and the old world concept of philosophy (the love of knowledge/wisdom) was what Hegel sought to transform in The Phenomenology of Spirit, as he clearly states in the book's Preface: "To help to bring philosophy nearer to the form of science -- that goal where it can lay aside the name of love of knowledge and be actual knowledge -- that…
ather than rejecting the natural variability experience everywhere but in most man-made structures, Kiasma embraces this variability.
eturning to the name Kiasma further demonstrates the design's emphasis on the human experience of perception, and the meaning imbued through this synthesis of sensory information and personal experience, because the architectural details of the building are structured in such a way as to provide the ideal space for the meeting of perception and conception, a meeting that arguably transforms visual stimuli into art. In particular, "the scaling in Kiasma is based on the dimensions of the human body," with special attention to a limit of "165 centimeters, the viewing height" (Kiasma Info: Architecture 2011). While the average visitor would likely not notice this feature, it serves to make the building the ideal space for reflection, because precisely by not noticing such elements as the height of certain artworks, the visitor is able…
Asso, Nazlie Michel. 2009. Significations et perceptions en architecture dans l'oeuvre de christian norberg-schulz. Ph.D. diss., Universite de Montreal (Canada),
Finnish National Gallery, "Kiasma Info: Architecture." Last modified 2011. Accessed October
27, 2011. http://www.kiasma.fi/kiasmainfo/architecture .
Kiasma museum of contemporary art in helsinki. 1998. Building Design (00073423) (May 01):
This is crucial to note because it disproves the idea that "Zumthor's architecture is preoccupied with materials and tectonics" so that "his design process somehow began and ended with concerns about physical matter" (Platt & Spier 2001, 21). If this were the case, the weight of the stone itself would likely have been highlighted, but instead, Zumthor chooses to subvert this weight by punctuating the stone with light, thus simultaneously imbuing the structure with the apparent timelessness of a stone mountain with the airy elevation of its position in the atmosphere. This effect helps to embody phenomenology's nuanced conception of materials and their relation to a structure's context, because the focus is not necessarily on the material itself, but rather its functional and emotional role within the space as a whole. Zumthor's use of stone is not a celebration of granite as such (in the way that the international style…
Castello, Lineu. Rethinking the meaning of place: conceiving place in architecture-urbanism.
Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2010.
Genaze, Matthew R. 2010. Towards a hydraulic society: An architecture of resource perception.
Ph.D. diss., Rice University.
Empathy and rapport with subject has to be profound, particularly where the researcher may have a priori thoughts or personal stakes with the matter at hand. If the latter exists, it may be better that she not do the research.
Analysis of the research can be somewhat daunting given the vast amount of material (interview notes, tape-recording, jottings etc.) generated by the interviews. The way one goes about this is via a brief cursory reading of the material, roughly identifying key themes and points. One then aggregates these key themes in a set of notes and organizes them with the aid of (for instance) a mind-map or post-it notes so that they become points that one then uses to review the original material again and add to or modify in order to assess whether what one has noted is correct and complete (Hycner, 1985).
Nonetheless, analysis can still be tricky…
Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenolgoical research methods. Sage Pub. CA
Shea, C. (1999). The practical art of suicide assessment. Hoboken, U.S.
Wann, TW. (1964). Behaviorism and phenomenology. Univ. Chicago: Chicago.
Architecture is rightly considered as one of the most important of the Art categories. Unlike a painting or a sculpture, it is not something passive that can be hung on the wall or kept in a museum; they do little to impact us or our environment in a manner that Architecture is able to do so. Therefore it is not surprising that Architecture and the creators of it, which is the Architect, seem to have such an important place in the world of Arts.
Architecture has been defined as the very container of space in which we act, move, sleep and live our overall life; therefore, it becomes an important epicenter of our life. e interact with a space day in and day out, and therefore it should be functional and have the necessary details that are instrumental in fulfilling human needs. Sometimes these needs can be more…
Alvar Aalto. n.d. http://www.aalto-alvar.com / (accessed October 26th, 2011).
Bowring, Jacky. "Sensory Deprivation: Globalisation and the Phenomenology of Landscape Architecture." Lincoln University. n.d. http://researcharchive.lincoln.ac.nz/dspace/bitstream/10182/61/1/sensory_deprivation.pdf (accessed October 25th, 2011).
Fascia, Flavia. "Alvar Aalto." Napoli.
Fores, Jamir J. Ferrer. "Tradition in Nordic Architecture."
Nietzsche's ideas center on the will-to-power to escape the triviality of the society. Nietzsche argued against the "slave mentality" that permeates society causing the people to live lives devoid of joy and grandeur (ibid).
Phenomenology, on the other hand, focuses on the "essential structures found within the stream of conscious experience -- the stream of phenomena -- as these structures manifest themselves independently of the assumptions and presuppositions of science" (faxed material, date, p. 174).
Edmund Husserl, who is considered as the first great phenomenologist, developed transcendental phenomenology which very purpose is to investigate the phenomena of the world without making assumptions. This requires the exclusion of one's presupposition about the existence of the external, physical, and objective world. Phenomenology's end is to be able to describe the conscious experiences of human's "lifeworld" (ibid).
Heidegger, having heard Husserl's call for a need to develop a philosophical system which understands…
Faxed material author. (date). Title of the book. Location: Publisher.
Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia (2008a). Idealism. Retrieved from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761575556/Idealism.html on April 4, 2009
Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia (2008b). Dialectic. Retrieved from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761551873/Dialectic.html on April 4, 2009
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2006). Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hegel / on April 4, 2009.
Hermeneutic or Phenomenological esearch
Hermeneutic and phenomenological research is qualitative measurement analysis tools. They focus on the understanding and interpretation and execution of theory. Both are becoming more and more popular with contemporary research methodologies (Fuchs 1993). Together, they embody the studying of social phenomenon external to the manipulation of the research. They aim to understand how we construct and gain knowledge from the external world around us. Thus, hermeneutic research "is interpretive and concentrated on historical meanings of experience and their development and cumulative effects on individual and social levels," (Laverty 2003 p 15). Phenomenological research is additionally very descriptive and thus examines the foundational structure of experience as a way of gaining knowledge (Fuchs 1993). One study, conducted by Ajjawi & Higgs (2007) embodies these elements within its methodological structure.
The study contains particular elements adhering to ontological, axiological, and epistemological assumptions. Ontology focuses on the categories of…
Ajjawi, Rola & Higgs, Joy. (2007). Using hermeneutic phenomenology to investigate how experienced practitioners learn to communicate clinical reasoning. The Qualitative Report, 12(4), 612-638.
Fuchs, Stephan. (1993). Three sociological epistemologies. Sociological Perspectives, 36(1), 23-44.
Laverty, Susann M. (2003). Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: A comparison of historical and methodological considerations. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2(3), 1-29. Web. http://www.ualberta.ca/~iiqm/backissues/2_3final/pdf/laverty.pdf
ole of Theory in Qualitative esearch
Five Approaches and Theory
Compare and contrast the role of theory in the five main qualitative approaches:
Ethnography, case study, narrative, phenomenology, grounded theory
Although all five major approaches to qualitative research embrace theory to some degree or another, not all of them value the use of theory to the same degree. Broadly speaking, some cultural 'theory' is usually demonstrated within an ethnography, either through a comparative approach; an attempt to understand the culture on its own terms; a theory that seeks to understand the multiple layers of meaning within the culture in a symbolic fashion; or even a universalizing construct like feminist or Marxist theory. The extent to which this theoretical approach is emphasized will depend upon the anthropologist conducting the study. Some studies may mainly focus upon observations and detail unique aspects of a foreign culture while other studies might largely subsume…
Ethnography. (2013). Colorado State University Writing Guides. Retrieved:
Grounded theory. (2013). Colorado State University Writing Guides. Retrieved:
people generally think that we can detach ourselves from the world around us and objectively evaluate and reason through our experiences. This is the classical line of thought initially proposed by philosophers such as Aristotle, Socrates, and, later, Descartes who fashioned his Cartesian principle to the purpose that we can step back, evaluate our internalized knowledge, think it through and from thence, decide which to accept, which to erase in order to formulate a foundation of 'sure and safe beliefs. ationalism persisted through Kant and then to Husserl who fashioned his phenomenology proposing that performing 'epoche' i.e. bracketing our assumptions can lead us to better seeing the essence of the phenomena and to perceiving an objective world.
Others are less certain.
Benjamin Whorf and Edward Sapir, for instance, believe that it is our vocabulary -- our language -- that shapes our perceptions. Sapir argued that:
Human beings do not live…
Bovee, C.L., & Thill, J.V. (1992). Business Communication Today. NY, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Burnett, M.J., & Dollar, A. (1989). Business Communication: Strategies for Success. Houston, Texas: Dane.
Language and thought processes http://mrhoyestokwebsite.com/
Narrative research is considered rigorous because the focus is on the individual, particularly, the "story" or his/her experience of a specific phenomenon that the researcher is studying. Information generated is based on personal history and experience, and can therefore be as detailed as the researcher would want to (i.e., assuming appropriate methodologies and strategies are used to extract the information from the informant/interviewee). Case study, meanwhile, also displays the specificity that is evident in narrative research. While narrative research is purely exploratory and descriptive, case study can be useful in counterterrorism study in that it can provide also an analysis of a specific case, which could be an individual, group or entity described and later on analyzed for the reader's understanding of the specific phenomenon. In both cases, the reader of counterterrorism benefits from the details and wealth of information that both approaches provide.
On the opposite end of the…
teacher instructional technology literacy instruction improve elementary (K-5) student achievement reading vocabulary? Create a qualitative research scenario phenomenology approach.
Does the use of instructional technology improve elementary (K-5) student reading vocabulary?
In the era of high-stakes testing, student performance on reading has become increasingly important in determining school evaluations. eading is a fundamental skill necessary for future success in life. Students are reading in a paper-based format less frequently, at younger ages. This research study will attempt to asses the impact of using technology within the classroom to enhance vocabulary recognition. Previous research indicates that "teacher-made online learning resources provide course content anchored resources that focus on specific real world tasks in class, and a supportive authentic learning environment to learners" (Li 2011).
Using technology to teach reading has several apparent advantages. First of all, it can deploy a multimedia strategy to enhance student engagement. Students are often…
Introna, Lucas. (2011). Phenomenological approaches to ethics and information technology.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2011/entries/ethics-it-phenomenology
Li, S., Price, D., & Fu, Y. (2011). The impact of the teacher-made online learning resources.
The Business Review, Cambridge, 18(1), 35-40.
Under this approach, personal histories or experiences of more than one individual are collected to have a deeper and at the same time, expanded understanding of the phenomenon under study. The higher the number of sources of information, the higher the chances of the researcher of generating an insight that would truly provide a meaningful understanding of the event or phenomenon. Like narrative research, phenomenology is also interested in specific details of the phenomenon; however, in phenomenology, the specific details are highlighted as this approach seeks to answer the "what" and "how" of an event or phenomenon.
Ethnography involves an understanding the lived experiences of a homogenous group. It shares similarities with narrative research and phenomenology, but the homogenous group component in its approach sets it apart from the others. Since it studies a homogenous group, the researcher's data analysis is more concerned about identifying specific socio-cultural elements in the…
Emotional Experiences and Differences in Gender
Gender is a biological reality with many social consequences. The paper addresses several terms as a context within which to consider emotional experiences because of differences in gender.
Somatic experiencing is a method to avoid or provide damage control for traumas that produce posttraumatic stress disorder. Somatic therapy concentrates on the sensory and felt experience of the patient. The person is to express his/her experience in a manner most detailed and focused as part of the process of recovery from severe trauma(s). This theory was first introduced by Levine (1997) and his theory is derived from his observations and analyses of traumatic experiences within the animal kingdom. As women are stereotyped to be more emotional and more able to communicate their emotions, differences in gender will play a role in this form of therapy. (Grossman & Wood, 1993) Men who adhere to traditional…
Grossman, M., & Wood, W. (1993) Sex Differences in Intensity of Emotional Experience: A Social Role Interpretation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(5) 1010 -- 1022.
Kring, A.M., & Gordon, A.H. (1998) Sex Differences in Emotion: Expression, Experience, and Physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(3), 686 -- 703.
speak for themselves' rather than to allow the research to be guided by an overarching conceptual design. "Phenomenology is concerned with the study of experience from the perspective of the individual, 'bracketing' taken for granted assumptions and usual ways of perceiving. Epistemologically, phenomenological approaches are based in a paradigm of personal knowledge and subjectivity, and emphasise the importance of personal perspective and interpretation" (Lester 1999:1). When studying subjects from the Middle East in an American context it is particularly important to let the participants speak for themselves given the extent to which persons from Middle Eastern cultures have been objectified and essentialized in the past.
The focus of phenomenology is descriptive in contrast to, for example, grounded theory, which attempts to empirically derive a theory from the amassed information and imposes a system of 'coded' responses upon the respondent's information. For this type of research, rather than attempting to narrow…
Blake, J. (2012). Intuitive inquiry research methods. Social Mindfulness.
Calman, L. (n.d.). What is grounded theory? The University of Manchester. Retrieved from:
setting with a focus on one specific EMS unit that will participate in the CDP training program. This setting was selected because it offered a snapshot collection of data that could be valuable based on the outcome of the training provided by the CDP program. The researcher will conduct pre and post-interviews with the members of the EMS unit as they start and complete the program. One of the benefits of this style of approach is that it allows for the gathering of qualitative and quantitative data.
A mixed research study design provides the researcher with hard, numerical data on feelings, thoughts, beliefs and perceptions. The organization benefits from this type of study because the organization can analyze through numerical data how its members actually perceive the training they receive. The data can help discover whether the training is effective or needs to be improved upon.
ATLAS.ti Retrieved http://www.atlasti.com/ .
Milley, J.E. (1979). An Investigation of case study as
Ethical Issues. Be sure that your paper includes an assessment of how you will deal with potential ethical issues that might arise in your study.
Palena Neale, P., Thapa, S., and Boyce, C. (2006, May). Monitoring and Evaluation -- 1
Intelligence, counterterrorism and protection, and subjects for investigation appear to be relevant, interesting and worthy of detailed examination. The research traditions allowed in mainstream educational systems provide different avenues of approach to examine these ideas. The purpose of this paper is to examine the ideas of terrorism through the lenses of the five research conditions: narrative, grounded theory, phenomenology, case study and ethnography. Additionally, I will propose three different topics for doctoral research and determine why each of these approaches warrant inquiry.
Before examining terrorism, it is a most important challenge to define the term. The defining of this word is perhaps the greatest source of confusion included in this type of research inquiry. How is terrorism related to intelligence and protection? While these are fashionable catchwords of the day, it seems important to link the phrases and terms with concrete and realistic symbols that can be understood by…
These appraisals can be for an activity that has helped the community in one way or the other. Emotional influence is more based on the presence of social appraisals as well. How an individual can be more beneficial to the society is also counted as an important factor.
This is considered as one of the most important factor. In these cases, the more managed a person is, the lesser is the emotional influence. The main definition of self-management is to make sure that minimum influence is taken of the emotions and more focus is given to the main tasks. Self-management is an important task that can help in managing stress that may relate to the community and work.
Communication and Symbolization
Increased communication is important in reducing the emotional influence on an individual. Symbolization and communication is an important factor as these can help in reducing emotional influence. Social…
Kensinger, a.E. (2009). Emotional Memory Across the Adult Lifespan, Essays in Cognitive Psychology. Psychology Press.
Lewis, M., Haviland-Jones, J.M., and Barrett, F.L. (2010). Handbook of Emotions. 3rd edition. Guilford Press.
Jasmine University School of Nursing has worked diligently to develop a new curriculum. Even though the faculty examined the advantages of an upper-division nursing program, they decided to continue with their 4-year integrated curriculum. This new curriculum is based on phenomenology, humanism, and feminism, with a strong focus on community-based nursing while hospital-based practice remains a major component of the curriculum. The introduction of the new curriculum will be coupled with a 50% increase in the class size i.e. from 100 to 150. The faculty faces a significant problem in clinical placements in relation to phasing out the current curriculum and introducing the new one. The introduction of the new curriculum implies that 100 fourth-year students and 75 second-year students will require clinical placements on the same units on the same days in the fall semester.
In light of the problems with clinical placements that will be brought by the…
Iwasiw, C., Goldenberg, D. & Andrusyszyn, M. (2009). Curriculum development in nursing
education (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
"Total Program Systematic Evaluation Plan (TPSEP)." (2011, May 16). UT Health Science
Center San Antonio. Retrieved from The University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio website: http://nursing.uthscsa.edu/about/administration/TotalProgramSystematicEvalPlan_May_16_2011.doc
Jung and auditory hallucinations
Meyer (2003), in a discussion of Jungian symbolism in the movie, Spider-Man, notes that both masks and voices are essential to the movement of heroic characters through the plotline. Meyer is not, however, a psychologist, nor even an anthropologist; rather, she is a write about communications. Still, her work on Spider-Man tied several of the movie's themes to Jungian thought.
Halifax's work goes farther in bringing Jungian thought into the mainstream of psychological study. His work with shamans and shamanic ritual, important subjects to Jungians, posited aspects of schizophrenia in the initiatory journey of the shaman. Halifax cited Julian Silverman's conclusions in which schizophrenia was characterized as a disorder in which the "individual withdraws form society and the outer world and becomes preoccupied by internal processes with a resulting disintegration of the personality. The symptoms, broadly described, include autism and unreal ideation, disturbed perception and thinking,…
Ardery, Philip. "Ramifications of Julian Jaynes's Theory of Consciousness for Traditional General Semantics." ETC.: A Review of General Semantics 61, no. 1 (2004): 83+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/ . Internet. Accessed 21 July 2005.
Bemak, Fred, and Lawrence R. Epp. "Transcending the Mind-Body Dichotomy: Schizophrenia Reexamined." Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development 41, no. 1 (2002): 14+. Database online. Available from Questia,
Husserl, Language & Consciousness: econciliation of Edmund Husserl's Fourth Logical Investigation and Fifth logical investigation
Husserl's theory of consciousness in the fifth Logical Investigation is reported to be "one of the most profound and one of the most difficult theories of consciousness to have as yet been developed." (Smith, 1977) The account of consciousness given by Husserl is descriptive "in terms of a sensation, an intentional act that interprets the sensation, and an intentional object that is referred to by means of the interpretation of the sensation." (Smith, 1977)
The primary efforts of Husserl are committed to an analysis of the relation between what he refers to as 'matter' and 'quality' of the intentional act, and how these two components can be used to understand Brentano's famous proposal that "every act is either a presentation or is founded upon presentation." (Smith, 1977) It is stated that no matter the "brilliance…
Whitehead, A.N. (nd) Modes of Thought, Lecture 9, N.Y. The Macmillan Company cited in: Koenstenbaum, Peter (1993) The Paris Lectures. Retrieved from: http://web.me.com/grattonpeter/PHL_274/Continental_Philosophy_files/husserl_parislectures.pdf
Smith, Quentin (1977) On Husserl's Theory of Consciousness in the Fifth Logical Investigation. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. Vol. 37, No. 4 (Jun., 1977), pp. 482-497. International Phenomenological Society. Retrieved from:
Moran, Dermot and Husserl, Dermot (2001) Logical Investigations, Volume 1. Psychology Press 2001. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=9KNIlIO_9JYC&pg=PR65&lpg=PR65&dq=Edmund+Husserl+Fourth+Logical+Investigation+and+Fifth+logical+investigation&source=bl&ots=ykRkk2C8fG&sig=-bzr6k3Awcjz8EGYydSX7p1zYbI&hl=en&ei=UmzHTdqpKOHc0QHVrYCRCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false
Phenomenological Design: An Overview
Phenomenology is one of a multitude of different qualitative designs that a researcher can select. Other potential options include case studies, ethnographies, and grounded research. Phenomenology is one of the oldest and most flexible of all qualitative approaches. Phenomenology is a way of knowing that is focused not upon a predefined research question or even a highly specific community or individual like an ethnography or case study. It is a unique form of epistemology or way of knowing. “A paradigm is the patterning of the thinking of a person; it is a principal example among examples, an exemplar or model to follow according to which design actions are taken” (Groenewald, 2004, p.44).
Phenomenology has a strong grounding in the philosophical orientation of the Enlightenment. It is predicated upon a belief that observing experience can yield valuable insights. Unlike quantitative research designs, however, which begin…
To citically investigate the cuent state of intenational business elationship development liteatue.
2. To exploe the chaacteistics that detemines sustainable intenational business elationships within the Libyan business context-fom the Libyan point-of-view.
3. To pesent a model based on the findings fom the two objectives above. This model will seve two main functions: (I). It will help fill in gaps in the cuent liteatue elating to the development and maintenance of business elationships with Libya. (II). It will be of pactical value to foeign businesses wishing to develop elationships with Libyan companies.
1.4.3 Reseach Questions
Fou eseach questions ae fomulated as a means of pusuing the above objectives, these being:
What ae the key vaiables that influence Libyan companies when they intenationalise, and why ae these vaiables so impotant fo Libyan oganisations?
What ae the majo steps/stages that Libyans go though when establishing business elationships?
How can foeign oganisations establish/maintain sustainable…
references and details.
- Retrievability or loopback: can be low.
- Biased selectivity, if collection is incomplete.
- Reporting bias: reflects bias of the author.
- Access: may be deliberately blocked.
Mind/ody Dualism: Compare/contrast Cartesian Rationalism and at least one version of Empiricism.
Descartes, who was fascinated with mathematical qualities of indubiability, certainty and clarity, considered philosophy as an antithesis of the said qualities since he perceived philosophy as a subject, which was based on shaky grounds. He then sought to provide philosophy with steady foundation through using math principles in his search for something that is clear and indubitable. He thought that such a foundation would offer a steady philosophical system on which all other philosophical truths would be anchored. So, he set on this difficult exercise, through systematically questioning/doubting all the "truths" that he thought he knew. Descartes thought that he needed to forget all the things that he held as his opinions, so as to later bring on other facts or opinions that would be better than his previous ones through rationally confirming everything…
Allais, L. (2007, July). Kant's Idealism and the Secondary Quality Analogy. Journal of the History of Philosophy, 459-484. Retrieved from Project Muse: https://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/journal_of_the_history_of_philosophy/v045/45.3allais.html
Clay, B. (n.d.). The Difference Between Rationalism and Empiricism; Rene Descartes is a Rationalist. Retrieved from: http://www.beckyclay.com/philosophy/essays/rationalism-empiricism/RationalismEmpiricism.pdf
Crowell, S., Embree, L., & Julian, S. (2001). The Reach of Reflection: Issues for Phenomenology's Second Century. Electron Press.
Krishnananda, S. (2014). Studies In Comparative Philosophy. Retrieved from Swami Krishnananda: http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/com/com_lock.html
Of course, this is necessary for psychology to try and understand human behavior, but metabletics sees the change in human behavior over time, and explains it, also. To think that time does not change the most elemental of properties that a people interact with is ridiculous to metabletics. The people change because the world around them goes through fundamental changes. omanyshyn (1989) may put it best when he says "history is a psychological matter and that humanity's psychological life, its hopes and its dreams, its fantasies and fears, its images and inspirations, are shaped as a cultural world" (12).
The prism of history is not flat because different people have walked through different periods of time, and culture changed with that passage. The present developed from the past in some ways, but not because of a growth of knowledge throughout history (Sipiors, 2008). The evolution of ideas has happened because…
Claes, J. (1971). Metablecica or a psychology of history. (D. Wohlgenuth, Trans.)
Cushman, P. (1995). Constructing the self, constructing America: A cultural history of psychotherapy. Cambridge, MA: De Capo Press.
Gergen, M.M., & Gergen, K.J. (2003). Narratives of the gendered body in popular autobiography. In Holstein, J.A., & Gubrium, J.F. (Eds.). Inner lives and social worlds: Readings in social psychology. (304-316). New York/Oxford: Oxford
" (Iyengar, 2001) Lastly, the manner of presentation of a news story "significantly affects its ability to set the public agenda." (Behr and Iyengark 1985; Dearing and Rogers, 1996) Concluded is that: "In the current regime, American politics is almost exclusively a mediated experience. The role of the citizen ahs evolved from occasional foot soldier and activist to spectators. Those who seek public office invest heavily in efforts to shape news coverage of their candidacy. The returns from this investment provide them with leverage over public opinion, by setting the public agenda or by projecting a general impression of competent leadership..." (Iyengar, 2001)
The report published by the "ediaatters for America' website entitled: "According to aher, CBS's "Free Speech" is a isnomer" states that Bill aher, HBO's Real Time with Bill aher show host states that "CBS rejected his request to comment on religion for his planned "Free Speech" segment…
Miles, M.B., & Huberman, a.M. (1984). Qualitative data analysis, a sourcebook of new methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Miller, W.L., & Crabtree, B.F. (1992). Primary care research: A multimethod typology and qualitative road map. In B.F. Crabtree & W.L. Miller (Eds.), Doing qualitative research. Research methods for primary care (Vol. 3). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
The American Media Representation of Islam & Terrorism Post 9-11
Q1. Although theoretically a researcher conducting a phenomenological inquiry could establish hypotheses to predict the structure and features of phenomena being explored, this approach would not follow the “bracketing” method suggested by Husserl. What are the advantages of either using hypotheses to predict phenomena or bracketing to explore such phenomena? Are these two approaches mutually exclusive? If so, why? Phenomenological research does not naturally lend itself to constructing a hypothesis along the lines of the scientific method. It is by definition context-specific and observational. There is no attempt to isolate particular variables from the researcher’s framework and simply focus on a single phenomenon. Husserl’s use of bracketing frames any predictions specifically from a first-person standpoint: “to ensure that the respective item is described exactly as is experienced, or intended, by the subject” (Beyer, 2016, p.5). The observer can predict that he or she will perceive something but not state that…
Does the research refine or add to a new theory?
The research adds to the quantitative material on the subject by adopting a qualitative, phenomenological approach. Suicide has increased alarmingly amongst African-American males (Thomas, 2009). The maternal voice is rarely, if ever, heard; Granting mothers of suicide victims this opportunity can help both practical and theoretical applied research in that social workers and counseling programs can be better structured to help families cope with the loss, as well as other programs aimed to alleviate the problem. The study may throw new light on suicide from a spiritual aspect, or from some other aspect, perhaps because it is considered taboo that has hitherto been overlooked. By describing the real experiences of African-American mothers who have lost a male child to suicide, underlying cultural and spiritual elements that render the subject taboo may emerge that will help us understand the phenomenon better.…
Calhoun, L.S., Selby, J., Faulstich, M.E. (1980). Reactions to the parents of the child suicide: A study of social impressions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48, 535-536.
Campbell, B. (n.d.) Phenomenology as research method. Victoria Univ.
Crotty, M. (1998) The foundations of social research. Allen & Unwin.
The subject of the paper is to evaluate the nature and quality of the processes used to develop conceptual definitions and measurable items in two articles that are examples of research. Each study has a specific model and method serving as framework within which to conduct the research and to analyze the data gathered. Conceptual definitions are not entirely spontaneous. The kernel of the idea upon which they are founded may be, but at every stage of research there are processes, including processes for development conceptual definitions. Conceptual definitions must be refine and clear both for the researcher and the reader. Furthermore, the measureable items and variables in any study should be clearly defined and there should be appropriate time taken to develop those items. Therefore to notice and evaluate such aspects in professionally conducted studies is relevant and useful. The paper concludes that while each study…
Chen, J.S., Yen, H.J.R., Li, E.Y., & Ching, R.K.H. (2009). Measuring CRM effectiveness: Construct development, validation and application of a process-oriented model. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 20(3), 283 -- 299.
Detert, J.R., & Edmondson, A.C. (2011). Implicit Voice Theories: Taken-For-Granted Rules of Self-Censorship. Academy of Management Journal, 54(3), 461 -- 488.
customer's source] states that there are various types of qualitative approaches to research including the education filed approaches which includes the ecological psychology approach, the holistic ethnography approach, the cognitive anthropology approach, the ethnography of communication approach and symbolic interactionism. In the field of nursing, qualitative approaches to research are inclusive of phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and historical research. Also used in the field of education are anthropological perspectives, sociological perspectives, biological perspectives, case studies, personal accounts, cognitive studies and historical inquiries. In the field of sociology and nursing the grounded theory, ethnography, phenomenology, life histories, and conversational analysis are used. In the field of nursing used are phenomenology, ethnography, ethnoscience, and grounded theory. (Ibid, nd, p.7)
Research design that is qualitative is reported to begin with "philosophical assumptions that the inquirers make in deciding to undertake a qualitative study." (Ibid, nd, p.7) Researchers are reported to "bring their own…
Sensitive Issues in Nursing -- Loss of Pregnancy
At least 2.5 single spaced pages. Do not double space. Put answers in boxes. Each answer at least one solid paragraph, make boxes longer if necessary.
Format for Research Article Critique Name:
Directions: The purpose of this assignment is to review a research article and determine how it impacts nursing practice. Use this form to analyze the relevance of the research to nursing practice. APA format for the research critiques are required only for the citation for the article. The answers to the questions do not have to be written in APA format, but do need to be in complete sentences.
Caelli, PhD, K., Downie, PhD, J., & Letendre, A. (2002). Parent's experiences of midwife-managed care following the loss of a baby in a previous pregnancy. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 39(2), 127 -- 136.
Read the article. Write a one paragraph…
Attitudes Towards Medical Marijuana
The main purpose of the study will be to assess nurses' feelings and perceptions of patients who use medical marijuana for pain management. This will predominantly give light to the way the professionals who prescribe and supervise the use of marijuana think of the people they attend to on a regular basis. The research will be seeking to establish the perception created in the minds of the nurses and how this affects their reaction and handling of the patients who use marijuana for pain management. With the attitudes established, it will be fundamental in forecasting whether the use of medical marijuana will in the future have a positive reception and acceptance within the society or not.
The research question that will guide the formulation of this study will therefore be 'What are nurses perception/attitude towards patients using medical marijuana for pain management?'
Ballou and Janice, (2011). Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods. Retrieved June 28, 2015 from http://www.uk.sagepub.com/chambliss4e/study/chapter/encyc_pdfs/4.1_Open-Ended%20Questions.pdf
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, (2014 ). Phenomenology. Retrieved June 28, 2015 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/phenomenology /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
" James a.S. McPeek
further blames Jonson for this corruption: "No one can read this dainty song to Celia without feeling that Jonson is indecorous in putting it in the mouth of such a thoroughgoing scoundrel as Volpone."
asserts that the usual view of Jonson's use of the Catullan poem is distorted by an insufficient understanding of Catullus' carmina, which comes from critics' willingness to adhere to a conventional -- yet incorrect and incomplete -- reading of the love poem. hen Jonson created his adaptation of carmina 5, there was only one other complete translation in English of a poem by Catullus. That translation is believed to have been Sir Philip Sidney's rendering of poem 70 in Certain Sonnets, however, it was not published until 1598.
This means that Jonson's knowledge of the poem must have come from the Latin text printed in C. Val. Catulli, Albii, Tibulli, Sex.…
Alghieri, Dante Inferno. 1982. Trans. Allen Mandelbaum. New York: Bantam Dell, 2004.
Allen, Graham. Intertextuality. Routledge; First Edition, 2000. Print.
Baker, Christopher. & Harp, Richard. "Jonson' Volpone and Dante." Comparative
ideographic tradition and seeks to focus on the insider's world and the meanings that are attached to behaviour. While this is a general view of qualitative studies each qualitative design has unique foci. Hudacek (2008) examined the concept of caring in the work of nurses using a phenomenological design. Phenomenology gives attention to the subjective social reality. It gives value to the individual experience of the actor even within highly structured organizations. It is through the everyday experiences that meaning is constructed. he use of phenomenology is therefore highly consistent with the attempt to understand the meaning of caring. he design and the stated purpose of the researcher are highly congruent. he researcher noted that the purpose of the study was to "describe the dimensions of caring." Phenomenology is useful for unearthing the individuals understanding of their own behavior and consequently the meaning they attach to particular actions.
The approach used to analyze the data supported the nature of the data. The data collected were a collection of narrative accounts of an event. The data were analyzed using the framework of existential phenomenology. This approach was drawn from the work of Giorgi (1985); the approach involved the reduction of the data into analytical categories through getting a "sense of the nurse's stories." Consequently the procedures consider the nature of the data and attempt to extract meaningful patterns from the set of stories. The underlying assumption is that across the data clear patterns will emerge because of the repetition of specific themes.
The data analysis procedures are also consistent with the phenomenological approach. This congruence is demonstrated by the quest for meaning within the data. There is an area of concern however and it is with the attempt to get a "sense" of what the stories mean. The actual meaning of this approach is not sufficiently documented by the author to provide the reader with the exact set of procedures that were enacted to get a sense. An examination of the text suggests that this was a judgment by the research team as to what was meant. If that is the case then this aspect of the analysis is not highly consistent with seeking meaning. This became necessary because the author was unable to determine from the participant exactly what the participant meant in such a case. Consequently, this step indicates that the limitation noted earlier is important since this design weakness created threats to the trustworthiness of the analysis.
The identification of meaning units by the author is a step that is very congruent with the phenomenological method. Meaning units appear to be coterminous with themes. A key component of qualitative work is the identification of patterns. While quantitative work identifies patterns statistically, qualitative work does the same using key words and the frequency of concept repetition. The meaning units them become critical
Qualitative thematic and content analyses represent two widely utilized nursing data analysis techniques. However, no explicit boundaries have been identified between them. That is, researchers utilize them interchangeably and, apparently, find it hard to choose one of the two. In this regard, Vaismoradi's paper explains and deliberates on the borders between qualitative thematic and content analyses, presenting implications for improving the uniformity between information analysis techniques and related researches' purpose. The discussion paper comprises of a logical outline and examination of thematic and content analyses' objectives, definitions, philosophical context, data acquisition and analysis, also dealing with their methodological nuances.
With respect to study setting, this qualitative study doesn't afford any scope for discussions on sample attributes and size. The researcher has founded it on thematic and content analyses concepts. Content analysis aims at describing document content features by studying the speaker, the target audience, and the intended and…
Ayres L. Qualitative research proposal -- part I: posing the problem.
J. Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2007a; 34: 30 -- 32.
Ayres L. Qualitative research proposals -- part II: conceptual models and methodological options. J. Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs.
2007b; 34: 131 -- 133.
In addition, the views presented by sociologists concerning idealistic tradition is based on the significance of the concerned group that is sort to motivate, influence to belief and the subject of interest. In this regard, sociologists will not disassociate from the scientific data but will involve the subject of interest to attempt to understand the environment in its own context, showing how sociologists have subjective explanations and not objective ones (Adams et al. 267).
ith regard to the above, there exists queries on whether the sociological theory is a micro or a macro understood occurrence. Apart from the philosophical aspects of knowledge, the micro and macro aspects of sociological theory are highly debated in there associations. It inquires on how these sociological theories on character, reactions, and interpersonal procedures can associate with other social influences. Just like in sciences where there exists micro-macro differences which even with the advanced technology…
Adams, Bert, et al. Sociological theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press. 2001. Print.
Calhoun, Craig, et al. Contemporary sociological theory. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2007.
Dunaway, Wilma. Emerging Issues in the 21st Century World-system: New theoretical directions for the 21st century world-system. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood
The anxiety that difficulties in juggling family and work tasks can negatively affect worker presentation has led some employers to offer on-site child-care or add family leave to benefit packages. If such initiatives, employers have assumed, reduce friction between family responsibilities and work demands, then worker productivity should increase and unexcused absenteeism and unnecessary turnover should decrease (randon & Temple, 2007).
Employer enefits of Providing on-site Child Care
Keeping up a population of skilled, industrious workers is a recurrent challenge for employers. For working parents, their challenge is frequently related to obtaining convenient, quality child care solutions. Today, a lot of employers are addressing this work-life challenge and have started offering child care benefits that sustain the work/life balance of workers. and, in spite of budget crunches and space limitations that many companies face today, there are many options to meet the needs and budgets of employers both large and…
Barcenas-Frausto, J. (2009). Family-supportive policies: The employer-sponsored child-care approach as an influence of the relationship between work and family outcomes. The Business Review, Cambridge, 14(1), 92-98.
This paper investigates the potential benefits of implementing a family-supportive policy, such as employer-sponsored child care, to enhance organizational policies. There is a lack of present research on this topic, and this paper contributes a consideration of the availability of organizational policies relating to employees' work-family balance and work-related outcomes in a nontraditional-hour workplace. It examines the existing literature and household employment configurations, including single and dual-career employees making strategic child care decisions. The Map of the Child Care Assistance Territory provides a model for considering the independent variables of household employment configuration, use of familial care, and dependent-care profile.
Benefits to Employers. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.cclc.com/employers/benefits-employers
Approximately 9% of employers provide on-site or near-site child care centers; 11% of employees say they work for employers who do so. And specialized child care programs, such as backup child care, priority access or tuition discount programs offer employees a potentially nationwide, equitable benefit outside the scope of a dedicated child care center. Companies that invest in dependent care support services realize huge savings as a result of reduced absenteeism and higher employee productivity and retention.
Not all differentiated surfaces will have this effect, but I doubt that anything significant can be said about what exactly a surface must be like for it to have this effect. When the surface is right, then an experience with a certain phenomenology will occur, and it is this phenomenology that is distinctive about seeing-in. This distinctive phenomenological feature I call 'twofoldness' because when seeing-in occurs, two things happen: I am visually aware of the surface I look at, and I discern something standing out in front of, or (in certain cases), receding behind something else. (Wollheim: Painting as an Art, p. 46)
The above quote also provides a basis for understanding the view of type and token that he developed.
From the above understanding of artistic perception, Wollheim goes on to explain his solution to the main objection to subjectivist views of art; namely his thesis of artistic intentionality.…
ALCARAZ J. INDISCERNIBLE PROPERTIES, DISCERNIBLE ARTWORKS
Postgraduate Journal of Aesthetics, Vol. 1, No. 3, December 2004. Retrieved: April23, 2005. http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:K4Ksx69pSYQJ:www.british-aesthetics.org/uploads/Alcaraz.PDF+Richard+Wollheim+physical-object+&hl=en&start=4&client=firefox-a
Alpers Svetlana Artful mind: Svetlana Alpers on Richard Wollheim. ArtForum, May, 2004 Retrieved April 23, 2005. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0268/is_9_42/ai_n6081693
Ayer, a.J., et al. The Revolution in Philosophy. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1956.
defend your selection. Include an explanation of which approach would be the next best choice for your research questions, and explain how you decided between the two approaches to find the best fit..
Case study, narrative, phenomenology, grounded theory, and ethnography:
Which is the best approach to study human trafficking?
The 'case study' approach to qualitative research focuses on either a singular example or a representative handful of subjects whose experiences can illuminate a particular phenomenon. Multiple methods may be used to gain a greater understanding of the person or persons, spanning from interviews to observations to primary source documents. In the case of the proposed qualitative approach to studying women who have become the victims of human trafficking, interviews would be one source of information: so would legal cases, government documents (including laws), and other outside sources beyond the women's perspectives themselves (Johnson n.d.). Given that one of the…
Johnson. (n.d.). Chapter 12. Retrieved:
Validating Qualitative Data
Dissimilar to quantitative research, establishing or ensuring validity and reliability in qualitative research can be a difficult task. This is mainly because of the inherent differences between the two types of research. Even so, validity and reliability are as important in qualitative research as they are in quantitative research. Accordingly, qualitative researchers must ensure they provide valid and quality accounts of the research phenomenon at hand (Creswell, 2013). So how can qualitative researchers achieve this? This paper discusses standards of validity and reliability in qualitative research, particularly phenomenological research. The aim of the paper is two-fold. In the first part, the paper identifies and discusses the strategies or techniques used to assess validity and reliability in phenomenological research. In the second part, a selected published phenomenological research is evaluated to determine how conventional standards of validity and reliability have been applied.
Part 1: Evaluative Criteria and Validation…
Akim, S., & Yildrim, A. (2016). Classroom management through the eyes of elementary teachers in Turkey: a phenomenological study. Education Sciences: Theory and Practice, 16(3), 771-797.
Bryman, A. (2008). Social research methods. 3rd ed. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Creswell, J. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: choosing among five approaches. London: SAGE.
Article Critique 1 – A Phenomenological Study
This article critique analyses the article by Corb, Taggart and Cousins (2015) titled “People with intellectual disability and human science research: A systematic review of phenomenological studies using interviews for data collection”. The researchers, Deirdre, Taggart and Cousins (2015), examined the manner in which people suffering from intellectual disabilities could consent to their participation in a research. The researchers also discuss the methods of information dissemination and the methodology used in that dissemination hence increasing research value. Further, the researchers examine the manner in which Heideggerian phenomenology can be applied on people suffering intellectual disabilities.
This research by Corb, Taggart and Cousins (2015) utilizes a systematic investigation review that utilized phenomenological methods in conducting interviews among intellectually disabled participants. The research entailed 4 electronic data bases. The inclusion criteria utilization occasioned the twenty eight relevant publications. The articles selected were examined and pertinent…
Due to the forces of globalization and modernization, the role of culture within the purchase decision is becoming less and less intense, but the role of the society is increasing. At this level, the decision to purchase is greatly influenced by the reference group, or the organization or team with which the individual identifies or to which he wishes to belong. In order to gain the acceptance of the respective group or to feel himself as integrated within the group, the individual will purchase those items which allow him to meet the expectations and goals of the reference group (Borrow and Bosiljevac, 2008).
2.4. The decision making unit (DMU)
The concept of the decision making unit is explained by ay Wright's (2004) Business to business marketing: a step-by-step guide, in which the author reveals the mechanisms behind the decision making process. The decision making unit is understood as the series…
Burrow, J.L., Bosiljevac, J., 2008, Marketing, 3rd edition, Cengage Learning, ISBN 0538446641
Burrows, P., 2010, Apple customers have faith after 'antennagate', SF Gate, http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2010/07/25/BUOU1EIL1B.DTL last accessed on July 28, 2010
Kimball, B., Hall, J., 2004, Selling in the new world of business, Routledge, ISBN 0789022729
Louis, P.J., 2002, Telecom management crash course: managing and selling Teleocm services and products, McGraw-Hill Professional, ISBN 0071386203
At times, even though the research may be complicated by varying definitions of homelessness, researchers are establishing methods for estimating the size of the homeless population, which includes people who have nowhere to go; at risk of losing housing through eviction or institutional discharge (Drury, 2008).
Case Study Methodology
In the case study methodology, a form of qualitative descriptive research, according to M. Dereshiwsky (1999) in "Electronic Textbook - Let Us Count the Ways: Strategies for Doing Qualitative esearch," the researcher using the case study methodology does not focus on discovering a universal, generalizable truth, nor do the researcher generally search for cause-effect relationships. Instead, the researcher emphasizes the exploring and describing process. As the researcher examines one individual or small participant pool, he/she then draws conclusions only about that one particular participant or group; only in the designated, specific context Case Studies 2008).
In considering or defining the case…
Andrade, A.D. (2009). Interpretive research aiming at theory building: Adopting and adapting the case study design. The Qualitative Report. Nova Southeastern
Inc. Retrieved May 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Arellano, M.A. (2005). Translation and ethnography: The anthropological challenge of intercultural understanding. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 11(1), 165. Retrieved May 26, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5009119378' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>