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Phillip Morris Part II
Phillip Morris International as discussed in part one of this paper series is "the leading international tobacco company with products sold in over 180 countries" (Phillip Morris International. About Us. 2011). The organization concerns itself with a dual track philosophy "provide high quality and innovative products to adult smokers, and reduce the harm caused by tobacco products" (Phillip Morris International. Company Overview. 2011). While in many ways there is a certain cognitive dissonance to this corporate mission; the firm has been successful in generating quality outcomes for their shareholders with "total shareholder return (TS) for the year 2010 a strong 27.2%, well ahead of their peer group (up by 8.7%) and the S&P 500 (up by 15.0%)" (Phillip Morris International Annual eport. 2011.). The company's success stems from their ability to generate consistent operating cash flow which is used for a variety of purposes including: logistics,…
Phillip Morris International. (2010). Annual Report. Phillip Morris International.
Retrieved July 4, 2011 from http://media.corporate-ir.net/media_files/irol/14/146476/ar10/about-pmi.html
Phillip Morris International.com. (2011). About Us. Phillip Morris International.com.
Retrieved July 4, 2011 from
Phillip Morris International- What recent strategic choices made top folks organization company competitive? Can categorize choices Porter's generic strategies? Explain. From SWOT perspective developed previous modules, successful strategy 1.
Philip Morris International ecent strategic choices
Philip Morris International was traditionally part of the Altria Group, but in 2008, it separated from the parent company in a major strategic effort and managed to become an independent organization. This strategy proved highly successful for the firm, which managed to increase its sales levels and became the sole decider as to how investments would be made. Since its rupture from the Altria Group, Philip Morris International has substantially developed.
The split between PMI and Altria is an important strategic choice marking the recent past of the international tobacco company, and it is highly successful from the competitive standpoint, propelling the company as the international leader of the industry, with an estimated share of…
Philip Morris International 2010 Annual Report, http://media.corporate-ir.net/media_files/irol/14/146476/ar10.pdf last accessed on July 5, 2011
Website of Philip Morris International, http://www.pmi.com last accessed on July 5, 2011
Phillip Morris Human Resources
What do you know about Phillip Morris' "international HRM" strategies?
Phillip Morris has been using international human resource strategies (HRM) to influence the views of management for newly acquired companies. What happens is they will strategically locate those corporations that are considered to be market leaders. Then, purchase them to help grow their overall bottom line results. Even though the management of the former company; may often have hostilities after the announcement of the merger. The HR department of Phillip Morris will engage in policies that will change these views. (Rea, 1998, pg. 109)
One of the most noticeable examples of this can be seen by looking no further than, with the company allowing the acquired corporation to keep their current management and brand name. The basic ideas with this approach, is to let everyone know that they will continue to be part of the new…
Comparison of HR Practices at Phillip Morris. (2011). Download Reports. Retrieved from: http://download-reports.blogspot.com/2011/05/comparison-of-hr-practices-at-philip_03.html
Rea, P. (1998). Strategic Planning. New York, NY: Wiley.
Locations of the Organization and Business Operations
The U.S. unit has various facilities within the country, such as its Center for esearch & Technology (CT), and its manufacturing, processing and also its support facilities in the ichmond, Va., area; in Chester is situated its Park 500 plant and in York its Manufacturing facility near Williamsburg; another manufacturing facility in located in Cabarrus County, N.C.; and its sales offices are crisscrossing both the U.S. And the Commonwealth of Puerto ico (PMUSA Website)
egarding Philip Morris International, it owns in total 51 factories in 42 countries. Following the spin-off, its corporate HQ is in New York City, while the company's Operations Center is situated in Lausanne, Switzerland. Officially, Philip Morris International is a U.S.-based entity incorporated in Virginia. (PMI Website)
Philip Morris position towards environmental, political, social, economic, legal and labor forces of the international economy
Given the social, legal and…
Adbrands.net, (2008), Marlboro: Brand Profile, Retrieved April 28, 2008 at http://www.mind-advertising.com/us/marlboro_us.htm
Altria Group, (2008), 2007 Business Review, Retrieved April 28, 2008 at http://www.altria.com/download/pdf/investors_2007_AnnRpt_BusReview_section4.pdf
BBC News, (2007, July 20), Philip Morris lights up in Mexico, Retrieved April 28, 2008 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/6909498.stm
Cordeiro, Anjali (2008, April 23), 2nd UPDATE: Philip Morris 1Q Net Up 29%, Boosts EPS Outlook, Retrieved April 28, 2008, from CNN Money Web Site at http://money.cnn.com/news/newsfeeds/articles/djf500/200804231204DOWJONESDJONLINE000860_FORTUNE5.htm
The company has done research on the product and has known for quite a while that tobacco is not only dangerous, it is also addictive as well. Although the company denied knowledge of these facts when first questioned, management personnel eventually admitted to manipulating the addictive nicotine levels.
The beer industry has directed the marketing of malt liquor to "inner-city gang cultures and subtly associated the beer with feelings of being powerful and masterful (unknown)." Malt liquor contains a higher alcohol content, and while the beverage may make a person feel better about him or herself, it can ultimately result in greater incidences of cirrhosis of the liver, gang violence, and drunken driving deaths.
The food industry may be utilizing technology to genetically engineer and preserve its products, however, there is the chance that these procedures could prove harmful. The company also produces foods that taste good due to the…
Unknown. Phillip Morris' Troubles. Ethical Principles. Pp. 157-163.
Philip Morris Acquires Kraft: An Overview
(1)When Philip Morris, Inc. moved to acquire Kraft, Inc., it did so for several reasons: first and foremost, PM has made a lion's share (80%) of its fortune in tobacco and tobacco products. Putting aside for the moment the obvious (and numerous) health problems that such products are known to cause, and seemingly despite them, PM continues to manufacture the leading brand of cigarettes, Marlboro-and continues to sell its products internationally at a greater rate than ever before. But its management was not totally naive about the future, either: in America, tobacco has fallen at least somewhat out of favor, and may in fact someday be completely illegal. Therefore, much like R.J. Reynolds and other major tobacco companies have done and continue to do, PM leadership looked around for an even "surer thing" than tobacco and found it-in food. It's an obvious choice. As…
Philip Morris International explain strategic plan selected company pursues regard business countries.
Company: Philip Morris International
Phillip Morris, one of the leading international tobacco companies, is split into two divisions: Phillip Morris International and Phillip Morris USA. The reason for this bifurcation is not administrative, but legal. Officially, Phillip Morris USA proclaims that there is no safe cigarette, and admits that quitting smoking is difficult. Its CEO recently proclaimed: "Because tobacco use is addictive and can be very difficult to quit, our tobacco companies help connect adult tobacco consumers who have decided to quit with cessation information from public health authorities" (Galuszka 2011). Phillip Morris USA must also comply with U.S. regulations banning televised cigarette advertisements and cigarette advertisements aimed at minors.
Internationally, however, smoking is far more acceptable socially than it is in the U.S. While consumption of cigarettes is going down in the U.S., it is actually escalating…
Galuszka, Peter. (2011). Philip Morris and Alice in Wonderland. Style Weekly.
Retrieved June 1, 2011 at http://www.styleweekly.com/TheReportersNotebook/archives/2011/05/27/philip-morris-and-alice-in-wonderland
Philip Morris International
As a leading international company producing top cigarette brands, the need for the effective and professional management of international FX and finance risks at Philip Morris International cannot be overstated. In this text, I concern myself with the individual tasked with the international financial management of the firm, his background and the approach he uses in the management of foreign risks.
As Philip Morris International's C.F.O., Hermann Waldemer is the individual squarely in charge of all the financial and FX transactions at the cigarette firm. Though he joined the company (before its spin off from the Altria Group) back in 1987, it was not until 2008 that Mr. Waldemer assumed the role of C.F.O. Over the years, Mr. Waldemer has held a number of positions at Philip Morris including acting as head of the company's divisions in Germany and France. It can however be noted…
Jacob J. (2011). E-trading at Philip Morris' Treasury. Retrieved July 3, 2011, from 360T Website: http://www.360t.com/cnt_about360t/press_2011_jun.php
Madura, J. (2008). Financial Markets and Institutions. Cengage learning.
Restructuring itself for a better fit with its environment, the company established a Youth Prevention Department, staffed by a senior vice-president in Philip Morris, U.S.A. To look for ways to help reduce smoking among teenagers" (Glover 2008).
The relative lack of sincerity of these claims and the transparent dishonesty of Philip Morris' claim to stop youths from smoking is manifest in the fact that the company recently filed a suit in federal court to overturn a San Francisco ordinance that would ban the sale of tobacco products in convenience drug stores. It proclaims this proudly on a September 2008 press release on its website: "Philip Morris USA sues to overturn controversial San Francisco sales ban on tobacco products." However, teens are more likely than other consumers to use these venues to purchase cigarettes than other consumers. Philip Morris defends its actions as the promotion of freedom for adult consumers, given…
About Altria. (2008). Official Website. Retrieved December 8, 2008 at http://www.altria.com/about_altria/1_2_companiesandbrands.asp
Fisher, Laurie (2000, April.) "Divestment in the tobacco industry." Cancer Causes & Control.
Glover, Willa. (2008). "An exploratory study of key factors of self-organization in organizational systems." Human and Organizational Systems: Fielding Graduate Institute.
Retrieved December 8, 2008 at http://www.geocities.com/cmogata/wwglover.html
The primary reason to own Altria is its dividend. The current dividend, $1.28 per year, results in a dividend yield of 8.34%. Given that Altria's EPS is only $1.54 per year, it is evident that the company pays out most of its profits to its shareholders. Despite the declining business, the company is well-positioned to maintain relatively stable revenue streams that will enable it to maintain this dividend. As a result, the company is suited more for long-term income investors than for short-term investors driven by capital gains. Altria's slow growth, difficult operating environment and other challenges make it a poor buy for investors seeking anything other than a relatively stable income stream.
Apple (Nasdaq: AAPL) is a designer, manufacturer and marketer of computers and related paraphernalia, both hardware and software. The firm markets desktop computers, laptop computers, portable music players (iPod), portable communications devices (iPhone) and the software…
Company financials from Reuters. Retrieved December 13, 2008 at http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/overview?symbol=AAPL.Oand http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/overview?symbol=MO.N
Stock performance information from Yahoo Finance. Retrieved December 13, 2008 at
They still continue to handle the shareholders who own Kraft Foods stocks as to best help them (Official Website of the Altria Group, 2008).
The Altria Group currently has three major components: Phillip Morris USA (PM USA), Phillip Morris Capital Corporation and Phillip Morris International. Each one of these components has the ability to influence the managerial and ultimate business outcome of the group. "Phillip Morris USA is the largest component of the company, with its focus on domestic sales of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products" (the Altria Group 2007 Annual eport). A most recent and relevant way in which they influenced the management of the group was of having them allow and fund the purchase of John Middleton Incorporated, a leading manufacturer of machine-made large cigars.
The Phillip Morris Capital Corporation is the financial subsidy of the Altria Group, which handles portfolio operations. They influence the managerial operations in…
The Altria Group 2007 Annual Report, Retrieved at http://www.altria.com/investors/2_4_1_annualreport.aspon September 8, 2008
Official Website of the Altria Group, http://www.altria.comlast accessed on September 8, 2008
S. operations. "The joint venture, now known as MillerCoors is designed to create cost savings in the U.S., where SAB is the second biggest brewer and Molson the third behind Anheuser Busch" (Herman 2007). Thus, the SABMiller arm of Altria is also falling into line with the general acknowledgement for the need to cut costs in terms of business operations in the U.S. This is good news for Altria as well because it ensures that the product lines in which it still possesses an interest extend beyond the realm of tobacco are likely to cut costs and may improve their market showing in upcoming months. Given that beer is less expensive than many other alcoholic beverages, even during a recession it is more likely that people will consume beer than more expensive wine or spirits, and alcohol is more socially acceptable from a health standpoint than cigarette smoking in the…
About Altria overview."(2008). Altria Group. Retrieved 11 Aug 2008 at http://www.altria.com/about_altria/1_0_AboutAltriaOver.asp
Corporate restructuring." Altria Group. Retrieved 11 Aug 2008 at http://www.altria.com/investors/2_2_corprestructuring.asp
Herman, Robin. (18 Jan 2007). "Reanalysis of cigarette content confirms tobacco companies have increased addictive nicotine 11% over recent seven-year period." Harvard School of Public Health. Retrieved 11 Aug 2008 at http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/press-releases/2007-releases/press01182007.html
Our companies and their brands." (2008). Altria Group. Retrieved 11 Aug 2008 at http://www.altria.com/about_altria/1_2_companiesandbrands.asp
Market Structure and Managerial Decision Making
The objective of this paper is to discuss the concept game theory in the competitive market environment where there are two or more firms competing against one another. The paper cites the examples of Nash equilibrium, prisoner dilemma, and dominant strategy. Moreover, the paper discusses the theory of perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic market and theory of oligopoly. (Bhat, and au, 2008).
The game theory is a type of situation where the rewards or payoff given to any player depends on the action of the other players. The interdependence between two or more firms is referred as a game theory, and the rewards earned by a firm is known as a payoff, and the payoff matrix assists in analyzing the interdependence between firms. A duopoly is an interdependence between two players that may result in a game theory. However, a relationship between two…
Bhat, M.S., and Rau, A.V. (2008). Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis, Hyderabad, IND BS Publications, ProQuest ebrary. Web. Retrieved April 20, 2016, Chapter 4: Market Structures, pp. 85-107.
Krugman, P. & Wells, R. (2012). Economics and Microeconomics (Third Edition). Worth Publisher.
Mjmfoodie. (2011). Episode 29 Monopolistic Competition [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T3F1Vt3IyNc
Links to Government Regulation of Monopoly
battle against cigarettes and tobacco has been around for a long time. As the authors A. Lee Fritschler and James M. Hoefler point out in their book Smoking and Politics there has always been a tug of war over the "golden leaf," the paradox that strict regulation of the business meant a windfall for the government.
Concern about the health consequences of smoking predates the "modern era" by nearly four centuries. In 1604, for example, King James I of England lambasted smoking as, "a custom loathsome to the eye, hateful to the Nose, harmeful to the braine, dangerous to the Lungs, and in the blacke stinking fume thereof, nearest resembling the horrible Stigian smoke of the pit that is bottomless" (as quoted in Sullum, 1998, p 18). King James subsequently raised the tax on tobacco by 1000%, deriving significant revenues for his coffers. This illustrates the profound dilemma that has…
American Cancer Society, et al. (2002) "Critical Elements of Any Legislation to Grant FDA
Authority to Regulate Tobacco Products." Viewed online on 11/25/2002 at http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/research/factsheets/pdf/0181.pdf
Center for Disease Control: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health
Promotion (2002) "Chronology of Significant Developments Related to Smoking and Health." Viewed on 11/27/2002 at http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/overview/chron96.htm
Embedded Communication in Advertising
"There is no evidence that advertising can get people to do things contrary to their self-interest." -- JI Fowles, in Advertising's Fifteen asic Appeals
"Good advertising does not just circulate information. It penetrates the public mind with desires and belief." -- Leo urnett, Advertising Executive and Creator of the Marlboro Man
"The ability to attract new smokers and develop them into a young adult franchise is key to brand development." 1999 Philip Morris report
When the preceding collection of opinions regarding the influence of modern advertising are considered in conjunction with the iconic advertising image shown above, it becomes quite clear that, much like advertising itself, forming an informed position on this ubiquitous aspect of modern marketing is simply a matter of perception and perspective (elch 120). Corporate conglomerates and other private enterprises ascribe tremendous value to the persuasive power of advertising, bombarding the general public…
Altman, David G., Michael D. Slater, Cheryl L. Albright, and Nathan Maccoby. "How an unhealthy product is sold: Cigarette advertising in magazines, 1960 -- 1985." Journal of Communication 37, no. 4 (1987): 95-106.
Belch, George E., Michael A. Belch, and Angelina Villarreal. "Effects of advertising communications: Review of research." Research in marketing (1987).
Bovee, Courtland L., and William F. Arens. "The Indictments Against Advertising." Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York, NY: Pearson Higher Education, 2008. 685-691. Print.
De Gregorio, Federico, and Yongjun Sung. "Understanding attitudes toward and behaviors in response to product placement." Journal of Advertising 39, no. 1 (2010): 83-96.
Atria's Business Strategy
Altria group, the parent company to Kraft, Phillip Morris and a host of other well-known companies, prides themselves on their commitment to innovative business practices and achievement. The company historically has performed remarkably well and has ranked number one for economic value added delivery providing shareholders unsurpassed value and performance (Altria, 2005). Their strategies for growth and business survival include superior delivery and economic returns to their shareholders in the short- and long-term.
To accomplish this goal Altria has committed themselves to improving each member of the Altria family or each of its operating enterprises. These include primarily Kraft Foods and Phillip Morris (Altria, 2005). The company also maximizes the returns shareholders realize in a consistent manner by taking advantage of technological advancements and innovations to ensure optimal technologies and knowledge sharing practices are adopted within the company.
There have been plans in recent years to restructure…
"Altria Group." 2, November 2005:
Although Altria is a large corporate conglomerate, within its alcoholic subsidiaries it cannot sell at volume like Anheuser-Busch, to maximize value, cut costs, and to keep the beverage's price point low for commercial beer drinkers (the target market). Altria's division SABMiller and Canadian brewer Molson- Coors thus combined their U.S. brewing operations into a joint venture called MillerCoors in 2007. "The joint venture will be 58% owned by SABMiller and 42% owned by Molson-Coors with each having an equal voting interest in an all-out effort to cut costs to better compete against the dominance of Anheuser-Busch (NYSE:BUD) and the solid Budweiser brands" ("Altria: The hidden SABMiller & Molson Coors winner," 2007, 247 all Street.).
The aim of this joint venture was a price-based strategy -- cut costs though consolidation of resources and thus become more competitive against Anheuser-Busch. Lowering prices would be more feasible to draw in new cost-conscious commercial…
About Altria overview."(2008). Altria Group. Retrieved 31 Aug 2008 at http://www.altria.com/about_altria/1_0_AboutAltriaOver.asp
Altria: The Hidden SABMiller & Molson Coors winner (MO, TAP, BUD)." (9 Oct 2007). 247
Wall Street. Retrieved 31 Aug 2008 at h ttp:/ / www.247wallst.com/2007/10/altria-the-hidd.html
The China National Tobacco Corporation and Philip Morris International announce the establishment of a long-term strategic cooperative partnership." (21 Dec 2005). Altria Group. Retrieved 31 Aug 2008 at http://www.foxbusiness.com/story/markets/industries/industrials/acks-analyst-blog-highlights-philip-morris-altria-group-houston-wire-nl
Over the last several years, the markets have faced a tremendous amount of volatility. Part of the reason for this, is because the global financial crisis and subsequent recession caused the Dow Jones Industrial Average to decline to 6,547. Then, it would climb over 68% to cross above 12,000. This is important, because it is showing how there are tremendous opportunities for investors. However, in order to attain above average returns requires that you are using a strategy that is: embracing growth and minimizing risks as much as possible. To achieve this objective requires having: an asset allocation strategy that will incorporate balance and value. Once this takes place, it will provide the greatest insights as to how we should structure a portfolio that will maximize the total return investors are receiving in the year ahead.
The Portfolio Philosophy
The basic strategy that we will be using is to…
They embrace the genius of the and -- and they do not become beholden to a single leader, idea, or product. They still preserve the core organizational values even while trying to stimulate progress and surpass past achievements. In short, consistency is key, consistent alignment with values and image, while changing to shifting needs so the company can still meet those values.
This book, written in the late 1990s, suffers from one critical problem, from the point-of-view of a contemporary reader. Many of the companies built to last in the eyes of the authors more than ten years ago are now suffering considerable financial difficulties or suffering from severe image problems like al-Mart. To demonstrate their principles, the authors use so many companies that it is hard to understand what went wrong -- did all of these companies lose sight of their vision, as Collins and Porras no doubt would…
Collins, James & Jerry Porras. Built to Last. New York: HarperCollins, 1997.
The one exception to these generalizations is Marlboro, but its dominant market share is publicized by a tobacco watch group. Marlboro itself perhaps does not want to emphasize the fact it is the most popular brand in the United States because this might draw greater regulatory attention regarding its advertising and distribution. That is the reason that is market share is being publicized by anti-tobacco activists.
Q3. Taste test
For my taste test, I selected three cola brands that would not be immediately recognizable, based upon their appearance (This eliminated the possibility of comparing 7-Up and Coca-Cola, for example). I did a blind taste test of Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola, and Dr. Pepper, labeled as a, B, and C. Almost every person in the taste test was able to pick out the distinctly sweet taste of Dr. Pepper. Coca-Cola and Pepsi were less obvious: while individuals were able to recognize that the…
Marlboro, Phillip Morris. (2010). U.S. Tobacco Market Share. Tobacco.org.
Retrieved August 22, 2010 at http://www.tobacco.org/Resources/mktshr.html
Moser, Jason. (2010, August, 20). Measuring up: Home Depot vs. Lowes. Motley Fool
Retrieved August 22, 2010 at http://www.fool.com/investing/value/2010/08/20/measuring-up-home-depot-versus-lowes.aspx
Target's chart, however, shows that the company has tracked the market and GDP fairly closely, indicating that perhaps it does not trade the way a discount retailer should.
Johnson & Johnson
JNJ is a pharmaceutical and consumer products company. It competes in pharmaceuticals, consumer products in the health and beauty segment and in medical devices. The company was founded in 1886 and today is a multinational conglomerate with operations in 57 countries and with approximately 250 subsidiaries.
To a certain extent, JNJ's product line is price inelastic. Pharmaceutical demand is tied to overall consumer demand and the state of the economy, but not to the same extent that many other consumer products are. As a result, JNJ would be expected to have less significant swings in its stock price relative to the GDP, other macroeconomic indicators, or the Dow Jones. The stock, however, has traded roughly in line with the…
Yahoo! Finance, various pages. (2009). Retrieved November 25, 2009 from http://finance.yahoo.com
Federal Reserve. (2009). Money Stock Measures. Federal Reserve. Retrieved November 25, 2009 from http://www.federalreserve.gov/releases/h6/Current/
Bureau of Economic Analysis. (2009). National Economic Accounts. BEA. Retrieved November 25, 2009 from http://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/national/gdp/gdpnewsrelease.htm
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2009). Employment Situation Summary. BLS. Retrieved November 25, 2009 from
In Japan for example, where Starbucks opened its first international outlet, the concept of group harmony and social cohesion is more important in business relations. In China the business relations revolve around personal relation while in Korea for example hierarchical relationships or obedience to authority becomes more crucial. In Northern Europe a participatory style of management is in place. Southern Europe on the other hand has workers that resent the concepts like pay-for-performance and commission salaries.
Managers on international missions face the responsibility of having to exert authority while at the same time trying to be liked by the subordinates. U.S. managers put more weight on being friendly and liked whereas Asian and European managers exercise authority.
Businesses have become global with globalization taking the business world by storm. With global businesses the communication takes place across the boundaries of the continents and countries. This creates a more…
Stopper, W. (2004). Establishing and Maintaining the Trust of Your Employees. Human Resource Planning. 27(2): 21+.
'Starbucks:to Drink or Not to Drink' Whole Earth. Publication Date: Summer 2002. Page Number: 15.
Daft. (1997). Management. Dryden Press.
In public statements such as the one below:
We are keen to work with governments, public health authorities and other tobacco companies to agree on rules and regulations for our industry. We want to do what we can to respond to public health concerns and, at the same time, establish a stable business environment for our company (Why we support strong legislation (http://www.philipmorrisinternational.com/PMINTL/pages/eng/busenv/Tob_regulation.asp)."
The industry provides an attitude of compassion and caring for the products they place on the retail shelves and therefore in the hands of innocent buyers.
They further combat the regulations however by making statements like the following:
It can be difficult to create a regulatory environment for a product that is dangerous yet remains popular (Why we support strong legislation (http://www.philipmorrisinternational.com/PMINTL/pages/eng/busenv/Tob_regulation.asp)."
The industry has given up the fight against public smoking bans and instead decided on a smart advertising strategy of agreeing with such bans in…
Buyout program (Accessed 12-06-06)
Kraft Boycott (Accessed 12-06-06)
Tobacco arketing: Get Them Young or Not at All
The tobacco industry has been in a battle to capture the youth market for decades mainly because of the degree of brand loyalty that is characteristic of cigarette smokers. Cigarette companies have a lot at stake in making sure that their brand is one of the first tried by the young smoker. In its bid to obtain young smokers, R.J. Reynolds created the Joe Camel campaign with a cool character that youths found highly appealing and the company created fierce advertising, promotional, and sales campaigns to take their message to market. The Joe Camel campaign proved to be one of the most successful bids to capture young smokers in tobacco history. Ultimately, its tremendous success was in part the reason for the campaign's eventual downfall, as public outcry demanded that cigarette companies stop marketing to adolescents and as courts gained…
Magazine Ads. http://www.costkids.org/targetingkids/magazineads.htm (26).
Boyles, Salynn. "Joe Camel May Be Gone, But Legacy Lives On." WebMD Medical News, Aug 15, 2001. http://my.webmd.com/content/article/1728.86774 (26 Nov. 2002).
Tobacco Marketing To Young People, Young People: A Key Expansion Market. http://www.infact.org/youth.html (26).
Store design has been at the forefront of marketing strategies for many years. Marketing professionals use store design to create an ambiance that creates an environment that compels people to purchase certain products or services. The purpose of this discussion is to explain how public space affects people. For the purposes of this discussion we will focus on the store design of Starbucks. Our investigation will discuss the moods, feelings and ideas that the atmosphere presents to the customers. e will also focus on how the set-up of the building affects the people in the store. Finally, we will discuss the type of people that may frequent a Starbucks coffee shop.
Let's begin our discussion by explaining some of the history behind the concept of store design.
Some of the first experiments with store design occurred in grocery stores. According to a book entitled, The American Grocery Store:…
Mayo, James M. 1993. The American Grocery Store: The Business Evolution of an Architectural Space. Greenwood Press: Westport, CT.
Starbucks: To Drink or Not to Drink." Summer 2002. Whole Earth. Page Number: 15.
Beverage & obacco
Beverage and obacco Industry Analysis
Although the beverage and tobacco industry face mounting obstacles to their success, there are also an infinite number of possible opportunities. One clear opportunity is provided by emerging markets. he numbers of individuals who have greater levels of disposable incomes are increasing exponentially in the developing world. his represents a tremendous opportunity for corporations in the beverage and tobacco industry to tap into these emerging markets. Another opportunity for this industry can be thought of in terms of a localization initiative. here are growing concerns in industrialized nations which are centered on health issues. hus the beverage and tobacco industry stands the potential to innovate based on the consumer demands. hey could create a diversified product portfolio that was catered to the needs of the specific market.
here are a growing number of potential threats that plague the beverage and…
There are a growing number of potential threats that plague the beverage and tobacco industry. The first is the trend that is emerging in many of the industry's primary markets which is that the consumers are becoming more health conscious. Thus consumer demand for tobacco products and unhealthy beverages that contain ingredients such as high fructose corn syrup are diminishing rapidly. Many consumers are dedicated to living more healthy lifestyles and as a consequence they are shunning products that are not consistent with this preference. Another threat that is driven by consumer preference but represent an entirely different level of threat is that many health considerations are actually the subject of increasing regulations. For example, many cities have chosen to ban smoking from public spaces as well as prohibit unhealthy beverages being sold at places such as schools.
There are a countless number of manufactures and suppliers in this industry. Phillip Morris is one of the world's largest tobacco companies which name was officially rebranded in 2003 under a new name known as Atria. Atria also holds a significant stake in Kraft foods and also subsidiaries that operate in the wine industry. PepsiCo is one of the largest food and beverage companies and the largest U.S. based firm in the industry. InBev is one of the largest alcoholic manufactures and distributors in the world and operates in over one hundred thirty different countries. It recently purchased Anheuser-Busch in 2009 which significantly increased the size of the operations. To complete the deal, the United States required that InBev quit importing certain brands of beers to the U.S. market so that InBev would meet anti-trust regulations.
Some of those are as follows:
1) Affect the environment;
2) Either save or expend energy;
3) Economically feasible or expensive to maintain, heat and cool.
4) Affect student learning;
5) Affect the health of students and teachers alike and 6) Affect the retention of teachers. (Olson and Carney, 2004)
Criteria involved in the design, operation and maintenance of these 'sustainable' buildings are those as follows:
Sustainable site planning and landscaping design that decrease the use of pesticides and provide an outdoor learning environment for students;
Good building envelope design such as efficient windows and high R-value insulation that reduce draftiness and increase student and teacher comfort levels;
Proper lighting along with increased use of daylighting to improve student performance and increase comfort levels;
Good indoor air quality from adequate air filtration and exchange systems and the banning of idling buses or delivery trucks near buildings that eliminate toxins, allergens…
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, (Apr 2005). 2005 Report Card for America's Infrastructure. Online available at http://www.asce.org/reportcard/2005/
Benner, a.D. 2000. "The Cost of Teacher Turnover." Austin, Texas: Texas Center for Educational Research. Online available at http://www.sbec.state.tx.us/SBECOnline/txbess/turnoverrpt.pdf
Benya, J.R. 2001. "Lighting for Schools." Washington, D.C.: National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. Online available at http://www.edfacilities.org/pubs/lighting.html
Berry, Michael (2002) Healthy School Environment and Enhanced Educational Performance: The Case of Charles Young Elementary School, Washington DC. 12 Jan 2002. The Carpet and Rug Institute.
Research will be useful to companies of all sizes and in all sectors of the market. Everyone is affected by diversity, whether they realize it or not. Companies that do not have a diverse workforce internally still come into contact with suppliers, customers, and others outside of the company who are from differing backgrounds. The research will benefit public and private companies of all sizes by allowing them to gain a greater understanding of diversity and the benefits of understanding those with a different outlook.
The study will also benefit other researchers in the fields of diversity, workforce management and other related topics. It will provide a solid foundation for future research into the area by providing a consistent definition that reflects today's changing workforce. This research will benefit many areas of study in the future and will play an important role in shaping diversity research in the future.
Akiyama (2008) synthesizes and supports the need for an organizational level campaign that will put current theories about diversity into practice. This article also touches on the topic of extending the meaning of diversity to include religious differences. Like many studies, the topic of extending the definition of diversity is presented in numerous studies. There is an unstated consensus in the literature that the definition of diversity needs to be extended to include other differences than race or national origin. However, although the topic was mentioned in numerous studies, no coordinated effort was made to form a consensus. This is a key gap in the literature that will be fulfilled by the proposed research study.
Another key gap lies in the ability to apply diversity to the workforce in a way that can take present theory and apply it in a manner that produces measurable results. The literature review highlights the need to apply the research to local settings, rather than relying on national averages and statistics. The purpose of this research is to encourage individual companies to apply the techniques that result from this study to the work environment within their organization. This need was echoed throughout the literature examined.
The key gap found in the literature review was
Pedagogic Model for Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students
Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of special…
The nursing profession has always attempted to put forward a positive, clean and healthful image. Throughout history the nursing industry has tried to portray nurses as angels of mercy, and as ethically upstanding, helpful healthcare professionals, just a few steps down from doctors in terms of medical needs. But lately the images of nurses has changed and not always for the best. This paper critiques the images of nurses through a review of the available literature.
The highly respected Gallop Poll ranks nurses at the top of the list of several important professions in terms of "honesty and ethical standards" (Gallup, 2010). In a 2010 polling project by Gallup eighty-one percent of respondents rated nurses "Very High" or "high"; number two below nurses was "military officers" (73% rated them "very high" or "high"; number three was "druggists or pharmacists" (71% rated them "very high" or "high"; and number four…
Cohen, Shelly. (2007). The Image of Nursing. American Nurse Today, 2(5), 1-2.
Darbyshire, Philip, and Gordon, Suzanne. (2008). Exploring Popular Images and Representations
Of Nurses and Nursing. Retrieved August 16, 2011, from http://www.springerpub.com/samples/25549_chapter.pdf .
De Araujo Sartorio, Natalia, and Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone. (2010). Images of a 'good nurse' presented by a teaching staff. Nursing Ethics, 17(6), 687-694.
Cold War and Film
Generally speaking, the Cold War has been depicted as an era of spy games and paranoia in popular films from the 1960s to the present day, but the reality of the era was much more complex. The Cold War was a period of military and political tension from 1947 to 1991, or from the end of WW2 to the collapse of the Soviet Union, in which the "politics of war" masked the business and social agendas of multinationals and ideologues. The era was marked by myriad issues: East-West mistrust, proxy wars, espionage, the threat of nuclear war, domestic and foreign propaganda, the rise of the military-industrial complex and multinational corporations, assassinations, detente, de-colonization, new nationalism, neo-colonialism, the vying for control of resources, alliances (NATO, Warsaw Pact), and an inculcation of the "deep state." [footnoteRef:1] It can be divided into five basic periods: 1947-53, 1953-62, 1962-79, 1979-85,…
Dominik, Andrew, dir. Killing Them Softly. NY: Weinstein Company, 2012. Film.
Eliot, T.S. "Burnt Norton." The Four Quartets. Web. 10 May 2015.
Frankenheimer, John, dir. Seven Days in May DVD Commentary. LA: Warner Home
This is why people that had financial resources to move away from the agitated center often chose Harlem. At the same time however,
On the periphery of these upper class enclaves, however, impoverished Italian immigrants huddled in vile tenements located from 110th to 125th Streets, east of Third Avenue to the Harlem iver. To the north of Harlem's Italian community and to the west of Eighth Avenue, Irish toughs roamed an unfilled marshlands area referred to by locals as "Canary Island."
In this sense, it can be said that in the beginning, Harlem represented the escape place for many of the needy in search for a better life. From this amalgam, the Jews represented the largest group, the reason being the oppressive treatment they were continuously subject to throughout the world. Still, the phenomenon that led to the coming of a black majority of people in this area was essential…
African-American Odyssey. "World War I and Postwar Society." Library of Congress Web site: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart8b.html ,(accessed 16 September 2007)
Ames, William C.. The Negro struggle for equality in the twentieth century. New dimensions in American history. Lexington, Massachusetts: D.C. Heath and Company.. 1965, 90-1
Black Americans of Achievements. "Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.." Home to Harlem website. http://www.hometoharlem.com/harlem/hthcult.nsf/notables/a0d3b6db4d440df9852565cf001dbca8,(accessed 16 September 2007)
Capeci, Dominic. The Harlem Riot of 1943. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1977.
Hence, a more corporate attitude is being embraced by pro-vice-chancellors, but the salient question in this article is this: will a university be better off with corporate-style, bureaucratic leadership, or with leadership that pursues academic excellence and a pure mission of educating students?
Wang, Yong, and Poutziouris, Panikkos. (2010). Leadership Styles, Management Systems and Growth: Empirical Evidence from UK Owner-Managed SMEs. Journal of Enterprising
Culture, 18(3), 331-354. Doi: 10.1142/So21849581000604.
What these authors bring to light in this article is that a higher rate of sales and growth for medium sized businesses can be realized when run by an owner that also manages the business. This survey of 5,710 respondents in the UK further pointed to the fact that when the owner-manager delegates authority, the operation is more professional and successful.
Webb, Kerry S. (2009). Creating Satisfied Employees in Christian Higher Education: Research
on Leadership Competencies. Christian Higher Education, 8(1), 18-31.…
Zembylas, Michalinos, and Iasonos, Sotiroula. (2010). Leadership styles and multicultural education approaches: an exploration of their relationship. Leadership in Education,
13(2), 163-0183, doi: 10.1080/13603120903386969.
In this article the authors surveyed 17 principals in multicultural schools in Cyprus in order to find out what leadership styles worked best. The issue is relevant because immigration means new challenges for education leaders. About half of the 17 principals embraced a transactional leadership and "conservative multiculturalism" although another group adopted a style more in tune with what the authors call "critical multiculturalism embedded in critical and social justice leadership."
Does Leisure Time Affect Work Performance?
Employees are the most valuable asset that any organization has in their possession. Many times it is difficult for employees to balance their obligations of work, yet still maintain a fulfilling life outside of the workplace. Children's Hospital of Philadelphia recognizes the importance of maintaining a healthy work and home life balance. This research measures the ability to detach from work to get quality leisure time and its impact on employees. The results found that at this organization workers did not have the ability to recover during leisure time. Suggestions were made for improving the situation at the healthcare facility.
Does Leisure Time Affect Work Performance?
Employees are the most valuable asset that any organization has in their possession. Many times it is difficult for employees to balance their obligations of work, yet still maintain a fulfilling life outside of the…
Berg, J. & Grant, A. (2010). When Callings Are Calling: Crafting Work and Leisure in Pursuit of Unanswered Occupational Callings. Organization Science. 21 (5), 573-994.
Binnewies, C., Sonnetag, S., & Mojza, E. (2009). Feeling recovered and thinking about the good sides of one's work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14(3),, 243-256.
Demerouti, E., Taris, T. & Bakker, A. (2007). Need for recovery, home -- work interference and performance: Is lack of concentration the link? Journal of Vocational Behavior. 71, 204-220. Retrieved August 12, 2012 from http://www.beanmanaged.eu/pdf/articles/arnoldbakker/article_arnold_bakker_153.pdf
Fullick, S., Grindey, C., & Edwards, B et al. (2009). Relationships between leisure-time energy expenditure and individual coping strategies for shift-work. Ergonomics 52 (4), 448-455.
This is related to bronchitis, asthma and long-term conditions such as lung cancer and bladder cancer (obinson, 2009).
It is estimated that the chances of getting bladder cancer is high for ex-smokers and passive smokers even after thirty years later. This brings us to the question of management of bladder cancer for current and ex-smokers as well as passive smokers.
The management of bladder cancer is a three-pronged approach that involves reducing the progression of the disease, protecting the bladder and increasing the chances of survival. The course of treatment depends to a large extent on the stage of the cancer. During the earlier stages, surgery, trans urethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy are used to contain the disease and prevent it from progressing further. The malignant areas are treated with one of the above procedures to remove the tumor. In the case of a more advanced stage, radical cystectomy…
Cancer Research UK. (2011). Cancer in the UK: April 2011. Retrieved from http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/mortality/
Friedman, Howard. (1990). Personality and Disease. Publisher: New York, John Wiley & Sons.
Abrahamson; Seligman; Teasdale. (1978). Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation. Abnormal Psychology. Vol 87. pp 49-74.
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However, during the little more than 10 years of this research line, contradictory results have been found (Brynjolfsson, Hitt, & Yang, 2002). From the 1970s to 1980s, those companies that invested more in IT suffered a relative setback in the work factor productivity indexes. This paper will discuss the relationship between IT and competitive advantage in following content. We believe that IT is necessary to improve competitive position of the organization.
Many business professionals point to the use and deployment of IT as a point of weakness, not a point of strength in their organizations. They think that the reason for this is often that IT is being driven from a technical perspective, not from a business perspective (Orlikowski & Iacono, 2000). This phenomenon exists because many businesspeople think that the IT is too complicated, too expensive, too risky and too changeable. They would not like to spend time on…
About Us', Waseta International Trading Co., [Online]. Available at http://www.wasseta.com/gywm.htm
Advancing with e-Business: Pro-Angler Fishing Tackle Direct." [Internet]. 29 Jan 2005. Available at http://www.proangler.com.au .
Ahmed, P.K., & Rafiq, M. 2003, "Internal Marketing Issues and Challenges," European Journal of Marketing, 37 (9), p. 1177-1186.
Armstrong, G., & Kotler, P. 2003, Marketing: An Introduction, 6th ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ., p. 10.
high degree of misinformation I had received from traditional teachings about the church and the beginning of Christianity. Moreover, I was struck by the notion that most other people in the Western world receive this same degree of intentional misinformation, so much so that I have even heard people defend the idea that knowledge of the historical church is irrelevant to modern Christianity. Reading through the class material, I was struck by how critical this historical information was to the understanding of the actual church. One critical piece of information is the idea of Jesus as the head of the church, despite him not establishing Christianity as a separate religion. Another critical idea was that prophets could play a continuing role in Christianity, when my traditional understanding had suggested that after Jesus there would be no more Jewish prophets. I also found myself wondering about the very obvious and significant…