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However, when it comes to health-related issues, I do not believe that subjective personal impressions and feelings can influence one's ethical decision-making. The evidence is clear that smoking is harmful to the smoker, and also to the person who inhales second-hand smoke. Additionally, we were in my parents' home. I know that they have hard and fast rules about smoking on their property.
My friend took a different point-of-view: he acquiesced to my request, but said that he thought his country had a more reasonable attitude towards smoking: a utilitarian approach. "If everyone is smoking," he said, "why not permit it -- simply banning it will not force people to quit. That is a personal decision, and more pleasure is given by allowing people the option, particularly if everyone or almost everyone in the party is a smoker."
My friend is a good man, but good people can still manifest…
Philosophical Legal Theory: Analyzing the Rhetoric in Civil Rights Speeches by King and Wallace
While Martin Luther King, Jr. (MLK) is remembered as a hero in the Civil Rights struggle, it is important to keep in mind that, during his time period, he was vilified by many who claimed that his efforts to secure equality for African-Americans were somehow unnatural. One of his most vocal opponents was George Wallace (Wallace), the governor of Alabama, who ran on a platform of opposing integration. This analysis will examine speeches by each of these men, who were diametrically opposed in their approach to Civil Rights: MLK's "I Have a Dream" speech and Wallace's January 14, 1963 inaugural address. In their speeches, both men used the same philosophical and rhetorical appeals to try to forward the moral, legal, and ethical correctness of their respective positions.
The analysis will begin with a discussion of Wallace's…
In fact, tolerance often stands in the way of engagement. Tolerance does not require us to attempt to understand one another or to know anything about one another. Sometimes tolerance may be all that can be expected. It is a step forward from active hostility, but it is a long way from pluralism" (Eck 1993).
Achieving true dialogue and understanding, of course, is easier said than done. Also, teachers must ensure that students meet fairly homogeneous academic standards in the era of No Child Left Behind, which leaves relatively little time to teach about other cultures and foster dialogue, especially in classrooms where children may need to be brought up to basic skills standards or lose funding. Pluralism remains a beautiful ideal, but an ideal that is difficult to realize: "The encounter of a pluralistic society is not premised on achieving agreement, but achieving relationship[s]" (Eck 1993). Pluralism requires a…
Eck, Diana. "The Challenge of Pluralism." Nieman Reports "God in the Newsroom" Issue.
XLVII. 2. (Summer, 1993). December 1, 2008. http://www.pluralism.org/research/articles/cop.php?from=articles_index
MacHacek, David. "The Problem of Pluralism." The Sociology of Religion. 64. 2. (Summer, 2003), pp. 145-161
His social contract put forward the notion that citizens at some point give their consent to live under a "certain political structure" and that requires a social contract.
John Locke is often seen as the "…philosopher of the American Revolution," Heineman explains. Locke's view was that in the early period of human existence, mankind lived in a state of nature, but though it was reasonably pleasant, there were problems. And how were those problems to be solved? Locke's view was the people then created a "social contract" -- a government -- and that government would serve the people's needs and wishes and would protect liberties and property. But the social contract Locke described would restrict government so its power won't interfere with citizens' rights.
Among the hallmarks of Locke's democratic philosophy: a) citizens have a role to play through their representative government; b) leaders in the government cannot rule in…
Heineman, Robert a., Peterson, Steven a., and Rasmussen, Thomas H. 1995. American
Government. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional.
Philosophical Analysis of Animal-Human Interactions
Both animal rights and ecocentrism discourage hunting, although for different reasons. Thesis: Animal rights philosophy views hunting from a moral perspective, as the unnecessary infliction of suffering on sentient beings, no less immoral than the persecution of human beings. Ecocentrism views hunting from a perspective of self-interest, as an activity with unforeseeable consequences which could threaten the ability of many life-forms to sustain themselves on planet Earth.
The Basis for Animal Rights
Animal Nature in the Age of Ancient Philosophy and Religion
The earliest comprehensive theories on animal nature come from ancient Indian philosophers. Vedic philosophy, the precursor to Hinduism, held that many non-human objects possess consciousness. Even plants and rocks have consciousness, though at a much lower level than humans. For these philosophers, all sentient beings have an individual soul, which they called "Atman." The purpose of existence was for the individual soul to…
The question of ethics, what the right thing to do vs. The wrong thing, can be a difficult one. There are occasions where right and wrong are black and white distinctions. The right thing to do is easy discernable, though it may not be the easiest things to do. However, this is the rare occasion. More often than not trying to determine right and wrong in a given situation is difficult. Usually the world is not divided into good and bad, right or wrong, black or white. Sometimes in life a person will be encountered with the opportunity to make a choice. There will be times when the right or wrong thing will not be as obvious as one would like it to be. There will also be occasions thankfully where the wrong or right thing will be obvious. Sometimes an honest action will be unprofitable and thus…
Williams, Christopher R. And Bruce A. Arrigo (2008). "How Free Are We? The Challenge of Determinism." Ethics, Crime, and Criminal Justice. Prentice Hall. 51-71.
The two theories, the revelation and the reason theory are quite diverse in beliefs as well as application in the real life. The revelation theory in this case is more of a divine instruction that guides the behavior of man. According to this theory, things that men do or can do are morally good or bad, or morally compulsory, permissible, or forbidden, solely because of God's will or commands. It holds that God is good and all His commands are good for man. It asserts that God is the creator of all things, and by default the creator of our moral obligations. He is claimed to be supreme and holds the power to tell us how we are to live our lives.
The theory holds that morality is essentially doing God's will. That a morally right action is doing what God requires or commands. The precise divine commands…
Manuel Valesquez et.al (2010). Ethical Relativism. Retrieved February 16, 2012 from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/decision/ethicalrelativism.html
Philosophical or Moral Issue
Faxes Only: Evidence There Is No God and the Problem of Evil and Suffering: A Response
Philosophical or Moral Issue Paper
Arguments, both for and against the existence and "goodness" of God as outlined in the readings fall short of convincing because they are based in unsupported assumptions. Chief among these assumptions is the definition of evil and good; and a narrow construction of pain, suffering, and death.
In both Evidence There Is No God and The Problem of Evil and Suffering: A Response each author seeks to make his point by employing the strategy of knocking down shallowly developed and diluted arguments of the opposition. Each essay spends more print describing the conclusions of its syllogisms than it does showing the veracity of the assumptions upon which those conclusions are drawn. In other words, there is a lot of jumping to conclusions and little establishing…
In this way, I fulfill my duty not only to my clients, but also to the community that helps me to accomplish the fulfilment of this duty (American Occupational Therapy Association, 2005).
The central premise of my philosophy is therefore to connect with clients on a personal level, determine what they need, and work with them to achieve the results they desire. For this reason, I expect that my engagement in scholarship will be mainly with the "scholarship of application" and the "scholarship of discovery," as suggested by the American Journal of Occupational Therapy. It is only by sharing findings that the occupational therapy field developed as far as it has today. Indeed, even the earliest occupational therapists recognized the importance of sharing their findings with the rest of the community (Meyer, 1922).
In summary, my philosophy therefore centrally concerns the way in which I may be of help to…
The American Journal of Occupational Therapy. (2009). Scholarship in Occupational Therapy. November/December, Vol 63, No. 6.
The American Occupational Therapy Association (2005). Model State Regulation for Supervision, Roles, and Responsibilities during the Delivery of Occupational Therapy Services. Retrieved from: http://www.aota.org/Practitioners/Advocacy/State/Resources/Supervision/36447.aspx
The American Occupational Therapy Association (2011). Occupational Therapist Assistant Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.careercornerstone.org/pdf/alliedhealth/otasst.pdf
Hoppes, S., Bender, D, and DeGrace, B.W. (2005, Spring). Service Learning is a Perfect Fit for Occupational and Physical Therapy Education. Journal of Allied Health. Retrieved from: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa4040/is_200504/ai_n13500672/
Philosophical Dilemmas in Clinical Psychology
My religious orientation is one of my greatest challenges, as a therapist. I consider myself an "objectively moral atheist," which means that I do not believe in the existence of any so-called "supreme being," or "God." I believe that moral behavior can be defined, understood, taught, and practiced utterly without reference to any supreme being. As an objectively moral atheist, my actions are dictated purely by objective concepts such as fairness, equity, equality and by my respect for basic principles of human rights and dignity.
Many of the conflicts and issues in my patients' lives either relate directly to, or require addressing a pervasive sense of inner guilt and shame which originates, to some degree, in their Judeo-Christian religious upbringing. Therefore, I have had to develop a method of addressing these psychological issues in a manner that fulfills my professional and ethical obligations as a…
Branden, N. (1985) Honoring the Self: The Psychology of Confidence and Respect Bantam; New York
As Socrates argues against rhetoric and its use as an "art" (as Gorgias identifies it), he exemplifies the freedom of the criminal as opposed to the law-abiding individual, subsisting to the same argument that Plato had presented in "Republic." In arguing against rhetoric and freedom obtained in democracy, Socrates states: "...the unjust or doer of unjust actions is miserable in any case,-more miserable, however, if he be not punished and does not meet with retribution, and less miserable if he be punished and meets with retribution at the hands of gods and men." This passage means that punishment inflicted upon those who deviated and did not follow the laws of humanity is a form of reiterating inequality among humans, between those who are right, just, and powerful, and the wrongdoers and powerless. Moreover, this train of thought in "Gorgias" elucidates the freedom of deviants in society, since once punished, society…
Plato. E-text of "Gorgias." Available at http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/gorgias.html .
____. "The Republic." NY: Penguin Books.
Aristotle. E-text of "Politics." Available at http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/politics.4.four.html .
Philosophical Views: International elations
International elations: Philosophical Views
In studying International elations, there are four philosophical schools of thought used to analyze such studies. Liberalism, realism, radical, and constructivist views have contributed to analyzing this field of study from ancient times to the contemporary era. In its simplest terms, philosophy means the quest for knowledge and truth. It is the quest for wisdom or universal knowledge of the whole. Hence, the quest would not be necessary if such knowledge were immediately available. Such venture for knowledge gave birth to different philosophical views in Athens, circa Socrates, Aristotle, and Plato. Insomuch, many philosophical theories have been used as a framework to understand political theories, such as International elations.
International elations studies relationships between countries, including the roles of the various forms of governments, academic arena, and public policy fields. Hence, it is often characterized as a branch…
Cozette, M. (2008). What lies ahead: Classical realism on the future of international relations. International Studies Review, 10(4), 667-679. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2486.2008.00824.x
Hall, I. (2011). The triumph of anti-liberalism? Reconciling radicalism to realism in international relations theory. Political Studies Review, 9(1), 42-52. doi:10.1111/j.1478-9302.2010.00225.x
Kunz, B. (2010). Hans J. Morgenthau's Political Realism, Max Weber, and the Concept of Power. Max Weber Studies, 10(2), 189-208.
Tabensky, P. (2007). Realistic idealism: An aristotelian alternative to machiavellian international relations. Theoria: A Journal of Social & Political Theory, (113), 97-111. doi:10.3167/th.2007.5411306
Behaviorism sought to understand observable behavior instead of the workings of the mind or even its functions. Some psychologists even insisted that psychology was the science of behavior. Watson denied the existence of a separate realm of conscious events. The purpose of Behaviorism, according to John Watson, was to predict and control behavior by understanding the effect of the environment on one's behavior. Watson was also influenced by Locke's blank slate theory, and believed that an individual's character and behavior was determined solely through experience.
Because Behaviorism was not concerned with what the mind and what went on inside it, they had no need for introspection and rejected it. Instead, they relied exclusively on the methodical, observable, and scientific observation of behavior. Their dominant method was the stimuli-response method, where the scientists presented the subject with a stimulus and observed its responses.
Behaviorism produced many findings, frameworks, and research…
Philosophical approaches to criminology:
Two differing ethical worldviews regarding free will and choice
The rational choice theory of criminology is perhaps the oldest theory of why people commit crimes. "ational choice theories explain social behavior via the aggregated actions of rational or purposive actors. The actors are rational in the sense that, given a set of values and beliefs, they calculate the relative costs and benefits of alternative actions and, from these calculations, make a choice that maximizes their expected utility" (Simpson, 2006, cited by O'Connor, 2007). ational choice theory assumes some intelligence and thoughtfulness on the part of the criminal, in which the potential committer of the crime weighs the options of choosing to commit or not to commit the crime. A good example of this can be seen with a common crime, that of speeding while driving. Many people decide that the likelihood of…
Criminological theory summaries. (2012). UWEC. Retrieved:
O'Connor, T. (2007). Choice theory. MegaLinks in Criminal Justice. Retrieved:
philosophical implications contained in Name of the Rose by Umberto Eco. His views about God were formed when Eco attended the University of Turin to take up studies in medieval philosophy and literature. There, he wrote his thesis on Thomas Aquinas, although Eco stopped believing in God and left the Roman Catholic Church. The struggles he had in his own life echo those of illiam of Baskerville and his novice Adso of Melk have large issues with God and the Church. illiam of Baskerville is especially in this category since he has been arrest, tortured and imprisoned by the Inquisition in the past. Now, he is confronted with this same reality again and his faith is severely tried. He now again is faced with the choice between faith and knowledge, a choice he does not believe is right to make. For him, there is no contradiction between reason and faith.…
Capozzi, Rocco. Reading Eco: an anthology. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana Univ. Press, 1997.
"The Doctrine of Original Sin." Saint Aquinas. Saintaquinas.com, 2011. Web. 13 Oct 2011.
Eco, Umberto. The Name of the Rose. New York, NY: Harcourt, Inc., 1983. Print.
Identify the following ten terms or philosophers: (Be sure your answers contain details and sufficient information for college level work.) 1) Buddha 2) Freud 3) Plato 4) Relativism 5) Camus 6) Kierkegaard 7) What is your definition or morality? 8) Does God exist and intervene directly in our affairs? 9) What is the relationship between religion and reason? 10) What philosophical ideals are you developing as a result of your reading in this course?
Buddha is a person who has achieved enlightenment (awakening) through nirvana (liberation). It is furthered by Buddhism, a popular eastern religion that stresses the importance of self-discovery through peace and understanding. The person Buddha is often associated with the historical founder of the Buddhist faith. The individual must liberate him or herself from the physical world in order to be awakened to its reality.
Freud is the father of psychoanalysis, a precursor…
Taking the good of other people or the good of the group as a whole into consideration is a positive thing in order to help a democracy function. If each citizen in a democracy votes only for his or her own interests, and did not take into consideration what vote would most benefit the group as a whole, then nothing would ever get done because desires would be too spread apart. In this scenario, it would seem that interest groups or factions would be beneficial to society.
Second, let us consider the cons of having such factions. When people are caught up in an interest group, they tend to only consider what their group wants. People may fail to take their own individual needs into consideration, or, more likely, they may fail to consider what is beneficial for the whole, organic society.
However, the true consideration is whether or not…
He also notes that God is above religious systems and doctrines as He predates them all.
In the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus portrayed God as dependable, serving as a divine parental figure; protecting those requiring protection and rewarding people pure in heart who lead good lives. According to Jesus, the peacemakers, persecuted, meek and righteous will be accepted into the Kingdom of Heaven. Conversely, those who break the laws and intentionally do not lead righteous lives will not enter the Kingdom of Heaven. The God described by Jesus punishes wrongdoers, those with evil or hate in their hearts will go unrewarded, but at the same time God loves all equally and will send "his sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the righteous and on the unrighteous."
The God described by Voltaire and Jesus is almost identical, with both exclaiming He is perfect,…
In the first point, the author's style is clear, concise, friendly, and reasoned. He presents himself as a professional with an understanding of the topic, but also as a teacher who wishes to impart his knowledge to others. An examination of his definitions is sufficient to understand the simplicity with which he writes. For instance, he describes globalization as "a set of processes that bring about a palpable sense of worldwide interconnectedness" (Prabu 14). This definition allows readers of all levels to understand the concept of globalization. Others who have a more advanced understanding of this topic may argue that this definition is too simple, but here it shows an advanced understanding of his audience and a desire to make his argument without the frustration of complexities. In addition, Prabu continues by using simple language to identify what he sees as a problem in international relations -- the conflicting nature…
Prabu, Joseph. "The Clash of Dialogue of Civilizations."
House I Live in directed by Eugene Jarecki is a narrative documentary about the "war on drugs" and the collateral damage that is occurring with the ordinary lives of citizens often serving prison time for minor, drug-related offenses. "Jarecki asserts -- as he sifts through the data, weighs the evidence and checks in with those on both sides of the law -- a war that has led to mass incarcerations characterized by profound racial disparities and that ha he title of the documentary isn't purely metaphoric" (Dargis, 2012).
One of the most effective elements of the film is that Jarecki starts from personal experience: he grew up with a nanny named Ms. Jeter, who was like another mother to him, and he saw how her family overlapped with and how their worlds too became more like a Venn diagram. As Jarecki explains, as the members of Ms. Jeter's family got…
Beaver, T. (2013). Film Review: 'The House I Live In'. Retrieved from filmslatemagazine.com: http://www.filmslatemagazine.com/reviews/film-review-the-house-i-live-in
Dargis, M. (2012). One Woman's Family, a String of Casualties in the War on Drugs. Retrieved from NYtimes.com: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/05/movies/the-house-i-live-in-directed-by-eugene-jarecki.html
The US constitution is a supreme law guiding the conducts of government, people, and organizations in the United States. The U.S. constitution comprises of seven articles that delineates the form of government. However, before the constitution came into force in 1789, there were philosophical thinking that influenced the compilation of the American constitution.
The objective of this essay is to discuss the philosophical influences on the U.S. Constitution.
John Locke was an English Philosopher and his thinking had the great impact on the American constitution. John Locke believed that all people has alienated rights and they are created equal. John Locke was political philosopher was the early proponent of social contract theory believing that there were certain inalienable rights that people should enjoy. Locke believed that it was people who created the government, and people could overthrow the government if they failed to protect their rights. In his philosophical thinking,…
philosophical issue ethics, epistemology, religion. You find a topic a debate, order present sides debate. Here, position, relative issue;, , final version paper.
There is presently much controversy regarding the concept of assisted suicide, as while some people believe that it is a perfectly ethical thing, others consider that it is immoral and should be illegalized. In contrast to euthanasia, assisted suicide deals with the individual taking his own life consequent to receiving the tools necessary for him or her to do so. Some people perceive this technique as an act through which doctors and patients are provided with the opportunity to cooperate in order to end the patient's suffering. However, when considering matters from a religious point-of-view, suicide is considered to be one of the worst sins. Many people are inclined to understand assisted suicide wrongly and it is essential for the masses to have a complex…
Balch, Burke J. Obannon, Randal K. "Why We Shouldn't Legalize Assisting Suicide," Retrieved February 5, 2012, from the national right to life Website: http://www.nrlc.org/euthanasia/asisuid3.html
Gorsuch, Neil M. The Future of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006)
"Yes, go ahead," Retrieved February 5, 2012, from the Economist Website: http://www.economist.com/node/105238
philosophical questions about, Jean Jacque Rousseau, John Dewey, Michel Foucault and Marin Luther King, Jr. It has 4 sources.
Rousseau and Nature"
We are born weak, we need strength; helpless, we need aid; foolish, we need reason. All that we lack at birth, all that we need when we come to man's estate, is the gift of education. This education comes to us from nature, from men, or from things."[Rousseau 143].
According to Rousseau out of the three factors involved in a child's development, Nature, is totally uncontrollable. "Nature, we are told, is merely habit." Habits are a product of positive or negative conditioning. As a child grows in reason he uses judgment to modify his natural tendencies but often this process becomes warped due to already embedded habits. Harmony within is affected when natural tendencies conflict with what a child learns at the hands of society and other men.…
Rousseau, Jean Jacques. emile, Everyman's Library 1969.
Foucault, M. (1979). Discipline & Punish: The birth of the prison. New York: Vintage Books
Preston, Edward. Martin Luther King: Fighter for Freedom. New York: Doubleday and Company, 1986.
Dewey, John, 1859-1952. Democracy and Education: an Introduction to the Philosophy of Education at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/DewDemo.html
Oddly enough, this passage paints a brighter picture of Nietzsche than popular thought attributes to him. Nietzsche here presents a direct path -- unlike Rousseau -- out of the swamps of nothingness: the path is not necessarily religion, nor is it secularism. Rather, it is a lack of contradiction.
Nietzsche urges each man to evaluate just what he believes and desires and understand for himself whether he wishes to credit God or himself. In other words, Nietzsche calls upon man to answer the age old question: fate or control?
If mankind avoids contradiction here, he is able to pick himself up by the bootstraps and re-instill into his life some of the soul and passion that Rousseau bleakly believes is missing.
In fact, Nietzsche had a great argument with Rousseau's thinking: this hostility derives from Nietzsche's conviction that the autonomous subject of Enlightened political discourse is hopelessly inadequate. Nietzsche…
philosophical approaches to ethics. I did not begin this course with an extensive understanding of normative ethics. Instead, because the utilitarian approach is similar to my own, I assumed that most people had a utilitarian approach to ethics. Not that I would advocate an overt harm to an individual in order to help society, but I believed that the right choice would be dictated by the greatest good. I agreed with the notion that "we choose the course of action that provides the greatest benefits after the costs have been taken into account" (Andre & Velasquez, 2010). However, what I did not realize is that I was also employing some deontological perspectives in my own personal normative ethics. There are some lines that I feel should never be crossed, which is deontological in its orientation. "In contrast to consequentialist theories, deontological theories judge the morality of choices by criteria different…
Alexander, L. & Moore, M. (2012, December 12). Deontological ethics. Retrieved December
19, 2012 from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy website: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/
Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (2010). Calculating consequences: The utilitarian approach to ethics. Retrieved December 19, 2012 from Markkula Center for Applied Ethics website: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v2n1/calculating.html
Thus, the analytic approach offers the best method of approaching philosophical questions, because it understands and explicates the problems and limitations of human consciousness immediately by intentionally discussing language itself, because no philosophical work can ever escape the linguistic and therefore philosophical limitations placed upon human thought by the borders of language.
The answer to the question "who am I" is revealed to be the "I" itself, made into a "who" in every instance of the word's utterance (whether aloud or in the mind of a reader). hereas the two earlier philosophical approaches attempted to remove and separate the philosopher from the object of his or her study, the analytic approach realizes that everything, including the philosopher and his or her thought, are the objects of language and therefore ideology, such that the philosopher is reduced in importance in relation to the communication between humans, and the particular consciousness of…
Austin, J.L. (1946). "Other Minds." Classics of analytic philosophy. (2003). Indianapolis, IN:
Hackett Publishing Company.
Descartes, R. (2008). Discourse on the method and the meditations. New York, NY: Cosimo Inc.
Moore, G.E. (1939). "Proof of an external world." Classics of analytic philosophy. (2003).
These could include the aim of her studies, the programs she joins at college, her friends, and her romantic pursuits. The point is that the philosophy of love is explained by Plato in such a way as to make it accessible to men and women, college students, and feminists alike.
The same principle holds true for the works of Thomas Aquinas, whose writings focused much on the nature of God and his interaction with human beings. Much of this of course is based within the principles of Christianity, and the anti-feminist notion of the submission of the woman to the man. Nonetheless, like Plato, there are many elements of this philosophy that concerns humanity in general rather than the genders in isolation.
In the first part of the Summa for example, Aquinas considers the nature of God, creation and the free will that humanity operates under. According to Aquinas, the…
Theory and Philosophical Orientations
An area of interest for a possible research topic that I consider is organizational performance. My topic of research interest is the effect of employee participation on organizational performance. The philosophical orientation that mirrors my worldview is the interpretivist research paradigm. In-depth inquiry is enabled by interpretivist research, which sees knowledge as subjective (Bryman, 2008). In other words, knowledge is not generalizable – it is contextual, situational, or circumstantial. This means that different individuals interpret their world differently. To ensure in-depth inquiry, interpretivist research focuses on a small sample and employs qualitative techniques such as in-depth interviews, focus groups, and observations. Such techniques enable the researcher to cultivate a closer relationship with the subjects (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2015). A close relationship gives the researcher an opportunity to understand the perspectives, experiences, and worldviews of the subjects with respect to the research phenomenon (Creswell,…
The nature of science
A number of scientists have the feeling that philosophical inquiries are well outdated. They purportedly can handle matters in a better way than their social constructivists counterparts. Philosophers and physicists are very different from each other, especially taking into account what some renown physicist recently commented on philosophy. Stephen Hawking for instance is on a campaign to tarnish philosophers. He might not be so convincing in whatever points he puts across, but he is winning the heart of the public by his jokes on philosophers. Jokes have for a long time been known to really move the masses. His most recent book, The Grand Design, co authored by Leonard Mlodinow, starts by scrutinizing the nature of reality, the beginning of all things and the purpose of God. He then claims these to be matters of philosophy, which is in itself dead. Philosophy, according to him, is…
Empathy and rapport with subject has to be profound, particularly where the researcher may have a priori thoughts or personal stakes with the matter at hand. If the latter exists, it may be better that she not do the research.
Analysis of the research can be somewhat daunting given the vast amount of material (interview notes, tape-recording, jottings etc.) generated by the interviews. The way one goes about this is via a brief cursory reading of the material, roughly identifying key themes and points. One then aggregates these key themes in a set of notes and organizes them with the aid of (for instance) a mind-map or post-it notes so that they become points that one then uses to review the original material again and add to or modify in order to assess whether what one has noted is correct and complete (Hycner, 1985).
Nonetheless, analysis can still be tricky…
Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenolgoical research methods. Sage Pub. CA
Shea, C. (1999). The practical art of suicide assessment. Hoboken, U.S.
Wann, TW. (1964). Behaviorism and phenomenology. Univ. Chicago: Chicago.
theory-building, applied research is conducted to solve a problem. Action research is conducted to solve an immediate problem experienced by a practitioner; the problems that are addressed through action research exist in the context or environment in which they conduct their professional work. A construct is an abstraction -- an idea that exists in the mind; if an abstraction is based on something concrete or tangible, it is a concept, but if it is based on something hypothetical or inferential, then the abstraction is a construct. The most important difference between qualitative research and quantitative research is that quantitative research is deductive in relation to the hypothesis, which is determined before the research has actually begun. Quantitative research uses a deductive approach that moves from the general case to the specific. In this manner, the deductive approach considers the potential cause of some phenomenon and explores whether its effect can…
Lodico, M., Spaulding, D., & Voegtle, K. (2010). Methods in educational research: From theory to practice (2nd ed.) San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
Ethics of Belief
Knowledge, Truth and Belief -- Cphl 550
For a long time, issues of faith and ethics have raised many concerns. In this study, I have used Clifford's argument to elucidate my support for the "ethics of belief." The Ethics of Belief by illiam Clifford state that it is incorrect for anyone to believe on anything based on insufficient evidence. Clifford mentions that the immorality of belief unsupported by evidence is similar to that of shipowners who forgo overhaul for their ship and overcome their doubts on the ship's sea-worthiness (Clifford 45). The costs and efforts used in monitoring the implementation are sourced from necessary repairs. The depiction shows the play-off beliefs against elements of self-interest. Ship owners overcome their doubts based on self-interest. The management collects the insurance after people dies in his ship at sea because of the proven unseaworthy nature of the vessel.
Clifford, William. The Ethics of Belief and Other Essays. New York: Prometheus Books, 2008. Print
Proudfoot, Wayne. William James and a Science of Religions: Reexperiencing The Varieties of Religious Experience. New York: Columbia University Press, 2013. Print
Miller, Richard. Terror, Religion, and Liberal Thought. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010. Print
There are others though that believes that learners are born with certain innate capabilities that are then shaped and formed from the outside (Montessori theory, 2011)
No matter which theory one looks at though the bottom line is that each philosophy is based on the idea that everything possible should be done to encourage as much learning as possible. All philosophies are based on the fact that education should be about learning and that no matter how the learning takes place, what environment is takes place in or under what circumstances the edn result should be something was learned. Educational philosophy in general believes that in order for people to be successful and productive they must learn as much as possible and that this should be done by way of formal education.
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. etrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong.…
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong. Retrieved from http://www.hoover.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/6408
Gray, P. (2009). Rousseau's Errors: They Persist Today in Educational Theory. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200902/rousseau-s-errors-they-persist-today-in-educational-theory?page=2
Jean-Jacques Rousseau on nature, wholeness and education. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm
eligion and Leadership
Core religious and philosophical worldviews have a strong bearing on leadership style and effectiveness. eligious and philosophical worldviews provide the ethical and moral foundations for decision-making, which is a critical component of leadership. Moreover, religious and philosophical worldviews impact the ways leaders guide, teach, and serve others.
Worldview extends beyond religion. Defined loosely as "visions of life," worldviews encompass the "beliefs, values, and principles" that guide behavior and motivate change (Valk, 2010, p. 83). A worldview is a set of mental constructs that impacts the formation of biases and stereotypes. Biases and stereotypes can come in the way of effective leadership. On the other hand, worldviews are influenced by religious beliefs. eligious beliefs impact the formation of ethical codes that define both individual and organizational behavior. A worldview is a paradigm of life. Although a worldview affects more than leadership effectiveness, there are few areas in which…
Agosto, E. (2005). Servant Leadership. Danvers, MA: Chalice.
Antonakis, J., Ashkanasy, N.M. & Dasborough, M.T. (2009). Does leadership need emotional intelligence? The Leadership Quarterly 20(2): 241-261.
Boyum, G. (2006). The Historical and Philosophical Influences on Greenleaf's Concept of Servant Leadership. Servant Leadership Research Roundtable. Aug 2006. Retrieved online: http://www.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/sl_proceedings/2006/boyum.pdf
Fry, L.F. (2009). Towards a theory of being-centered leadership: Multiple levels of being as context for effective leadership. Human Relations 62(11):1667-1696
Perceived Philosophical Positions of Three Teachers From Your Educational Past (elementary,
I have had a number of memorable teachers throughout the course of my academic career. From elementary school to college, I was fortunate enough to encounter pedagogues who actually were able to enhance the learning process and disseminate didactic lessons for life in general. Although not all of the philosophical positions of the teachers that had the most impact on me were congruent, they all were able to strongly contribute -- either negatively or positively -- to my regard for formal education and the myriad connotations it can take on.
The best teacher I have ever had was my Latin teacher in middle school and high school. The bulk of my secondary education was at a learning institution that spanned from kindergarten to high school, so I was fortunate to have this particular teacher for six years. Perhaps due…
Baum, S., Flores, S.M. (2011). "Higher education and children in immigrant families." The Future of Children. 21 (1): 171-193.
Bronson, P. (2007). How not to talk to your kids. www.nymag.com. Retrieved from http://nymag.com/news/features/27840/index2.html
Freiberg, K., Freiberg, J. (2012). Why appreciative questions work. www.Freibergs.com. Retrieved from http://www.freibergs.com/resources/articles/vision-and-values/why-appreciative-questions-work/
Garret, E. (1998). The Socratic Method. The University of Chicago. Retrieved from http://www.law.uchicago.edu/socrates/soc_article.html
The word means "snuffed out" in the way a fire is snuffed out or extinguished. At this point, the self no longer exists. It is not folded into a higher reality nor it is transported to a land of bliss, it simply ceases to exist. This is the state that the Buddha passed into at his death.
Buddhism centrally concerns the problem of the eternal birth and rebirth of the human soul (reincarnation). Buddhism in its original form does not posit some transcendent alternative as a goal. In fact, Buddhism in its original form held that the soul actually died when the body died.
A large part of the program prescribed by Buddha involved selflessness in the world. Buddhism represents one of the most humane and advanced moral systems in the ancient world. The first steps on the road to Nirvana were to focus one's actions on doing good to…
Gaarder, Jostein. "Review of Sophie's World, by Jostein Gaarder (Richard Gehr)." Sophie's
World: A Novel About the History of Philosophy. 1994. Levity.com. 10 July 2005 http://www.levity.com/rubric/sophie.html .
Siddhartha Gatama." Wesleyan.edu. Wesleyan.edu. 10 July 2005 http://www.wesleyan.edu/phil/moralpsych/students/iorozco/ .
Moral and Philosophical Implications
Well technology has existed with humans from the time they have started moving in the world. At first it was quite simple as the objective of humans was to hunt animals for their daily meals and this was done by both men and women. This is no surprise as God, or whoever put humans into the world probably did not distinguish between the sexes, except for their roles in procreation and continuation of the species. This is now being forgotten by the species and the number of children per pair is falling, and may be that would lead us to a situation where the species would have to be sustained through the test tube. Whether that would improve the quality of the specie one doubts, as is seen through the situation that has now developed in agriculture where the crops have to be sustained with the…
Existentialism is a philosophical movement that views human existence as having characteristics, such as anxiety, dread, freedom, awareness of death, and consciousness of existing, that are primary and that cannot be reduced to or explained by a natural-scientific approach or any approach that attempts to detach itself." For existentialism, human beings can be understood only from the inside and it emphasizes action, freedom, and decision as fundamental to human existence and is fundamentally opposed to the rationalist tradition and to positivism (Wikipedia). The Stranger reflects existentialism that our world is a universe that has no place for us, in which our life makes no sense. In the novel, Meursault is portrayed as aloof, detached and unemotional. He does not think about events and the possible consequences. He also fails to express any emotion in his relationship with his friends. Meursault's complete indifference to society and human relationships causes him to…
ince neither of those explanations is likely (let alone knowable), philosophical naturalists would have to doubt that the universe exists at all; yet, very clearly, it does. The most likely explanation for the existence of the universe is simply that some force or consciousness (i.e. God) caused whatever the so-called "first cause" of existence was.
The second major philosophical assumption of philosophical naturalism presupposes that all philosophical postulates must, necessarily, fit the scientific model. However, that supposition clearly closes off many possible explanations simply because they may lie outside of human understanding. Again, that position is an a priori assumption that also violates the first major philosophical assumption of philosophical naturalism. In essence, it suggests that scientific concepts provide the only possible set of tools for understanding phenomena, including phenomena that obviously defy scientific explanation such as miracles and faith. Most importantly, it automatically (and in a manner that is…
Friedman, M. (1997). "Philosophical Naturalism." Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association. Accessed online, October 15, 2011, from:
Hawking, S. (1990). A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. Bantam Publishing: New York.
Nightingale's philosophy demanded a completely clean and sterile environment in order to best provide for a healthy recovery of patients in need. This is also seen in Martinsen's philosophy and the way it approaches nursing care and practice as a meticulous science.
However, Nightingale's philosophies presented a passive patient, who did not really engage in their own health care strategies. These patients were not involved in the manipulation of the environment around them in order to best facilitate successful care strategies. Rather, the nurses and physicians seemed to work autonomously and outside of the patient's involvement. This isolated the very people who were receiving care and created a situation where the patient could not contribute to the strategy of care of the process of recovery. On the other hand, Martinsen's philosophy is very much influenced by phenomenology. Thus, Martinsen's philosophy of care is centered more around treating the patients and…
communist answer Martin's "Four Subsidiary Philosophical Questions" -- ontological, epistemological, axiological, teleological questions? You find questions Chapter 1 Martin text, Presentation Module 1.
Communism: Four subsidiary philosophical questions
Although the 'four subsidiary philosophical questions' are often applied to religious systems of thinking, they can also be applied to secular worldviews such as Marxism. The ontological starting point of Marxism, or the question of 'who am I' is that every individual is fundamentally a material being, defined by his or her economic status. The world is divided into the 'haves' and the 'have-nots,' who are engaged in a perpetual struggle over the world's scarce resources. Although ideologies such as religion or nationalism may be used to mask the importance of economics, historical circumstances -- and therefore the nature of humanity -- are primarily defined by material possessions. People are defined by their class. Similarly, the epistemological questions of how does one…
Chambers, W. (1987). Witness. Washington, DC: Regency Publishing.
Martin, G. (2006). Prevailing worldviews of western society since 1500. Marion, IN: Triangle
Publishing. ISBN: 97811931283168.This is the name of the book
John Rawls' philosophical theme centers on the topic of "justice as fairness." It's hard not to relate this to one of the growing topics of discussion, namely the importance of digital deception which might well include the idea of airbrushing photos and images. Technology has the capacity today to provide us all with a Veil of Ignorance (Freeman, 2009) that even Rawls did not see coming and one that has the capacity of wiping away the honest elements of rationality and reason that he believes is necessary for people to be able to work together toward a balanced and honest society that works well for everyone.
The issue of airbrushing models or maybe the basic characteristics of those we admire or who are the attention of a public event can mean nothing more than making pictures prettier. This as we know can mean relatively little, or it can lead…
Birnholtz, J., Guillory, J., Hancock, J., and Bazarova, N. (2010) "on my way": Deceptive Texting and Interpersonal Awareness Narratives. Cornel University. Downloadable at http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/redmond/groups/connect/cscw_10/docs/p1.pdf .
Freeman, S. (2009). "Original Position," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Viewable at http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2009/entries/original-position/ .
Hutchinson, W. (2006). Information Warfare & Deception. Informing Science. Vol. 9.
James, K. (2011). Digital Deception. Simple Lies that manage our social interactions. Viewable within JayPlay at http://media.features.kansan.com/issues/jayplay/2011-11-03.pdf.
The inferior soldier knows that he is likely to die, but he will endure in the war and fight anyway. His knowledge of fact is that he is likely to die; his knowledge of value is that he can increase his odds of survival with endurance in fighting. The superior soldier knows that he is likely to win and will endure because of this likelihood. His knowledge of fact supersedes any need for knowledge of value.
Despite this discrepancy, both soldiers show endurance. But the discrepancy itself disproves the counterexample because the variable does not allow for a consistent comparison. Whether or not the inferior soldier is foolish or wise would determine the validity of the two soldiers counterexample.
My counterexample of the battered wife demonstrates an argumentative failure based on the knowledge of fact and the knowledge of value. The battered wife who stays with the abusive husband is…
(3) How might you pose a question regarding No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in order to reveal your interviewee's philosophy regarding education?
"Do you believe that the increased focus on standardized testing within the NCLB concept is beneficial to the educational interests of students or harmful to those interests?"
"Do you believe that educational systems should place greater emphasis or less emphasis on standardized testing and why?"
(4) Does the tenure of your interviewee affect his or her philosophy? How do you pose a question so that it will reveal this information?
Absolutely. The tenured of educators would naturally affect their philosophies, particularly to the extent the length of time since their training makes more experienced educators less aware of changes in and the evolution of educational concepts to which they were never exposed. One question that might be useful to reveal this information would be: "What recent changes or…
In order to gain insight into these it is necessary that they all be combined into one.
6) Miller states the rule that visions are always mentioned as being 'visions'.
7) the rule relating to determine when a word is used literally or physically and states that if the word makes good sense as it stands, and does not violence to the simple laws of nature, then it must be understood literally, if not, figuratively.";
8) Figures always have a figurative meaning, and are used much in prophecy to represent future things, times and events -- such as mountains, meaning governments, 9) to learn the meaning of a figure, trace the word through your ible, and where you find it explained, substitute the explanation for the word used; and if it makes good sense, you need not look further; if not, look again;
10) Figures sometimes have two or more…
Andrews, Allan. R. (2007)a Journalist's Online Glossary of Religion.
Joshua V. Himes (1842) on the Cleansing of the Sanctuary by William Miller Boston. Development of SDA Theology - Department of Theology, Newbold College. Online available at http://www.bics410.szm.com/l13/miller/index.htm
McCook, Matt (2005) Aliens in the World: Sectarians, Secularism and the Second Great Awakening. 2005. Online available at http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-08/unrestricted/McCook_Dissertation.pdf
Damsteegt, Foundations of the Seventh day Adventists: Message and Mission (1977); ES Gaustad, ed., the Rise of Adventism (1975); AA Hoekema, Seventh-day Adventism (1974); G. Land, ed., Adventism in America (1986); RL Numbers and JM Butler, eds., the Disappointed (1987); E. Sandeen, the Roots of Fundamentalism: British and American Millenarianism, 1800-1930 (1970).
The evolution of mankind on all levels, and especially the new focus of the modern society on technology and material development, has brought about an estrangement from the spiritual life.
The new world offers "alternatives," as it were, to love, through a complexity of personal, both material and social developments, that seem to been able to replace or fill the spiritual needs.
Although men and women still interact what happens between them seems to be different from what was called love before, and it is often said that more and more isolation and solitude result from these interactions. The pressure of the material complex world and of the various social facts do not allow for the openness required by love. It can be said that the complexity of the modern society influence the emotional sates of the individual and make it impossible for him or her to return to the…
For the most robust philosophical debate, the morality of abortion should be argued based on both duty-based and rights-based ethical principles. Abortion does in fact point to both duty and rights-based ethics. The duty to care is one example of a moral duty relevant to the abortion debate. Abortion also raises the question of rights. In the case of abortion, the rights belong to several stakeholders but none more salient than the embryo/fetus/potential human being. Because it is scientifically as well as philosophically impossible to delineate any other moment in which a fetus becomes a person, it is logical to presume that the beginning of personhood is conception and not some random or arbitrary point in the gestation period. The rights of the pregnant female are less central to the abortion debate from a philosophical standpoint, because it is the fetus/embryo who stands the chance of being killed. In…
"Abortion." Philosophy Talk. Retrieved online: http://www.philosophytalk.org/shows/abortion
Bouchier-Hayes, Frank. "Philosophers on Abortion and Infanticide." Retrieved online: http://www.minerva.mic.ul.ie//vol2/bh.html
Gordon, John-Stewart. "Abortion." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online: http://www.iep.utm.edu/abortion/#SH3b
Thomson, Judith Jarvis. "A Defense of Abortion." Philosophy & Public Affairs. Vol 1, No. 1, Fall 1971. Retrieved online: http://spot.colorado.edu/~heathwoo/Phil160,Fall02/thomson.htm
Yin and Stake Philosophical Worldviews
My perspective as a qualitative doctoral researcher more closely aligns with Yin’s worldview than with Stake’s. As Yazan (2015) notes, Yin’s approach to case study research was rather systematic: he wanted to ensure that researchers could apply the case study design by following a standardized method that would allow the design to be used as a legitimate method of research in the social sciences. Yin’s perspective was positivistic in the sense that he believed “objectivity, validity and generalizability” could be achieved in case study research (Yazan, 2015, p. 136). As Yazan (2015) also points out, Yin believed that case study research should “maximize four conditions related to design quality: construct validity, internal validity, external validity, and reliability” (p. 137). Validity and reliability were yardsticks that Yin suggested every case study researcher keep in mind when conducting research and have available so as to constantly be…
Concepts in the mind such as 'society' can thus have an impact on the real, sensory world but they do not have an independent, tangible or ideal existence. The one exception to Abelard's nominalism is the category of "human beings, whose forms are their immaterial (and immortal) souls. Strictly speaking, since human souls are capable of existence in separation form the body, they are not forms after all, though they act as substantial forms as long as they are joined to the body" (King 2004). Through this idea, Abelard strove to reconcile Christianity with nominalism and to elevate the human being.
The other great medieval nominalist of note is illiam Ockham. Ockham also subscribed to the Aristotelian ontology of realist empiricism, believing that universal essences "are nothing more than concepts in the mind" and no innate ideas exist apart from the mind (Kaye 2007). "The defense of nominalism undertaken by…
De Wulf, M. "Nominalism." The Catholic Encyclopedia. May 11, 2010.
Ess, D. "Notes on nominalism, realism, conceptualism." History of Modern Nominalism.
May 11, 2010.
Unfortunately, Philoctetes' talents led him down the path of war (Lloyd-Jones, 1994). He was a witness and participant to bloodshed, plunder and rape. Eventually, he became so disgusted with himself that he decided to punish himself for his sins by allowing a poisonous snake to bite him. As a result, he was shipped off to the isolated island of Lemnos, where he was physically isolated from the rest of the world for nine years. During this time, all he could do was think about his life and his crimes, which was sort of a self-punishment for his sinful existence.
I think that this type of physical isolation can be very damaging to a person. Today, many prisoners are kept in solitary confinement for days, completely cut off from all social activities and human contact. Isolation in prison means 23 hours a day in a concrete cell no larger than a…
Kaufmann, Walter. (1992). Tragedy and Philosophy. Princeton University Press.
T.C. Brickhouse and N.D. Smith (1989). Socrates on Trial. Waterhouse Press.
Lloyd-Jones, H. (1994). Sophocles II. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
MIND. (2007). Not Alone? Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.mind.org.uk/About%2BMind/Mind%2Bweek/isolationsummary.htm .
In this example, morality is decided by the gain, pleasure, and other self-interest of the individual donning the ring. Such individuals would more than likely obtain this gain by committing illicit activities, such as robbing a bank, but use their winnings for fairly self-absorbed means to further their consumption of whatever suits their fancy. Houses, cars, women and other material items would more than likely be procured, for the simple fact that the individual is sating his own personal desires. In this case there is no need to act ethically, since the bearer of the ring is outside of the judgment (both literally and figuratively) of others, whose morals no longer apply to that individual.
The Rashomon effect describes the degree of subjectivity involved in the recollection of a memory, and is what is attributed to the fact that different people may recall the same incident with conflicting descriptions of…
1. Singer, Peter. How Are We To Live? (1995). New York: Prometheus Books
After all, once upon a time it was supposedly a scientific truth that the earth was the center of the universe. "Insular self-sufficiency" or the sense that one person's framework of knowledge and ideas is perfect and complete is a great danger, because things can always change (70). "Self-control," determining what are the "proper attitudes" to display and finding a sense of a firm ground for moral reason has been the focus of estern philosophy since the ancient Greeks, as if human experience could be calculated, and every moral problem anticipated (110-111).
hy are we as a culture so obsessed with hard, fast, and unalterable facts? hy has the need for a single standard of morality become an unquestioned truth, why must a code of morality be certain, rather than vary from situation to situation? hy not involve feelings as well as facts in determining morality?
This quest for certainty…
Greenwood Bugbee, Henry. The Inward Morning. Atlanta: University of Georgia Press,
Burns and Grove (2000) explain that, "philosophical analysis investigates meaning as well as build theories of meaning" some philosophers have taken a common stand in development of a concise philosophy of the practice by establishing commonality of nurse, patient, health and environment. A strong philosophical background will result in theories that are pertinent to the practice. However, every nurse should have a philosophy that is influenced by experience and future prospects. This should focus on ones definition, values and objectives of the practice.
Current Definition of Nursing
Human beings have needs and this needs increase in times of sickness and pain. Nursing not only takes care of these needs, but compassion and comfort (Budzban, 2011). Nursing is all about the patient. The author's definition of nursing addresses two issues: care and environment of nursing. First, the author defines nursing as caring and compassion provided in an environment that facilitate healing.…
Budzban, A. (2011, July). Compassion and Respect in Nursing. Retrieved March 20, 2012, from www.nursetogether.com: http://www.nursetogether.com/Career/Career-Article/itemid/1009.aspx
Heidegger, M. (1978). Being and time. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Jacelon, C.S., & Henneman, E.A. (2004). Profiles in Dignity: Perspectives on Nursing and Critically Ill Older Adults. Critical Care Nurse, 30-35 .
Jameton, A. (1993). Dilemmas of moral distress: moral responsibility and nursing practice.
Jacques Derrida has been accused of writing in a deliberately obtuse and obfuscated manner, so the relationship between his work and that of Plato's might not be immediately discernible. Perhaps the clearest connection between the two can be derived from Derrida's of Grammatology, especially as it compares to Plato's aesthetics and view of reality. In this rather dense treatise, Derrida first outlines the phenomenon of what he calls logocentrism -- the attitude that speech (logos in Greek) is the most basic and essential form of language, while writing is secondary in development and its ability to reflect meaning. Derrida claims that logocentrism has long been a silent and foundational part of Western thought, even from the time of Plato.
Plato believed that truth and meaning existed in a pure state somewhere, with the shadows of meanings existing in our own world. Derrida sees this as a flawed worldview, though not…
Robert Coover analyses hypertext in a philosophical, political, and aesthetical context. The printed word, according the author, is not so much in danger of extinction as it is being threatened by new media. Because of the flexibility inherent in hypertext and multi-media, the written word takes on a new form, one that transcends the linearity of traditional print media. For example, whenever we read a novel or an article in a magazine, the text flows from one sentence to another, pulling the reader from start to finish along predictable, pre-defined lines. There are no tangents except for those that exist within the reader's imagination. Words flow with continuity; in fiction, plot and character are developed. Furthermore, in traditional print media, the author is in full control of the narrative; when working in hypertext, the reader assumes the driver's seat and can alter the flow of events, the significance of certain…
Philosophical Discussion of Descartes
Man's incredible thirst for knowledge has spurred our species domination of the physical world, while also guiding the refinement of our morality, but throughout history the role of assumption in shaping knowledge has been the subject of intense philosophical debate. While Plato uses the sudden comprehension of geometric rules a slave in his classic Meno as proof that the paradox of learning is false, Descartes remained unconvinced when he wrote his revolutionary contribution to the pursuit of knowledge, Discourse on the Method. Seeking to strip his understanding of knowledge to the bare minimum by removing all ideas which can subject to reasonable doubt, Descartes separates assumptions from true knowledge because, in his view, any perception based only on sensory input must be flawed because the human sensory system is known to be wrong (Collingwood 3). By rejecting the role of assumptions in forming knowledge, Descartes devises…
Baker, Gordon, and Katherine Morris. Descartes' dualism. Routledge, 2002.
Collingwood, Robin George. An essay on philosophical method. Oxford University Press, 2005.
Philosophical and Literary epresentation of Capitalism
Progress & Technology in Capitalism
John Steinbeck wrote the social The Grapes of Wrath during the interwar years, just after the Great Depression harrowingly illustrated the power of unchecked capitalism. His novel takes the position that revolutionary change is needed, is inevitable, and that a just and non-exploitive society can only come about when capitalism is eliminated. Steinbeck is reported to have made clear his intentions as he prepared to write The Grapes of Wrath. In his words, "I want to put a tag of shame on the greedy bastards who are responsible for this" [the Great Depression and its widely destructive effects]." Steinbeck's collectivist-leaning voice at the time of his writing The Grapes of Wrath would become so altered over the course of three decades that it hardly seemed to belong to this writer who created on the very edge of moral fervor.…
Cunningham, C. (2002). Rethinking the politics of The Grapes of Wrath. [In Cultural Logic, ISSN 1097-3087].
Denning, M. (1996). The cultural front: The laboring of American cultural in the twentieth century. London and New York: Verso.
Hicks, G. (1939, May 2). "Steinbeck's Powerful New Novel." Review of The Grapes of Wrath. New Masses, 22-3.
Innis, H. (1930). The fur trade in Canada: An introduction to Canadian economic history. Revised and reprinted (1977). Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
Philosophical Arguments for the Existence of Moral Knowledge
This paper summarises the philosophical arguments for the existence of moral knowledge, supported by the evidence for the external world contained in the article "Proof of the Objectivity of Morals" by Renford ambrough. ibliography cites one reference.
The arguments for the existence of moral knowledge
The idea behind the article "A Proof of the Objectivity of Morals" by Renford ambrough has a thesis that we have moral knowledge. This is a controversial assertion, and is one that is not accepted by many philosophers.
The article start with consideration of two of Moores, arguments, that regarding the defence of common sense as well as the way in which the external world is proven. There is evidence to support the propositions made, as in any attempt to disprove knowledge that another believes they have, such as the belief an individual has two hands, then…
Bambrough also consider the argument that objectivity leads to authoritarianism that is used by Nowell-Smith. However, we also see that this is dismissed as there is a confusion of the argument, objectivism is used as an argument against moral propositions. This argument also requires there t be an acceptance of cause and effect, which is not required in the formation of moral knowledge (Bambrough, 1969).
Therefore, when looking at this the basic premise of the paper must be the way in which by accepting the evidence of the external world and the premises on which this acceptance is based were must also be accepting the arguments for moral knowledge, as they are based on the same premises, and top deny one, would lead to the logical denial of the other.
Bambrough, R (1969) A proof of the objectivity of Morals American Journal of Jurisprudence 14 37-53
This memorandum is an analysis of the P&E issues raised by proposed legislative changes regarding criminal sexual behavior, as well as so-called "vices" and other related conduct. The purpose of this analysis is to define a coherent set of public policy objectives characterizing all legislative changes supported by the Fictitious State Governor's Office.
Upgrading penal classification of Solicitation/Prostitution misdemeanors and increasing sentences and fines associated with all Solicitation/Prostitution felonies.
This committee does not recommend enacting any of the proposed penal upgrades across the board as set forth. We recommend re-evaluating current "vice" policy regarding violations of existing
Solicitation/Prostitution statutes in order that funds for law enforcement and prosecution efforts be redirected and channeled more specifically toward violations that most affect "quality of life" issues for lawful citizens of Fictitious State.
Both anecdotal evidence and documented statistical information available from the seventeen counties in Nevada where prostitution…
2306 Kant. Consider situation: You ill life support. You a transplant organs continue living. Your parents decided biological child specifically organ transplant child / matures a level (assume part organ child survive)
Kant's assumption on the present matter is reflected in the well-known maxim and law, "act only in accordance with that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it become a universal law." (Stanford, 2004) Most often this "law" is interpreted as being a set of questions one must ask himself before undergoing a certain action. More precisely, the first step in determining whether the course of action one is about to take is morally correct or not is to actually formulate that action and provide a reasoning for it. Secondly, it is important to consider that action and that reasoning multiplied at a universal level, thought of this action as being a universal law…
Kerstein, S. (2009) Treating Others Merely as Means in "Utilitas" Vol. 21, No. 2, June, University of Cambridge, available online at http://faculty.philosophy.umd.edu/SKerstein/Kersteinmeremeans.pdf
New York University. (n.d) Means and ends. Available at http://philosophy.fas.nyu.edu/docs/IO/1881/scanlon.pdf
Stanford Enciclopedia of Phylosophy. (2004) Kant's Moral Philosophy. Available at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-moral/#ForUniLawNat