Philosophical Essays (Examples)

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Descartes or Sartre's Theory

Words: 520 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61119707

Philosophical Discussion of Descartes

Man's incredible thirst for knowledge has spurred our species domination of the physical world, while also guiding the refinement of our morality, but throughout history the role of assumption in shaping knowledge has been the subject of intense philosophical debate. While Plato uses the sudden comprehension of geometric rules a slave in his classic Meno as proof that the paradox of learning is false, Descartes remained unconvinced when he wrote his revolutionary contribution to the pursuit of knowledge, Discourse on the Method. Seeking to strip his understanding of knowledge to the bare minimum by removing all ideas which can subject to reasonable doubt, Descartes separates assumptions from true knowledge because, in his view, any perception based only on sensory input must be flawed because the human sensory system is known to be wrong (Collingwood 3). By rejecting the role of assumptions in forming knowledge, Descartes devises…… [Read More]

References

Baker, Gordon, and Katherine Morris. Descartes' dualism. Routledge, 2002.

Collingwood, Robin George. An essay on philosophical method. Oxford University Press, 2005.
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Progress and Technology

Words: 1464 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87844581

Philosophical and Literary epresentation of Capitalism

Progress & Technology in Capitalism

John Steinbeck wrote the social The Grapes of Wrath during the interwar years, just after the Great Depression harrowingly illustrated the power of unchecked capitalism. His novel takes the position that revolutionary change is needed, is inevitable, and that a just and non-exploitive society can only come about when capitalism is eliminated. Steinbeck is reported to have made clear his intentions as he prepared to write The Grapes of Wrath. In his words, "I want to put a tag of shame on the greedy bastards who are responsible for this" [the Great Depression and its widely destructive effects]." Steinbeck's collectivist-leaning voice at the time of his writing The Grapes of Wrath would become so altered over the course of three decades that it hardly seemed to belong to this writer who created on the very edge of moral fervor.…… [Read More]

References

Cunningham, C. (2002). Rethinking the politics of The Grapes of Wrath. [In Cultural Logic, ISSN 1097-3087].

Denning, M. (1996). The cultural front: The laboring of American cultural in the twentieth century. London and New York: Verso.

Hicks, G. (1939, May 2). "Steinbeck's Powerful New Novel." Review of The Grapes of Wrath. New Masses, 22-3.

Innis, H. (1930). The fur trade in Canada: An introduction to Canadian economic history. Revised and reprinted (1977). Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
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Philosophy Political Thought

Words: 993 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91112266

Philosophical Arguments for the Existence of Moral Knowledge

This paper summarises the philosophical arguments for the existence of moral knowledge, supported by the evidence for the external world contained in the article "Proof of the Objectivity of Morals" by Renford ambrough. ibliography cites one reference.

The arguments for the existence of moral knowledge

The idea behind the article "A Proof of the Objectivity of Morals" by Renford ambrough has a thesis that we have moral knowledge. This is a controversial assertion, and is one that is not accepted by many philosophers.

The article start with consideration of two of Moores, arguments, that regarding the defence of common sense as well as the way in which the external world is proven. There is evidence to support the propositions made, as in any attempt to disprove knowledge that another believes they have, such as the belief an individual has two hands, then…… [Read More]

Bambrough also consider the argument that objectivity leads to authoritarianism that is used by Nowell-Smith. However, we also see that this is dismissed as there is a confusion of the argument, objectivism is used as an argument against moral propositions. This argument also requires there t be an acceptance of cause and effect, which is not required in the formation of moral knowledge (Bambrough, 1969).

Therefore, when looking at this the basic premise of the paper must be the way in which by accepting the evidence of the external world and the premises on which this acceptance is based were must also be accepting the arguments for moral knowledge, as they are based on the same premises, and top deny one, would lead to the logical denial of the other.

Bambrough, R (1969) A proof of the objectivity of Morals American Journal of Jurisprudence 14 37-53
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Owns Ideas Case Study the

Words: 2109 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74570379

" (Hesse, 2002) This clearly shows that ideas are fruits of collective labor. This is a process in which society has contributed in one way or another thus any one firm or person cannot expect to be granted exclusive rights to ideas. Ideas are thus meant for collective good of the society. When a new idea is learned, it free use must follow since that is the only way society can benefit from the idea in the best possible manner. In his introductory essay for The Common Good and U.S. Capitalism, Oliver E. Williams writes: "To be sure, individual autonomy is not unimportant but this notion only has meaning in the context of a community that puts limits on any personal projects for the sake of common life." (p. 3)

In this case therefore, San Bruno Instruments should not expect exclusive ownership of rights since Dr. Janice and others worked…… [Read More]

References

Maritain, Reflection on America, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1958. p. 118.

Oliver E. Williams, "To Enhance the Common Good: An Introduction," in Williams and Houck, eds., The Common Good and U.S. Capitalism, p. 3

John Locke, THE SECOND TREATISE: (1952)

David R. Hannah, Who Owns Ideas? An Investigation of Employees' Beliefs about the Legal Ownership of Ideas, CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION Management Volume 13 Number 4 December 2004
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Educational Philosophies Richard D Mosier

Words: 1516 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61437982

Synthesize traditional and progressive education for today's students. Education digest. Vol. 68, Issue 7, 4-8. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=9317873

Cohen, L.M. & Gelbrich, J. (1999). Philosophical perspectives in education. Oregon State University, School of Education. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/PP2.html

Moser, .D. (1951, July). The educational philopophy of William T. Harris. Peabody Journal of education. Vol. 29, No. 1, 14-33 etrieved January 17, 2011, from http://www. Jstor, org/stable/1489104

Nehring, J.H. (2006, February 1). Progressive vs. traditional: eframing an old debate. Education week. Vol. 25, Issue 21, 32-33. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=19705742

Neil, J. (2005, January). John Dewey: Philosophy of education. Experimental learning. Wilderdom.com. etrieved January 17, 2011, from http://wilderdom.com/experiential/JohnDeweyPhilosophyEducation.html

Sternberg, J., & Zhang, L. (2005, Summer). Styles of thinking as a basis of differntiated instruction. Theory into practice, 44(3), 245-253. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&hid=111&sid=4dc68d17-580a=4983=af18=762283ca50ef%40sessionmgr114… [Read More]

References

Ackerman, D.B. (2003, March). Synthesize traditional and progressive education for today's students. Education digest. Vol. 68, Issue 7, 4-8. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=9317873

Cohen, L.M. & Gelbrich, J. (1999). Philosophical perspectives in education. Oregon State University, School of Education. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from:  http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/PP2.html 

Moser, R.D. (1951, July). The educational philopophy of William T. Harris. Peabody Journal of education. Vol. 29, No. 1, 14-33 Retrieved January 17, 2011, from http://www. Jstor, org/stable/1489104

Nehring, J.H. (2006, February 1). Progressive vs. traditional: Reframing an old debate. Education week. Vol. 25, Issue 21, 32-33. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=19705742
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Wittgenstein Ludwig Wittgenstein Is Particularly Interesting Because

Words: 1759 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91565635

Wittgenstein

Ludwig Wittgenstein is particularly interesting because in Philosophical Investigations (PI) he repudiated all of his earlier work in logical positivism and the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (TLP), along with much of what was traditionally thought of as philosophy, and took a radically new track in the last twenty years of his life. Young Wittgenstein was more certain that he had solved all major philosophical problems, while the older Wittgenstein had completely lost all such certainties. There were even hints in his earlier work of this later, more explicit existential despair, pessimism and even cynicism about the limits of philosophy, which certainly became more profound over the years. He was no longer able to view the world as consisting of facts that were logical representations of objects that really existed or at least had the potential to exist. Thoughts and ideas formed pictures that were models of reality, while everything outside of…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Biletzi, A. (2003). (Over)interpreting Wittgenstein. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Leung, S.K. (2002). Language and Meaning in Human Perspective. Janus Publishing.

Ryle, G. (1949). The Concept of Mind. University of Chicago Press.

Wittgenstein, L. Philosophical Investigations, 4th Edition (1953, 2009). P.M.S. Hacker and Joachim Schulte (eds.). Oxford University Press.