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Language and Phonetics Teaching Methods to Determine Which Is the Most Effective for Teaching eading to Elementary Students
Method that will be used
Across the nation Americans are demanding new and better methods for the education of their children. One of the most important skills that is taught is the skill of reading. This paper will presents a study proposal to determine what the best method to teach reading is. The paper will open with an introduction to the importance of the skill of reading and the importance of teaching it well in the elementary years. It will then move into a statement of the problem which will address what the core problem is regarding the subject of the study.
In this case it is the fact that the nation's school system has used two different methods for the instruction of reading to elementary school students over the past…… [Read More]
Te pligt of te very maternal woman and te pysique of te lifeguard represent extremes of traditional femininity and masculinity tat ultimately ridicule te stereotypes tat are teir source.
ttp://www2.cnr.edu/ome/bmcmanus/femteory.tml: te single panel cartoon depicting a business woman giving dictation to a alf-naked ideal of muscular male beauty is presented as a reversal of traditional gender roles, but in actuality te man depicted is still exceedingly "masculine" in te traditional sense, and te woman appears blonde, very tin, and attractive, reinforcing bot traditional views.
ttp://undercoverpunk.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/dressup.jpg: te figure in tis cartoon is most likely a boy, given te style of underwear depicted, but te point of tis and te surrounding clotes is tat gender is someting tat is put on -- definitely a progressive view of gender. Te figure as its eyes cast downward as toug peering at its genitalia, owever, suggesting anoter more subtle interpretation of tis cartoon as reinforcing…… [Read More]
It includes morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, phonology, semantics, and pragmatics (Grammar, n.d.).
Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated; it is the ability to understand another speaker's intended meaning is called pragmatic competence; and an utterance describing pragmatic function is described as metapragmatic (Pragmatics, n.d.).
The ole of Language Processing in Cognitive Psychology
Jean Piaget, the founder of cognitive development, was involved in a debate about the relationships between innate and acquired features of language, at the Centre oyaumont pour une Science de l'Homme, where he had a discussion about his opinion with the linguist Noam Chomsky as well as Hilary Putnam and Stephen Toulmin (McKinney, & Parker, 1999). Piaget discussed that his cognitive constructivism has two main parts: an "ages and stages" component which foretells what children can and cannot understand at different…… [Read More]
Balanced Spelling Program
Unique spellings are created by the children as they are developing their skills of spelling development referred to as invented spellings. Based on the knowledge of phonology that the children have, spelling creation is a unique phenomenon in the children. In most of the cases, it is seen that the children use letters for spelling words and consonants rather consistent usage of sounds. Some of the main examples include night (NIT), girl (GL) and TIG (tiger). There are five main stages of spelling development in children. 1st stage, emergent spelling, is known for the scribbling of letters, letter like forms, and scribbles and children do no associate marks with phonemes (Tompkins, Campbell, and Green, 2011), p. 168). This stage represents a more natural expression of alphabets along with many language related concepts. Second stage, letter name alphabetical setting is represented by the representation of phonemes along with…… [Read More]
Of these, twenty were of different first languages learning Hungarian and thirteen were of Hungarian as first language learning English." (P 8).
Based on this argument, age is not only the intrinsic factor that influences language acquisition. Typically, educational and maturational factors contribute to the language acquisition. With this claim, there could be a new hypothesis that reveal young= better and adult =better. Singleton (2005) conclusion on CPH is that
"Critical Period Hypothesis is misleading, since there is a vast amount of variation in the way in which the critical period for language acquisition is understood -- affecting all the parameters deemed to be theoretically significant and indeed also relating to the ways in which the purported critical period is interpreted in terms of its implications for L2 instruction."(P 269).
The study summarizes a research paper titled "The Critical Period Hypothesis: A coat of many colors" (Singleton, 2005). The…… [Read More]
Pygmalion -- George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw -- one of the most well regarded playwrights -- wrote this comedy and first presented it to the public in 1912. He took some of the substance of the original Greek myth of Pygmalion and turned it into a popular play. In Greek mythology Pygmalion actually came to fall in love with one of his sculptures, and the sculpture suddenly became a living human. But in this play two older gentlemen, Professor Higgins (who is a scientist studying the art of phonetics) and Colonel Pickering (a linguist who specializes in Indian dialects) meet in the rain at the start of this play.
Higgins makes a bet with Pickering that because of his great understanding of phonetics, he will be able to take the Covent Garden flower girl -- who speaks "cockney" which is not considered very high brow in England -- and…… [Read More]
By attaching visual elements to specific words and even to specific sounds within those words, many learners that might struggle with simple auditory approaches attached only to visuals of the letter might be better able to commit letter/phoneme associations to memory (Fox, 2011). The use of pictures also seems more interactive and engaging with the learners than simply showing visuals of letters associated with sounds, as it speaks to the imagination of the learners and gives them something to respond to in addition to the simple reading facts being presented. In this way, both the educator and the learners can be drawn into the lesson more fully, it would seem, and there is definite evidence that pictures make both the lessons and the material more memorable when they are properly used (Fox, 2003).
Other issues raised on these two DVDs such as synthetic phonics are also fairly controversial, and seem…… [Read More]
2009). Othe studies had peviously concluded that English infants developed a pefeence fo tochaic wods, the dominant stess constuct of English wods, ove iambic stess pattens within the fist yea of life (Hohle et al. 2009). A compaison of Geman and Fecnh infants in fou distinct expeiments confims and even naows down the timefame in which this diffeentiation of pefeence occus, and also shows (though the Fench language expeiments) that the ability to distinguish the two opposing stess pattens does not necessaily esult in the development of pefeence, if the taget language itself lacks a dominant stess stuctue (Hohle et al. 2009). Even at six months, a specific language begins to mediate peception.
An ealie study suggests that the timing of stess and intonation pefeence development is even soone than six months. While citing evidence suggesting that language-independent phonetic contasts and melodic vaiations ae ecognized within the fist fou months…… [Read More]
However, for ELL students there are obvious challenges to meeting these standards. This is why they are judged upon performance, and how well they meet content standards. Although they are not graded on a performance basis on all grade-level standards they are graded on a sliding scale upon some of the standards, which indicate the desire of the state to align most of the ELL performance-based standards with the content-based standards of other learners.
Using assessment data from your school, determine language proficiency goals and objectives for individual students in each domain
hen ELL students are graded on their proficiency in speaking, writing, and reading, and other subjects that require a mastery of grammar, phonetics, vocabulary, and spoken English, an individualized assessment plan is helpful because different ELL students may have different needs depending upon their background. Language proficiency goals take into consideration performance ability to meet content standards,…… [Read More]
When these children see that they can use the computer in the classroom to learn their phonetics and other reading issues during their free time, they begin to realize that they can do something on their own, which helps their self-esteem levels and also makes them more interested in the joys of learning, which can open up a whole new world for these children. This is especially true if these children are disadvantaged in many ways and do not have books in the home that they can use to continue their learning, as this is often the reason that these children are behind in reading ability when they get into school. If a simple computer program that teaches the alphabet, phonetics, pronunciation, and other reading issues can help with remedial reading education, it seems that it should be used in more schools and classrooms across the country.
Torgesen, J.K.…… [Read More]
" I still do that, " and for the question of what happens when you get stuck on a word he replied, "Just mainly that or just ask somebody"
Subject 2: Was a much more confident reader and this is most likely because of the ability to use phonics' based reading and thinking process. The subject had advanced phonics' in a previous grade and those principles have carried forward into the self-esteem and confidence in regard to reading. He has a viable solution for answering his own questions regarding words or sounds he does not know.
According to the analysis of the spelling features, both boys are in similar spelling stages, however, the phonics background in subject 2 will help him develop faster as both a readier and a speller. The children were both using phonetic spelling techniques to pass the spelling portion of the assessment, however, subject one is…… [Read More]
Thus, lessons can utilize elements learned from understand how the brain naturally learns a language to augment the student's ability to progress more efficiently in learning a second language later on in life. Lessons would produce the environment which calls on the same type of brain functions that were so crucial in language acquisition in early childhood. Thus, teaching can become an extension of pre-existing strategies the students have already used earlier on in their lives without even knowing it. This means lesson plans built on a structure that highlights the importance of language at the phonic level, as this is what the author asserts as the primary vehicle for language acquisition in young children.
Lightbrown & Spada (2006) also provide evidence which would back up Kuhl's claims in the text How Languages Are Learned. In their discussion of early language acquisition, Lightbrown & Spada (2006) explain how the child's…… [Read More]
Because of the existence of so many common homophones in the English language, Bullokar wanted to retain some way of distinguishing between these words in print, and if two different symbols signified the production of the same sound, this could be accomplished (olfe 41). His reform efforts were essentially centered around the visual word, no doubt due to the novelty of the printing press, and he attempted to develop a simple visual system for pronouncing the English language.
Pitman's shorthand accomplishes the same thing, to some degree, but that was not at all its purpose nor is his system limited in such a fashion. Pitman wanted to develop a true science behind the development and codification of linguistic elements, and his phonetic shorthand system -- one of the first serious and comprehensive efforts at the development of a phonetic alphabet for English -- does largely this, having one symbol for…… [Read More]
Congruence of Mother and Teacher Educational Expectations and Low-Income Youth's Academic Competence
By: Aprile D. Benner and Rashmita S. Mistry
The authors of this article want to examine the independent effects of teacher and mother expectations on the youth achievement outcomes, the relationship between adult expectation and child performance, and whether identical or different adult expectations impacts on youth performance. Specifically, the study, which examined over 745 families, showed that mother and teacher expectations had a direct effect on a student's educational expectations, competency beliefs and academic outcomes. Particularly noticeable was the impact that mother expectations had on a youth's educational expectations. The study also concluded that a congruence between adult expectations, with the mother and teacher, had an even more pronounced effect on student expectations and achievement. Finally, the study found that teacher expectations were consistently lowered when mother/parent expectations were also low.
This study used a comparatively higher…… [Read More]
The understanding of TMJ anatomy as well as its function is very important to generate stable as well as healthy intercuspation. TMJ consists of condyle, disk, muscles and ligaments. It connects the lower jaw to the temporal bone in the skull in both sides and has two movements (osenstiel and Land, 2001). The TMJ along with muscles stabilization is the starting point to get the ideal maxilla-mandibular relationship in the centric relation. There is no way to register and transfer an accurate interocclusal record if patient has TMJ or muscles dysfunction. The patient with this dysfunction should be treated first before final restoration, cementation or construction. The conservative management of unstable joints and muscles via appliance therapy is the most common modality of management (Capp and Clayton, 1985).
4.2 Occlusal vertical dimension:
Perhaps one of the toughest and most intricate recuperative experiments for dentists in today's world is directly related…… [Read More]
The area is of interest because it allows linguists to look into the variants of Middle English that influenced the current dialect.
3. The North Carolina Language and Life Project's study of Harkers sland, North Carolina is extraordinarily interesting, as it allows researchers to study a dialect that was formed independently of surrounding areas for nearly two centuries. Because the island was separated from the mainland until a bridge was built in 1941, the dialect spoken there is quite different to other areas, and actually has many features of an older English. By studying this dialect, researchers will be able to determine important conclusions regarding time and language development, as well as dialect. n Johnstown, Ohio, another project is peering closely at sociolinguistics, peering at the relationship between cliques and phonetics, as well as age and language sounds. The researchers aim to determine if differences exist by examining groups of…… [Read More]
Stimuli will be 'better' exemplars of a category the more closely related they are to the category's exemplars (Dopkins & Gleason, 1997, p.1). Categories are "mentally represented simply as collections of exemplars; categories themselves have no independent representation" and there is no prototype (Dopkins & Gleason, 1997, p.3).
In prototype theory, the prototype of a category does not have to correspond to an actually perceived exemplar but can exist as an "abstract, idealized prototype" (Mobius 2004, p.11). This is a "controversial assumption" given that it assumes a level of abstract, one could higher-order thinking that is arguably only be present in the minds of individuals with certain types of education, past a particular developmental stage, or of particular cultural mindsets (Mobius 2004, p.11).
Exemplar theory has also been called 'cloud' theory in that each category of exemplars is represented in memory by a "cloud of remembered exemplars" (Mobius 2004, p.3).…… [Read More]
Most pediatricians today agree that it is not something to stir up anxiety other than to deal with it and ensure that the children have a proper language model to speak to early and often in their young lives. Parents who both work long hours should attempt, through their exhaustion, to spend time speaking and reading to their kids. In the case where the idioglossia has already developed, it's important that a parent speak clearly and slowly and pronounce syllables carefully so that the child can repeat them correctly.
It is, after all, important for the child's own self-esteem, that he or she learn proper language skills so that the awkwardness of the "twin-speak" can be overcome before they reach a more "social" stage (even if the twins continue to talk their secret language between them).
akker, P. "Autonomous Languages of Twins." Acta Genet Med Gemellol (English) (1987): 233-238.…… [Read More]
As these people get a little bit older, they also find that they want to help the next generation of people to grow up, and this becomes more important than their problems and worries. Old age brings with it a curiosity about what comes next and an acceptance of dying that younger adults do not have very often. These stages are not always exact for everyone, and not everyone reacts to the changes in their lives the same way, but most people move through these certain stages as they grow older and realize that what is important to them changes (Learning, 1997).
Part of this is biological and based on changes in the mitochondria, because people see the deterioration of their physical bodies and they are then faced with the choice of whether they are going to accept it or whether they are going to rail against it - even…… [Read More]
Some teachers require students to have their parents 'sign' or initial that they saw a (poor) grade. Parents are also asked to have conferences to discuss their student's progress on a regular basis. Teachers have a responsibility to the parent to ensure that the parent is kept informed about the child's needs and development over the course of the educational process.
These are the most direct methods to ensure that parents are aware of how and what their child is learning. Indirectly, encouraging parents to volunteer to chaperone field trips; to make contributions of their knowledge to the class if they have relevant experience in what is being studied (for example, if a parent is a doctor and the children are reading a story about doctors, the parent could be asked to come to give a short talk about his or her profession); and following up when there are concerns…… [Read More]
2010. Ethnic Groups in Germany: Sorbs, altic Germans, Turks in Germany, Chinese People in Germany, Vietnamese People in Germany, Circassians. General ooks LLC.
Coe, M. Neil., Kelly, F. Phillip., and Yeung, Wai-Chung, Henry. 2007. Economic geography: a contemporary introduction. Wiley-lackwell.
Scheffler, Julia. 2009. Welcomed Or Rejected? The Situation of Turks in Germany. GRIN Verlag.
Schumann, Stefanie. 2011. Hybrid Identity Formation of Migrants: A Case Study of Ethnic Turks in Germany. GRIN Verlag.
ooks, LLC., and General ooks LLC, Ethnic Groups in Germany: Sorbs, altic Germans, Turks in Germany, Chinese People in Germany, Vietnamese People in Germany, Circassians, (General ooks LLC, 2010), 23.
ooks, LLC, Islam in Germany: Turks in Germany, Central Council of Ex-Muslims, Khadija Mosque, Udo Ulfkotte, Zentralrat Der Muslime in Deutschland, (General ooks LLC, 2010), 56.
ooks, LLC., and General ooks LLC, Ethnic Groups in Germany: Sorbs, altic Germans, Turks in Germany, Chinese People in Germany, Vietnamese People…… [Read More]
Other essential traits include a commitment to work cooperatively with others and the ability to communicate effectively both orally and in writing."
We were also told that speech-language pathologists ought to exhibit:
sensitivity and concern for the problems of other people; warmth, caring and empathy for people; the need to help others realize their potential; the ability to accept new ideas; and the willingness to do research and to contribute new information.
Did this sound like me? I certainly think so, otherwise the aforementioned "deeper forces of nature" probably wouldn't have assured me that I was pursuing not only a fulfilling journey, but also the correct one, too.
Looking back, I realize that I reached a turning point in my education when I was able to participate in clinical observations. I observed patients with voice disorders. I observed patients who stammered and stuttered. I observed patients with foreign accents so…… [Read More]
Learner-centered curriculum' in TESOL
The most important learning processes in any school anywhere in the world involve the use of several different means of communication. The communication methods may be verbal or non-verbal. Verbal communication involves the use of oral and written symbols that can communicate a message to the student, and non-verbal involves the use of, primarily, among other means, body language. Without communication there can be no means of telling the other person what one person wants or needs, and communication is used between teachers and parents, between groups, between the parents and the community, and also for the formation of interpersonal relationships and as the medium of instruction in a school. Any sort of behavioral problems in school would be dealt with by effective means of communication, and it can be stated that without communication there would be no education.
However, the culture or the background of…… [Read More]
Scientifically-Based Research in Education
Of course, it would be nice if it were easy to standardize reading education across all schools, for all students. This would make instruction much easier for instructors as well as students. But students alas, are not machines and what 'works' for one gifted student may not 'work' for another student with a learning disability. The allure of easy standardization of educational methodology in something as difficult to teach as reading, however, partially explains appeal the REA, or Scientifically-Based Reading Research approach. This approach is advocated by the National Reading Panel's methodological overview. Although the NRP proclaims its neutrality, in its actual language it stresses a "phonics awareness" based approach. This approach involves teaching children to focus on and manipulate phonemes in spoken syllables and words. It involves teaching children to blend or segment the sounds in words using letters. (NIH, 2004)
However, hat Really Matters…… [Read More]
"hat was the plot of the book you read for today?' 'hat is the name of the main character?' 'hat is the setting of the story?' Often teachers are so happy that students have completed a reading assignment in a timely fashion, and can recollect the basic details of what they read, they do not encourage the student to go 'one step further' and to critically think about the reading material assigned. But students must also learn to thoughtfully engage with the written materials at hand. If teachers ignore the importance of thoughtful as well as technical literacy, teachers are not setting high enough goals for student achievement. They also inadvertently create the effect of making reading seem like a chore to be mastered for a test in the immediate future, rather than a source of personal enrichment and pleasure over the course of one's life.
The goals…… [Read More]
For instance, "some speakers may engage in overlap, speaking while someone else is taking a turn-at-talk. For some linguistic groups, this discourse behavior can be interpreted as a signal of engagement and involvement; however, other speakers may view it as an interruption and imposition on their speaking rights. Teachers can use the Record-View-Transcribe-Analyze technique to study cross-cultural interactions in their classrooms, helping students identify different communication strategies and their potential for miscommunication." (Demo, 2001)
According to the work "Vernacular Dialects in U.S. Schools," "Children from different backgrounds come to school speaking a wide variety of dialects." (Christian, 1997) the problem according to Christian (1997) is in the fact that, "One central issue in this controversy is whether mastery and use of a standard dialect should be required in schools. Some people consider such a requirement to be discriminatory, because it places an extra burden on certain students. Others argue that…… [Read More]
Eliza Doolittle and Her Problems
At the outset one has to understand that Eliza Doolittle is a character created by George Bernard Shaw, a famous English playwright and to understand her we have to start with Shaw. He was the third and the youngest child of George Carr Shaw, and Lucinda Shaw. He was supposed to have been part of the Protestant group that was rising in England at that time, but he did not succeed in life. He was first prematurely pensioned off from his civil servant job and then he became a grain merchant. Even in that he was not successful and that led to George Bernard Shaw being raised in an atmosphere of genteel poverty. This was felt to be more insulting by him than being poor.
Yet Shaw developed well and became well versed in music, art, and literature. This was due to the influence of…… [Read More]
Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School
EFFETIVENESS OF MUSI ON VOABULARY
The Effectiveness of Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School
Most English language learners in high schools show poor vocabulary competence. The main reason for this is the limited level of exposure to the language. It is generally understood and practically acknowledged that words form the basic unit of language structure. Therefore lack of sufficient vocabulary constrains students from effectively communicating and freely expressing their ideas.
Vocabulary competence is critical to developing reading comprehension skills. Lack of vocabulary development is detrimental to the development of metacognitive skill that is important in comprehending advanced texts. omprehension is a major component of development of vocabulary, reading to learn. Therefore, reading comprehension it is quite challenging for students lacking adequate knowledge of meaning of words.…… [Read More]
Teaching writing to young children
Learning how to write is an important tool in encouraging young children to get excited about reading. A 2010 experimental study in the Journal of Educational esearch (Jones, eutzel & Fargo 2010) compared two common techniques used in kindergarten classrooms to help young readers learn to write: interactive writing and the writing workshop method. "As children write, they analyze thought and meaning, experiment with words and form, and learn concepts of directionality, sequencing, and spacing" (Jones, eutzel & Fargo 2010). Previous studies indicated that even the very youngest readers could benefit from writing instruction, given the way that writing can help them analyze words letter by letter and that "letter-sound correspondence cannot be learned outside the written system" (Jones, eutzel & Fargo 2010). The benefits of writing instructions at the kindergarten level exist "even after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES) and IQ effects" (Jones, eutzel…… [Read More]
Dual Coding Theory (DCT) was originally developed for memory research. The basic notion is that images and words influence memory differently. DCT has been applied to reading and has been used to improve reading programs. The assertion is that learning to read a new word is more efficient if more than one part of the brain is activated, by paring verbal and nonverbal codes. Verbal code would be language in any form; nonverbal codes are tangible objects, pictures, feelings, and events. If one code is forgotten, the second code can serve as a backup during word retrieval. By paring written words, pronunciations, pictures, and experience we are focusing on all levels of processing in DCT which fosters learning. The following paper describes the basic elements of DCT.
According to Dual Coding Theory (DCT) information is represented in the brain via both verbal and imagined codes (Paivio, 1971). These two…… [Read More]
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk:
The Chosen, Perfect, Father of the Turks
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was born in 1881 in Salonica. He was given the name of Mustafa because religiously it meant "The Chosen." (Mango 2002) His family was of the lower middle-class and a Muslim, Turkish speaking family, where his father served as a junior civil servant. Ataturk's challenge to the traditional life of Turkey began at a very young age. He recalls as one of his first memories:
My first memory of childhood concerns the problem of my schooling. This caused a bitter dispute between my parents. My mother wanted me to go to the neighbourhood [Koranic] school after initial prayers. My father, who was an official in the [customs and] excise department, was in favour of sending me to Semsi Efendi's school, which had newly opened, and of having me educated in the new manner. In the end, my…… [Read More]
Activity #1: Discuss the pros and cons of testing from two perspectives: (1) as a test-taker and (2) as a test-giver
From the point-of-view of the test-taker, the 'cons' of taking a test seem obvious. Besides the nerves and the fear of being put under pressure, from the test-taker's point-of-view being tested requires subjecting something quite unique, namely their individual human mind, to an objective test that cannot take into consideration adverse circumstances, from a lack of engagement with the material, poor teaching, or an eccentric learning style. Testing can thus discourage creativity and a sense of fun in learning for the test taker. Test can also encourage students to learn how to take a particular teacher's tests, rather than to truly learn and actively engage with the material on an individual basis like a research paper.
This is also the downside of testing from the teacher's perspective as…… [Read More]
Shaw's primary purposes in writing Pygmalion, the story of a phonetics professor who, on a bet, transforms a guttersnipe of a flower girl into a lady, was to educate. The title of the play comes from the Greek myth of Pygmalion, a sculptor who created a statue of surpassing beauty; at his request, the gods animated the statue as Galatea. The myth is updated, and substantially altered, by Shaw; instead of a statue, Galatea is Eliza Doolittle, a Covent Garden flower girl, whose accent immediately marks her out as from the very bottom of the English class structure. Professor Henry Higgins, an expert on accents and pronunciation, represents Pygmalion. He undertakes to transform her speech so that she can be taken for a duchess at a society party and succeeds in spite of the inherent difficulties.
In his foreword to the play, Shaw writes, "It is so intensely and deliberately…… [Read More]
List 4 examples of opportunties you have given students to listen to language at school. Ensure that you include one example that reflects the relevance to the student's culture and background.
A Jewish student, who attends Hebrew School classes in the evenings, shared information about the Hebrew alphabet and history about the Hebrew language with the class as part of a student-directed learning session. The entire class practiced reciting the alphabet, and we watched a short film that was in Hebrew with English subtitles so that the students could hear the language in normal use. This student was able to share the language as well as an important part of her culture with the class in a fun lesson.
One student who aspires to be a comic book artist is very enthusiastic about Japanese anime and Japanese "manga" comic books. He brought authentic Japanese anime videos and manga…… [Read More]
Chinese as the native language and culture to research. Include such information as the need to communicate, social organisation (tribes, cities, etc.) contacts with other cultures, development of a written language, nonverbal aspects of language (such as inflection and body language), changes over the centuries, etc.
Chinese culture and language
Chinese cultural values play an important role in shaping the community's social norms, with the majority of individuals in China being inclined to take on attitudes that are in accordance with their traditions. Chinese language needs to be understood as being much more than a dialect, as it has a strong socio-cultural effect on its speakers and as it affects individuals in a cognitive-linguistic way. The impact of such ideas on concepts such as people, families, and communities can be observed by addressing the way that they function with the language as a central model facilitating better connections between bodies.…… [Read More]
Curriculum and Instruction
Compare and contrast the bottom-up curriculum and the top-down curriculum. Discuss instructional objectives, materials, learning environment, instructional strategies, and assessment.
The top-down belief system related to curriculum centers on reading for meaning. Teachers who hold this philosophy of reading instruction stress engaging language arts activities that students find relevant and interesting. Indeed, teacher with this top-down perspective of reading curriculum are likely to encourage students to select their own reading materials in order to optimize the students' enjoyment of reading. The shift in this approach is definitely away from a focus on individual words, letters, and phonetics. Although teachers who embrace the top-down belief system want students to be proficient readers with robust skills that enable them to enjoy their reading, these teachers tend to believe that what motivates students to work hard on their reading skills is a strong appetite for story. Accordingly, their instruction targets…… [Read More]
Therapist Name: Case Name/#:
Reason for Referral:
The client is an eight-year-old female who may not have be making adequate academic progress consistent with her age and grade level. She is currently in the third grade. The client was assessed over two sessions.
Clinical concerns: Difficulty in school/with academic progress.
Clinical concerns: Possible learning disability.
Clinical concerns: Reading difficulties.
Clinical concerns: Client potentially not motivated to perform in class.
Clinical concerns: Rule out depression and/or anxiety.
Jailah was born on September 11, 2007. Jailah is the third child and a sibship of five. According to her mother Jailah is of Hispanic and African-American descent. Her native language is English.
With respect to her family Jailah has three sisters ages 16 years old, 14 years old, and five years old. She also has a younger brother age seven years old. The children the family have three different fathers.…… [Read More]
individual child help you to better understand some problems of the struggling reader?
A major part of the classrooms in the nation's public schools consist of struggling readers. It has been suggested by researchers that subject teachers can enhance reading abilities of students by imparting: (a) strategy and skill instruction and (b) reading and text-discussion opportunities in several ways. However, giving better or more reading instruction doesn't mean students will apply it. It has been suggested by some researchers that poor as well as good readers don't apply reading skills that have been imparted to them, despite understanding how it is to be done and being interested in learning information through texts. Moreover, struggling readers might opt for engaging with instructions and texts in ways that they realize are damaging to their progress as readers, despite saying that they aspire to improve (Hall, 2009).
Not much is known regarding the…… [Read More]
With insertion, sounds are added to words that are not apparent in spelling or slow pronunciation (Scramm, 2001). This can provide confusion to learners of a new language since the way they are instructed to pronounce certain words do not correspond to how they perceive the words visually. A couple of examples of insertion in the English language are words like "hamster," which is usually pronounced "hamster," or "month," which is usually pronounced with an exaggerated "t" sound - "mon-t-th" (Scramm, 2001).
The final category of phonological rules is deletion. This type of rule deals with processes of pronunciation in which sounds are left out, or deleted (Scramm, 2001). With the process of deletion, confusion may arise when the pronunciation of a word diverges from the way it is spelled and becomes very similar to the pronunciation of another word with completely different meaning. An example of this is the…… [Read More]
penalty kick, the game was ours. If we missed, the game went into overtime and we risked losing what we worked so hard toward. Overcoming immense obstacles, we rallied from a 5-2 deficit in the second period. Our best kicker was out due to a hip injury; two of our star players fell ill some a severe flu; and the captain must have underwent the psychological trauma of weeding through our roster to find replacements. My seats were top-notch, as I believed that paying the extra $20 was worth sitting an entire section closer to the field. My best friend next to me, popcorn in hand, I let a few yelps fly in support of my team. Loyal since childhood in spite of a deplorable record over the past decade, I consider myself a die-hard soccer fan. Over the past few years I have been unable to attend many tournaments…… [Read More]
hat did I learn?
The interview with an individual named Beverly Santa Maria was intellectually rewarding and I learned a lot of about her past, her culture, and her language. Her middle name is her mom's maiden which is a common practice for this culture, and subsequently got her last name from her father which is common in almost every culture. Furthermore, her mom was named after Beverley Hills which seems to indicate the power of the American culture and its influence on other societies. Another interesting tidbit that was identified was that nearly everyone in her family was a very strong, or even famous, person in her country. Despite this, her family still decided to immigrate to the United States.
The decision to immigrate to the United States could not have come lightly. It is hard to imagine the fear of uncertainty that the family faced. However,…… [Read More]