1000+ documents containing “physical science”.
Elemental Isotopes and Allotropes
The 19th century discovery of the periodic table of the elements by Dmitri Mendeleev gave an organizing principle to understanding the structure of the atom, and deriving atomic weight. On the periodic table, the lighter elements have atomic weights which correspond to whole numbers. Hydrogen has an atomic weight of 1, which corresponds to the idea that it has only one proton (and the weight of an electron is statistically insignificant in this measurement). But moving further along the periodic table, it became clear that the numbers eventually became less predictable. In the 19th century Dalton had suggested further atomic weights were simply multiples of hydrogen, which to a certain degree matched the available evidence.
But it was the discovery of the neutron in 1932 that actually yielded the correct answer. Rutherford had hypothesized the existence of an extra particle in the nucleus that did not bear….
Blundell, Stephen. Superconductivity. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
Chown, Marcus. The Quantum Zoo. Washington: Joseph Henry, 2006. Print.
Mortimer, Robert G. Physical Chemistry. Third Edition. Amsterdam and Boston: Elsevier Academic Press, 2008. Print.
Polkinghorne, John. Quantum Theory. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Print.
Andrew Cuomo is a Democrat elected to Governor of New York State (Green N.Y.). He believes in a strategy that stems back to the Obama administration, involving reformation of the energy sector of New York to facilitate the recovery of the economy (Cohen, 2011). Cuomo champions for a lower carbon emission energy that is "greener" and better environmentally, that also stimulates the economy as it creates more jobs and becomes more technologically innovative.
Even though energy policies are enacted on a global level, Cuomo believes that there is much to be done on the state and local level (Cohen, 2011). In regards to the state level, Cuomo's energy plan calls for a new age in energy, calling for more efficient ways to transfer energy through a better infrastructural grid that includes a system of energy renewal. He also calls for major state government system reform, because the current system is….
Cleaner Greener N.Y. "Andrew Cuomo." http://www.andrewcuomo.com/greenNY
Cohen, Steven. "Andrew Cuomo's Visionary Energy Policy." http://www.huffingtonpost.com/steven-cohen/andrew-cuomos-visionary-e_b_672524.html Huffington Post 2011.
Miller, Ashley S. "Governor-Elect Andrew Cuomo Outlines Environmental Agenda for New York." http://blog.sprlaw.com/2010/11/governor-elect-andrew-cuomo-outlines-environmental-agenda-for-new-york / Sive, Paget, and Riesel, P.C. 2009-2011.
WCBS 880/AP. "NY State to Discuss Indian Point with Nuclear Agency." http://newyork.cbslocal.com/2011/03/19/ny-state-to-talk-indian-point-with-nuclear-agency / CBS Radio Inc. 2011.
Physical Science: Energy
How Energy Can be Converted from one Form to Another, ith Examples
"Energy" is defined as the capacity to produce changes within a system. ithin a system, energy can be changed to a different state in order to perform work in natural processes or machines (Shipman, ilson, & Todd, 2009, pp. 88-89). Plants, animals and machines all convert energy to perform work in their processes. Through Photosynthesis, green plants use Chlorophyll, composed of miniature energy factories called Chloroplasts, to convert solar energy into storable chemical energy as a sugar called Glucose (Nave, Pigments for photosynthesis, n.d.). In the body of an animal or human, the cells' energy factories, called Mitochondria, contain Organelles, which convert chemical energy stored in food into Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), which is the energy used in life processes (Nave, Mitochondria, n.d.). An internal combustion engine, such as a car's engine, converts the potential chemical energy in….
Consortium on Energy Restructuring, Virginia Tech. (2007). Distributed generation | education modules | chapter 2: sources of energy. Retrieved from Virginia Tech University Web site: http://www.dg.history.vt.edu/ch2/sources.html
Cromer, O.C., & Proctor II, C.L. (2012, January 8). Gasoline engine. Retrieved from Britannica.com Web site: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/226592/gasoline-engine
Nave, R. (n.d.). Mitochondria. Retrieved from Hyperphysics.phy-ast.gsu.edu: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/mitochondria.html
Nave, R. (n.d.). Pigments for photosynthesis. Retrieved from Hyperphysics.phy-ast.gsu.edu: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/pigpho.html#c2
Physical Science: Heat
It is reasonable to suggest that just about everyone has felt the warmth of the sun or warmed themselves by a fireside, but many people may not understand the source of the energy they are feeling, particularly at the molecular level. Without heat, though, humankind would soon cease to exist and the universe would quickly collapse into an absolute zero nothingness. To gain some further insights into this essential source of life, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to define heat and temperature, the relationship between them, and how they are different. A discussion concerning the various properties of a substance that determine its heat capacity is followed by a description of some of the various sources of heat. Finally, an analysis concerning how the study of heat relates to the kinetic theory of matter is followed by a summary of the research and important….
Brown, J.R. (2001, Spring). Who gets Einstein? Queen's Quarterly, 108(1), 75.
Cavendish, M. (2003). How it works: Science and technology, vol. 17. New York: Marshall
Nave, R. (2005). Heat. Georgia State University: HyperPhysics. Retrieved from http://hyper physics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/heat.html.
Describe the difference between a mixture and a compound
For basic understanding, a mixture comprises of two or more different substances which are not chemically combined to each other. On the other hand, a compound consists two or more chemically bonded different substances which are present in a fixed ratio. In other words, the difference between a mixture and a compound is evident from the mentioned definitions.
Furthermore, there are a number of ways in which a mixture and a compound differs. For example, compounds always contain elements in a fixed ratio. For this reason, Calcium Carbonate, a compound, would always contain 40% Calcium, 12% Carbon and 48% Oxygen by mass. No variations in the mass of these elements would be noticed in Calcium Carbonate. In contrast, a mixture would contain its substances in any proportion (example: salt and water). For this reason, a mixture can be separated into the….
Hart H. (2011). Organic Chemistry: A short course. Cengage Learning, 13th edition. United States.
Moore J. (2011). Chemistry for Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. Canada.
Pommerville J. (2010). Alcamo's Fundamentals of Microbiology. Jones & Bartlett Learning
Ramsden E. (2001). Key science chemistry. Nelson Thornes. United Kingdom.
Procedures in the Physical Science
Procedures in the Physical Sciences: Challenges in Measurements
Identify three (3) specific challenges to making direct measurements in the fields of astronomy, chemistry, physics, or earth science. Describe how scientists have utilized indirect forms of measure to overcome these challenges.
Ever since the ancient times, individuals have always been pulled into the unknown. Human beings have always been inquisitive in regards to everything that was going on in the world. They would ask question such as the following; is the earth a certain size? Is the sea really deep? Are there any other lands past the distance? And how what is the size of the universe? These kinds of questions have continuously directed people to start getting their minds to think and figure out what was going on. Until these current days some of these questions are still in the back of their minds waiting for….
Finni, T.S. (2011). A family-based tailored counselling to increase non-exercise physical activity in adults with a sedentary job and physical activity in their young children: Design and methods of a year-long randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health, 11(1), 944.
Fulchignoni, M.F. (2005). In situ measurements of the physical characteristics of titan's environment. Nature, 438(7951), 785-91.
Lacki, B.C. (2011). Cherenkov telescopes as optical telescopes for bright sources:. Monthly Notices Of The Royal Astronomical Society,, 416(4), 23-45.
Stathi, A.G. (2008). Opportunities and challenges in physical activity research in young people. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport,, 23(9), 515-7.
Biology autonomous from physical sciences?
Background of debate
Biological science has undergone a time of progressive change in the last few decades. A distinctive element of this progress has been a continuous addition of fresh theoretical points-of-view and methods from physics and chemistry (the physical sciences). The most interesting fresh innovations in contemporary Biology are closely linked with how these new theories and methods are applied. There is a unanimous consensus that a lot of the phenomena that used to occur naturally in the arena of biological science has been overridden by a science that is practically physical. The exact reference of the new expanded theories such as 'biophysics', 'biochemistry', and 'molecular biology' apparently point to new knowledge for treating the science of life on earth as chemical and physical principles (Hansen. 1969)
What is Biology?
In an attempt to answer this question, it is worth noting that biology is in actual sense….
Bob Berman's book Secrets of the Night Sky: The Most Amazing Things in the Universe You Can See with the Naked Eye is one of the most interesting and engaging books that I have ever read on the topic of astronomy.
The book is geared toward beginning astronomers, but its humorous and interesting prose makes it a great read even for those with more advanced knowledge of the cosmos.
The book is a wealth of information, and takes the reader on an engaging tour of the night sky. Berman points out highlights and interesting information on the history of astronomy throughout. Further, he dispenses practical advice and tips in a warm and helpful manner. The book offers a helpful and informative guide to the visible universe in a logical and easily understood season-by-season format.
Berman covers a lot of ground in this introductory offering. The book is organized as a series of essays,….
Technologies like array tomography also show how the human brain may be best understood as a computer that operates on both electricity and on chemicals. One section of the brain, the cerebral cortex, contains more than 125 trillion synapses. Boyle's (2010) source material from the Stanford School of Medicine notes that the number of synapses in the brain is "roughly equal to the number of stars in 1,500 Milky Way galaxies," (Goldman 2010).
Array tomography as a visualization instrument also reveals advancements in digital imaging as well as nanotechnology. The mouse brain used in initial array tomography experiments was sliced at only 70 nanometers thick (Goldman 2010). Measured at the level of the nanometer,, the layers of the brain that can be cut and then imaged with array tomography are small enough that scientists are able to understand more about how the brain works. Without technologies like array tomography, the….
Boyle, R. (2010). Video: 3-D Image Shows Brain's Circuitry in Highest Resolution Ever. Popular Science. Retrieved online: http://www.popsci.com/science/article/2010-11/video-3-d-brain-image-highlights-neuronal-circuits-highest-resolution-ever
Goldman, B. (2010). New imaging method developed at Stanford reveals stunning details of brain connections. Stanford School of Medicine. Retrieved online: http://med.stanford.edu/ism/2010/november/neuron-imaging.html
Science Tasks (Document 2 of 2)
MOISTURE-RELATED HABITAT PREFERENCES IN ISOPODS
PROJECT DESIGN PLAN
Isopods -- also known as "sowbugs" or "pillbugs" -- are usually mistakenly thought of as insects. In reality they are the only terrestrial species of crustacean, and are evolutionarily more related to crabs, shrimp and lobster than any kind of "bug."
This evolutionary relationship to so many aquatic species -- and the dearth of land crustaceans besides the isopods -- raises interesting questions about the isopod choice of habitat.
Crustaceans obviously have a system of underwater respiration using gills. Isopods also have these gills but do not live underwater: they are predominantly found in moist damp environments (beneath a rotting log).
But could isopods live underwater if necessary, or are their gills fully adapted to land life now?
I proposed an experiment to determine habitat preferences in isopods. It would offer a representative sampling of isopods the chance to choose between separate habitats.
Gibb, Timothy J. And Oseto, Christian Y. (2006). Arthropod Collection and Identification: Field and Laboratory Techniques. San Diego and London: Elsevier Academic Press.
Robinson, William H. (2005). Urban Insects and Arachnids: A Handbook of Urban Entomology. New York and London: Cambridge University Press.
Physical Attraction in the Internet Age
Since its inception the internet has affected nearly every aspect of society so it is only natural that it would eventually impact on our most intimate of relationships: romance. In just a short twenty years the internet has nearly revolutionized the dating process and determined who and how we meet each for purposes of establishing both casual and permanent romantic relationships. The internet dating business is one of the few to not only survive but also prosper in these precarious economic times (Carpenter). By 2012, the industry is expected to reach $1.9 billion in consumer sales (D. Card).
In the context of this paper internet dating is defined as the use of a database of potential dating partners, usually located in close geographical proximity, to find someone with whom one feels some connection.
The format of most dating services is similar. The sites, whether of the free….
Card, David. U.S. Paid Content Forecast, 2007 to 2012. Research. Cambridge, MA: Jupiter Research, 2008.
Carpenter, Susan. "No recession for online dating sites." Los Angeles Times 28 December 2008.
Epstein, Robert. "The Truth about Online Dating." Scientific American (2007): 28-35.
Franks, Christiana. "Whey Do We Fall In -- and Out of-Love?" Biography Magazine (2001): 86.
The release of fossil fuels has been driving industrial and civic expansion for the past century and a half, and there is therefore a compelling reason to deny such causes: "some corporations whose revenues might be adversely affected by controls on carbon dioxide emissions have also alleged major uncertainties in the science (Oreskes). Just as in the debate over the heliocentric solar system, issues of political and/or economic motive are raised to cloud the science at issue.
hat truly separates the global warming debate from the issues that Galileo dealt with, however, is that there really is hard science at the base of both camps with vastly different interpretations. This has made the contention all the more fierce, and personal accusations only seem more rampant now than during Galileo's trial due to the increased difficulty of a scientific attack. One example of this is Gore's insistence on using Revelle's name….
Coleman, John. "The Amazing Story behind the Global Warming Scam." http://www.kusi.com/weather/colemanscorner/38574742.html
"Gore's Grave New World." http://www.americanthinker.com/printpage/?url=http://www.americanthinker.com/2006/06/gores_grave_new_world.html
Henderson, Mark. "Why Global Warming is Not Natural." http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article516179.ece
Oreskes, Naomis. "Beyond the Ivory Tower: The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change." http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/306/5702/1686.pdf
This type of evolutionary thinking will challenge the initial creationist act as well. Many creationist currents, including the Christian one, believe that human life was also created through divine intervention, so any kind of such approach where life actually evolved to form the human being along the way takes away the special characteristics of human kind, as perceived by Christianity, for example. So, evolutionism virtually challenges the entire theological belief on the history of Earth and its inhabitants.
4. Logical positivism is based on general skepticism towards mythology, theology or metaphysics and on the idea that all true facts can and have to be verified in order to become veridical. In this sense, besides empiricism and materialism, verificationism is also one of the pillars on which logical positivism is based.
For a fact, proposition or idea to be cognitively meaningful, it has to be able to follow a particular path of cause-consequences….
Otherwise, one field risks becoming subordinate to the other; although it's likely that Coyne's theology is extraordinarily sophisticated, the brief excerpt of it that Bill Maher uses leads the viewer to suspect that if these precepts are followed to their logical conclusion, religion will always give way to science as John Paul II gave way to the certainty that organisms evolve over time.
If so, then efforts to restore faith to a more equal footing are naturally vulnerable to claims that they are reactionary attempts to usurp science's rightful and supreme interpretative role in modern life. It is easy to understand Richard Dawkins' profound revulsion over what he sees as resurgent religiosities surrounding Islamic fundamentalism on the one hand and Christian fundamentalisms on the other: These faith-oriented responses to world events pose an implicit challenge to his own conviction that all aspects of experience are the product of physical entities….
or, to put it another way, "chemistry carried out with the primary object of investigating the workings of nature is what we now call physical chemistry" (Laidler, 5). This has made the distinction between physics and chemistry at this frontier very difficult to define. This fuzzy distinction is also one of the things that makes the discipline of physical chemistry so interesting -- it cannot deny the complete interweaving of scientific disciplines.
Physics and chemistry lay out the foundation and explain the mechanisms of all other sciences, and the field of physical chemistry is the closest unification of these two sciences. All biological and astronomical processes only occur because of reactions and interactions at the molecular and atomic level, and physical chemistry attempts to explain these underlying principles (Laidler, 9). Though the nature of energy and matter is still not fully understood, physical chemistry is approaching better and better explanations….
Laidler, Keith James. The World of Physical Chemistry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
MolData. "Physical Chemistry." Pomona University Official Website. Accessed 9 March 2009. http://pages.pomona.edu/~wes04747/PChem.htm
Science Daily. "Nanotube Structures Could Improve Electric Motors." March 10, 2009. Accessed 9 March 2009. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/03/090310124855.htm
Physical Science Elemental Isotopes and Allotropes The 19th century discovery of the periodic table of the elements by Dmitri Mendeleev gave an organizing principle to understanding the structure of the atom,…Read Full Paper ❯
Physical Science Andrew Cuomo is a Democrat elected to Governor of New York State (Green N.Y.). He believes in a strategy that stems back to the Obama administration, involving reformation…Read Full Paper ❯
Physical Science: Energy How Energy Can be Converted from one Form to Another, ith Examples "Energy" is defined as the capacity to produce changes within a system. ithin a system, energy…Read Full Paper ❯
Physical Science: Heat It is reasonable to suggest that just about everyone has felt the warmth of the sun or warmed themselves by a fireside, but many people may not…Read Full Paper ❯
Physical Science Grade Course Describe the difference between a mixture and a compound For basic understanding, a mixture comprises of two or more different substances which are not chemically combined to each…Read Full Paper ❯
Physcical Science Procedures in the Physical Science Procedures in the Physical Sciences: Challenges in Measurements Identify three (3) specific challenges to making direct measurements in the fields of astronomy, chemistry, physics,…Read Full Paper ❯
Biology autonomous from physical sciences? Background of debate Biological science has undergone a time of progressive change in the last few decades. A distinctive element of this progress has been…Read Full Paper ❯
Bob Berman's book Secrets of the Night Sky: The Most Amazing Things in the Universe You Can See with the Naked Eye is one of the most interesting and…Read Full Paper ❯
Technologies like array tomography also show how the human brain may be best understood as a computer that operates on both electricity and on chemicals. One section of…Read Full Paper ❯
Science Tasks (Document 2 of 2) MOISTURE-RELATED HABITAT PREFERENCES IN ISOPODS PROJECT DESIGN PLAN Isopods -- also known as "sowbugs" or "pillbugs" -- are usually mistakenly thought of as insects. In reality…Read Full Paper ❯
Education - Computers
Physical Attraction in the Internet Age Since its inception the internet has affected nearly every aspect of society so it is only natural that it would eventually impact on our…Read Full Paper ❯
The release of fossil fuels has been driving industrial and civic expansion for the past century and a half, and there is therefore a compelling reason to deny…Read Full Paper ❯
Black Studies - Philosophy
This type of evolutionary thinking will challenge the initial creationist act as well. Many creationist currents, including the Christian one, believe that human life was also created through divine…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
Otherwise, one field risks becoming subordinate to the other; although it's likely that Coyne's theology is extraordinarily sophisticated, the brief excerpt of it that Bill Maher uses leads…Read Full Paper ❯
or, to put it another way, "chemistry carried out with the primary object of investigating the workings of nature is what we now call physical chemistry" (Laidler, 5).…Read Full Paper ❯