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Elemental Isotopes and Allotropes
The 19th century discovery of the periodic table of the elements by Dmitri Mendeleev gave an organizing principle to understanding the structure of the atom, and deriving atomic weight. On the periodic table, the lighter elements have atomic weights which correspond to whole numbers. Hydrogen has an atomic weight of 1, which corresponds to the idea that it has only one proton (and the weight of an electron is statistically insignificant in this measurement). But moving further along the periodic table, it became clear that the numbers eventually became less predictable. In the 19th century Dalton had suggested further atomic weights were simply multiples of hydrogen, which to a certain degree matched the available evidence.
But it was the discovery of the neutron in 1932 that actually yielded the correct answer. Rutherford had hypothesized the existence of an extra particle in the nucleus that…
Blundell, Stephen. Superconductivity. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
Chown, Marcus. The Quantum Zoo. Washington: Joseph Henry, 2006. Print.
Mortimer, Robert G. Physical Chemistry. Third Edition. Amsterdam and Boston: Elsevier Academic Press, 2008. Print.
Polkinghorne, John. Quantum Theory. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Print.
Andrew Cuomo is a Democrat elected to Governor of New York State (Green N.Y.). He believes in a strategy that stems back to the Obama administration, involving reformation of the energy sector of New York to facilitate the recovery of the economy (Cohen, 2011). Cuomo champions for a lower carbon emission energy that is "greener" and better environmentally, that also stimulates the economy as it creates more jobs and becomes more technologically innovative.
Even though energy policies are enacted on a global level, Cuomo believes that there is much to be done on the state and local level (Cohen, 2011). In regards to the state level, Cuomo's energy plan calls for a new age in energy, calling for more efficient ways to transfer energy through a better infrastructural grid that includes a system of energy renewal. He also calls for major state government system reform, because the current…
Cleaner Greener N.Y. "Andrew Cuomo." http://www.andrewcuomo.com/greenNY
Cohen, Steven. "Andrew Cuomo's Visionary Energy Policy." http://www.huffingtonpost.com/steven-cohen/andrew-cuomos-visionary-e_b_672524.html Huffington Post 2011.
Miller, Ashley S. "Governor-Elect Andrew Cuomo Outlines Environmental Agenda for New York." http://blog.sprlaw.com/2010/11/governor-elect-andrew-cuomo-outlines-environmental-agenda-for-new-york / Sive, Paget, and Riesel, P.C. 2009-2011.
WCBS 880/AP. "NY State to Discuss Indian Point with Nuclear Agency." http://newyork.cbslocal.com/2011/03/19/ny-state-to-talk-indian-point-with-nuclear-agency / CBS Radio Inc. 2011.
Physical Science: Energy
How Energy Can be Converted from one Form to Another, ith Examples
"Energy" is defined as the capacity to produce changes within a system. ithin a system, energy can be changed to a different state in order to perform work in natural processes or machines (Shipman, ilson, & Todd, 2009, pp. 88-89). Plants, animals and machines all convert energy to perform work in their processes. Through Photosynthesis, green plants use Chlorophyll, composed of miniature energy factories called Chloroplasts, to convert solar energy into storable chemical energy as a sugar called Glucose (Nave, Pigments for photosynthesis, n.d.). In the body of an animal or human, the cells' energy factories, called Mitochondria, contain Organelles, which convert chemical energy stored in food into Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), which is the energy used in life processes (Nave, Mitochondria, n.d.). An internal combustion engine, such as a car's engine, converts the potential chemical…
Consortium on Energy Restructuring, Virginia Tech. (2007). Distributed generation | education modules | chapter 2: sources of energy. Retrieved from Virginia Tech University Web site: http://www.dg.history.vt.edu/ch2/sources.html
Cromer, O.C., & Proctor II, C.L. (2012, January 8). Gasoline engine. Retrieved from Britannica.com Web site: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/226592/gasoline-engine
Nave, R. (n.d.). Mitochondria. Retrieved from Hyperphysics.phy-ast.gsu.edu: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/mitochondria.html
Nave, R. (n.d.). Pigments for photosynthesis. Retrieved from Hyperphysics.phy-ast.gsu.edu: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/pigpho.html#c2
Physical Science: Heat
It is reasonable to suggest that just about everyone has felt the warmth of the sun or warmed themselves by a fireside, but many people may not understand the source of the energy they are feeling, particularly at the molecular level. Without heat, though, humankind would soon cease to exist and the universe would quickly collapse into an absolute zero nothingness. To gain some further insights into this essential source of life, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to define heat and temperature, the relationship between them, and how they are different. A discussion concerning the various properties of a substance that determine its heat capacity is followed by a description of some of the various sources of heat. Finally, an analysis concerning how the study of heat relates to the kinetic theory of matter is followed by a summary of the research and…
Brown, J.R. (2001, Spring). Who gets Einstein? Queen's Quarterly, 108(1), 75.
Cavendish, M. (2003). How it works: Science and technology, vol. 17. New York: Marshall
Nave, R. (2005). Heat. Georgia State University: HyperPhysics. Retrieved from http://hyper physics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/heat.html.
Describe the difference between a mixture and a compound
For basic understanding, a mixture comprises of two or more different substances which are not chemically combined to each other. On the other hand, a compound consists two or more chemically bonded different substances which are present in a fixed ratio. In other words, the difference between a mixture and a compound is evident from the mentioned definitions.
Furthermore, there are a number of ways in which a mixture and a compound differs. For example, compounds always contain elements in a fixed ratio. For this reason, Calcium Carbonate, a compound, would always contain 40% Calcium, 12% Carbon and 48% Oxygen by mass. No variations in the mass of these elements would be noticed in Calcium Carbonate. In contrast, a mixture would contain its substances in any proportion (example: salt and water). For this reason, a mixture can…
Hart H. (2011). Organic Chemistry: A short course. Cengage Learning, 13th edition. United States.
Moore J. (2011). Chemistry for Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. Canada.
Pommerville J. (2010). Alcamo's Fundamentals of Microbiology. Jones & Bartlett Learning
Ramsden E. (2001). Key science chemistry. Nelson Thornes. United Kingdom.
Procedures in the Physical Science
Procedures in the Physical Sciences: Challenges in Measurements
Identify three (3) specific challenges to making direct measurements in the fields of astronomy, chemistry, physics, or earth science. Describe how scientists have utilized indirect forms of measure to overcome these challenges.
Ever since the ancient times, individuals have always been pulled into the unknown. Human beings have always been inquisitive in regards to everything that was going on in the world. They would ask question such as the following; is the earth a certain size? Is the sea really deep? Are there any other lands past the distance? And how what is the size of the universe? These kinds of questions have continuously directed people to start getting their minds to think and figure out what was going on. Until these current days some of these questions are still in the back of their…
Finni, T.S. (2011). A family-based tailored counselling to increase non-exercise physical activity in adults with a sedentary job and physical activity in their young children: Design and methods of a year-long randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health, 11(1), 944.
Fulchignoni, M.F. (2005). In situ measurements of the physical characteristics of titan's environment. Nature, 438(7951), 785-91.
Lacki, B.C. (2011). Cherenkov telescopes as optical telescopes for bright sources:. Monthly Notices Of The Royal Astronomical Society,, 416(4), 23-45.
Stathi, A.G. (2008). Opportunities and challenges in physical activity research in young people. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport,, 23(9), 515-7.
Biology autonomous from physical sciences?
Background of debate
Biological science has undergone a time of progressive change in the last few decades. A distinctive element of this progress has been a continuous addition of fresh theoretical points-of-view and methods from physics and chemistry (the physical sciences). The most interesting fresh innovations in contemporary Biology are closely linked with how these new theories and methods are applied. There is a unanimous consensus that a lot of the phenomena that used to occur naturally in the arena of biological science has been overridden by a science that is practically physical. The exact reference of the new expanded theories such as 'biophysics', 'biochemistry', and 'molecular biology' apparently point to new knowledge for treating the science of life on earth as chemical and physical principles (Hansen. 1969)
What is Biology?
In an attempt to answer this question, it is worth noting that biology is…
Bob Berman's book Secrets of the Night Sky: The Most Amazing Things in the Universe You Can See with the Naked Eye is one of the most interesting and engaging books that I have ever read on the topic of astronomy.
The book is geared toward beginning astronomers, but its humorous and interesting prose makes it a great read even for those with more advanced knowledge of the cosmos.
The book is a wealth of information, and takes the reader on an engaging tour of the night sky. Berman points out highlights and interesting information on the history of astronomy throughout. Further, he dispenses practical advice and tips in a warm and helpful manner. The book offers a helpful and informative guide to the visible universe in a logical and easily understood season-by-season format.
Berman covers a lot of ground in this introductory offering. The book is organized as a…
Berman, Bob. Secrets of the Night Sky: The Most Amazing Things in the Universe You Can See With the Naked Eye. Harper Collins, 1996.
Technologies like array tomography also show how the human brain may be best understood as a computer that operates on both electricity and on chemicals. One section of the brain, the cerebral cortex, contains more than 125 trillion synapses. Boyle's (2010) source material from the Stanford School of Medicine notes that the number of synapses in the brain is "roughly equal to the number of stars in 1,500 Milky Way galaxies," (Goldman 2010).
Array tomography as a visualization instrument also reveals advancements in digital imaging as well as nanotechnology. The mouse brain used in initial array tomography experiments was sliced at only 70 nanometers thick (Goldman 2010). Measured at the level of the nanometer,, the layers of the brain that can be cut and then imaged with array tomography are small enough that scientists are able to understand more about how the brain works. Without technologies like array tomography, the…
Boyle, R. (2010). Video: 3-D Image Shows Brain's Circuitry in Highest Resolution Ever. Popular Science. Retrieved online: http://www.popsci.com/science/article/2010-11/video-3-d-brain-image-highlights-neuronal-circuits-highest-resolution-ever
Goldman, B. (2010). New imaging method developed at Stanford reveals stunning details of brain connections. Stanford School of Medicine. Retrieved online: http://med.stanford.edu/ism/2010/november/neuron-imaging.html
Science Tasks (Document 2 of 2)
MOISTURE-RELATED HABITAT PREFERENCES IN ISOPODS
PROJECT DESIGN PLAN
Isopods -- also known as "sowbugs" or "pillbugs" -- are usually mistakenly thought of as insects. In reality they are the only terrestrial species of crustacean, and are evolutionarily more related to crabs, shrimp and lobster than any kind of "bug."
This evolutionary relationship to so many aquatic species -- and the dearth of land crustaceans besides the isopods -- raises interesting questions about the isopod choice of habitat.
Crustaceans obviously have a system of underwater respiration using gills. Isopods also have these gills but do not live underwater: they are predominantly found in moist damp environments (beneath a rotting log).
But could isopods live underwater if necessary, or are their gills fully adapted to land life now?
I proposed an experiment to determine habitat preferences in isopods. It would offer a representative sampling of isopods…
Gibb, Timothy J. And Oseto, Christian Y. (2006). Arthropod Collection and Identification: Field and Laboratory Techniques. San Diego and London: Elsevier Academic Press.
Robinson, William H. (2005). Urban Insects and Arachnids: A Handbook of Urban Entomology. New York and London: Cambridge University Press.
Physical Attraction in the Internet Age
Since its inception the internet has affected nearly every aspect of society so it is only natural that it would eventually impact on our most intimate of relationships: romance. In just a short twenty years the internet has nearly revolutionized the dating process and determined who and how we meet each for purposes of establishing both casual and permanent romantic relationships. The internet dating business is one of the few to not only survive but also prosper in these precarious economic times (Carpenter). By 2012, the industry is expected to reach $1.9 billion in consumer sales (D. Card).
In the context of this paper internet dating is defined as the use of a database of potential dating partners, usually located in close geographical proximity, to find someone with whom one feels some connection.
The format of most dating services is similar. The sites, whether…
Card, David. U.S. Paid Content Forecast, 2007 to 2012. Research. Cambridge, MA: Jupiter Research, 2008.
Carpenter, Susan. "No recession for online dating sites." Los Angeles Times 28 December 2008.
Epstein, Robert. "The Truth about Online Dating." Scientific American (2007): 28-35.
Franks, Christiana. "Whey Do We Fall In -- and Out of-Love?" Biography Magazine (2001): 86.
The release of fossil fuels has been driving industrial and civic expansion for the past century and a half, and there is therefore a compelling reason to deny such causes: "some corporations whose revenues might be adversely affected by controls on carbon dioxide emissions have also alleged major uncertainties in the science (Oreskes). Just as in the debate over the heliocentric solar system, issues of political and/or economic motive are raised to cloud the science at issue.
hat truly separates the global warming debate from the issues that Galileo dealt with, however, is that there really is hard science at the base of both camps with vastly different interpretations. This has made the contention all the more fierce, and personal accusations only seem more rampant now than during Galileo's trial due to the increased difficulty of a scientific attack. One example of this is Gore's insistence on using Revelle's name…
Coleman, John. "The Amazing Story behind the Global Warming Scam." http://www.kusi.com/weather/colemanscorner/38574742.html
"Gore's Grave New World." http://www.americanthinker.com/printpage/?url=http://www.americanthinker.com/2006/06/gores_grave_new_world.html
Henderson, Mark. "Why Global Warming is Not Natural." http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article516179.ece
Oreskes, Naomis. "Beyond the Ivory Tower: The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change." http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/306/5702/1686.pdf
This type of evolutionary thinking will challenge the initial creationist act as well. Many creationist currents, including the Christian one, believe that human life was also created through divine intervention, so any kind of such approach where life actually evolved to form the human being along the way takes away the special characteristics of human kind, as perceived by Christianity, for example. So, evolutionism virtually challenges the entire theological belief on the history of Earth and its inhabitants.
4. Logical positivism is based on general skepticism towards mythology, theology or metaphysics and on the idea that all true facts can and have to be verified in order to become veridical. In this sense, besides empiricism and materialism, verificationism is also one of the pillars on which logical positivism is based.
For a fact, proposition or idea to be cognitively meaningful, it has to be able to follow a particular path…
Otherwise, one field risks becoming subordinate to the other; although it's likely that Coyne's theology is extraordinarily sophisticated, the brief excerpt of it that Bill Maher uses leads the viewer to suspect that if these precepts are followed to their logical conclusion, religion will always give way to science as John Paul II gave way to the certainty that organisms evolve over time.
If so, then efforts to restore faith to a more equal footing are naturally vulnerable to claims that they are reactionary attempts to usurp science's rightful and supreme interpretative role in modern life. It is easy to understand Richard Dawkins' profound revulsion over what he sees as resurgent religiosities surrounding Islamic fundamentalism on the one hand and Christian fundamentalisms on the other: These faith-oriented responses to world events pose an implicit challenge to his own conviction that all aspects of experience are the product of physical entities…
or, to put it another way, "chemistry carried out with the primary object of investigating the workings of nature is what we now call physical chemistry" (Laidler, 5). This has made the distinction between physics and chemistry at this frontier very difficult to define. This fuzzy distinction is also one of the things that makes the discipline of physical chemistry so interesting -- it cannot deny the complete interweaving of scientific disciplines.
Physics and chemistry lay out the foundation and explain the mechanisms of all other sciences, and the field of physical chemistry is the closest unification of these two sciences. All biological and astronomical processes only occur because of reactions and interactions at the molecular and atomic level, and physical chemistry attempts to explain these underlying principles (Laidler, 9). Though the nature of energy and matter is still not fully understood, physical chemistry is approaching better and better explanations…
Laidler, Keith James. The World of Physical Chemistry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
MolData. "Physical Chemistry." Pomona University Official Website. Accessed 9 March 2009. http://pages.pomona.edu/~wes04747/PChem.htm
Science Daily. "Nanotube Structures Could Improve Electric Motors." March 10, 2009. Accessed 9 March 2009. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/03/090310124855.htm
Science of Behavior Change
NIH Common Fund Programs: The science of behavior change
The science of behavior change is a critical area of NIH research because of the degree to which lifestyle changes can improve human health. Chronic diseases such as heart disease, type II diabetes, and stroke have all been linked to negative health behaviors like smoking and drinking. Only if scientists can understand how to motivate people to change their behaviors can a more effective prescription for remedying these ailments be constructed for our nation. Two NIH studies currently being undertaken are one which investigates how "environmental and biological factors associated with poverty and stress that underlie abnormal impulsivity that accompanies addiction to substances and unhealthy behaviors" and one which assesses environmental factors that influence the propensity for adolescents to exercise " to identify individual differences in voluntary exercise behavior and inform new ways to change exercise behavior…
Common Fund Makes New FY2010 Awards to Advance the Science of Behavior Change.
(2011). NIH: Science of behavior change. Retrieved November 20, 2011 at http://commonfund.nih.gov/behaviorchange/overview.aspx
Cuddihy, T. (et al. 2006). Exploring the relationship between daily steps, body mass index and physical self-esteem in female Australian adolescents. Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness, 4 (1): 25-35.
Heyworth, Kelly. (2006). Girl Power. Fitness. Retrieved November 20, 2011 at http://www.fitnessmagazine.com/health/family/fitness/girl-power-how-teens-are-changing-the-face-of-fitness/
During the gene decoding process the double stranded DNA splits up to reveal a single strand from which the base sequence of the gene is copied onto a single stranded nucleic acid known as the messenger ribonucleic acid or mRNA. This implies that we have an exact copy of the gene base in the mRNA except that Urasil (U) replaces the T. base and deoxyribose is replaced by ribose. Translation on the other hand is the actual process of protein synthesis from the mRNA strands. Ribosomes work with the mRNA for protein synthesis within the cells. [the State University of New York]
4) Mutation, Gene Migration, Genetic Drift, Non-random Mating and Natural Selection are the five processes that can affect the frequency of genes in a population. [CMGS]
5) Kindom Protista is considered to be the ancestor of all eukaryotic kingdoms and includes algae, plant like, animal like and fungus…
Cherie Dimaline, "Inheriting Sickness When Finding Your Roots is a Matter of Life or Death" Accessed on 15th December 2004, http://www.metisnation.org/metisVOYAGEUR/MVcurrent/disease.html
Dr. Joseph F. Smith, "Genetic Counseling," Accessed on 15th December 2004, http://www.chclibrary.org/micromed/00049280.html
IBAC, "The Basics of Life," Accessed on 15th December 2004, http://www.ibac.org.nz/booklet/basics.html
CMGS, "Disturbance of Gene Frequencies in a Population," Accessed on 15th December 2004 http://www.ich.ucl.ac.uk/cmgs/genefreq.htm
In the last fifteen or so years the concerns about vaccinations, and particularly the combined measles, mumps and rubella vaccination (MMR) have come to the forefront of societies debates from a limited connection to autism that is most likely associated to the correlation between onset of symptoms of autism and autism spectrum disorders and standard immunization practices. The fear created a general public that was afraid to allow their children to get the life saving MMR and in turn many parents have denied their children vaccinations at all. Parents' fears of some connection between the vaccination and/or its ingredient makeup cause or trigger autism and an accompanying serious bowel disease is related to a single, very limited research study conducted in the UK (n 12). There has been a substantial increase in incidents of autism over the last 20 or so years and the extreme social, physical, emotional, financial and…
Matson Ronald R. PhD, Scientific Laws and Theories May 1, 2008 http://science.kennesaw.edu/~rmatson/Biol%203380/3380theory.html.
Purcell, Edward a. The Crisis of Democratic Theory: Scientific Naturalism & the Problem of Value. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1973.
Sawin, Enoch I. "The Scientific Method and Other Bases for Evaluation Procedures." ETC.: A Review of General Semantics 62.4 (2005): 386.
Steuernagel, T. Increases in Identified Cases of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Policy Implications. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 16(3), 2005, 138.
An object's heat capacity is the product of its precise heat capacity, which is the quantity of heat necessary to raise 1 kg of the material one degree, and it's mass in kg. Heat capacity is a widespread property of a matter. In other words its worth varies depending on how much matter is present (Jorgensen, 2011).
What are the various sources of heat?
The sun is an element of the solar system. Therefore, it is a natural source of heat energy. Sunlight is significant for the survival of all living things. This type of heat energy is also known as solar energy.
The heat energy that is obtained from the Earth is known as geothermal energy. Sustainable and unsoiled geothermal energy can be obtained from the hot water and rocks that are located in the shallow ground. It is also located in the molten rocks obtainable in the farthest…
Charmaine, Mike. (2010). What Are the Sources of Heat Energy? Retrieved January 27, 2011,
from eHow Web site: http://www.ehow.com/list_6038161_sources-heat-energy_.html
Heat. (n.d.). Retrieved January 27, 2011, from Web site: http://hyperphysics.phy-
" But these close connections cannot be developed over the phone alone. It is important that a person stays in close personal contact with friends and family by visiting them often.
Science and technology have not only affected our daily lives, they have significantly altered our social systems as well. We are not investing in our societies and communities as our forefathers used to. For example, if we have a disabled person living in the neighborhood, we would be all too happy to have social services take care of him, instead of visiting him and checking on him personally. But there are studies that would argue against this claim. There are some new researches that came to the conclusion that with increased use of Internet and technologies, social contacts increased and social circle expanded for most people. "Because interpersonal communication dominates Internet use, using the Internet could have positive social…
1) Emma Young. Close friends make longer life more likely
16 June 2005 NewScientist.com news service http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn7528
2) Kraut, Kiesler. The Social Impact of Internet use. Science Briefs. 2003. http://homenet.hcii.cs.cmu.edu/progress/kraut03-SocialImpactOfInternetUse.pdf.
3) Bill Ritchie. (2006) Satisfaction Guaranteed. Multnoma.
South Florida, especially Broward County, has showed the most eagerness, with eighty seven percent in favor of solar energy investment. Central Florida and the Gulf Coast were close behind, and eighty percent of those living in North Florida also favored more state venture for solar energy. hile voters of all ages said they approved of spending more on solar, ninety three percent of those between eighteen and thirty four agreed. Statewide, the accord crossed party lines, with eighty two percent of Republicans favoring more public capital for solar energy, compared with eighty seven percent of Democrats. The poll also showed strong support for solar energy even if it led to an increase in utility bills. Overall, eighty one percent of those polled said they were willing to pay more each month on their utility bill to sustain solar energy (Poll: Support up for solar energy investment, 2008).
The sun is…
Borenstein, Severin. 2008. "The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity
Production." Web. 29 March 2011.
"Clean Energy Never Looked So Good." 2011. Web. 29 March 2011.
"Environmental Effects of Solar Energy." 2011. Web. 29 March 2011.
ability to measure and track the results from any scientific experiment is extremely important to both the validity and truthfulness of the work. Scientists often have problems in certain sciences due to the scope of their investigation. As a result of these mismatches, indirect avenues of approach become necessary to measure and grasp the items of inquiry.
In physics, the atomic theory is based upon indirect measurements. The neutron, proton and electron are merely ideas that have been modeled due to the technology that is available to scientists. An electron has never been physically produced and only its characteristics have been noticed. This is an important distinction, because too often scientists take many of these long standing practices for granted and have assumed the presence of these particles, when there is compelling evidence there is not. Jessa (2009) reminded us that "This understanding the atom helped to fuel many other…
Jessa, T. (2009). John Dalton's Atomic Model. Universe Today, 24 Aug 2009. Retrieved from http://www.universetoday.com/38169/john-daltons-atomic-model/
Keyes, J. (1946). Newton The Man. JOC/EFR 2006. Retrieved from http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Extras/Keynes_Newton.html
NASA (nd). What is a Spacesuit? Viewed 27 April 2014. Retrieved from http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/stories/what-is-a-spacesuit-k4.html#.U2ED5qLiyf4
Weinstein, G. (2012). Albert Einstein's Methodology. Cornell University, 24 Sep 2012. Retrieved from http://arxiv.org/abs/1209.5181
Similar to Physical Science and Life Science, Earth Science will contain multiple choice and constructed response questions. A sample constructed response question from the Earth Science test is:
ased on the chart, explain various agricultural practices and how it affects the success of a yearly harvest.
This is a sample constructed response question. The student should carefully read and answer this question in essay form. Upon reading the question, the student should note that the question is requesting two separate answers
Praxis 7 because the question is a two-part question. Therefore, it is very important that the student reads the entire question and determine what information it is requesting before writing out his/her response. (Edge)
In conclusion, in most states, all students who wish to become teachers in the areas of Science or any other discipline will have to complete the Praxis test. The Praxis II test, code 0014…
Educational Testing Service General Information. Retrieved October 13, 2006 from www.ets.gov
Educational Testing Service (2006) General Information and Study Tips.
Fitzer, Penelope and Bristor, Valerie (2005) Prentice Hall Publishing, New Jersey.
Burdette, Laurel, (2005) Study Notes for the Middle School Science Praxis II Exam, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
Social Science and Why Is it Important?
The definition of social science has been narrowed down to those sciences that deal with human activities and human behavior as opposed to science that studies natural phenomenon. However this division may be superfluous now because modern science has its origin from the old social sciences. Science evolved from the society which also contained many thoughts that may be out of the realm of modern science like "religion, philosophy, ideology and politics." (Williams, 2000)
Thus the scientific theories are based on a philosophical thinking that is often shaped by politics or religion. The relationship between science and other streams of human thought and science changed with the changes in scientific method which again form within the disciplines of each branch of science is different and often contradictory. (Williams, 2000)
The argument at this stage is if the social world is amenable to experiments…
Bowker, Geoffrey C; Star, Susan Leigh; Turner, William; Gasser, Les. (1997) "Social
Science, Technical Systems, and Cooperative Work: Beyond the Great Divide." Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, NJ.
Brooks, Stephen; Gagnon, Alain-G. (1994) "The Political Influence of Ideas: Policy
Communities and the Social Sciences." Praeger Publishers: Westport, CT.
social science research are qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is believed to operate from a subjective, constructionist view of reality, whereas quantitative research operates from an objective, positivist viewpoint of the world. There has been quite a bit of debate over the merits of each of these approaches, often with one paradigm belittling the assumptions of the other. The current literature review explores the philosophical foundations of each paradigm, compares their practical differences, and discusses the strengths and weakness of both approaches as they relate to research in the social sciences and to human resources research. The rationale for mixed-methods research, where the two paradigms are combined, is also discussed.
In recent years there has been substantial interest concerning the role of specific paradigms and philosophical assumptions with regards to doing research. There has been a growing concern regarding the adequacy of research methods in social sciences and…
Anderson, V. (2004) Research methods in human resource management. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
Blalock, M. (1984). Basic dilemmas in the social sciences. New York: Sage/
Burrell, G. & Morgan G. (1979). Sociological paradigms and organization analysis. London, UK: Heinemann.
Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6, 97-113.
For example, The Council on Gender Parity in Labor, which is concerned with gender equality, has found that that "...gender inequity in science, engineering and technology fields is a workforce problem that inhibits the full utilization of the labor force. "(Gatta M. And Trigg M. 2001)
Bailyn L., and Etzion D. Experiencing Technical ork: A Comparison of Male and Female Engineers. 1986. July 4, 2006. http://onlineethics.org/div/abstracts/Bailyn-study.html
Becker T.J. Breaking Down Gender Barriers: New Book Looks at Roadblocks
Impeding omen Scientists and Engineers.2004. July 4, 2006. http://www.gtresearchnews.gatech.edu/newsrelease/roadblocks.htm
Comments for the MIT Faculty Newsletter on the omen's Report. July 4, 2006. http://web.mit.edu/sts/sites/rwilliams/writings/womens-report.html
Dehyse M.P. Educated oman: The Grad School Adventures of Micella
Phoenix Dehyse. 2004. July 4, 2006. http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org/career_development/previous_issues/articles/2800/educated_woman_the_grad_school_adventures_of_micella_phoenix_dewhyse_chapter_23_grad_school_and_the_single_soul
Etzkowitz H. Barriers to omen in Academic Science and Engineering. 1994.
July 2, 2006. http://people.mills.edu/spertus/Gender/EKNU.html
Gatta M. And Trigg M. BRIDGING THE GAP: GENDER EQUITY IN SCIENCE,
ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY. 2001.…
Bailyn L., and Etzion D. Experiencing Technical Work: A Comparison of Male and Female Engineers. 1986. July 4, 2006. http://onlineethics.org/div/abstracts/Bailyn-study.html
Becker T.J. Breaking Down Gender Barriers: New Book Looks at Roadblocks
Impeding Women Scientists and Engineers.2004. July 4, 2006. http://www.gtresearchnews.gatech.edu/newsrelease/roadblocks.htm
Comments for the MIT Faculty Newsletter on the Women's Report. July 4, 2006. http://web.mit.edu/sts/sites/rwilliams/writings/womens-report.html
Islam and Science
Islam and its Scientific Legacy
Many people are surprised when they learn of the tremendous debt modern science holds to Islam and the Arab world. Indeed, although most imagine the origins of science to be a Western phenomenon, arguably the greatest influences upon modern science today actually stem from the Islamic World.
During the height of the Middle Ages, the Islamic world was enjoying a tremendous high point of scientific, social, and academic learning. Great cities including Damascus, aghdad, Cairo and Moorish Cordoba were the epicenters of "civilization" as we now know it. Take, for example the great academic center that was Cordoba, the capital of then, Muslim Spain. Not only was it one of the first of the world's "universities," drawing students from around the globe, but it also was the home of the largest library in all of Europe. Moreover, the fact that the Cordoba…
Aftab, Macksood. "How Islam Influenced Science." The Islamic Herald. March, 1995. Retrived on October 10, 2004, from, http://www.geocities.com/zahidtg2/Science/science_influence.htm
Third Grade Science Instruction Plan
The Florida state standards for science education and knowledge achievements in the third grade essentially consist of background knowledge in all of the major branches of scientist inquiry and knowledge -- earth science, physical sciences, and life sciences (FDE 2010). This includes fundamental knowledge regarding the nature of matter and an introduction of types of matter, an understanding of energy and a knowledge of different objects that emit energy in the forms of heat and light and the basics of the energy life cycle amongst organisms on earth (FDE 2010). There are also numerous specific learning objectives identified in each of these and other areas of scientific knowledge that are defined by the state as necessary; the following lesson description touches on several of these areas (FDE 2010).
Earth in Space and Time
One popular way of introducing earth as it exists in space is…
DOE. (2010). Third grade sciance standards. Department of Education. Accessed 30 November 2010. http://doe.sd.gov/contentstandards/documents/PhyScience_3-5.pdf
FDE. (2010). Grade level expectations. Florida Department of Education. Accessed 30 November 2010. http://www.fldoe.org/bii/curriculum/sss/pdf/sci3.pdf
SSS. (1996). Sunshine State standards. Accessed 30 November 2010. http://www.explorelearning.com/index.cfm?method=cResource.dspStandardCorrelation&id=139
TC. (2010). Solar system. Teacher's corner. Accessed 30 November 2010. v
The relevance of physical security cannot be overstated when it comes to the prevention or minimization of instances of unauthorized access, loss, or even theft. In this text, I concern myself with physical security and the relevance of several of its components. The components I will address in this discussion are building security, grounds security, access control systems, perimeter security, and information systems and technology security.
Physical Security: Brief Overview
In the assessment of security vulnerabilities, physical security is generally regarded a critical issue. This is particularly the case given that it is the said physical security that presents the most serious obstacle to an attacker seeking to execute a break-in. In that regard therefore, the various components of physical security, some of which are discussed in significant detail in this text, should seek to secure people and organizational assets from intruders. For this reason, physical security could…
Dempsey, J.S. (2010). Introduction to Private Security (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Fennelly, L.J. (2012). Effective Physical Security (4th ed.). Waltham, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Purpura, P.P. (2007). Security and Loss Prevention: An Introduction (5th ed.). Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Smith, C. & Brooks, D.J. (2012). Security Science: The Theory and Practice of Security. Waltham, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
This occurred in 330 BC, and Zoroaster's date would then be 588 BC, and this date we may take to refer to the initial success of his prophetic mission which consisted in the conversion of King Visht-spa when Zoroaster was forty years old. Since he is traditionally said to have lived seventy-seven years, we will not be far wrong in dating him at 628-551 BC. It seems also to be generally agreed that the Prophet's sphere of operation in which his message was proclaimed was ancient Chorasmia -- an area comprising, perhaps, what is now Persian Khorasan, estern Afghanistan, and the Turkmen Republic of the U.S.S.R. (Zaehner, R.C., 1961, 33)."
Ayala's science takes the mitochondrial Eve back even before what we know about Zoroastrianism, but we really have no accurate date of the monotheistic tradition as it arises out of Zoroastrianism, because there are no written artifacts that support its…
Blackwell, Richard J. 1999. Science, Religion and Authority: Lessons from the Galileo Affair. Milwaukee: Marquette University Press. Book online. Available from Questia,
8-15.6-15.6-15.5-15.6-15.6-15.8-16.1 Subtotal pre-1996 154 15.6-15.5-15.5-15.5-15.5-15.5-15.5-15.9 adapted from PriceWatersHouseCoopers 2008)
1996 Vintage Funds Onwards
No of funds to ec
Venture 72 -1.6 -0.6 -1.9 -2.4-8.7-29.7-42.0-86.7 Small MBO* 16 7.3-3.2-1.9-0.3-3.2-1.3-2.6 -14.2 Mid MBO 73-14.9-13.2-9.3-5.9-4.3-3.6-8.0-17.6 Large MBO 1-23.7-21.0-18.0-13.9-14.3-16.5-30.6-25.2 Subtotal 1996 onwards 182 18.9-16.4-13.2-9.4-9.7-1-1.7-19.8-25.9 Grand total all funds
336 17.3-16.0-14.4-13.0-13.6-14.6-16.2-16.4 adapted from PriceWatersHouseCoopers 2008)
Subcategories (All Vintages)
No of funds to ec
UK 252 14.6-14.4-14.0-13.6-14.1-14.5-15.4-16.2 Non-UK 84-20.2-1-7.9-14.9-11.8-12.6-15.1-18.7-17.5 Pan-European 77-21.6-19.7-17.4-14.0-14.9-16.9-20.9-20.4 Technology 95-0.1-1.0-0.1-0.9-7.4-10.7-12.1-12.8 Non-Technology 241 18.7-17.3-15.7-14.2-14.5-15.3-17.0-17.3
Includes development capital adapted from PriceWatersHouseCoopers 2008)
No of to ec
No of funds to ec
1980-84-13 9.5-9.5-9.5-9.5-9.5-9.5-9.5-9.5 1985-89-68-13.8-13.8-13.8-13.8-13.8-13.8-13.8-1-3.8 1990 13-11.3-11.3-11.1-11.1-11.1-11.6-11.5-11.8 1991 14-23.4-23.4-23.4-23.3-23.3-23.3-23.3-23.7 1992 7-20.3-20.3-20.3-20.3-20.2-20.1-20.0-19.7 1993 10-15.3-15.3-14.8-14.0-14.6-14.6-14.6-16.0 1994 20-34.3-34.3-34.4-34.4-34.3-34.3-34.9-36.9 1995 9-23.1-22.2-21.9-21.9-21.8-22.8-25.7-32.1 1996 15-18.7-18.7-18.6-1-8.5-19.0-20.1-22.0-26.3 1997 25-15.6-14.7-14.9-14.3-14.3-13.7-17.6 n/a 1998 16-12.5-12.2-10.8-10.6-9.3-6.3 n/a n/a 1999 28-15.8-8.8-6.2-1.5 -2.0 n/a n/a n/a 2000 29-16.7-14.9-8.7-4.8 n/a n/a n/a / a 2001 29-29. 1-28.3-23.4 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 2002 20-32. 1-23.4* 22.2* n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Total 336…
Drawing on its long experience of successfully bringing its unique skills to new markets, Apax Partners opened offices in Stockholm in 2004, Hong Kong in 2005, and Mumbai in 2006 (Apax Partners Story 2008).
One of Apax's success stories, Yell and Computacenter, a telephone directories group "had a strong run after joining public markets.." New Look, Similarly, a fashion chain, in a similar sense, projected to be sold or refloated at a huge profit this year,
Students in the 21st century have the opportunity to learn at a rapid pace, through the use of new media and new pedagogical methods. New media shifts the pedagogical focus away from fragmented knowledge towards a more integrative and multidisciplinary understanding of the natural world. 21st century learning engages students with material, encouraging them to think creatively and critically rather than simply learning by rote memorization. Science curricula in public schools should reflect the new tools and technologies of the 21st century.
The Australian science curricula remains committed to 21st century learning and the development of effective citizens. To develop effective citizens, science teachers need to cultivate in their students a sense of curiosity or scientific inquiry and an appreciation for the scientific method of answering questions. A scientific worldview encourages students to ask probing questions and shows them how to find the answers to those questions. Science is a…
ACARA (n.d.). Learning area: Aims. Retrieved online: http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/science/aims
ACARA (n.d.). Learning area: Rationale. Retrieved online: http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/science/rationale
Gaffney, J. (2005). The importance of science literacy in modern culture. Retrieved online: http://www4.ncsu.edu/~jdgaffne/scilit.pdf
Hartmann, A.C. (2013). Education: science literacy benefits all. Nature 498(171).
Learning in theory and practice: Vygotsky’s ZPD and physical education in primary education
Age-graded schooling is one of the most common and conventional features of today’s academic environment. For younger learners in the primary education levels, this separation of young children from adolescents may seem on the face of it like a common sense approach to education—yet, as Gray and Feldman (2004) point out, separation such as this actually is more restrictive to the educative experience than it is facilitative. The reason is found in Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) theory. Vygotsky was an early 20th century Soviet thinker who articulated the idea that individuals learn most effectively when they are aided by other skilled individuals who know how to perform a certain task. Child learners can benefit, for example, from being placed in a zone of proximal development: alone or confined to a sphere in which they…
Bible & Depression
Depression is something that a lot of people suffer with in modern times and there is very much a tug-of-war between "modern science" and the Bible in terms of depression, how it should be dealt with and what actually makes things worse. The same can be said of the broader medical field as some people rely on faith alone rather than the "poison" and such of modern medicine. As with most things, neither extreme is wise and a middle ground that recognizes both science and faith should emerge. While it is possible to read too much into certain clips and phrases in the Bible, there are certainly portions and passages where depression certainly was pointed to or that almost certainly existed with or without mention.
The passages about Adam and Eve are a good starting point when it comes to depression and negative feelings. Indeed, Adam…
Mayo. (2015, January 8). Depression (major depressive disorder). Retrieved January 8,
2015, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/depression/basics/definition/con-20032977
The Holy Bible: New international version, containing the Old Testament and the New
Testament. (1978). Grand Rapids: Zondervan Bible.
Attribution Theory and Emotional Intelligence
Attribution theory is a theory that focuses on creating an understanding of the ways in which people interpret events and the relationship of the events to their thinking and behaviors. The theory was proposed by Heider (1958), Weiner (1972 and 1986), and Weiner (1074). Attribution theory takes into assuption that individuals try to understand why people behave the way they do (attribute causes of events to behaviors). It also creates an understanding of behavior of individuals using three-stage processes that are considered to build the strength of the attribution. Among the processes include the fact that an individual should perceive or see their behavior, individuals should believe that their behaviors were due their intentional circumstances. Finally, individuals should determine whether they believe somebody else forced them to perform or engage in that behavior.
The relationship between these factors creates a web of causation…
Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R.E., & McKee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: realizing the power of emotional intelligence. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press.
Inglehart, R., & Norris, P. (2003). Rising tide: gender equality and cultural change around the world. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Macleod, D.V. (2004). Tourism, globalisation, and cultural change an island community perspective. Clevedon: Channel View Publications.
Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R.D. (2002). Emotional intelligence science and myth. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Science is a “way of knowing,” meaning that it is one way of ascertaining the truth about the world. Although it is not the only way of knowing, it is the most reliable way of knowing the physical universe because it is based on systematic, rigorous methods of testing, experimentation, and calculated observations. According to the Union of Concerned Scientists (2017), science yields “unbiased and verifiable information to make important decisions,” (p. 1). The scientific method is used to acquire and analyze information. Using the scientific method, it is possible to test hypotheses again and again, to come up with verifiable and repeatable experiments that can yield factual and provable data.
The most important elements of the scientific method include observation, identification, description, investigation, and explanation. Observation is often the genesis of scientific inquiry. Observing an interesting, important, unique, or unusual phenomenon might lead to a hypothesis about why that…
Science of Sex and Gender
Midterm Exam About Two Articles
Science is defined as the attainment of knowledge through practice or study. The concerted human effort in understanding better how the natural works using observable physical evidence is science (Chalmers p.4). There are many definitions of science and all point to one thing. Science involves making observations and studying in order to explain natural phenomena's. Without observation and study, it would not be possible to explain in a logical manner the various happenings that take place naturally. The interesting thing about science is the fact different theories can be formulated to explain the same phenomena. The hypothesis a scientist uses will determine the conclusions they make. Science is interesting because it offers people different explanations to why something happens and all the reasons could be logical or truthful. Having different meaning or theories explaining the same phenomena makes science a…
Chalmers, Alan F. What Is This Thing Called Science? Indianapolis, in: Hackett Publishing, 2013. Print.
Oudshoorn, Nelly. "Endocrinologists and the Conceptualization of Sex, 1920 -- 1940." Journal of the History of Biology 23.2 (1990): 163-86. Print.
Shields, Stephanie a. "Passionate Men, Emotional Women: Psychology Constructs Gender Difference in the Late 19th Century." History of Psychology 10.2 (2007): 92. Print.
Health and Social Sciences
Health, Well Being and Social Care in UK
Sociological Perspective of Health and Well Being in UK
Psychological Perspective of Health and Well Being in UK
Psycho-Social Needs of Service Users in UK
Health and Social Sciences
This report casts light upon the various aspects of physical and mental health of people living in United Kingdom. The selected sample chosen for this study belongs to the settings of people who do not belong to UK from their old generations and they are spending the lives of homelessness there. In other words, the paper is about physical and mental health of people who belong to other areas of the world but are settled in UK for education of job purpose. Since they are outsiders, they do not have permanent place to live in, they make temporal arrangements depending upon their requirements. Their priorities are different…
BBC News, 2011. Archbishop calls for NHS bill to cover spiritual health. [Online] Available at: < http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-15570290 > [Accessed 07 Oct 2012]
Department of Health, 2012. Public Health, adult social care and the NHS. [online] Available at: < http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/index.htm > [Accessed 07 Oct 2012]
International Health Insurance, 2012. 3 Easy Steps to Health Insurance. [Online] Available at: < http://www.international-health-insurance.com / > [Accessed 07 Oct 2012]
Men's Health News, 2012. The Hardest Workout You're not Doing. [online] Available at: < http://news.menshealth.com/the-hardest-workout-youre-not-doing/2012/02/10 / > [Accessed 07 Oct 2012]
"Some Enemies of Science" J.B.S. Haldane
The vivisection debate: J.B.S. Haldane's "Some enemies of science"
The vivisection debate is an old one. As early as 1928, the scientist J.B.S. Haldane rigorously defended the practice of vivisection against its earliest detractors, arguing that even moderate government regulation of scientific behavior to protect animal rights was hypocritical, given the way that animals were treated in other spheres of human life. In contrast, David Suzuki's 1989 essay "The pain of animals" highlights the central paradox of animal experimentation. On one hand, animal experiments are only useful because of our biological similarities to animals. On the other hand, we assert our right to exploit animals based upon our inherent differences from them. The intelligence of animals such as the chimpanzee is analogous to a two-year-old child and yet through logical sleight of hand we justify using chimps in the laboratory by calling them…
Haldane, J.B.S. (2004). Some enemies of science. The Nelson Introduction to Literature (2nd
Ed). Valleau, Al & Jack Finnbogason. (Eds.). Toronto: Thomson Nelson.
Suzuki, David. (2004). The pain of animals. The Nelson Introduction to Literature (2nd
Ed). Valleau, Al & Jack Finnbogason. (Eds.). Toronto: Thomson Nelson.
eligion or Science?
Since the enaissance, there has been a vocal debate between religion and science. Galileo was imprisoned and sanctioned because of his views of the universe, the sun, and the way planets moved. As science progressed, this debate became even more heated. However, in the late 20th century, there has also been a mitigating discussion about the way that religion and science can actual coexist as explanations of the universe. In fact, as physicists look into the wondrous world of smaller and smaller particles, they find that the laws we through governed the universe do not really fit in with the abstract dimensions of time, space, quarks, and the study of the basic attributes of matter and the universe (Schroeder, 2010, p.xi ). On some level, the debate between science and religion is based on the notion of reason (the scientific method) versus faith. eason implies what can…
Russell, C 2002, 'The Conflict of Science and Religion,' in G. Ferngren, ed., Science
And Religion: Some Historical Perspectives, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins
Schroeder, G. (2001). The Hidden Face of God: How Science Reveals the Ultimate Truth. New York: The Free Press.
Discuss collection. The final activity involving Drippy ends up with him falling on a stream and then into a river, which carries him back to the ocean and this will happen all over again in a process termed collection. It is important to add that some of the rain will fall on land and become ground water - the water that people, animals, and plants use.
1. Copy of Drippy the aindrop.
2. Copy of precipitation poster.
Source: Adapted from First-School.ws Preschool Activities and Crafts (2011) at http://www.first-school.ws/activities/science/drippy.htm
The combination of art and science has been shown to be a proven way of engaging young learners' reasoning abilities, to identify spatial relationships and in constructing new concepts (Fernandez & obinson, 2006). The lesson plan set forth in Table 1 above is sufficiently flexible to tailor the content to age-appropriate levels for 4- to 6-year-olds in a preschool setting. The…
Fernandez, M.L. & Robinson, M. (2006). Prospective teachers' perspectives on microteaching lesson study. Education, 127(2), 203-205.
Grades 6-8: Fun class project build an icosahedron. (2002, February). Curriculum Review,
Guapari, D. (1996, Spring). Stoppard's 'Arcadia.' The Antioch Review, 54(2), 222-224.
Human esponse to Physical Structure:
Environmental psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on explaining human behavior in relation to the physical environment. In this case, the physical environment basically incorporates plants, animals, and material objects that have a significant impact on behavior at various levels. However, this branch of psychology does not focus on the interactional procedures among people as emphasized on other branches of psychology. In analyzing human behavior, it adopts a systems approach that has become the main approach in modern science.
Impact of Physical Structure on Human Behavior:
According to various theories, the physical environment or structure affects human behavior at various levels with instant behavior acting as a function of settings with which it happens (Matthew, n.d.). The individual personality traits of people within a specified country are largely influenced by the nature and type of physical environment that these individuals are subject to…
Goode, J.P. (n.d.). 'The Human Response to the Physical Environment.' The Elementary School
Teacher, 4(5), pp. 271-282. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/992499.pdf?acceptTC=true
"Importance of Sustainable Architecture in 21st Century." (2010, June 21). Architecture Student
Chronicles. Retrieved October 22, 2011, from http://www.architecture-student.com/sustainable-design/importance-of-sustainable-architecture-in-21st-century/
Wulf, S.J. (2000). "The skeptical life in Hume's political thought. Polity, 33(1), 77.
Wulf uses David Hume's well-known skepticism to advance his concerning the extreme degrees to which philosophy had been taken before returning to less radical modes. He develops material about the antithetical ideas to those investigated here; that is, he puts into a context the ideas of those philosophers who, working at the edge of the intelligible, refused to "accede to the judgment of reason and even their own senses."
ukav, Gary. (1984) the dancing Wu Li masters: An overview of the new physics. New York: Bantam.
One of the first statements ukav makes in this book is that he found, visiting the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in Berkeley, California, that physics "was not the sterile, boring discipline that I had assumed it to be. It was a rich, profound venture, which had become inseparable from philosophy. Incredibly, no…
Zumbrunnen, J. (2002). Courage in the Face of Reality: Nietzsche's Admiration for Thucydides. Polity, 35(2), 237+. Retrieved July 13, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
The Hundredth Monkey Theory is this: On a desert island at least 20 miles from another desert island, one of the monkeys decides to wash his fruit in the ocean before he eats it. Soon, his fellow monkeys see him doing it and follow suit. There is no communication between the first and second islands; nonetheless, one day shortly after the final monkey on the first island begins to wash his fruit, the monkeys on the second island begin to wash their fruit. They did not hear it through the 'monkey grapevine.' In New Thought, they heard it because ideas, thought to be intangible, are actually tangible, traveling in ways as yet unknown to us throughout the universe and popping up as 'new' ideas.
This story, if one wants to trace it through quarks and string theory and even the fact that airplanes and bumblebees are both incapable of flight but do it anyway, marries science and philosophy very neatly.
Response to Karl Popper’s The Logic of Scientific Discovery
How the Reading Has Affected What I Believe about the Nature of Science and What It Can Tell Us about the World
Popper (2005) rejects the notion that inductive reasoning can lead to the identification of universals, and he uses the white swan as an example: “no matter how many instances of white swans we may have observed, this does not justify the conclusion that all swans are white” (p. 4)—no, and nor should it. However, one could legitimately analyze the swan still further, identify its species and thus conclude that this species of swan is always going to be white. White is one of the characteristics of this type of swan—so why should it not be viewed as a universal characteristic of this specific species? Popper’s approach to the nature of science is rooted in the empirical analysis—in deduction rather…
76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The first tasks of the manager, then, are to coordinate an organization's resources and provide a viable framework in which they can be used to produce goods and services effectively and efficiently. The second set of tasks concern guidance and control. In Drucker's view, this role is almost entirely proactive: "Economic forces set limits to what a manager can do. They create opportunities for management's action. But they do not by themselves dictate what a business is or what it does" (Drucker,…
It was originally established in the early 19th century by Auguste Comte who tried to unify history, psychology and economics through an understanding of society as a broad paradigm. Emile Durkheim took this a bit further and focused on the way societies could maintain a sort of integrity within the modern work where past cultural trends (religion, ethnicity, etc.) were no longer the singular part of society. His view, which has become the modern view of sociology, surrounded questions of what binds individuals together as a formal group (society) and what happens to this group both collectively and for the individual. This is a broad discipline as well, and clearly an academic response to the modern age (industrialization, urbanization, secularization, etc.). The field looks at social rules, the way those rules were formed, and the way that individuals coalesce into groups, communities, institutions, and even powerful social organizations that transcend…
American Anthropological Association. (2012, January). What is Anthropology. Retrieved from aaanet.org: http://www.aaanet.org/about/WhatisAnthropology.cfm
Backhouse, R., & Fontaine, P. (Eds.). (2010). The History of the Social Sciences Since 1945. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bernard, H. (2011). Research Methods in Anthropology. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.
Fernald, L. (2008). Psychology: Six Perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Tis is not to say owever, tat all classical music is sooting and terapeutic. In fact, te majority of traditional classical music are not terapeutic because tis is not te intent of te original masters. Concertos by Beetoven, Bac and Brams for example all focus on arousing strong emotion rater tan arnessing te power of strong terapy, terefore te pysical presence and rytmic are not necessarily terapeutic. Mozart's no. 23 owever, is an ideal example of terapeutic music. Tis is because te affects of entrainment is easily observed troug studies on te affect of tis music on oters. Wile listening to te music, people say tat it "relaxed and sooted," upon monitoring wit medical equipment it is observed tat te music lowered bot teir blood pressure and eart rates. Te reason is tat Mozart's concerto affects individuals in bot a psycological and pysical sense. Wile te classical music made people…
Vanasco, Jennifer. American classical music: Exploring roots, reflections. Jan.
1998. Chicago Chronicle. 3 Feb. 2007 http://chronicle.uchicago.edu/980108/musymp.shtml .
Live Without Science?
The vast improvements in the quality of life modern humankind has been experiencing are due in large part to the developments and innovations in science. These are not only confined to one or two branches of science but all branches thereof have made significant contributions. Whether it is in the biological, physical, technological, medical or other science, each branch has provided breakthroughs that resulted in having a better life for each of us. For instance, "new technological advances lead to new scientific discoveries [such as] developing DNA copying and sequencing technologies [that] led to important breakthroughs (University of California Museum of Paleontology et al., 2011). Diseases that used to be dreaded in the past and caused several deaths are now curable because of our knowledge in DNA technology.
On the personal level, science has tremendously improved how I live my everyday life. Technology for that matter enabled…
Jessa, T. (2011, February 4). Importance of science. Universe Today. Retrieved June 3, 2011 from http://www.universetoday.com/83736/importance-of-science/
University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley, and the Regents of the University of California. (2011). Benefits of science. Retrieved June 3, 2011 from http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/0_0_0/howscienceworks_18
Wagner, W. (2007). Vernacular science knowledge: its role in everyday life communication. Public Understanding of Science, 16 (1): 7-22. Retrieved June 3, 2011 from http://www.brown.uk.com/brownlibrary/wagner.pdf
This process places the user in a central position for both determining system requirements and ensuring they are met.
The benefits of these systems include not only improvements in user efficiency, but also others, such as reduced training costs, reduced user errors, reduced maintenance costs, and increased customer satisfaction. However, the chief requirements in these kinds of systems become to understand the users' information needs. As we argued earlier, the systems analysts cannot determine information needs scientifically, rather the system analysts are required to obtain this needs by projecting an extrovert interpersonal style that fits more closely to an art form.
Design evaluations and maintenance are carried out with users of the systems (Smith and Dunckley, 2002). Although we believe that most of maintenance is routine, but in critical cases how systems are made usable so that users do not suffer their work requires an understanding of working around the…
Nielsen, J. (1993). Usability Engineering. New York: Academic Press.
Smith a. And Dunckley (2002). Prototype Evaluation and Redesign: Structuring the Design Space through Contextual Techniques. Interacting with Computers 14, 821 -- 843
They are also the guidelines by which a member determines the correctitude of conduct in relationships with the clients, colleagues, members of allied professions and with various populaces.
A member of the family and consumer sciences profession and of AAFCS is required by the code of ethics to maintain the highest responsible standard of professional performance. At all times, a member should uphold confidentiality and act with intelligence, dedication, and ebullience. A member is required to fulfill the obligation in order to continually advance and extend personal professional qualification. Sharing the professional competence with colleagues and clients is also a requirement meant to enlarge and carry on development of the profession.
The code of ethics requires members to support the objectives of the American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences. Members should also take part in its development through informed, active participation in its programs. Extending public cognizance and understanding…
American Association of Family and Consumer Services, AAFCS/CFC National Examination Candidate Information, (2004) Bulletin Texas Teacher Certification Version
National Council on Family Relations, a Guide to Family Life Educators Code of Ethics, (2010).www.ncfr.org
The Minnesota Council on Family Relations (MCFR), Ethical Thinking and Practice for Parent and Family Life Educators (2009) Minneapolis: Minnesota Council on Family Relations.
As the road is being laid the fumes from the chemical materials and the concussive force of the construction equipment are devastating to local wildlife (Forman & Alexander, 1998). The result, is displaced organisms which ultimately put increased pressure for food, land, and water on other ecosystems. The extent of these ripple effects are still yet to be fully known.
In instances where above or below ground water supplies must be altered in order to make way for a new road system the effects are if anything more dire. When laying the bed of a road, it is nearly impossible to prevent a percentage of the chemicals used in the road surface itself from leeching into the soil (Forman & Deblinger, 2000). When in the presence of water those toxins are carried the course of the water supply affecting all of the vegetation and wildlife which it comes into contact…
At the same time, there is a different element introduced in the pursuit of forensic science that is not dealt with in other branches of scientific inquiry. As the question of justice is also central to any forensic proceeding, the suspect's account of events and/or hypothesized explanations for observations must also be taken account (Young 2009). In this way, both verification and falsification can be used during experimentation.
Before these experiments take place, however, the predictions must lay out a way to clearly identify the expectations of the experiments, as well as a way the methods by which they should be conducted. Several predictions can usually be made rather quickly after the hypothesis that are fully testable and easily determined. Based on hairs found at the crime scene, for instance, it could be predicted that skin found under the victim's fingernails was of the same DNA as the on-matching hairs…
Palmer, G. (1998). "Forensic Analysis in the Digital World." Accessed 16 November 2009. http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:mSArrV3VjMQJ:www.utica.edu/academic/institutes/ecii/publications/articles/9C4E938F-E3BE-8D16-45D0BAD68CDBE77.doc+forensics+scientific+method&cd=7&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=safari
Shodor. (2009). Forensic Science. Accessed 16 November 2009. http://www.shodor.org/workshops/forensic/
Vogt, W. (2009). "Forensic investigation." Paradigm. Accessed 16 November 2009. http://www.paradigmconsultants.com/content.asp?secnum=60&pid=73
Young, T. (2009). "Forensic Science and the Scientific Method." Heartland Forensic Pathology. Accessed 16 November 2009. http://www.heartlandforensic.com/writing/forensic-science-and-the-scientific-method
There are exceptions, where legal ramifications are employed and individuals are held to account for their inaction. For most people, including myself the idea that faith is the only solution to medical concerns, and especially emergent ones is unfathomable. Medical care is congruent with faith, as even for the most ardent believer in God if God had not meant for children to be cured of preventable a treatable disease he would not have developed treatments to do so. For the broader population this is a reasonable tenet and most people report taking themselves and their children to a doctor or hospital when they feel it is necessary. It is also clear that modern people are even more involved in their own wellness and may even be able to treat some injuries and illnesses at home, without medical intervention. Furthermore most know when they need to seek care for themselves and…
Barnes L.L. & Sered, S.S. (2005). Religion and Healing in America. New York: Oxford University Press
Hamer, D. (2004).The God Gene: How Faith is Hardwired Into our Genes.
Koenig, H.G. (2005). Medicine, Religion, and Health: Where Science and Spirituality Meet. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.
Nord, W.A. (1999). Science, Religion and Education. Phi Delta Kappan, 81(1), 28.
Philosophy of Science
Scientific theories allow scientists to organize their observations regarding reality and existence, and predict or create future observations or results. Scientific theories need to be consistent, testable, verifiable and useful in order to be valid and reliable. Theories are typically ideas about the ways in which things work. Scientific theory relates to logical and empirical criteria that can be tested and validated. For science to exist and to be considered valid there must be a logically consistent idea presented to the public that explains certain conditions or realities. To be valid, science must explain something and should be proven via experimentation. Science should also enable the user to have a better understanding of the item or issue it is explaining. This relates to validity.
Thesis) will argue in this paper that science needs to be independently verified to be considered science but also that science does not…
Curd, Martin. Cover, J.A. Philosophy of Science: The Central Issues. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1998.
Strauss, James D. "The Heart of Postmodernism" Lincoln Christian Seminary, Lincoln: 2003. Available:
Jones, Roger. "Philosophy of Science." Retrieved November 16, 2003, http://www.philosopher.org/uk/sci.htm
Often, bones have different shapes and/or sizes depending on whether they belonged to a male or female individual, and age also plays an important factor in the way bones look (Maples, 142). hereas doctors usually specialize in a certain branch of medicine, as in pediatrics or gerontology, forensic anthropologists must retain a broad range of knowledge because they might be called in to identify bones or other remains from any individual of any age or pathology. If they only knew a small portion of the type of details that could aid them in such identification, that particular forensic anthropologist's usefulness would be severely limited. Throughout his book, Dr. Maples demonstrates quite clearly how vital it is that observation, research, and learning continue throughout one's career as a forensic anthropologist, especially in the area of biology. As medical and biological knowledge grows, the forensic anthropologist must stay up-to-date or run the…
Maples, William R. Dead Men Do Tell Tales. New York: Random House: 1994.
) Hydrochloric acid, formic acid, nitric acid, hexanes, and toluene are all available in ACS grade through Carolina, which, with a bit of imagination, could turn into some spectacular experiments. (Toluene is, of course, a component in the production of TNT -- talk about an exothermic reaction.)
Laboratory equipment is also widely available. A simple search of the popular site Shopwiki.com reveals hundreds of beakers, pipettes, test tubes, alcohol burners, syringes, etc. More advanced items are also available, such as hot plates which automatically stir the contents of a flask placed on them, and a wealth of thermodynamic devices for pressure, temperature, and volume control.
Perhaps the best route for a truly interested young chemist to take is to begin with the CHEM 3000, working through its experiments and gaining insight, then proceed to a regime of self-education using the internet and libraries, and supplementing the capabilities of the CHEM…
1. Cook, Rosie "Chemistry at Play." Chemical Heritage Magazine 28.1 (2010) Web 11 April 2010
2. Nicholls, Henry "The Chemistry Set Generation." Chemistry World (December 2007) Web 11 April 2010
3. Salter, Rose "Chemistry sets safer, boring." Chicago Sun Times (20 December 1987) Web 11 April 2010
4. "Thames and Kosmos | Science Kits." Thames and Kosmos Home Page. Thames and Kosmos 2010. 11 April 2010
As such, a nurse is primarily to recognize herself as an individual in the world, with certain responses to this world. When a patient enters the hospital, such a patient is also to be seen as a unique individual who responds to the world and his or her environment in a certain way.
Humanistic nursing is then primarily experiential rather than experimental. This means that new knowledge is gained with every new patient that arrives for treatment. In giving treatment, responses are observed and noted for future reference in similar situations. It is not however assumed that a treatment will work because it did in the past and in similar conditions. Instead, hypotheses are based upon experiences of the past. The recognition that hypotheses may prove incorrect helps the nurse to be open to new experiences. Each human being is then seen as a "world," as it were, with the…
Cody, William K. & Kenney, Janet W. (2006). Philosophical and Theoretical Perspectives for Advanced Nursing Practice. Jones & Bartlett.
Collaboration for Academic Education in Nursing. (2009). Foundational Perspectives. http://www.caen.ca/content/view/46/133/
Current Nursing (2009, March 16). Nursing Theories. http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/development_of_nursing_theories.htm
Kleinman, Susan (2009). Humanistic Nursing Theory. http://www.humanistic-nursing.com/faq.htm
Physical vs. Digital Products -- Physical products are those that can be touched, felt, have physical presence, must be produced, warehoused, packaged, shipped and purchased. However, physical products are most certainly not limited to brick and mortar stores. The Internet has opened up an entirely new world for commerce online -- in both physical and virtual worlds with e-Commerce. E-Commerce is the buying and selling of products and services over electronic means, usually the Internet. As Internet usage grows, so does trade conducted electronically, allowing for a number of improvements and innovations that follow suit. Most economists see e-commerce as a market segment that leads to intensive price competition and consumers armed with greater knowledge. In two particular industries, e-commerce has actually changed the way the market works on those industries, causing the brick and mortar versions to fade away. In fact, larger e-commerce firms like Amazon.com, use…
Microsoft's Seventh Seal. (October 23, 2009). The Economist. Cited from: http://www.economist.com/node/14732175
Physical Product vs. Digital Product -- Pros and Cons. (September 17, 2010). Online Business Watch. Retrieved from: http://www.onlinebusinesswatch.com/online-business-from-home/physical-product-vs.-digital-product-pros-cons.html
The Click and the Dead. (July 1, 2010). The Economist: Retrieved from:
A Balinese gamelan ensemble from Los Angeles comprised of half Western and half Balinese musicians took my breath away but to analyze the show proved to be the most difficult class assignment the entire semester. For a student accustomed to listening to mainstream rock and pop, anything outside of a four/four meter sounded jarring. Trying to wrap my head around the complex rhythmic structure and near lack of melody made my brain feel like it was melting more than any biochemistry class came close to doing.
Western classical music concert piqued my interest in an art form I formerly felt was reserved mainly for seniors and snobs. Performing pieces by Beethoven, the orchestra included a grand piano and the deftness with which the pianist swept her fingers across the keys made me realize how all professions demand patience, careful repetition, and perfect practice. Even a creative art like music demands…
Very often workers must choose jobs based upon benefits, not where they wish to work. orkers may decide not to open up small businesses or work for smaller businesses who cannot offer them comprehensive care. and, of course the children of uninsured workers suffer, innocent victims of the system.
Even companies like Safeway that have made heroic efforts to foster healthy living and disease prevention initiatives to cut costs have stated that universal health care is necessary to contain costs and keep their workers healthy enough to work, with as few sick days as possible. (Cohen 2007:4). Unions, companies, and the government must work together to create a healthy, safer and more affordable medical tomorrow.
Cohen, Jonathan. "hat's the One Thing Big Business and the Left Have in Common?" The New York Times Magazine. 1 Apr 2007. [10 Apr 2007]. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/01/magazine/01Healthcare.t.html?pagewanted=6&ei=5070&en=6ff729a7fa6330ac&ex=1176350400
Cohen, Jonathan. "What's the One Thing Big Business and the Left Have in Common?" The New York Times Magazine. 1 Apr 2007. [10 Apr 2007]. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/01/magazine/01Healthcare.t.html?pagewanted=6&ei=5070&en=6ff729a7fa6330ac&ex=1176350400