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Physical Therapy Assistant
Care/Service provided by the Physical Therapy Assistant
Physical therapy assistant, also known as PTA, has the responsibility of working as the integral part of a therapy team for the provision of physical therapy services as an assistant to a physical therapist who directs and supervises him/her accordingly. The job of a PTA is the implementation of specially chosen mechanisms/procedures for the treatment of patient/client according to the prescribed instructions. he/she is also responsible for obtaining the relevant data about the preferred interventions (Dreeben-Irimia, 2011). In addition, the job requires him/her to make amendments/alterations in selected treatment methods for the progression of the patient/client condition as recommended by the physical therapist or for making the patient/client well-being and consolation certain ("ole of a Physical Therapist Assistant (PTA)," 2013).
In addition, a physical therapy assistant is responsible for giving assistance to the physical therapist for the treatment…
Dreeben-Irimia, O. (2011). Introduction to Physical Therapy for Physical Therapist Assistants. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Millis, D.L., & Levine, D. (2012). Canine Rehabilitation & Physical Therapy. London: Saunders.
Physical Therapy Assistant Job Description. (2013, January 23).Healthcare Salary World. Retrieved October 14, 2013, from http://www.healthcaresalaryworld.com/physical-therapy-assistant-job-description/
Physical Therapy Assistant Job Description. (2013). Hiring, Recruiting and Staffing Solutions. Retrieved October 14, 2013, from http://hiring.monster.com/hr/hr-best-practices/recruiting-hiring-advice/job-descriptions/physical-therapy-assistant-job-description.aspx
Physical Therapy - Personal Characteristics and Motivating Factors
Pursuing Physical Therapy as a Career: Personal Characteristics and Motivating Factors
There are many reasons why people pursue specific career fields. Some individuals engage in a particular career for the money, and others do it because they are interested in helping people or they find some other value in what they are doing. If a career is not rewarding in some way, it can be difficult to continue that career. Instead, people in this situation will often move on to a career that they find much more valuable to them, personally, or to society as a whole. I chose to pursue physical therapy as a career for several reasons, some of which are directly related to my own, personal motivations and some of which are more closely related to the value that my work may bring to others. I do not feel…
When working in hospital settings, physical therapists have frequent interactions with nurses. According to an interview done by XXX with XXX, physical therapists communicate with nurses daily as part of secondary patient care. The hospital's original mechanism for consults between nurses and physical therapist was paper medical records; however, that method of communication has since been replaced by face-to-face consults and electronic medical records. A recent article in the Journal of Interprofessional Care found that interactions between different types of health care professionals (including nurses and physical therapists) were "richer and lengthier, and consisted of negotiations which related to both clinical as well as social content" than those between health care professionals and physicians (Reeves, Rice, Conn, Miller, Kenaszchuk, & Zwarenstein, 2009, 633). The study also showed that these types of positive communications and interactions improved the quality of patient care and decreased the risk for negative patient outcomes.
Vision 2020. Retrieved March 22, 2010, from the American Physical Therapy Association's official website:
The therapist must also avoid making any diagnosis that is outside of their professional licensing and specialty. For instance, they should avoid making notes that state that the client is "depressed" or any other similar comments (APTA, 2008). These comments are often unintentional, but they can lead to a serious potential for liability risk.
The physical therapist has many sources of information available to them, including the internet and conversations with other therapists. They often exchange information and pass on techniques that work for them. This is the nature of improvement within the profession. However, use of these techniques represents a legal grey area. They may result in improved patient outcomes and may be safe in many regards. However, when one does not use evidence-based practices, they set themselves up for legal malpractice. In a court of law, the opinions of other professionals do not hold as much weight as…
American Physical Therapy Association (APTA). (2008). Guidelines: Occupational
Physical Therapy: Legal and Risk Management Issues Retrieved August 3, 2009 from http://www.apta.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Home&CONTENTID=53622&TEMPL
The prevalence of the doctoral degree amongst professionals will add to the evidence-based research conducted by doctoral and post-doctoral candidates and will convey added legitimacy to physical therapists and enlarge the scope of the field. Postgraduate doctoral study has continued to grow: "More physical therapists are pursuing non-clinical doctoral degrees, such as PhDs, in an effort to obtain the skills necessary to conduct original research and add to the foundation of literature upon which we base our practice. In 2002, the number of American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) members reporting a non-clinical doctorate as their highest earned degree was 30% higher than in 1996."
Will the changes in any way be affected by Federal and State activities and events?
Of course, decreased funding for extended schooling may impact the ability of many students to pursue such higher learning. But the increasing bureaucracy of the health care system may also drive…
However, a positive change of the profession lined to a greater prevalence of a PhDs will certainly be evident, as the field places more emphasis on research and evidence-based practice than ever before. The prevalence of the doctoral degree amongst professionals will add to the evidence-based research conducted by doctoral and post-doctoral candidates and will convey added legitimacy to physical therapists and enlarge the scope of the field. Postgraduate doctoral study has continued to grow: "More physical therapists are pursuing non-clinical doctoral degrees, such as PhDs, in an effort to obtain the skills necessary to conduct original research and add to the foundation of literature upon which we base our practice. In 2002, the number of American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) members reporting a non-clinical doctorate as their highest earned degree was 30% higher than in 1996."
Will the changes in any way be affected by Federal and State activities and events?
Of course, decreased funding for extended schooling may impact the ability of many students to pursue such higher learning. But the increasing bureaucracy of the health care system may also drive persons to seek out more physical therapists, rather than other health care practitioners, for their medical woes. Also, any changes in federal or state policies regarding insurance coverage of physical therapy and a reduction or increase in demand may also have an impact. True, graduates who need to pay off loans quickly and faced with increased demand may be more apt to practice, and thus reduce the number of doctoral fellows and changes created by the added presence of research in the field, while individuals seeking to gain a degree to better their job chances
Physical Therapy and the Taxonomic Structure
Human health is based on a highly complex system of interdependent parts. One's mental health, emotional health and physical health are all closely connected. Understanding and appreciation of these interdependent parts is essential for one in the profession of observing, evaluating and working to improve human health. ithin the scope of physical therapy, therefore, there is a great value in achieving a grounded theoretical understanding of how these dimensions of health interact. Bloom's taxonomy provides a particularly valuable way to understand these dimensions by providing three specific domains of knowledge. ithin these cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains lay the key to recognizing and helping patients achieve a positive and harmonious interdependency of mind and body.
Essentially, the taxonomic structure is concerned with modeling comprehensive training methodologies which a flexibility available to all manner of discipline. The physical therapy profession in particular can be evaluated…
Clark, D. (1999). Bloom's Taxonomy. Big Dog, Little Dog.
I look forward to working with the faculty at Texas Woman's University and participating in challenging research and clinical work.
As a consultant and expert witness, I will be able to apply my "healing power" in whole new ways: not only by offering quality physical therapy but also by offering the psychological and social support that derives from professional expertise. Moreover, as a consultant in the corporate or governmental sectors, I can help organizations save vast amounts of money. For example, my recommending improvements in workplace environments and health and safety regulations, organizations can avoid lawsuits, and ensure a healthy, productive workforce. Whether I work with labor unions or with corporate staff, my expertise as a highly specialized physical therapist will continue to benefit others.
My experience and prior education as a professional therapist provides me with hands-on as well as the theoretical foundations in physiology. However, I have little…
physical therapy that can enable a disabled person to walk again.
Enabling the Disabled to Walk Again
Physical Therapy and ehabilitation aims to evaluate, treat and prevent physical disability, movement dysfunction and pain that is caused by injury, disease, disability or other health related conditions. According to these objectives physical therapy supports the performance and interpretation of tests and measurements to assess pathophysiological, ergonomic and development of bodily systems in order to diagnose the treatment, prevention, and the planning of therapeutic exercises that focus on posture, locomotion, strength, endurance, cardiopulmonary function, balance, co-ordination, joint mobility, flexibility, pain, healing and repair, and functional abilities in our daily lives.
One way to restore mobility for a person suffering from multiple sclerosis is by using therapy that uses a special type of treadmill and a measure that suspends body weight. This therapy can be shown to people suffering from similar condition or more…
Innovative Physical Therapy Helps Disabled to Walk, available at http://www.black-collegian.com/extracurricular/health/archives/disabled300.shtml , accessed on: September 25, 2003
physical therapy: measurement evaluation physical education exercise science write a short essay question: (a)Provide examples situations an assessment professional area, (b) an assessment conducted.
Needs assessment: Physical therapy
Needs assessments in physical therapy are typically conducted during the first session a patient embarks upon with the therapist. Before meeting with the patient, the physical therapist will review the client's existing records to understand why he or she is in physical therapy, and what the client's goals are for the therapy. The physical therapist must have an idea of how long the course of therapy will be, to plan accordingly in terms of what types of exercises will be required. During the first session, the physical therapist will perform a series of diagnostic evaluations, to target areas of critical weakness and strength. The therapist will also interview the client. This will better clarify patient needs and goals for the therapy. "The…
DeRosa-Hardy, Donna; Roberts, Pamela L. (1989). The educational needs assessment on physical therapy for special educators: Enhancing in-service programming and physical therapy services in public schools. Physical Therapy. 1:3
Millehan, Jay. (2011). Physical therapy functional assessment. Live Strong. Retrieved:
What is physical therapy? (2012). Physical Therapy Association. Retrieved:
One of the greatest gifts given to mankind is that of the power of touch. Touch is a way to communicate, a way to learn, and a way to express emotion. Through touch, even greater goods are possible; touch can be a way to bring health and create wellness. There have been countless studies that have pointed to the healing properties of touch through massage and therapy. Of course, I didn't know about the scientific background behind the connection that exists between touch and healing when I was a child and began to explore these mysterious realms. As I learned more through my studies about therapy methods and healing, I realized that there was a true calling for me to further explore this field. Now, I know that my path in life lies within the field of physical therapy because of my natural calling to this field that…
physical therapy program past years, improve enhance application current admissions cycle? IMPROVEMENT-- I applied doctor physical therapy program April, 2010. Time I missed a dead line college attached pacts (Physical Therapist Centralized Application Service) I reapplying program.
If you applied to a physical therapy program within the five past years, what have you done to improve upon or enhance your application during the current admissions cycle?
I have not formally applied to a physical therapy program before with a complete application. However, I would like the admissions committee to know that obtaining admission to a PT program has always been my life's goal. I fully intended to apply to a program for admission during my final year of college. However, I missed the scheduled date of April in 2010 to fully submit my credentials to my college's Physical Therapist Centralized Application Service.
I would like to make it clear that…
qualities of a physical therapist assistants and the ability to be part of a multidisciplinary team member.
QUALITIES OF A PHYSICAL THERAPIST ASSISTANT is a part of a multidisciplinary team. The PTA must have the ability to relate to people, capacity for being calm in different types of situations, and the willingness to listen to possible problems with the patients. There are several important qualities of someone who wants to be a physical therapist's assistant because there are many different types of people that he/she may be working with. The ability to get along with people is essential in this occupation, because all employees are part of a multidisciplinary team..
The physical therapist may work with all ages of people. Sometimes there will be patients who are mentally challenged. The PTA must be able to bond with the individual to give them the best service possible. The PTA will work…
Any physical therapy center has one thing in their agenda, to lead a patient towards living a pain free life in the future and enable the patient revert to the previous good status that they were in there before the sickness or before the surgery.
This report aims at divulging the finer details on how a post surgery physical rehabilitation center can be opened and run as well as identifying the likely benefits and he profits that can be earned from such a business. It also seeks to put clear the expected expenditure that will be involved in terms of the running costs as well as the human resources that will be required.
The report also puts forth the various equipment that will be of great sue in the center and the services that these equipment will be offering alongside those of the therapists.
Since the administrative aspect…
Milpitas Physical Therapy Clinic (2011). Strength and Health for the Journey. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from http://www.milpitaspt.com/
Cultural Competence (Physical Therapy)
The United States is known as a "melting pot"- a country that harbors citizens of different religions, cultures, ethnicities, traditions, among other things. The importance of cultural competence cannot be emphasized enough to American citizens in general as it is with this competence that people can live in harmony. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, cultural competence is defined as "a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and polices that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross cultural situations" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). In the context of health care, cultural competence is an important factor in identifying and finding solutions to disparities in the health care system- a way that patients and doctors can communication about health concerns, by taking into account and being respectful of "health beliefs, practices and cultural and…
"What is Cultural Competency?." U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 19 Oct 2005. Web. 22 May 2011. .
Is there a stigma attached to a child who receives therapy? Yes, this is true; but the authors suggest that when therapists work with perhaps two or three children at the same time, those children are less likely to feel like they are being "singled out" as in need of special services. "It is important for parents to realize that it is generally more stigmatizing to appear 'clumsy' than to receive therapy," the chapter points out on page 225.
hat are some of the specific skills that are addressed through physical therapy? An example of a need among some children is when they "cannot turn their head without moving their whole body" (p. 229). And when they do turn their head and their body moves along with that movement of the head, "they may need to take steps forward to maintain their balance." There are helpful things a therapist can…
Ward, Suzanne J.; & Seto, Linda G. "Physical Therapy Services." An Introduction to Early
Childhood Special Education, Ed. Linda Dunlap. pp. 216-234. Boston: Allyn and Bacon,
aunt's recent serious accident, though a terrible misfortune for her, turned out to be fortuitous for me. This incident propelled me to a conclusion on my decision to leave the field of Business and study Physical Therapy. It was becoming more and more obvious to me that my skills were not being utilized in a maximum way in the business setting. Although the mental challenges may have been satisfying, the pull to pursue a career that engaged me in more physical ways was getting stronger. My true introduction to the area of Physical Therapy came as I watched my aunt recover from her accident and as I became more involved in her rehabilitation. The significant role that Physical Therapy played in her prognosis impacted strongly on me. I could see that it was not only the recovery from the physical injures, but also the way the entire process affected her…
attending a graduate physical therapy program is a daunting task for me. It is daunting, not because I do not know my objectives, but because I am not certain that my objectives are the type of professional objectives that a graduate school considers when looking at potential applicants and trying to decide which applicants will get into the select few coveted spots. After all, one of my objectives is not one that lends itself easily to measurement or quantification, and the other objective might appear to be selfish. However, because they are my honest objectives, they are the ones I will share with you.
My first objective is to help people. As a healthcare provider, I believe that helping people is at the core of everything I do in my professional life. Working in physical therapy, these improvements can seem difficult to quantify, and, to those outside of the medical…
Overlapping Duties in OT and PT
Evaluation of Overlapping Duties in Occupational and Physical Therapy
Occupational therapists (OT) often work in a team environment with other health care professionals including physical therapists (PT), nurses, speech therapists, and mental health professionals. Because of the similarity between occupational and physical therapy, the duties of both professions frequently overlap. The role of the occupational therapist as defined by the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) is the therapeutic use of purposeful activities or interventions to promote positive health outcomes, prevent injury and disability, and increase development. Interventions incorporated by OT providers may include the adaptation of skills, and manipulation of the environment to increase mobility, performance, independence, and the quality of life. Treatment performed by occupational therapists focuses on the improvement of activities of daily living including oral hygiene, toileting, grooming, and others (Punwar & Peloquin, 2000). Occupational therapists employ purposeful activities including crafts,…
(American Occupational Therapy Association 2010 American Occupational Therapy Association Inc.)American Occupational Therapy Association. (2010). American Occupational Therapy Association Inc. Retrieved March 31, 2011, from http://www.aota.org/Practitioners/Official/Ethics/40611.aspx
(Institute For Career Research 2007 Career as an Occupational Therapist) Institute for Career Research (2007). Career as an Occupational Therapist. Chicago, IL: Institute for Research.
(Punwar AJ Peloquin SM 2000 Occupational Therapy: Principles and practice) Punwar, A.J., & Peloquin, S.M. (2000). Occupational Therapy: Principles and practice. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins.
If you need to type anything after the reference list then start it on this page
Caregiver Interview as Related to Physical Therapy
The objective of this study is to determine what types of psychosocial issues arise for individuals who render primary care to a PWD on a routine basis, and to determine how these caregivers cope with the stress of their responsibilities. This will involve an interview.
The interview in this study is conducted with a woman who will be known in this study as Karen Hill, a registered nurse and physical therapist and caregiver for the 'Person with Disabilities' at focus in this particular case study. The PWD in this case study is Karen's husband Dale who was ran over by a herd of cattle when administering medication and attaching ear tags to the cattle. Dale was taken to the hospital and due to a mistake at the hospital; ER is now paralyzed from the waist down. Dale has been paralyzed for two years…
Usually, diagnosis is symptom driven, then combined with testing, forms an opinion, sometimes verified by lab tests, of a specific diagnosis. For instance, someone may have symptoms of nausea, pain, depression, anxiety, and their skin has a yellowish hue. The physician runs blood tests and finds that the liver is malfunctioning and there is likely a diagnosis of hepatitis. In this case, there are both physical and mental symptoms, but it is the physical nature that is diagnosed first. For mental diagnosis, symptoms are also important, but are based more on the functioning of the individual in social systems, or by observing the patient's behavior (How are Mental Illnesses Diagnosed? 2012). Thus, both use symptoms as a guide, but mental diagnosis is more empirical and uses observation, while physical diagnosis uses quantitative measurements.
Etiology- Etiology is the study of basic causation. We now know that there are a number of…
American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines. (2006). PsychiatryOnline. Retrieved from: http://psychiatryonline.org/guidelines.aspx
How are Mental Illnesses Diagnosed? (2012). WebMD. Retrieved from: http://www.webmd.com/anxiety-panic/guide/mental-health-making-diagnosis
Curtis, a.J. et.al. (2000), Introduction to Health Psychology, New York: Routledge.
Dombeck, M. (2003). Blurring the Boundary Between Mental and Physical. Seven Counties Services, Inc. Retrieved from: http://www.sevencounties.org / poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=1855&cn=74
Meanwhile he is emotionally unavailable and unresponsive in meaningful personal communications and in his interpersonal relationships. Even when he is engaged in a one-on-one conversation and making direct eye contact, he appears to be off somewhere else and thinking about other things besides the immediate conversation. His family and friends report that in addition to being emotionally distant and unavailable, the subject is also unavailable more literally because he refuses to answer their calls on his cell phone even after being informed how much this frustrates them.
Evaluation, Prognosis, and ecommendations
In some respects, this subject appears to have failed to successfully transition into and negotiate Erikson's Young Adulthood (i.e. Intimacy vs. isolation) Stage (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2009). Instead of learning how to form intimate loving interpersonal relationships, he appears to have remained focused on the earlier (i.e. Identity vs. ole Confusion) Stage in which his dedication to his career…
Gerrig, R. And Zimbardo, P. (2009). Psychology and Life. New York, NY: Allyn & Bacon.
Goodman, J., Schlossberg, N.K. And Anderson, M.L. (2006). Counseling Adults in Transition: Linking Practice with Theory. New York: Spring.
Schlossberg, N.K. "A model for analyzing human adaptation to transition." Counseling
Psychologist Vol. 9, No. 2; (1981): 2-18.
During the gene decoding process the double stranded DNA splits up to reveal a single strand from which the base sequence of the gene is copied onto a single stranded nucleic acid known as the messenger ribonucleic acid or mRNA. This implies that we have an exact copy of the gene base in the mRNA except that Urasil (U) replaces the T. base and deoxyribose is replaced by ribose. Translation on the other hand is the actual process of protein synthesis from the mRNA strands. Ribosomes work with the mRNA for protein synthesis within the cells. [the State University of New York]
4) Mutation, Gene Migration, Genetic Drift, Non-random Mating and Natural Selection are the five processes that can affect the frequency of genes in a population. [CMGS]
5) Kindom Protista is considered to be the ancestor of all eukaryotic kingdoms and includes algae, plant like, animal like and fungus…
Cherie Dimaline, "Inheriting Sickness When Finding Your Roots is a Matter of Life or Death" Accessed on 15th December 2004, http://www.metisnation.org/metisVOYAGEUR/MVcurrent/disease.html
Dr. Joseph F. Smith, "Genetic Counseling," Accessed on 15th December 2004, http://www.chclibrary.org/micromed/00049280.html
IBAC, "The Basics of Life," Accessed on 15th December 2004, http://www.ibac.org.nz/booklet/basics.html
CMGS, "Disturbance of Gene Frequencies in a Population," Accessed on 15th December 2004 http://www.ich.ucl.ac.uk/cmgs/genefreq.htm
Application of healing thermal agents to certain body areas that feel wounded or dysfunction is heat treatment. The main use of a heat treatment is to help alleviate pain, support muscle repose, increase function of the tissue cells, improve blood flow, and remove poison from cells and to increase the extensibility of soft tissues. Superficial and deep are the two types of heat treatment. Superficial heat treatments apply heat to the exterior part of the body. Heat aimed at certain inner tissues through ultrasound or by electric current is deep heat treatment. Heat treatments are favorable before exercise, giving a limbering up result to the soft tissues involved. Heat treatment using conduction as a form of heat transfer in hot pacts is very common. Damp heat packs are easily available in most hospitals, physical treatment centers and sports teaching rooms.
For tissue heating many thermal agents are on…
Bigos S, Bowyer O, Braen G. et al. Acute lower back problems in adults. Clinical Practice Guideline, Quick Reference Guide Number 14. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, AHCPR Pub. No. 95-0643. December 1994.p.3-6
Biundo JJ Jr., Torres-Ramos FM: Rehabilitation and biomechanics. Curr Opin Rheumatol 1991 April; 3(2): 291-99
Fedorczyk J: The role of physical agents in modulating pain. Journal of Hand Therapy 1997 Apr-June; 10(2): 110-21
Grana WA: Physical agents in musculoskeletal problems: heat and cold therapy modalities. Instructional Course Lecture 1993; 42: 439-42.
It is evidenced that soon after lapse of two months of treatment about 67% of the patients administered with manual therapy and 27% of the patients administered with exercise therapy could return to work revealing substantial difference through the follow up period. The study concluded that improvements are noticed in both the groups. However, the improvements in respect the patients administered with manual therapy are more prominent than that with exercise therapy. (Aure; Hoel Nilsen; Vasseljen, 2003)
Thus even though manual therapies are beneficial, it has been debated upon. However irrespective of the fact that delaying methods taking into consideration the reality that it compels the athlete to a therapeutic machine, still then it is acknowledged to have the significant techniques in alleviating pain, rehabilitating the common range of motion, and treating specialized conditions like myofascial pain syndrome. (Holt, 2004) However, such advantages are to be exploited from the physical…
Aure, Olav Frode; Hoel Nilsen, Jens; Vasseljen, Ottar. (15 March, 2003) "Manual Therapy and Exercise Therapy in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized, Controlled Trial with 1-Year Follow-up" Spine. Vol: 28; No: 6; pp: 525-531.
Beeton, Karen. (2003) "Manual Therapy Masterclasses"
Elsevier Health Sciences.
BMJ: Manual therapy beats out traditional treatment." (August, 2003) Journal of the American
Society Feels About Animals
As a first order primate, humans have a natural affinity with animals of all types that has contributed to their mutual relationships throughout history. In fact, animals of different types have been since the time of the ancient Greeks to improve the emotional and functional status of humans (Mccauley, 2006, p. 358). Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has grown in popularity in recent years based on its proven efficacy in treating a wide range of healthcare and mental health conditions. Although dogs and cats are most commonly used in AAT settings, horses, rabbits and even fish can also be used. For instance, according to Macauley, "The use of animals ranges from companion animals that provide camaraderie and emotional support to assistance animals that provide direct physical-functional support to therapy animals that aid with the habilitation-rehabilitation in physical, occupational, speech-language, and recreation therapy" (2006, p. 358). Moreover, some researchers…
Becker, D. (2013, August 26). "Four-Legged Therapy for Military Veterans with PTSD."
Healthy Pets. [online] available: http://healthypets.mercola.com/sites/healthypets / archive/2013/0.
Bleich, A. (2004, October 1). "Mental Disability." The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related
Sciences, 41(4), 235-237.
History Of Occupational Therapy
Frame 1 - Introduction
Occupational therapy is an essential part of the recovery process. It allows the person to engage in meaningful activity that adds structure and purpose to their daily routine. Occupational therapy is now considered an essential part of the treatment process for those with long-term, or severe injuries. The role of the occupational therapist is to help the person we turn to a life where they can be independent and are in there and living, regardless of their condition. Occupational therapy helps a person to adjust to the changes in their lives as result of a severe illness or injury. This presentation will explore the history of occupational therapy with a focus on the changes in paradigm that took place during the 1950s and 1960s.
Frame 2 - Occupational therapy was first conceived in the early part of the 1900s. It was originally…
American Occupational Therapy Associaton. (2010). Occupational Therapist. Health Care
Careers Directory 2009-2010. Retrieved from 0 http://www.ama-assn.org/ama1/pub/upload/mm/40/tr01-occup-ther.pdf
Essentials of an acceptable school of occupational therapy. (1950). American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 4, 126-128.
Kearney, P. (2004). The Influence of Competing Paradigms on Occupational Therapy Education:
69). Petting a dog lowered blood pressure and respiratory rate -- even if the dog was somebody else's. Pet owners that have heart surgery recover faster and stand a better chance of full recovery. Touching a warm furry animal gives them relief.
Moreover, pet ownership is a predictor of survival after hospitalization for any serious illness (Gunter & Furnham, 1999).
Demello (1999) found that the "mere presence of an animal" could lower blood pressure and that the effect persisted even after the animal was gone. Visual contact with an animal, although it helped, was not as good as touching. Heart rates decreased significantly in a three-minute period of physical contact with the animal (Demello, 1999).
A story in Time magazine (2001) tells how a brain-injured man needed help to get back his sense of balance. Ginger, an Australian shepherd, liked to fetch, so physical therapy for this man was to…
Brodie, S., Biley, F.C., and Shewring, M. (2002). An exploration of the potential risks associated with using pet therapy in healthcare settings. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 11 (4), 444-456.
Demello, L. (1999). The effect of the presence of a companion-animal on physiological changes following the termination of cognitive stressors. Psychology & Health, 14 (5), 859.
Gunter, B. And Furnham, a. (1999). Are pets good for our physical well-being? In Pets and People: The Psychology of Pet Ownership, Chapter 5, 6. London: Wherr Publishing, 66-81/
Hooker, S.D., Freeman, L.H., and Stewart, P. (2002). Pet therapy research: A historical review. Holistic Nursing Practice, 16 (5), 17-23.
Stroke Hearing Impaired
Plan: Physical, Occupational, Speech, and Psychological Therapies
Implementation: Daily regimen, with one of the four core areas (physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and psychological therapy) emphasized or addressed on each day.
Evaluation: After each session, therapist will write a thorough evaluation of the patient including a progress report. After the end of each six-week period, a thorough progress report will be shared among the various members of the health care team in a collaborative setting.
The follow-up will consist of maintenance therapies in each of the four core areas.
Documentation of Actions and Activities: According to the National Stroke Association (2013), the activities and actions should begin immediately after the stroke. The Physical Therapy sessions will include yoga and other systematic movement interventions to improve coordination, balance, strength, and range of motion. Each week, the therapist will implement a unique type of movement therapy,…
Hetu, R., Jones, L. & Getty, L. (1993). The Impact of Acquired Hearing Impairment on Intimate Relationships: Implications for Rehabilitation. International Journal of Audiology 32(6).
National Stroke Association (2013). Rehabilitation therapy after stroke. Retrieved online: http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=REHABT
"Stroke Health Center," (2011). WebMD. Retrieved online: http://www.webmd.com/stroke/tc/stroke-rehabilitation-overview
Wharton, T. (2013). Utah firm: Loop helps hearing impaired at movies and more. The Salt Lake Tribune. 24 Oct, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.sltrib.com/sltrib/money/57001349-79/loop-hearing-system-technology.html.csp
Teaching in the Self-Contained Classroom
Music, Art and Phys. Ed. In Self-contained classroom
In 1996, the United States Department of Education mandated laws that required school districts to create inclusive programs to integrate students with various disabilities into the general school population.
However, a study conducted by the National Council on disabilities in 2000 showed that most school districts have not transitioned into full mainstream classes. Instead, an estimated 20% of children with disabilities continue to spend their schooldays in self-contained classrooms, apart from the general school population (right and right).
Proponents of the self-contained classroom, however, believe that such settings can be advantageous, particularly for students with hearing impairments, mental retardation and those with physical or learning disabilities.
This paper examines how students in total or semi-self-contained classrooms can benefit from instruction in art, music and physical education. It looks at the challenges of teaching such classes and how…
Boyer, Lynn and Christine Lee. "Converting Challenge to Success: Supporting a New Teacher of Students with Autism." The Journal of Special Education, 35(2). Summer 2001. Wilson Database.
MacDonald, Victoria and Deborah L. Speece. "Making Time: A teacher's Report on Her First Year of Teaching Children with Emotional Disabilities." The Journal of Special Education, 35(2). Summer 2001. ProQuest Database.
Shapiro, Deborah R. And L. Kristi Sayers. "Who Does What on the Interdisciplinary Team: Regarding Physical Education for Students With Disabilities?" Teaching Exceptional Children, 35(6). July/August 2003. Wilson Database.
Wexler, Alice. "Painting their Way Out: Profiles of Adolescent Art Practice at the Harlem Hospital Art Studio." Studies in Art Education, 43(4). Summer 2002. ProQuest Databse.
Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) Systems
Complementary and alternative medicine systems are health care approaches that are characterized by a history of use or origins that are external to mainstream medicine or health care practices. These health care systems or approaches have lasted for centuries since different kinds of complementary and alternative medicines have been reported. According to the World Health Organization, different types of complementary and alternative medicines have acted as the basic health practice in developing countries and are increasingly used in countries with predominant conventional medicine (Kramlich, 2014, p.50). CAM therapies have become common in the recent past and are used for treating various conditions including chronic pain conditions. Actually, several CAM therapies and practice interventions such as acupuncture and massage therapy are increasingly used in chronic pain management.
Naturopathic medicine, which is also known as naturopathy or alternative medicine, is a term that is…
"History of Naturopathic Medicine." (n.d.). North Carolina Association of Naturopathic Physicians. Retrieved August 17, 2015, from http://ncanp.com/about-ncanp/history-of-naturopathic-medicine/
Kramlich, D. (2014, December). Introduction to Complementary, Alternative, and Traditional Therapies. Critical Care Nurse, 34(6), 50-56.
Pongparadee et. al. (2012, August). Current Considerations for the Management of Musculoskeletal Pain in Asian Countries: A Special Focus on Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors and Non-steroid Anti-inflammatory Drugs. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases,15(4), 341-347.
Schulenburg, J. (2015). Considerations for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Interventions for Pain. AORN Journal, 101(3), 319-326.
Given the frequency of pressure ulcers, the strategies used in mitigating those wounds must be effective. Sherman reports that 61 ulcers in 50 patients got maggot therapy and 84 ulcers in 70 patients did not receive maggot therapy (instead, those wounds received traditional care). The results showed that "eighty percent of maggot-treated wounds were completely debrided" but only 48% of conventionally-treated wounds were "completely debrided" (Sherman, 208).
(Qualitative) Laura Jean van Veen presents a case in the Journal of ound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing; a 59-year-old woman (a Jehovah's itness) was seriously injured in an auto accident in Vancouver. In order to save her legs (her religion did not permit blood transfusions) the family asked for maggot therapy. After applying maggots weekly for 6 weeks, "…the patient [was] now free of infection" and had skin graft surgery (van Veen, 2008, 432).
(Qualitative) Another case study in the Journal of ound,…
Courtenay, M., Churdh, J.D.T., and Ryan, T.J. (2000). Larva therapy in wound management.
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Vol. 93, 72-74.
Fenn-Smith, P. (2008). Case Study: Maggot Debridement Therapy. Wound Practice and Research, 16(4), 169-170.
Paul, Aaron G., Ahmad, Nazi W., Lee, H.L., Ariff, Ashraff M., Saranum, Masri, Naicker,
Magnetic Therapy: Sound Practice or Simple Phooey?
Ever since the Enlightenment and arguably even further back in the history of Western civilization, almost every technological advancement has been accompanied by new ideas about how to medically treat the human body. Many of these technological ideas, especially since the nineteenth century and hugely in the modern era, have led to significant advancements in treatment. Others, however, have been less scientifically successful and are less medical treatments and more mechanisms for sometimes well-meaning but often outright conning "practitioners" to extract profits from gullible patients. The following paragraphs examine the scientific evidence regarding magnetic therapies, coming to the determination that despite strong belief by some adherents the treatment is in almost all cases proven to be ineffective.
Past Use and Current Controversy
Ever since the 1500s, when some of the principles of magnetism began to be more scientifically observed, the use of magnets…
Cepeda, S., Carr, D., Sarquis, T., Miranda, N., Garcia, R. & Zarate, C. (2007). Static Magnetic Therapy Does Not Decrease Pain or Opioid Requirements: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial. Anesthesia & Analgesia 104(2): 290-4.
Livingston, J. (2012). Magnetic Therapy: Plausible Attraction? Accessed 12 December 2012. http://www.acemagnetics.com/eduarticles-magsportsbracelets-plausibleatt.html
Ramey, D. (2012). Magnetic and Electromagnetic Therapy. Accessed 12 December 2012. http://www.skeptically.org/quackery/id4.html
Valbona, C. & Richards, T. (1999). Evolution of magnetic therapy from alternative to traditional medicine. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America 10(3): 729-54.
Constructivist Perspective of Brief Therapy
Understanding the basis of theories and therapy is a necessary element of the therapist's trade. Without some knowledge of why certain therapies are practiced, or where they came from, it is difficult to develop a personal theory and a personal view of how to conduct therapy. Since one of the basic concepts presently is that of brief therapy, it is necessary to see how that concept was formulated by other concepts. Thus, this paper examines how constructivist perspectives underlie brief therapy. This paper also gives the author the opportunity to voice a personal statement about how these findings coincide with personal constructions of therapy.
It is first necessary to understand the terms that are to be discussed. The two primary phrases to be discussed are constructivism and brief therapy. However, it is also necessary to grasp what brief therapies exist.
Fritscher, L. (2009). Brief therapy. Retrieved from http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/brieftherapydef.htm
Levenson, H., Speed, J., & Budman, S.H. (1995). Therapists' experience, training and skill in brief therapy: A bicoastal survey. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 49(1), 95-106.
Maturana, H.R. & Varela, F, J. (1998). The tree of knowledge: The biological roots of human understanding (Revised Edition). boston: Shambhala
Presbury, J.H., Echterling, L. G, & McKee, J.E. (2008). Beyond brief counseling and therapy: An integrative approach (2nd Ed.). New Jersey: Pearson/Merill Prentice-Hall.
Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet thus correspond to the seven chakras located along the spinal column." (Fuller 242) Crystal therapy is therefore based on the control and manipulation of these energies so that there is the "correct" or appropriate and balanced amount of this energy in each of the chakras.
The most touted of New Age healing techniques has been the use of crystals. Enthusiasts claim that because rock crystal is almost entirely devoid of color, it is an almost perfect capacitor of divine white light. Explanations of exactly how crystals wield their healing powers vary from practitioner to practitioner. Some maintain that the unique properties of crystals make them excellent receptors of metaphysical energies.
rief history of crystal therapy
As has already been mentioned, the history of this form of therapy is to be found in many historical documents and in myths, stories and…
Albanese, Catherine L. "Chapter 6 the Magical Staff: Quantum Healing in the New Age." Perspectives on the New Age / . Ed. James R. Lewis and J. Gordon Melton. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1992. 68-84. Questia. 11 Mar. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102478457 .
Bachelor B. Alternative therapies. 11 Mar. 2007. http://www.barcelona- metropolitan.com/Article.aspx?TabID=2&MenuID=8&ArticleID=146
Blanchard a. Alternative medicine and herbal use among university students. Journal of American College Health. 2006. 11 Mar. 2007. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-155567732.html www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108566203
Bix, Amy Sue. "Engendering Alternatives." The Politics of Healing: Histories of Alternative Medicine in Twentieth-Century North America. Ed. Robert D. Johnston. New York: Routledge, 2004. 153-180. Questia. 11 Mar. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108566390 .
Perceptions are generally based on the present, and therefore, the need to explore the past by delving into it in great detail becomes totally unnecessary. Glasser felt that even if the person exhibited bizarre and extremely strange types of behavior at a particular time, it was because of an innate reason of trying and attempting to find the best solution in order to meet the person's needs at that particular time in his life, and therefore, it was logical and sane to him, if not to others who would sometimes label him as strange or insane. (the Use of eality Therapy in Guidance in second Level Schools) delinquent would make choices based on the best way to meet his basic needs at that time, and therefore, must not be criticized. This, in essence formed the theory of eality Therapy of William Glasser, wherein the concept of 'Choice Theory' was emphasized…
Hazelden, Paul. "Reality Therapy" Retrieved at http://www.hazelden.org.uk/gr01/art_gr003_reality_therapy.htm . Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Historic Overview of Psychiatric Care" Retrieved at http://www.jcjc.cc.ms.us/faculty/adn/jmcmillan/psychcl1.html. Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Lennon, Brian. "From Reality Therapy to Reality Therapy in Action" Retrieved at http://www.socc.ie/~wgii/articlebl.htm. Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Lennon, Brian. "The Use of Reality Therapy in Guidance in second Level Schools" Retrieved at http://www.ncge.ie/handbook_docs/Section1/Reality_Therapy_Guide_Sch.doc . Accessed on 30 November, 2004
The researcher will gather all of the information collected from the self report questionnaires and analyze using a variety of techniques including summary, interpretation, classifying and describing. The author will use the data to measure change that occurs among the populations using HT therapy.
In conducting the study the researcher will undoubtedly run into some obstacles including determining how to measure change in the participants health and well being, examining the extent of change and the attributes of change for purposes of the study (King, 2001). Measuring change is a key concept vital to longitudinal research design (Kind, 2001). As this study is qualitative in nature the data will be presented via narratives, observations and transcripts from the survey to record and measure data appropriately (King, 2001).
The researcher will attempt to explain change and identify causal relationships between the independent and dependent variables. Data managing, reading, describing,…
Baldo, T.D., Schneider, M.K, & Slyter, M. (2003). "The impact of menopause:
Implications for mental health counselors." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 25(4): 311.
Gambacciani, M., Ciaponi, M., Cappagli, B., Monteleone, P. Benussi, C., Bevilacqua, G.,
Vacca, F., Genazzani, A.R. (2005, Feb). "Effects of low dose, continuous combined hormone replacement therapy on sleep in symptomatic postmenopausal women." Maturitas, 50(2): 91-7.
Criteria for Diagnosis
Physical and Mental Signs and epercussions
Different Treatments of Anorexia
Anorexia Nervosa, a type of eating disorder, continues to plague some of the world's population, particularly white adolescent females obsessed with looking thinner. This paper endeavors to explore what exactly anorexia is, in relation to the category of 'eating disorder' as well as other eating disorders such as bulimia. The criteria for diagnosis will be identified as well as the population in our society most susceptible to falling victim to this mental illness. Physical and mental signs and repercussions will also be highlighted along with 3 case studies advocating different treatments to combat this sickness. Traditional treatment normally consists of hospitalization, followed by psychotherapy. However, family or support therapy is gradually gaining credibility and popularity over traditional treatment routes.
Despite the fact that there is greater understanding amongst the medical profession and general…
Being a Woman Means Being Subject to Impossible Expectations (eating disorders). http://www.geocities.com/Wellesley/1421/eating.html
Block, Jerald. (September 6, 1996). Case Example #1. http://nypisys.cpmc.columbia.edu/development/Web/nyspi/depts/psypharm/eating~1/Acase1.htm
Compulsive Exercise. http://www.something-fishy.org/whatarethey/exercise.php le Grange, D. (June 1999). "Family Therapy for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa," in Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1999 Jun;55(6):727-39. http://www.google.com/search?q=anorexia+hospitalization+case+study&hl=en&lr=lang_en&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&start=10&sa=N
Nickol, Jenny. (2001). Eating Disorders Awareness: Emotional Issues Involved With Eating Disorders. http://ohioline.osu.edu/ed-fact/1005.html
Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors. Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.
Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory. The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Nomothetic…
There is much irony to be found in the opinion that all illness begins in the mind, because many doctors and alternative healers make this claim but yet are unwilling to admit that psychic illnesses are real. The Japanese people struggle with an honest discussion of psychiatric illnesses, as they often come to their doctors with somatic complaints. Yes, they may have headaches, stomachaches, or other issues, but it is the goal of the doctor to determine what is causing these problems. Internal medicine doctors should look for physical reasons for these issues, but should also be open to the idea that no physical cause may be found (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2001). If that is the case, it is possible that the person is depressed, and that mental health counseling can be beneficial (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2001). Until the stigma of mental health and depression can be removed, however, Japanese people who need treatment…
Dale, J., Sorour, E., & Milner, G. (2008). Do psychiatrists perform appropriate physical investigations for their patients? A review of current practices in a general psychiatric inpatient and outpatient setting. Journal of Mental Health, 17(3): 293 -- 298.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2001). Gender differences in depression. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10(5): 173 -- 176.
Tragically, it harms the most vulnerable among us -- children. This must stop
Please, send Senate Bill 1172 to the Assembly floor for a vote. It is the right thing to do. Thank you. (Domi,, 2012 ).
Advocates of conversion therapy are correct in maintaining that as long as the therapy helps a quantifiable amount of people, and these people voluntarily choose that theory, it should be maintained. The question is, however, how many other people has it harmed, and what is the extent and intensity of this harm... As in every other aspect, an approach that is harmful needs to be curtailed by the government. The government restricts smoking and drugs since harmful to the person. Advocates label this system as 'therapy', and therefore, say that a patient can choose the type of therapy that he or she wishes. However, the Ninth Circuit addressed this point in…
American Psychological Association, February 2008 (PDF) Answers to Your Questions: For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality http://www.apa.org/topics/sexuality/orientation.aspx?item=8
Buchanan, W (September 29, 2012). State bans gay-repair therapy for minors. San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/State-bans-gay-repair-therapy-for-minors-3906032.php
Domi, T (June 26, 2012 ) UPDATE: Prop 8 Witness Ryan Kendall Testifies on Conversion Therapy; Committee Approves 5-2
A teen might be asked to tell their own story from the point-of-view of other people they know, looking at themselves from other viewpoints. These clients are freed to invent stories and play parts in that serve the purpose of providing a framework of meaning and direction for themselves. The stories are never singled out as "true" or "false," but a recognition that truth is complex and no one story can encompass all of the truth aids the client in seeing him or herself as a complex and meaningful role-player. And in that context, since one story may not be claimed to be the whole truth, no one story may not dominate a person's life. Life, to the client and narrator of these "stories" becomes an adventure in which trials are meant to be overcome and designed to prepare one for the future, rather than to defeat. The religious story…
Brown, Laura S. Feminist Therapy, Part of the Systems of Psychotherapy, APA Psychotherapy Video Series (2006)
Brown, L.S. (1994). Subversive dialogues: Theory in feminist therapy. New York: Basic Books.
Bruner, J. (1986) Actual Minds, Possible Worlds, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Dutton-Douglas, M.A., & Walker, L.E.A. (Eds.). (1988). Feminist psychotherapies: Integration of therapeutic and feminist systems. Norwood NJ: Ablex Publishing.
It assumes a person is in control of their own fate and not a victim to it. Starting at an early age, a unique style of life is created by the person and that life-style stays relatively constant throughout the remainder of life. Working toward success, connectedness with others, and contributions to society are considered hallmarks of mental health, as well as being motivated by goals, dealing with the tasks faced in life, and social interest. Birth order is considered important in understanding a person's current personality, yet the therapy is future-minded, rather than retrospective. (Psyweb Pro, 2006)
In Adlerian therapy, the therapist will gather as much family history as possible. This data will be used to help set goals for the client and to get an idea of the clients' past performance. This will help ascertain whether the goal is too low or high, and if the client has…
Adlerian Psychology, Psyweb.com 2006, http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp (Retrieved August 20, 2006)
Corey, Gerald (1991) Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy
Carlson, Neil R. (1995) Foundations of Physiological Psychology
CTA: Cognitive Therapy Associates, http://www.cognitive-therapy-associates.com/therapy/adlerian-therapy.php
The medical field is constantly undergoing significant changes in response to the changing health and social needs of Canadians, as well as health care delivery systems. Occupational therapy is an integral part of this process, as it has expanded from traditional hospital settings to home and community care.
Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists identifies some of the existing trends as affecting occupational therapy:
• an aging population
• increased awareness of the needs of people with disabilities
• higher survival rates from accidents and injuries
• increased emphasis on health promotion and prevention to keep health care costs down
• higher incidence of mental health and family problems
• changes in work conditions such as job stress and early retirement
• a more informed public regarding health and health concerns
In my opinion one of rapidly evolving trends in occupational therapy in Ontario is its increasing role in…
Ontario Long-Term Care Association. (2011). Elements of an effective innovation strategy for long-term care in Ontario. The Conference Board of Canada. Web. http://www.oltca.com/Library/march11_cboc_report.pdf
A synthesis of what the studies reveal about the current state of knowledge on the question developed
The mindfulness meditation theory appears to have the potential to treat addictive disorder patients. Zgierska and coworkers (2009) state that such models seem to be safe if implemented within the context of clinical studies. One can find considerable methodological shortcomings in a majority of existing works on the subject. Further, which addiction-diagnosed individuals may derive maximum benefits out of mindfulness meditation isn’t clear. But, of late, related initiatives and practices in the role of complementary clinical aids for treating multiple physical and psychological ailments have grown in popularity. MBCT (mindfulness-based cognitive therapy) and MBSR (mindfulness-based stress reduction) as clinical initiatives have specifically been analyzed, with a sound evidential pool recording their efficacy. Integration of the latter initiative’s aspects and cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive psychology strategies resulted in the former’s creation. At first,…
Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy
Cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT as commonly referred to encompasses several techniques. One is behavioral experiments whereby the psychologist helps the client to do behavioral experiments to test their thoughts and help them change their behavior through self-criticism and self-kindness. Second is thought records whereby the psychologist helps the client to change their beliefs through recording thoughts and their consequences. Another technique is imagery exposure which helps to provoke memories and positive emotions in the client. In vivo exposure is also another technique whereby the patient is exposed to the feared stimulus gradually in order to help them resole an issue Schacter, Gilbert, & Wegner, 2010()
The case of the fat lady
Intervention strategy for making and maintaining relationships
In order to help Betty explore and reduce her inner conflict and be able to make and maintain relationships, a cognitive…
Holmes, J. (2002). All You Need Is Cognitive Behaviour Therapy? BMJ: British Medical Journal, 324(7332), 288-290. doi: 10.2307/25227348
Schacter, D.L., Gilbert, D.T., & Wegner, D.M. (2010). Psychology (2nd ed.). New York: Worth Pub
Sue, D.W., Capodilupo, C.M., Torino, G.C., Bucceri, J.M., Holder, A.M.B., Nadal, K.L., & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Implications for Clinical Practice. American Psychologist, 62(4), 271 -- 286. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.62.4.271
Sue, S., Zane, N., Nagayama Hall, G.C., & Berger, L.K. (2009). The Case for Cultural Competency in Psychotherapeutic Interventions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60(1), 525-548. doi: doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163651
An Adlerian approach to the case of B.A., the 14-year-old Guatemalan-American boy whose case was described by Layla, should primarily focus on B.A.'s feelings of inferiority and his sense of community and social being. Adlerian therapy generally concentrates on these two areas, and it is worth examining each specifically for B.A.
We can probably act from the assumption that B.A.'s feelings of inferiority are largely related to his family environment. Alfred Adler held that early childhood contains a lot of clues for how to interpret subsequent behavior -- in Corey's words, the Adlerian view is that "at around 6 years of age our fictional vision of ourselves as perfect or complete begins to form into a life goal." (Corey 99). In the case of B.A., he has had no physical contact with his mother from the age of five months -- too young to have any memories at…
Corey, G. (2008). Theory And Practice Of Counseling & Psychotherapy, 8th Edition. Belmont, CA: Brooks / Cole.
In addition to this situation, a variety of situations exist in which the spirit may influence illness. Asian philosophies often discuss the spirit's relation to the body and illness, suggesting that those who can maintain their spirits also do a service to their bodies. For example, the ancient art of Shiatsu teaches that the body, mind, and spirit are all connected by energy, and that the Hara, located in the abdomen, is the center of the body that connects it to the spiritual world. Thus, by "centering" oneself, illness, pain, and even mental anguish can be overcome. Asian medical and spiritual arts like Shiatsu have come to influence the modern movement based on what is termed the law of attraction. This theory suggests that all living things are made of energy, and so the creation of positive energy through positive thoughts and an open spirit leads to better health.
" Long-term use may develop psychoses, like schizophrenia and severe depression. The use of MDMA may produce psychological difficulties, like confusion, depression, sleep problems, drug craving, severe anxiety and paranoia, even weeks after the use of the drug. MSMA develops symptoms, such as muscle tension, nausea, blurred vision, rapid eye movements, faintness, chills, sweating, and increased heart rate and blood pressure. it, therefore, poses a special risk for those with heart disease. Overuse can lead to death (Kurtzweil).
West Africans used ibogaine as a stimulant and aphrodisiac in the early 1900s (Kurtzweil 1995). Native Americans used mescaline from peyote cactus in religious rituals. LSD was first synthesized in 1938. Throughout history, it was considered a source of many types of medications. Its psychedelic effects were first discovered in 1943. Two decades after World War II, LSD was used to determine its effects on patients with schizophrenia and other mental disorders.…
Kotler, Steven. Drugs in Rehab. Psychology Today: Sussex Publishers, Inc., April 2005
Klotter, Jule. End-of-Life and Psychedelic Research. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients: The Townsend Group, July 2005
Kurtzweil, Paula. Medical Possibilities for Psychedelic Drugs. FDA Consumer: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1995
Luke, David P. And Marrios Kottenis. A Preliminary Survey of Paranormal Experiences with Psychoactive Drugs. Journal of Parapsychology: Parapsychology Press, 2005
Cog Beh Therapy
With respect to the businessman who comes to see the therapist about the problems in his marriage, there are two issues immediately apparent from the brief case history. The first is the man's unwillingness to accept any responsibility for the success of the relationship. He is immediately defensive, blaming his wife for all their problems. He claims that she is hypercritical and that she is "probably" suffering from PMS. Without getting the wife's side of the story, it is impossible to know the extent of her complaints against her husband, the degree to which she feels they need help, and the amount of effort she is willing to expend -- and has already expended -- to put the marriage back on track, if that is in fact what she wants. It is unlikely she has had a formal diagnosis of PMS. Used in this context, "PMS" is…
"Alcoholism: Definition." (2012). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com
Hodge, D.R. (2011). Alcohol treatment and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Social Work 56(1),
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or (CBT) is currently the popular method to provide therapy to the client with weight control maladies. CBT is ostensibly necessary to assist binge eaters and those whom suffer from tendencies to bulimic episodes. According to Brody (2007), "Most popular at the moment is cognitive-behavioral therapy, with or without medication. Since binge eaters have highly irregular eating habits, the behavioral aspect introduces structure to their eating behavior: regular meals, including breakfast, and an afternoon snack if needed." (Brody, 2007)
apoport, Clark, & Wardle further ascribe CBT as a comprehensive methodology to address the psychological, not neurological, deficiencies with regard to how the client addresses their weight problem. According to apoport, Clark & Wardle (2000), "Cognitive -- behavioural treatment (CBT) for obesity also focuses on weight loss, but incorporates psychological strategies to promote lifestyle change. ecent reviews show that CBT programmes achieve weight losses…
Brody, J.E. (2007, Feb 20). Out of control: A true story of binge eating. New York Times, pp. F.7-F.7. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/433509755?accountid=13044
Marchesini, G., Natale, S., Chierici, S., Manini, R., Besteghi, L., Domizio, S.D., . . . . (2002). Effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy on health-related quality of life in obese subjects with and without binge eating disorder.International Journal of Obesity, 26(9), 1261-1261-1267. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0802073
Mefferd, K., Nichols, J.F., Pakiz, B., & Rock, C.L. (2007). A cognitive behavioral therapy intervention to promote weight loss improves body composition and blood lipid profiles among overweight breast cancer survivors.Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 104(2), 145-145-52. doi:10.1007/s10549-006-9410-x
Rapoport, L., Clark, M., & Wardle, J. (2000). Evaluation of a modified cognitive-behavioural programme for weight management. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 24(12), 1726-1726-1737. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801465
Cognitive Behavior Therapy- A Case Study
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) Case Study
K is a forty-eight-year female who referred to Midlothian's clinical psychology psychosis service. K has a twenty-year history of mental health conditions. She first decided to contact mental health services because of the episodes of paranoia and severe depression she had experienced. During her initial contact with the mental health services she was diagnosed with schizo-affective disorder in 1996. When she was first referred to the mental health services department she was a single. She told of having only two close relationships in her past life. She however also said that she found these relationships challenging when it came to intimate contact. She also generally described that she found it somewhat difficult to form friendships or to trust people in her life. Despite the mental health conditions her general physical well-being was good. K was prescribed…
Bladek, M. (2014). Against memory: Acts of remembering in Jamaica Kincaid's My Brother. Retrieved from http://criticism.english.illinois.edu/2007%20Fall%20Documents/Affect%20Abstracts/Abstracts.htm
DeJong, P. & . Berg I.K (1998): Interviewing for solutions. Thomson: Brooks/Cole.
Drisko, J. (2014). Research Evidence and Social Work Practice: The Place of Evidence-Based Practice. Clin Soc Work J. 42:123-133 DOI 10.1007/s10615-013-0459-9
Freud, S. (1924) A general introduction to psychoanalysis. New York: Boni & Liveright.
Solution-Focused Brief Therapy on Mothers with a Disabled Child
This research paper will focus on the ability of the author to effectively provide therapy services to individuals and adopt an enabling role, coaching the client in exploring his/her own way of solving the problems experienced, thereby using his own competence to the greatest extent possible. By using the Solution Focused Therapy approach and the author's own views on letting the client become the expert, promoting self-esteem, and most importantly creating change through various techniques and interventions, it will allow client to see through a new 'lens' of self.
This researcher selects Janet as a case study. She is 25 years old and lives in with her boyfriend with whom she has two son. The older son, James, has a disability in his clef foot. This incurable disability, her husband's abusive attitude and the natural inner struggles of a growing woman…
Bryman, A. (n.d.) Triangulation. Reference World. Retrieved on November 29, 2015 from http://www.referenceworld.com/sage/socialscience/triangulation.pdf
Cepeda, L. M. and Davenport, D. S. (2006). Person-centered therapy and solution-focused brief therapy: an integration of present and future awareness. Vol. 43 # 1,Psychotherapy: Pubmed.
Retrieved on November 26, 2015 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22121955/
Darlaston-Jones, D. (2007). Making connections: the relationship between epistemology and research methods. Vol 19 # 1, The Australian Community Psychology: University of Notre
As a result of this impact, religious or spiritual organizations adopt various health beliefs that govern the well-being of their members. For instance, spirituality helps religious individuals to demonstrate less destructive behaviors like smoking, minimum stress, and improved satisfaction in life. An example of such organizations is Jews for Jesus, which has an estimated number of nearly 125,000 members across the globe. The organization is founded on three major core values i.e. being under God's Word and authority, honoring the Messiah, and relying on the Holy Spirit.
The other major tenet of this spiritual organization is that it focuses on Jewish evangelism, which is a Jewish mission that involves sharing Christ with the unsaved ("Core Values," 2011). One of the health beliefs of this organization is that physical health is needed for the spiritual well-being of an individual and to carry out the activities of spreading the message of Messiahship…
"Core Values." (2011, June 29). Jews for Jesus. Retrieved January 12, 2013, from http://www.jewsforjesus.org/about/who-we-are/corevalues
"What is Complementary and Alternative Medicine?" (2012, September 18). National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). Retrieved from National Health Institutes -- U.S. Department of Health & Human Services website: http://nccam.nih.gov/health/whatiscam
personal theories about change and therapy as part of developing a personal therapeutic approach and process. The exploration begins with examining personal beliefs regarding health, normalcy, and change. The author also includes a discussion about the theoretical foundations influencing personal style of therapy. A description of a personal therapy process and culturally responsive therapy is also included in the article. The final section provides a theory of therapy diagram based on cognitive behavioral therapy.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Michael White and David Epston have played a crucial part in explaining family therapy for nearly two decades through contributing to the emergence of numerous concepts in textbooks and handbooks of family therapy (amey et. al., 2009, p.262). One of the concepts in family therapy is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, which is used to treat people with several problems including mental health issues. The use of such theoretical approaches is based on the fact…
Beck, J. (n.d.). Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved April 23, 2015, from http://www.beckinstitute.org/cognitive-behavioral-therapy/#q-n-a-1773
"Cognitive Behavior Therapy." (n.d.). Beck Institute. Retrieved April 23, 2015, from http://www.beckinstituteblog.org/cognitive-behavioral-therapy/
Hays, P.A. (2012). Culturally responsive cognitive-behavioral therapy in practice. Washington,
D.C.: American Psychological Association.
The two hypothetical systems working on an individual's brain during the experience of addiction are complementary within and between system changes. The first counteradaptation results in a decrease in the transmission of dopamine and serotonin release during withdrawal phases of the cycle (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively, dopamine and serotonin transmission is artificially increased beyond the normative range during drug use, then virtually stopped once the drug has left the body. This intensifies not only the "come down" feeling but also the preoccupation anxieties associated with substance abuse as well as the existing emotional, environmental, or social vulnerability which lead to the initial lapse. Sensitization is the component of addiction which compels an individual to continually seek greater quantities of the substance (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively once the brain has been exposed to a chemical which alters neural transmission, the body attempts to return to a homeostatic state.…
1. Nesse, R. (1994). An evolutionary perspective on substance abuse. Ethology and Sociobiology, 15, 339- 348.
2. Robinson, T, & Berridge, K. (2001). Mechanisms of action of addictive stimuli incentive- sensitization and addiction. Addiction, 96, 103- 114.
3. Koob, G., & Le Moal, M. (1997). Drug abuse: Hedonic homeostatic dysregulation. Science, 278, 52- 58.
4. Brown, J.M., & Miller, W.R. (1993). Impact of motivational interviewing on participation and outcome in residential alcoholism treatment. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors,7, 211-218.
The author of this paper is about to offer a brief literature review of what has come to be known as solution-focused therapy. Included in that literature review will be several specific topics or examples that are within the solution-focused therapy paradigm. These include the history of the theory, the use of language to help create a solution-focused therapeutic environment, the role of family history when it comes to solution-focused therapy, the shift from a problems focus to a solutions focus in a way that benefits the client, the development of a short vignette that is based on a family situation, global goals of the treatment method using the language of theory, interventions that should be used at each stage of treatment (those being beginning, middle and end) and a succinct summary of all of the above. There are certainly other methodologies that can be used when treating…
Carr, S.M., Smith, I.C., & Simm, R. (2014). Solution-focused brief therapy from the perspective of clients with long-term physical health conditions. Psychology,
Health & Medicine, 19(4), 384-391. doi:10.1080/13548506.2013.824594
Cotton, J. (2010). Question Utilization in Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Recursive
Frame Analysis of Insoo Kim Berg's Solution Talk. Qualitative Report, 15(1), 18-
The therapist, who withholds judgment and criticism, ceases to be perceived in the mind of the prisoner like an adjunct of the guard or police, but as a facilitator of positive changes in the lives of the prisoners (p. 102).
Correctional practitioners often speak of "getting back to basics." eality Therapy and Choice Theory, which is an excellent tool for either classroom or self-study, is about just that. In the mid-1970s as a young juvenile correctional officer, I was trained in reality therapy as it was the cornerstone of treatment at the New Mexico Girls School. Since that time, many new approaches have been implemented, but if one closely examines all the "innovative juvenile treatment approaches," reality therapy is a basic component of each, and to this day, is the cornerstone of the most effective methods of working with youths. This process teaches youths to stop placing blame on others…
Brown, N.W. (1996). Expressive Processes in Group Counseling: Theory and Practice. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. Retrieved December 10, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27985548 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002544140
Clark, K. (2003). Bringing Back Compassion, Counseling and Mental Health: Featured Presenter Dr. William Glasser Discusses Choice Theory, the New Reality Therapy with Annals. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 6(2), 11+. Retrieved December 10, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002544140 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104722137
Hardcastle, D.A., Powers, P.R., & Wenocur, S. (2004). Community Practice: Theories and Skills for Social Workers. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved December 10, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104722138 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007703291
Factors that augment risks of self-cutting
Treatment of Self-Cutting
Aims of Group Therapy
Aspects of Group Therapy
The aim of this research is to investigate and identify opinions regarding vital elements for successful group therapy and to suggest the distinguished elements as guiding principles for future group counselling guidelines, theoretical as well as program development. Therapists are to recognize the essential factors of group therapy, which contribute to positive therapeutic results. The important elements of group therapy established by the board of professionals shall be suggested as guiding principles for future group therapy, theoretical and program development (Edwards, 2001).
Group therapy is a type of psychotherapy whereby one or more therapists attend to a tiny group of patients together as a group. It entails one or more psychologists that head a group of approximately five to fifteen clients. In the same milieu, group counselling…
Conyne, R. K. (Ed.). (2011). The Oxford handbook of group counselling. Oxford University Press.
Edwards, S. A. (2001). The essential elements of multi-family group therapy: A Delphi study.
Fehr, S. S. (Ed.). (2012). 101 interventions in group therapy. Routledge.
Glass, S. D. (2010). The practical handbook of group counselling. Bloomington, Ind.: Trafford Publishing
Established at the outset of the 80s by Dr. Les Greenberg and Dr. Sue Johnson, emotionally focused therapy (EFT) abides by the way of life that relationships are at the center or essence of human experience. It is founded on the principles that emotionally satisfying relationships are basic constituents of mental and physical health, and that interventions that are emotionally oriented have the authority to create and reconstruct helpful connections and ties between persons. The founders of EFT have the belief that each and every individual can take full advantage of their potential if placed in a fostering social setting (Johnson, 2009). Emotion-focused treatment was advanced as an empirically-cognizant method to the exercise of psychoanalysis grounded in present-day psychosomatic philosophies of working. Emotion-focused therapy endeavors to change the emotional or mental or behavioral sense of balance by putting emphasis on the vital role of the familiarity of adaptive emotion in…
Brenning, K.M., Braet, C. (2013). The emotion regulation model of attachment: An emotion-specific approach, Personal Relationships, 2013, 20, 1
Goldman, R.N., Greenberg, L.S. (2014). Case Formulation in Emotion-Focused Therapy: Co-Creating Clinical Maps for Change
Greenberg, L.S. (2004). Emotion -- focused therapy. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 11(1), 3-16.
Greenberg, L.S. (2010). Emotion-focused therapy: A clinical synthesis. Focus, 8(1), 32-42.
Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy
Cognitive Therapist Behavioral Techniques
Case of the Fat Lady
Cognitive behaviorist therapy is a blend of two therapies; cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy. Cognitive therapy first developed by Aaron Beck in 1960 has its focus on individual beliefs and their influences on actions and moods. Its core aims are to alter an individual mindset to be healthy and adaptive (Beck, 1976; athod, Kingdon, Weiden, & Turkington, 2008). Behavioral therapy focuses on individual aims and actions towards changing patterns in unhealthy behaviors (athod et al., 2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy assists an individual to focus on their current difficulties and relate on how to resolve them. Active involvement of both the therapist and the patient helps in identification of the thinking patterns in distort bringing into foresight a recognizable change in thought and behavior (Leichsenring & Leibing, 2007). Exploring and encouraging discussions…
Beck, A.T. (1976). Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. New York: International Universities Press.
Burns, Kubilus, Breuhl, Harden, R.N., & Lofland, K. (2003). Do changes in cognitive factors influence outcome following multidisciplinary treatment for chronic pain? A cross-lagged panel analysis. . Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 81-91.
Leichsenring, F., & Leibing, E. (2007). Psychodynamic psychotherapy: a systematic review of techniques, indications and empirical evidence. Psychology and Psychotherapy, 80(2), 217-228.
Rathod, S., Kingdon, D., Weiden, P., & Turkington, D. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for medication-resistant schizophrenia: a review. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 14(1), 22-33.