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Plant relocation *** CONFIDENTIAL ***
We have discussed previously the issue of relocating one of our plants. I have received back from the consultant a report that outlines what she thinks are our best options. This report will present her findings.
Fact Summary: The consultant identified Mexico, the Philippines and South Africa as potential sites. Her findings are summarized in the following table
Env. Scandal risk
This table illustrates the issues on the table that form part of the ethical dilemma. South Africa has environmental regulations and union strength more akin to a developed country, but with lower wages and abundant labor supply. Philippines is basically anarchy, with no regulations, no enforcement, and rock bottom labor…
MyWage.co.za. (2014). Minimum wages in South Africa, "area a." MyWage.co.za Retrieved November 29, 2014 from http://www.mywage.co.za/main/salary/minimum-wages/minimum-wages-2012-13/minimum-wages-for-wholesale-and-retail-in-south-africa-february-1-2012-to-january-31-2013
Ethical Dilemma and Corporate esponsibility
Board of Directors
E: esponse to Ethical dilemma created by the relocation program
I am writing this memo to inform the directors that this company is faced by an ethical dilemma. The ethical dilemma presented in this report is based on challenges of balancing corporate loyalty and corporate responsibility. This report advises the Project Management office (PMO) on the possibility of applying Workers Adjustment and etaining Notification (WAN) as part of the large corporate responsibility plan. The report will identify employees as the worst affected stakeholders by the relocation program. To achieve ethical corporate responsibility, the report will identify a bailout program extended to five months from the date of declaration.
ising production costs in the U.S. have forced Electrocorp to explore the options of relocating its production plan to Mexico, Philippines, and South Africa. The three nations offer diverse conditions to the…
Ferrell, O.C., & Fraedrich, J. (2014). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making & Cases. New York: Cengage Learning
Horrigan, B. (2010). Corporate Social Responsibility in the 21st Century: Debates, Models and Practices Across Government, Law and Business. New York: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Office of the Federal Register. (2012). Code of Federal Regulations, Title 20, Employees' Benefits, PT. 500-656, Revised as of April 1, 2012. New York: Government Printing Office.
Quatro, S., & Sims, R. (2008). Executive Ethics: Ethical Dilemmas and Challenges for the C-suite. IAP
Ethics and Plant Closure
Situation Analysis -- ABC/DVD Manufacturing, Inc. must decide whether to close its plant in Anytown, MA. The plant closure would result in the lay-off of 50 employees. Management has asked for a brief outlining the ethical issues surrounding plant closures, and the questions apparent on profit vs. ethical behavior.
At the heart of the decision are several questions that must be considered prior to a decision. Each question plays into the overall analysis of the issue, and affects various stakeholders in different ways:
If plant closes, can a good portion of the employee base be transferred to other locations?
Employees: relocation of families, etc.
Company: costs for relocation.
Increased costs for corporation, but would those be absorbed by closing the plant?
Are jobs skilled or unskilled? Where will production be now (offshore?) Is it possible to relocate employees?
What affect would closure have…
MacIntyre, A. A Short History of Ethics. New York: Routledge, 2006.
White, T. Ethics Toolbox. Center for Ethics and Business at Loyola Marymount University.
2011. Retrieved from: http://www.ethicsandbusiness.org/toolbox/philoethics.htm
The likes of service oriented companies like America Online (AOL) is a prime example of how relocation and outsourcing has changed the way service oriented businesses function in this global economy. AOL continues to be one of our nation's most intelligent economic organizations as they take advantage of the outsourcing for the majority of their customer oriented operations. When an AOL customer calls in to have his password reset he may be talking to someone in India, South America or even the Middle East. Although the customer may not know where his call for help has been routed to, the end result of the call is that the problem is usually solved but at a greatly reduced cost to AOL compared to if that same call was routed to a call center within the United States boarders.
AOL's competition is just now beginning to understand the importance of outsourcing the…
Binghame, Charles (2004). Customer call center solutions. M2 Presswire, Sept.
InformationWeek (2004). EarthLink Cuts Jobs, Closes Centers; the nation's third-largest ISP says it needs to outsource more to better compete with AOL and MSN. InformationWeek, Jan.
Champlin, Dell P., et al. (2001). Subsistence in the Computer Era. Journal of Economic Issues.
Collins, Jim (2001, October). Good to Great. Fast Company, 36.
The government has rather low environmental expectations. In fact, the consultant found that they are about as lenient as the Mexican restrictions, though the Philippines presents no public relations nightmare as protestors are not rallying against health concerns, as they were in Mexico.
Although the conditions in the Philippines may seem even more ready for outsourcing then the conditions in Mexico, the ethical costs of operating the company in the country are once again too high. Like the situation in Mexico, workers in the Philippines may work for lower wages than workers in the United States, but owners are not being provided with the same level of skill that they would be if continuing to operate the factory in the United States. Because the factory workers would consist mainly of underfed adults and impoverished children, the company would be lucky if workers managed to produce sufficient amounts of products throughout…
Esselaar, Jeanne. (2002). The Debate over Outsourcing in South Africa: Evidence from a case study. Proceedings from Development Policy Research Unit Conference '02. Muldersdrift, Johannesburg.
Casale, Frank J. (2006). The Outsourcing Institute: Mexico Trends & Opportunities.
Retrieved June 1, 2008, from, http://www.outsourcing.com/mexico_trends/mexico.html
Roberts, Russell (2000). The Choice. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
That particular ethical concern may be harder to define precisely, simply because it may be too restrictive and no different from the types of decisions considered appropriate in the U.S. In that regard, provided it violates no domestic or foreign laws and that it is not undertaken for the purpose of shifting the environmental risk (osenstand, 2008), the relocation is no different from situating a similar plant in any local community that does not benefit from the existence of the plant.
osenstand, N. (2008). The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics.…
Rosenstand, N. (2008). The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics. New York:
The third alternative offers the initial benefits of the first alternative. It also allows for focusing on core competencies and maintaining a smaller organization to promote personal corporate culture of the second alternative. However, this option will have a disruption as the organization changes to an autonomous entity that may be counter-productive.
The fourth alternative of no entry has the benefit of not subjecting TAG to the risk of a new industry entry. However, without this risk, it has the downside of not offering any potential reward. It also does not allow for further diversification of TAG, which has served it well during leaner economic times.
It is recommended that TAG pursue the first strategy of forming a healthcare industry division under the auspices of the original TAG manufacturing consultancy body. In this way, TAG can maximize the benefits to be had with this growth opportunity. By creating a…
Author. "Title of Article." Publication Name Volume Number (if necessary) 25 Dec. 2003: page number-page number. Database name. Service name. Library Name, City, State. Date of access .
Two books by the same author
After the first listing of the author's name, use three hyphens and a period for the author's name. List books alphabetically.)
Mollie's job moved from New Jersey to Mississippi and Arkansas and eventually to a Maquiladora in Matamoros, Mexico.
In 1955, Mollie James began her three-decade stint on the assembly line at Universal Manufacturing. The firm was founded in 1947 by Archie Sergy, an entrepreneur with a questionable past. The firm eventually opened another plant in Simpson County, Mississippi, in the early 1960s. Building on a longstanding commitment to increase industrialization, the state lured Universal by offering to transfer the cost of building a new plant to the taxpayer. The move south was a preview of what was to happen in the 1980s when a leveraged buyout put the firm in new, more cost-conscious, hands.
As locations were continuously competing to attract new firms, the Mexican government made plant relocation attractive by offering tax-free zones, cheap labor, and a willingness to clamp down on union organizers. Mexican manufacturing paid their workers…
Horn, H. (2011). The burden of proof in trade disputes and the environment. Journal of Evironmental Economics and Management, 15-29.
Stewart, D. (N.d.). Mollie's Job. Retrieved from Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Mollies-Job-Story-Global-Assembly/dp/0743200306
elocating and Existing Business
Business elocation Literature eview: onnie's Place Convenience Store Four Oaks, NC
One of the most integral parts of successful business transitions of any kind is associated with proper and seemingly exhaustive research. A literature review of the particular issues associated with any business trend or transition can serve any business owner no matter how small their scope. Though it is important to understand the local and regional aspects of small business that can sometimes only be learned through owning a business in a particular region and practicing controlled trial and error, the larger concepts of business relocation and/or retail service practices also serve as a tool for better understandings of needs and practices.
In this particular case the owner of onnie's Place Convenience store will need to assess local and national information sources on issues particular to the transition that he/she is facing. Business relocation is…
Bertagnoli, L. (2003, Jan.13) Relocation can be risky; Stores on the move must calculate costs, retain clients. Crain's Chicago Business.
Degross, R. (2002, Oct. 5) North Carolina-based convenience store chain to close remaining 450 outlets. Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News.
Delaurier, G.F. (2001, Sept.) Dying to serve you. Dollars & Sense.
Estey, R.B. (1982, Nov.-Dec.) Putting the people who come "after," "before" the decision to relocate facilities. Industrial Development.
The project in question that of Building a reduced-sulfur generating, coal-fired plant by GHECO-One in Map Ta Phut, Thailand was examined for potential environmental impact due to the possible damage that the plant could cause. The company has stated throughout that their wish is to construct a plant that will be both environmentally and physically safe for the people, plants and animals that live within the region. This evaluation looks at that report with a specific view towards whether this environmental assessment is overly politicized in order to pacify the examining board of the country, and whether the site will have a cultural impact for the regions fishermen and others who either work in the area or are in some way affected by it. This evaluation is conducted to determine if the impact assessment met all of the requirements of a truthful and straightforward telling of the facts.…
EBR., 2009. Construction of GHECO-One coal-fired IPP power plant continues in Thailand. Retrieved from http://www.energy-business- review.com/news/construction_of_ghecoone_coalfired_ipp_power_plant_continu es_in_thailand_090526
Fujitsu., 2012. Fujitsu's ICT helps to solve environmental issues in Thailand. Retrieved from http://www.fujitsu.com/global/news/pr/archives/month/2012/20120207 - 02.html
GHECO-One., 2010. Thermal power plant project. Retrieved from http://www.glow.co.th/OurProject/EN/GHECO- ONE/Summary%20report%20of%20GHECO-ONE_English.pdf
Hariharan, M., 2011. Thailand's Map Ta Phut crisis -- The NGO side of the story. Retrieved from http://www.icis.com/blogs/asian-chemical - connections/2010/03/thailands-map-ta-phut-crisis -- .html
Lord's Payer: iordan in Japan
Globalization has many different effects on the world, the nations within it, and the individual organizations and people that populate these nations. Many of the effects and challenges of globalization work in indirect ways, and these are the effects that are quite often areas of ethical concern when it comes to international business, however there are also many direct considerations that businesses must take into account when they are globalizing or engaging in any multinational/international endeavors. The day-to-day operations and the minute details of international business have immense legal and ethical implications that extend well beyond simply trying to conduct business in a way that benefits all organizations and nations involved. Careful consideration of even the most innocuous-seeming of business actions and transactions renders these complications strikingly clear.
Compensation for employees relocated to a foreign country is one of the issues that presents…
Average Salary Survey. (2012). Average salary in Japan. Accessed 12 May 2012. http://www.averagesalarysurvey.com/article/average-salary-in-japan/15224137.aspx
Seeman, R. (2004). Labor law. Accessed 12 May 2012. http://www.japanlaw.info/law2004/JAPANBIZLAWLITE4GAIJIN_LABOR_LAW.html
Sidorenko, A. (1999). Role of Trade Unions in Japan, United States and Sweden: Comparative Analysis. Accessed 12 May 2012. http://members.tripod.com/~a_sid/works/IER.html
4. Exit interview
As the decision to terminate the employment relationship has been made and even set in motion, the employee is asked to participate in an exit interview. This interview is generally held throughout the last days the employee spends in the organization and it focuses on retrieving feedback related to the reasons as to which the employee has chosen to leave; his feelings and opinions regarding the time he spent in the company; the team, the managerial team, the company policy and so on. "Ultimately, the goal of using EIS is to determine the reasons for company turnover, help to identify training and development needs, create strategic planning goals, and identify those areas in which changes need to be made" (Knouse, Beard, Pollard and Giacalone, 1996).
5. eturn of company property
Aside from the exit interview, there are two more aspects to consider -- the return of company…
Dell'Omo, G.G., 1997, Managerial use of dismissal: organizational-level determinants, Personal Psychology, Vol. 50, No. 4
Glant, T., 2002, Against all odds: Vira B. Whitehouse and Rosika Schwimmer in Switzerland, American Studies International, Vol. 40, No. 1
Knouse, S.B., Beard, J.W., Pollard, H.G., Giacalone, R.A., 1996, Willingness to discuss exit interview topics: the impact of attitudes toward supervisor and authority, Journal of Psychology, Vol. 130, No. 3
McGough, L.S., 2003, Starting over: the heuristic of family relocation decision making, St. John's Law Review, Vol. 77, No. 2
Some of the biggest incentives for manufactures are the outrageously low tax bases in southern states. "When taxes are paid, southern levies are lower than most Northern states. GM's Hamtramck, MIG, plant, for instance, has one of the highest property tax mileages in the United States at 88 mills." (Corbett, 2002) Taxes are some much lower than in say Michigan or New Jersey and southern state officials are very open to negotiations to land the new factories and the plethora of jobs. In other words, land values are low and government incentives are extraordinary so the automobiles industry would be crazy to not migrate south for those reasons alone. "Furthermore, utilities costs are lower. After the products have been assembled, the South's location is superior to the Midwest or the East Coast for delivery." (Corbett, 2002) but there are other incentives.
Not only is the land for the new facilities…
Corbett, Brian (2002). Southern hospitality. Ward's Auto World, August.
Some of the reasons why Hyundai relocated to Alabama State of the U.S.A. include the failure that she suffered in Korea. With the influx of cheap imported cars and the violent nature of the labor unions in Korea, the company had started to suffer serious decline in profits; this necessitated the move to look for other alternatives of operation. This landed the company in the U.S. As the revolution of the manufacturing companies and industries in the country (Carmel & Tjia, 2005). This is the place that provided the utmost and best labor regulations for the company. Another significant factor is the state government's incentive package. The incentive was very attractive to Hyundai as they could abate tax if they relocated there. This was a massive boost to the process of adaptation and profit realization. Moreover, the company was offered a site for setting their operations and a good access…
Lansbury, R.D., So?, C., Kwo-n, S., & Hyo-ndae Chonghap Sangsa (Korea). (2007). The global
Korean motor industry: The Hyundai Motor Company's global strategy. London:
Motherson sumi systems limited: 2009 company profile edition 2: Chapter 6 SWOT analysis.
Southern Discomfort: Wisconsin Specialty Products of Lamprey, Inc.
Fair wages vs. outsourcing: What is fair or unfair?
The Wisconsin Specialty Products Division of Lamprey Wisconsin may be forced to close its plant located in the U.S. because its wages and benefits for its unionized workers have become too much of a financial drain upon company finances. It is considering re-locating to Mexico to save money on both wages and benefits.
Changing market conditions
Competitors have already edged out Lamprey on price
Now they are edging out Lamprey on quality as well
Lamprey cannot afford to keep the plant as is. It cannot justify raising prices to consumers and must improve its product.
Slide 3: Analysis
Unionized workers are resistant to lower wages and to cross-training workers (which would mean fewer employees would be needed to do the same required jobs and result in layoffs -- but fewer layoffs than…
department employed about 100 men and women to create the wiring and connect it to different universal couplings so that speedometers, oil gauges, and other instruments would work. The final product, an under-dash wiring harness, was sent to the assembly plant for installation.
Sam developed a relationship with one of his employees, Paula, and they began dating. Paula later ended the relationship with Sam. Sam wanted to continue dating Paula, and he began exhibiting unwelcome behaviors, even after she told him to stop. Sam suggested that Paula's work might be suffering from a lack of interest.
Paula decided she could no longer work with Sam and applied for a transfer to the wire-coating department, which was not under his control. Sam blocked the transfer, citing evidence that chemicals used in wire coatings could harm an early-state fetus. Because Paula could become pregnant, Sam argued, NewCorp could not take the chance…
Kuntz, A (nd) Managers Can be Manipulated and Subsequently Burned: Know the Fable of the Monkey and the Cat's Paw
United Staqtes Dpt of Labor. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Confined Spaces
Communications -- Personal Statement
Say the word 'communications,' and immediately people think of the written or the spoken word. They think of a page of newspaper, a conversation with a friend. But corporate communications encompasses so much more than merely the verbal exchange of ideas.
Corporate communications is kinesthetic. Through my work at my current place of business, Alcoa I communicate by email to all Alcoans worldwide, regarding the Earthwatch program, including its guidelines and the application process. Earthwatch expeditions are hands-on efforts designed to add to the knowledge of Alocan personnel to give them personal knowledge of the different needs that must be met to build a sustainable future. My communication efforts for this program are personal as well as technical, and facilitate the communications process between employees on a personal level, and for the fifteen individuals ultimately chosen to become a part of the program, on a physical…
Is Ahimsa workable?
The author on the one hand says that the Jains are ideal in respecting the sacredness of life but one the other hand they are too impractical. Even Gandhi himself claimed to follow ahimas yet he had to allow use of DDT to kill mosquitoes. Thus, the idea of ahimas is impractical for protecting lower species because they often kill too many people. Thus the workability of an idea depends on the balance. If the idea of behaving positively to members of species means to respect their light to live than every specie should be allowed to live without harming the other and the one harming the other. And the answer given by the Jainism to author's question is not perfect.
How to React?
The author of the essay does not only give an overview of how people behave but he also tells how they people should…
These technologies are can be separated into three main categories (Alternative Energy):
Wave Energy Converters: These systems extract the power of ocean waves and convert it into electricity. Typically, these systems use either a water column or some type of surface or just-below-surface buoy to capture the wave power. In addition to oceans, some lakes may offer sufficient wave activity to support wave energy converter technology. (Alternative Energy).
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC): OTEC generates electricity through the temperature differential in warmer surface water and colder deep water. Of ocean technologies, OTEC has the most limited applicability in the United States because it requires a 40-degree temperature differential that is typically available in locations like Hawaii and other more tropical climates (Alternative Energy).
Offshore Wind: Offshore wind projects take advantage of the vast wind resources available across oceans and large water bodies. Out at sea, winds blow freely, unobstructed by…
Alternative Energy. "Renewable ocean energy: Tides, currents, waves." 23 October 2006. alternative-energy-news.info. 18 November 2009 .
AWEA. "Wind Energy Basics." 2005. American Wind Energy Association (AWEA). 18 November 2009 .
Burgermeister, J. "Germany: The World's first major renewable energy economy." 3 April 2009. Renewableenergyworld.com. 18 November 2009 .
CIA. "World Factbook: Germany." 11 November 2009. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). 18 November 2009 .
The Chinese government believes that construction of the Three Gorges Dam has helped produce solutions to the country's energy needs, and to flood control (of the Yangtze, the third largest river in the world). The arguments used by the Chinese as to flood control have some validity when a researcher realizes that over the past 2,000 years, there have been "200 catastrophic floods along the Yangtze's banks" (Watson, 2005). Also, because 70% of China's electricity comes from the burning of coal -- which causes choking smog in the big cities and contributes to the greenhouse gases that are causing climate change -- hydroelectric development seems like an alternative to coal-fired power plants.
Six Specific Risks with the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in China
Meanwhile, what are six risks that the Chinese were willing to take when they built the dam? Certainly one is environmentally related, and Chinese scholars…
Alberts, Henry C., Alberts, Renee M., Bloom, Mitchel F., LaFlamme, A. Dianne, and Teerikangas, Satu. 2004. 'The Three Gorges Dam Project from a Systems Viewpoint.' Systems Research and Behavioral Science, Vol. 21, 585-602.
Campbell-Hyde, Blake. 2009. 'Breaking Ground: Environmental and Social Issues of the Three Gorges Dam in China.' American University. Retrieved June 18, 2014, from http://www1.american.edu .
Watson, Stephanie. 2005. 'Why could China's Three Gorges Dam cause an environmental disaster?' Discovery Company. Retrieved June 18, 2014, from http://science.howstuffworks.com .
Yardley, Jim. 2007. 'Chinese Dam Projects Criticized for their Human Costs.' The New York Times. Retrieved June 18, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com .
a) it generates set of good layout alternatives, which are presented to the decision maker; B) it uses the decision maker's preference further to generate another best alternative, and C) generates the best layout alternatives using an interactive method (Jannat, S. 2010).
Optimal facility layout is a culmination of data process production and operation in a manufacturing or service layout. A good layout can work wonders in terms of single line flow of materials and work-in-progress items, leading to substantial cost reduction, which when passed on to the consumer, will relate to a very successful balance sheet. In addition, it contributes to employee efficiency and health, and the principle can be applied to the service sector as well as several sectors unconnected with manufacturing or service.
Chakraborty S. And Banik B (2007), "An Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Based Approach for Optimal Facility Layout Design," Journal of the Institution…
Chakraborty S. And Banik B (2007), "An Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Based Approach for Optimal Facility Layout Design," Journal of the Institution of Engineers, Part PR: Production Engineering Division, Vol. 88, pp. 12-18.
Heizer and Render, (2001), Operations Management (power point), Prentice Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, N.J. 07458.
Jannat, S.; Khaled, a.A.; & Sanjoy K.Paul. (2010), Optimal Solution for Multi-Objective Facility Layout Problem Using Genetic Algorithm, International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2010.
Khoshnevisan, M.; Sukanto, B.; and Florentin, S. (2003), Optimal Plant Layout Design for Process-focused Systems.
Espionage was also a seious domestic concen, which was emphasized in postes admonishing gossip and iesponsible convesation. These postes caied themes like "Loose lips sink ships" and the enemy is always listening."
Question D. What acial, ethnic and gende steeotypes can be found in these postes? What attitudes towad the Gemans and Japanese did the postes pomote?
Domestic watime postes typically potayed the enemy in the wost steeotypical images, such as caicatues of Japanese that emphasized thei diffeent physical featues, including vey exaggeated negative taits. Postes of Japanese efeed to "Japs" and Nips" and pictued potuding at-like font teeth and idiculously thick eyeglasses.
Likewise, postes potaying Gemans included efeences to "Kauts" and depicted the enemy as obese, bee-guzzling chaactes dessed in "leidehosen" and holding taditional Geman bee mugs in one hand and stings of Geman sausages in the othe. Altenatively, postes of the Geman enemy featued caicatues of Adolph Hitle…
references to "Krauts" and depicted the enemy as obese, beer-guzzling characters dressed in "leiderhosen" and holding traditional German beer mugs in one hand and strings of German sausages in the other. Alternatively, posters of the German enemy featured caricatures of Adolph Hitler and the Nazi party members.
The last century has seen an increase in the level of international purchases which has been supported by the developments in transportation and technology. Goods can move faster than before with developments in logistics. The negotiation and forming contracts for purchase with companies and communicate with potential suppliers in distant countries is also easier than in the past with the internet and tools such as video conferencing and emails. This facilitates the use of international suppliers. However, other firms may choose local suppliers believing strategy will best suit their needs. Local suppliers may be able to provide where there is an increase in the transparency of the supply chain, less exposure to risks such as interruption and exchange rate risks and proximity may allow closer collaborative relationships to develop. Both procurement strategies are viable, to assess the advantages associated with each approach the procurement from international and local suppliers can…
'Automotive and Auto Parts Industry in Turkey.' (2012). Turkish Ministry of Economy. [online] available: http://blog.tcp.gov.tr/?p=2632 .
"Automotive Industry Trends Affecting Component Suppliers.' (2005). International Labour Review, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 130-133.
Borrus, M., Ernst, D. & Haggard, S. (2001). International Production Networks in Asia: Rivalry or Riches. London: Routledge.
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving Your Thesis. New York: Routledge.
IX. Plan of implementation
The implementation plan should have several different parts. The first part is the analysis. The decision has been made to relocate some of the plants from locations with high labor and production costs to countries where these costs are lower. The analysis will need to show which each of these countries are. The idea is that the new countries will need to have some of the characteristics that serve company interest. These would include being close to markets where the products are sod or, if it is the same country, a sufficient purchasing power for the customers in the new locations.
The action plan or actual implementation plan should follow. The implementation plan will include dates and times when things are being moved, prices, for goods that are being auctioned and no longer retained in the new locations, personnel that will need to move to the…
Globalization has a considerable effect on the way businesses are being carried out. With the tremendous growth spurred by technology and development of new business models, we see an increasing instance of corporate outsourcing. This shift is observed in the manufacturing sector also as many multinational corporations are relocating their production centers to offshore locations that offer cheap labor and material costs. The result is the loss of thousands of jobs to foreign countries. The NAFTA agreement has furthered this trend towards offshore manufacturing. The manufacturing sector which employed more than 19 million in 1979 now employs only 14 million, indicating a huge fall.[Clyde Weiss].While increased productivity due to technology may be ascribed to part of this decline, there are also significant concerns about the impact of closure of local manufacturing plants and their relocation overseas. Let us have a brief overview of this emerging practice and the…
1) Walt Shepperd, "Making it: Local Manufacturing isn't Dead Just Different," Available at, http://newtimes.rway.com/2003/111903/cover.shtml
Accessed on Nov 12th 2005,
2) Ben Vickery, 'Manufacturing Drives China's Economic growth', The Competitive edge, 1112003, Available Online at, http://www.scmep.org/edge/edge_Manufacturing_Drives_Chinas_Economic_Growth.asp, Accessed on Nov 12th 2005
3) Clyde Weiss, "Vanishing Act," AFSCME Public Employee, Oct 2005,
Incentives and Economic Development
When attracting new businesses to our community, or encouraging the start-up or expansion of businesses that are already here, the eacon Council promotes the many advantages of doing business in Miami-Dade County. Those advantages include a number of business incentive programs and a favorable tax structure that have encouraged many domestic and international companies to relocate or expand their operations here.
MW, Mercedes-enz and Federal Express are just a few big companies that have been lured to various states by hundreds of millions of dollars in business incentive packages, bringing promises of new jobs and economic development to these states.
In 1992, MW decided to build in South Carolina after the state offered the company $130 million in business incentives (McIntosh, et al., 1999). Mercedes-enz's decision to build its first United States factory in Alabama was strongly influenced by the state's offer of more than $300…
Industry breaks blasted in report. The Advocate, May 26, 2002.
Maryland Department of Business and Economic (MDBE), 2002.
McIntosh, Betty, Prompt, Tammy, Farre, Reagan. Negotiating Incentives: The Art of Persuasion. Business Facilities magazine, March 1999. P. 26-27.
Morradian, Don, South Atlantic Metros Pile on Jobs. South Atlantic Report Review, 2000.
Karen people of Burma are made up of a number of separate ethnic groups that do not share common culture or language. The majority of the Karen people live in Karen State located in southern and southeastern Myanmar and make up roughly 7% or five million of the Burmese population. The majority of the Karen population have settled around or near the Thailand-Myanmar border. The Karen people have a rich history with some under leadership of the KNU or Karen National Union. Those influenced by the KNU have waged war since 1949 against the chief Burmese government, seeking independence. This has led to some Karen people leaving the country and moving to the United States as Refugees.
This literature review aims to understand the nature of the problem that resulted in migration of Karen people to other countries like the United States, what barriers they meet when they are relocated,…
please transfer this order to "heatherk13." THANKS.. It a research paper regard H DEVELOPMENT. Subject: Expatriate training. -> You mention; -Cultural issues -Social issues -Family issues expatriate training.
Expatriates face many challenges when they move to a foreign country. They need to be prepared both psychologically and mentally to ensure they will manage to handle the challenges they will encounter on their foreign assignment. Many employers nowadays will provide some form of training to their expatriates to inform and prepare them on what to expect in regards to culture, social, and environment.
esearch conducted on expatriates has shown that cultural issues affect expatriates the most. Some cultural issues discussed in the paper include male dominated societies for female expatriates, media restrictions, social life restrictions and language barriers. These issues are dependent on the country an expatriate is posted.
There are also social issues that expatriates are…
http://www.germanculture.com.ua/library/facts/bl_business_culture.htmGerman Culture. (n.d). Culture of German Management, from Julia Brandl & Anne-Katrin Neyer. (2009). APPLYING COGNITIVE ADJUSTMENT THEORY TO CROSS-CULTURAL TRAINING FOR GLOBAL VIRTUAL TEAMS, from http://www.shrm.org/education/hreducation/documents/48-3%20brandl%20et%20al.pdf
Rabotin, M.B. (2011). RESPECT IN THE CROSS-CULTURAL CONTEXT, from http://www.astd.org/Publications/Newsletters/ASTD-Links/ASTD-Links-Articles/2011/06/Respect-in-the-Cross-Cultural-Context
Tung, R.L. (1998). American expatriates abroad: From neophytes to cosmopolitans. Journal of World Business, 33(32), 125 -- 144.
Bush implied unemployment figures were declining and Kerry touted very high unemployment figures. In hindsight, it appears that the labor department statistics concurred with the Kerry camp. When Bush still won, unemployment trend indicators seem to be coming true now and there seems to be more problems on the horizon for the economy. The Bureau of Labor Statistics indicated recently that new jobs being created in the economy were the types of jobs that cannot fuel economic growth. Thus, the economy is and will continue to lose jobs to cheaper labor markets around the globe.
The Federal eserve has dictated the cost of capital for businesses to borrow. Trends show that cash shortages in corporate American are increasing and borrowing heavily will be a likely result. Therefore, future actions of the Federal eserve impacts a major aspect of America's future. Trends to observe by the Fed relate to consumer consumption…
Employment Situation Summary. Ed. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 12/3/2003. Department of Labor. Retrieved on 4/13/2005, from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.nr0.htm .
Heilbroner, Robert, & Thurow, Lester (1982). Economics Explained: Everything You Need to Know About How the Economy Works and Where it Is Going. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Marx, Karl (1977). Capital, Volume 1. New York: Random House.
Marx, Karl (1978). Capital, Volume 2. New York: Random House.
For instance the World Trade Organization reports having "allowed First World countries to raise trade barriers protecting their companies, even as we have served as their forum for insisting that Third World countries lower their trade barriers more and more." (WTO,
The truth is that if richer nations were to open their markets to the LDC countries for increase opportunities of export, generated would be approximately $700 billion in additional trade for developing countries. (UNCTAD Trade and Development Report, 1999; in WTO,
The World Trade Organization relates that no known causal link exists between foreign investment and the reduction of poverty as approximately eighty percent of foreign direct investment in "in the form of mergers and acquisitions, little in the form of productive investment that creates jobs and exports."
WORLD ECONOMY in the LAST TWO DECADES
The work entitled: "The North American Integration Regime and Its Implications for the World…
Sporleder, Thomas L. And Martin, Larry J. (nd) Economic Perspectives on Competitiveness Under WTO, NAFTA, and FTAA.
Abbott, Frederick M. (1999) the North American Integration Regime and Its Implications for the World Trading System - the NAFTA in the WTO System NYU School of law Online available at http://www.jeanmonnetprogram.org/papers/99/990201.html
Answering the Critics: The Myths and Realities of Trade Liberalization. Business Roundtable. Online available at http://trade.businessroundtable.org/trade_basics/answering_critics.html
Trade Liberalization Statistics (2008) World Trade Organization. Online available at http://www.gatt.org/trastat_e.html
Once a month we have a company wide birthday celebration. It is where each department goes to the break room in that area and has cake and ice cream to celebrate all of the department birthdays that month. The company provides the cake and ice cream and the birthday employees are given a company sponsored gift certificate for a dinner for two at a local restaurant.
In addition to the birthday day each month we have a potluck each month. Many companies have annual potlucks or holiday parties only, but we believe more frequent affairs help to maintain the bond of friendship among the workers, thereby insuring a higher retention rate. Emplyees who are happy with co-workers and have friends on the job are less apt to seek other employment.
Each month, the first Friday of the month, each department has a department wide potluck. We allow a 90 minute…
Ferris, Gerald, Galang, Carmen (1993) Diversity in the workplace: the human resources management challenges. Human Resource Planning
Harris, Joanne L. (2004) Creativity, communication help employee retention.(News)(human resource management tips) Hotel & Motel Management.
Leinfuss, Emily (1993) Employees empowered by direct access HRMS. (human resource management system) (includes directory of human resource management systems)
The U.S. Department of Commerce reports that services to foreign clients brought Americans $131 billion in 2003. This was in addition to offshore services for U.S. customers, which grew by $7 billion.
The report shows that labor-intensive production and administrative work has grown in low-cost places, while talent sensitive activities have grown in the United States (Malachuk, 2004). This is a major benefit of outsourcing.
Weidenbaum (2005) argues that many American employees are able to keep their jobs because outsourcing allows their companies to stay competitive. Companies in higher-labor-cost economies can stay competitive and thus preserve jobs that remain (Jones, 2005). Many employees as a result will get new or better jobs because the company's financial strength has been enhanced. For example, when a company outsources upgrades for its software system, the domestic demand for basic programmers may decrease, but there will be an increased need for higher-paid systems integrators…
Feldman, W. & Feldman, P. (2005). In or out? Journal of Property Management, 70 (1), Jan/Feb, 32-35.
Jones, D. (2005). Offshoring...benefits the consumer. USA Today, accessed 7/14/06: JOE139485141905.
Kinetz, E. (2005). Trading down. Harper's, 311, July, 62-64.
Malachuk, D. (2004). Offshoring is a two-way street. National Real Estate Investor, 46 (5) May, 76.
While there were students of color in the community, their race was rarely, if ever, a source of conflict. The unfortunate outcome, however is that in being "Color Blind," and believed that everyone is being treated the same. In reality, the outcome does not celebrate the uniqueness of those same ethnic groups. The bigger implication in my work will be the study of the blending of economic classes. Prior to the consolidation of the schools, ainier had numerous rural one to four room schoolhouses. Each school had its own distinct area of the county and each group was resistant to blending with the others. This was an area of generational poverty. Families were land rich and money poor.
In the early 1970's, when Portland General Electric began construction on the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant, there were the beginnings of a local population explosion. The first group to come to…
Bolman, L.G. & Deal, T.E. (2000). Escape from cluelessness: A guide for the organizationally challenged. New York: American Management Association.
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving your thesis. New York: Routledge.
Dennis, C., & Harris, L. (2002). Marketing the e-business. London: Routledge.
Feagin, J.R., Orum, a.M. & Sjoberg, G. (1991). A case for the case study. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
U.S. Women in 1930s-1940s
Women's History and 19th Amendment
On August 26, 1920, Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby quietly signed the Nineteenth Amendment into law. By guaranteeing all Americans the right to vote "irrespective of sex," the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment capped more than half a century's worth of struggle by finally recognizing a woman's right to vote.
The Nineteenth Amendment was an important milestone in women's rights. However, the suffragettes who thought that equality would be achieved through the vote were sadly mistaken.
This paper examines how despite the passage of the right to vote, the structures of sexual and gender-based inequity continued. It examines women's experiences from the Great Depression through the Second World War, giving particular focus on the activism and experiences of poor women and women of color.
Working Women in the 1930s
In the book Gender and Jim Crow, Glenda Gilmore points to a…
Bernikow, Louise. 1997. The American Women's Almanac: An Inspiring and Irreverent Women's History. New York: Berkley.
Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth. 1996. Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Ito, Leslie. 2000. "Japanese-American women and the student relocation movement, 1942-1945."
Frontiers. 21(3). Proquest Database.
Efficiency and Cost of Production
Production efficiency is defined as the level at which a company is no longer capable of producing additional amounts of a commodity or good devoid of lowering the level of production of another product. Efficiency in production is attained and realized when a product is manufactured and formed at its least average total cost. It outlines sufficient production devoid of wasting important resources (Investopedia, 2016). In delineation, economies of scale are the factors that make the average cost of commodity production and manufacture to decrease as the volume of its output rises (The Economist, 2008). Internal economies of scale are cost savings that accrue to a company irrespective of the market, industry or setting in which it operates. On the other hand, external economies of scale are those that profit a company owing to the manner in which its industry is organized (The Economist, 2008).…
The Economist. (2008). Economies of scale and scope. Retrieved 24 August 2016 from: http://www.economist.com/node/12446567
Carlino, G. A. (2012). Economies of scale in manufacturing location: theory and measure (Vol. 12). Springer Science & Business Media.
Investopedia. (2016). Production Efficiency. Retrieved 24 August 2016 from: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/production_efficiency.asp
While all the above three solutions are easily applicable, Leethal Fashion Accessories would find it the most challenging to take action, even more so as this is impeded by geographic restrictions.
5. Control Strategies
Like any other economist will tell you, implementing a text book solution does not guarantee 100% success rates. It as such necessary to base your strategy on the years of academic expertise; but adjust the findings to the unique features of your company, your outsourcing destination and the particularities of your situation. Otherwise put, it is pivotal to integrate the final solution in the context of the technological developments and the diversity raised by the Asia-Pacific context (Bartol, Martin and Tein, 2004).
Given this understanding, it would be first advisable to send delegates from Leethal Fashion Accessories to the Indian manufacturing plants. These would ensure that the apparel is manufactured at the desired standards of quality,…
Bartol, K.M., Martin, D., Tein, M., 2004, Management: A Pacific Rim Focus, 4th Edition, McGraw Hill, ISBN 0074714198
Linstead, S., Fulop, L., Lilley, S., 2004, Management and Organization: A Critical Text, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0333947509
Marcelo, R., 2003, IT Outsourcing to India: A Blessing to Indians but a Problem for Australians? Online Opinion, Australia's E-Journal of Social and Political Debate, http://www.onlineopinion.com.au/view.asp?article=310 last accessed on December 28, 2009
McCray, S., 2008, The Top 10 Problems with Outsourcing Implementations (And How to Overcome Them), TPI, http://www.tpi.net/pdf/papers/Top_10_Problems-with_Outsourcing.pdf last accessed on December 28, 2009
CEOs, however, would most likely argue that they are invaluable to their companies, and are adequately compensated for the work they do. hile the authors of this article conclude that they are not attempting to persuade readers to one position or the other, they do suggest that they are attempting to allow readers to understand the double-sided argument of CEO pay. In accomplishing this goal, they have done well. Both employees who are frustrated at the lifestyle that their CEOs are able to live while they struggle to get by and CEOs who are making hundreds of dollars an hour would be able to understand the rational for each side in this argument. By presenting the argument in this non-biased formula, the authors invite discussion on the topic, a discussion that most likely would not have happened if this type of presentation has been achieved. In allowing for an open…
Athiyaman, Adee, and Parkan, Celik. (June 2008). A Functionalist Framework for Identifying Business Clusters: Applications in Far North Queensland. Australian Journal of Management, 201-218.
Brookfield, Jonathan. (2008). Firm Clustering and Specialization. Small Business Economics. 30(4), p. 405-422.
Edmans, Alex and Gabaix, Xavier, Is CEO Pay Really Inefficient? A Survey of New Optimal Contracting Theories (September 8, 2008). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1280390Jones,Del . (2008).
Female CEOs make more gains in 2007. Retrieved October 11, 2008, from USA Today. Web Site: http://www.usatoday.com/money/companies/management/2008-01-02-women-ceos_N.htm
Till the period up to 11,000 BC every individuals remained Stone Age hunters/gatherers. Nearly that time, the roads of growth of human societies on various continents started to move away in a large scale. (Guns, Germs, and Steel- the Fates of Human Societies: (www.2think.org) During that period, when Stone Age hunter-gatherers comprised the total human population, a big segregation happened in the proportion that the human societies progressed. In Eurasia, several regions of Americas, and Africa, agriculture started to be the existing pattern of livelihood when domestication of aboriginal wild plants and animals were done by the prehistoric planters and herders. Diamond fairly examines the human history on each continent starting from the Ice Age at a proportion that stresses just the widest traversals of people and concepts. However, his assessment is symmetrical: one eye has rather long-term view of the evolutionary biologist, whereas the other eye and his spirit…
Bradford, DeLong, J. Review of Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel. November 1999. Retrieved at http://www.j-bradford-delong.net/Econ_Articles/Reviews/diamond_guns.html. Accessed on 1 February, 2005
Editorial Reviews: Amazon.com. Retrieved at http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/product-description/0393317552/ref=dp_proddesc_0/104-9?%5Fencoding=UTF8&n=283155Accessed on 1 February, 2005
Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. Retrieved at http://www.actionismyreward.com/item-0393317552.shtml . Accessed on 2 February, 2005
Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. Retrieved at http://search.barnesandnoble.com/booksearch/isbnInquiry.asp?isbn=0393317552&itm=1Accessed on 2 February, 2005
Unfortunately, the Natives are still facing many social and economic barriers to success.
In conclusion, "Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee" is a compelling and difficult book to read. It tells the graphic history of the Native Americans, and indicates that their way of life was paramount to their well being, their culture, and their very existence. So many of them attempted to hold on to their old ways even as they were ripped from their lands and moved to strange, uninhabitable places. Their character, their strength, and their dignity comes through in their history, and Brown's book makes them sympathetic, but never undermined their proud determination to survive and thrive. As ed Cloud says in the book, "When the white man comes to my country he leaves a trail of blood behind him" (Brown 103). That blood may have dried, but it will always be there in Native American…
Brown, Dee. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. An Indian History of the American West. New York: Henry Holt & Company, 2001.
Lyman, Stanley David. Wounded Knee 1973: A Personal Account. Eds. Floyd a. O'Neil, June K. Lyman, and Susan McKay. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1993.
Mieder, Wolfgang. "The Only Good Indian is a Dead Indian: History and Meaning of a Proverbial Stereotype." Journal of American Folklore 106.419 (1993): 38-60.
Prucha, Francis Paul. The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.
Digbly International Inc. has been successfully using throughout the year a Broad Cost Leader Strategy, which permits it a presence in both markets. The Broad Cost Leader Strategy implies obtaining a cost competitive advantage over other companies. For Digbly, it is also equivalent to producing highly qualitative sensors for the market, but keeping in mind a cost efficiency which means lower R& D. spending and scale economies where possible.
The company's mission, as expressed by the vision statement, has always been to produce quality at low prices ("high quality at lowest prices"). In this perception, the necessity to offer the market completely new products at double the price does not have an economic justification. It is preferable, in this sense, to reposition the product so that it will reach the customers who are likely to be purchasing a lower priced sensor. Value and low cost are the two…
This increase in seed size probably results from the continuous use of water through irrigation.
The Moche pottery also provides insights into the agriculture of the inland valleys. Nineteen races of maize are found on Moche jars. Nine of these include the Peruvian races Confite Iqueiio, Confite, Morocho, Kculli, Enano, Perla, Mochero, Pagaladroga, Huancavelicano, and Perlilla, which had evolved by a.D. 800. Ten races identified are found today only outside Peru from Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. This dispersal suggests that the prehistoric ranges of these races were wider than is known in present times. In fact, the Moche pottery shows that most maize forms had a wider geographical distribution prehistorically than they have today. Ceramic maize replicas on Moche jars demonstrate evidence that the north coast of Peru was a major center for cultural exchange and connected the distant areas of South America perhaps extending as far as Central…
1996. The Moche, New York: Blackwell Press..
Billman, Brian R.
2002. Irrigation and the Origins of the Southern Moche State on the North Coast of Peru Latin American Antiquity 13(4), 371-400
Business Ethics and Law
Over the last several years, the issue of ethics and legal challenges has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because globalization has created a change in the way firms are interacting with employees. Over the course of time, this has resulted in firms outsourcing jobs to key locations (which have lower labor costs). This has given executives greater amounts of flexibility in determining: what is asked of employees, the kind of benefits that are received and the impact on labor relations. (Franklin, 2001, pp. 7 -- 16)
In the case of Caterpillar, they have been using this kind of strategy to reduce their costs and to begin selling their products in developing markets. This has resulted in the company realizing increasing profit margins and it has helped the firm to aggressively market to consumers in these areas. However, a problem has emerged inside many…
Franklin, S. (2001). Three Strikes. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Miller, P. (2002). Rethinking the Factory. Cultural Values, 6 (2), 91 -- 117.
Orelman, E. (2006). Caterpillar. St. Paul, MN: Motor Books.
Torres, J. (1996). The Corporate Campaign at Caterpillar. Journal of Labor Research, 17 (3), 377 -- 394.
Toyota European Exposure Case
Toyota Motors Europe Manufacturing was the only Toyota subsidiary that was experiencing losses when CEO Hiroshi Okuda requested in January 2002 for a proposal to reduce and eliminate the European losses. Toyoda Shuhei was the newest President of Toyota Motor Europe Manufacturing Toyota at the time, and despite Toyota dominating the Japanese market and the world market for the number of units sold, it was only number eight in sales in Continental Europe. In 2001, only twenty four percent of the automobiles that were sold in the European market were manufactured by Toyota. One of Toyota's biggest mistakes was its lingering of moving its manufacturing for European sales to Europe.
Much like the rest of the world market, Toyota was experiencing financial struggle due to global sales slowing and margins being pressured. The sales in America were greater than those in Europe in 2001, which would…
While Toyota assesses the location of their European manufacturing plants, they should also reassess the efficiency and profitability of the three United Kingdom plants that are already in operation. With Toyota having less automobiles in demand, it might make more financial sense for them to close one or more of the British locations and open locations where the vehicles are in more popular demand. By doing so, the cost of importing or relocating the vehicles could be quite less, counteracting the costs of relocation.
Toyota only has five assembly plants in Europe: One in Turkey, one in Portugal, and three in the United Kingdom. Because the European market has responded well to Toyota's Yaris, which sold over 180,000 units in 2000, the European manufacturing plants should focus on this sole vehicle and Toyota's other small, gas efficient vehicles. This way, costs are cut for Toyota and the customer alike, as the product on demand does not require import or a currency exchange rate between the yen and the euro.
With the suffering economy, Toyota experienced losses along with many other companies from varying industries. With its European market creating losses rather than generating profits, Toyota had to reassess its European market. Waiting so long to move its manufacturing of the Yaris to Europe rather than initiating its beginning there caused many financial losses to Toyota because of the exchange rate between the euro and the yen. Proving the potential of the British pound joining the European Monetary Union would not be likely nor realistically beneficial for Toyota's profit margin. In order to generate the most profit possible, Toyota should reassess the locations of its European plants to being more spread out among all of Europe. With the plants that remain, Toyota should focus on producing small, gas efficient vehicles that the European market is appealed to. By doing so, Toyota Motors Europe Manufacturing should experience a longer term, increasing profit margin.
These are stated to be the reason that these systems "lend themselves to investigation using simulation methodology." (ienstock, 1996) Simulation is stated to offer an alternative "for understanding these systems, since experimenting with the actual systems would be too costly." (ienstock, 1996) Furthermore, simulation is stated to facilitate the "examination of dynamic processes or systems over time by allowing the compression of real time." (ienstock, 1996) ienstock states that the methods for adjusting the sample size 'n' in simulation studies are as follows:
(1) simulation runs for each experimental condition (each cell) may be replicated 'n' times;
(2) observation of 'n' subintervals of the simulation of an experimental condition may be increased by decreasing the length of the subintervals; or (3) the simulation of an experimental condition may be continued for a longer period of time, thereby increasing the number of subintervals (i.e. The sample size). (ienstock, 1996)…
Bienstock, Carol C. (1996) Sample Size Determination in Logistics Simulations. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management. Vol. 26. No. 2, 1996. MCB University Press.
Chandra, Pankaj and Fisher, Marshall L. (nd) Coordination of Production and Distribution Planning. DecisionCraft Analytics. No. 108.
Chang, Yoon and Makatsoris, Harris (nd) Supply Chain Modeling Using Simulation. Institute for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge. International Journal of Simulation. Vol. 2, No.1
Cohen, Morris a. And Lee, Hau L. (1987) Strategic Analysis of Integrated Production Distribution Systems: Models and Methods. Operations Research. Vol. 36. No.2 March-April 1988.
TVA Company Profile
The TVA is a self-financed government agency with approximately 13,000 employees, as of 2002 estimates.
It realized a $6.99 billion sales from hydroelectric power generation, fossil fuel, electric power generation, nuclear power generation, other electric power generation, electric bulk power transmission and control and electric power distribution. Its mission is to bring prosperity to the Tennessee Valley through excellent business performance and public service. These are to be achieved by supplying low-cost but reliable power, maintaining a thriving River, and fostering economic growth throughout the southeaster region, traversing 7 States. At the peak of its growth, TVA was serving more than 8 million users in more than 80,000 square miles of region
The TVA's integrated management of water resources, combined with its exceptional institutional capacity enabled it to lift one of the poorest regions in the U.S. into a strong economy and healthy environment today.
Findley, M. And Alavian, V. (2000). Tennessee Valley authority experiment. Case Study
in Integrated Water Resource Management. USAID Water Team: United States
Agency for International Development. Retrieved on November 11, 2010 from http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/environment/water/case_studies/tva.basin.pdf
Funding Universe (2010). Tennessee Valley Authority: company profile.
Environmental Effects on Species Habitats in the Southern California Mountains
Southern California is not for everybody. "Some people view the climate and laid-back lifestyle with longing. Others perceive the area, and its inhabitants, as a little too far over the edge" (Hutchings 2001:4D-Z). hile the region may not appeal to all types of humans, it does attract a wide range of species who make their home in the mountainous areas of Southern California. In fact, Southern California is dotted with several mountain ranges, including the San Gabriel, San Bernardino, San Jacinto, San Bruno, Santa Rosa, Cuyamaca, the Palomar Mountains and even the Chocolate Mountains (Havert, Gray, Adams & Gray 1996). One of the most biodiverse and well-studied of these ranges is San Gabriel (ake 1996). This paper will provide an overview of the ecosystems in these mountain ranges in general with an emphasis on the San Gabriel mountain range in…
Adams, Jonathan S., Lynn S. Kutner and Bruce A. Stein, eds. Precious Heritage: The Status of Biodiversity in the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Baur, Donald C. And Karen L. Donovan. The No Surprises Policy: Contracts 101 Meets the Endangered Species Act. Environmental Law, 27(3):767-90.
California's Plants and Animals. (November 24, 2003). Habitat Conservation Planning Branch, California Department of Fish and Game. Available: http://www.dfg.ca.gov/hcpb/species/lists.shtml.
Dasmann, Raymond F. (2004). Habitat Conservation. In Encyclopedia Britannica.com [premium service].
Tea was the third most important commercial product, and was also sold to the mainland. Research indicates that the Japanese, as well as other foreign powers, deeply coveted in Taiwan's wealth (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).
In 1886 Taiwan's defenses against foreign aggression were modernized, the government implemented tax reforms to make Taiwan financially independent, and educated its indigenous peoples. A general trade office was established to encourage foreign trade, and Western-style schools were set up (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).When Taiwan was ceded to Japan in 1895 under the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, the locals declared independence on May 25, 1895, and formed the Democratic Taiwan Nation to resist the Japanese take-over. A total of 7,000 Chinese soldiers were killed in the conflict and civilian casualties numbered in the thousands (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).These events also assisted in the creation…
Ballantine, Joseph. Formosa: A Problem for United States Foreign Policy. Washington DC: Brookings Institution, 1952.
Chih-ming, Ka. Japanese Colonialism in Taiwan: Land Tenure, Development, and Dependency, 1845-1945. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, Inc., 1995.
Government Information Office in Taiwan. "History of Taiwan." Taiwan.com. 2005.
Taiwan.com. 10 June 2005 http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html.
Companies such as General Motors are an ideal historical example of an organization which has literally created and sustained towns in order to power its manufacturing operations, such as the notorious center of production which once was Flynt, Michigan. With the closure of its major plants in the 1980s, as per the pattern whereby such nations moved operations to cheaper markets, Flynt and towns just like it have descended into despair, poverty, crime and an outright sense of having been birthed, fostered and subsequently abandoned to a place with no capacity to reinvent itself. As a microcosm of America, this helps to underscore what our reading has been largely about. Namely, the ethical imperatives of this questions are deeply relegated by more practical questions about the maintenance of the American economy as a whole. Situations like Flynt and the knitting mill are indicative of a corporate callousness and a humanitarian…
While Cadbury was initially vulnerable resulting in this take over, Kraft had to borrow heavily to afford the final price of 850p per share. In the coming months and years, Kraft will have to balance against recovering the money put into this acquisition (Wiggins, 2010). A risk, many British politicians and citizens alike fear will mean the end of their signature chocolate in an effort by Kraft to increase their profit margin quickly.
Case Study 2: Discussion
The Kraft acquisition of Cadbury is a corporate negotiation making headlines across the world both for the magnitude of the deal and the incredible hostility which marked the negotiations prior to the final signing of the agreement. Cadbury wound up in a financially vulnerable position after several strategically bold maneuvers ultimately resulted in a poor stock showing for the newly de- merged Dr. Pepper Snapple drinks company, and the reliance of Cadbury on…
1. "Exxon, Mobil in $80B deal." CNN Money official site. CNN, 1 Dec. 1998.
2. Beaudin, Guy. "Kraft- Cadbury: Making Acquisitions Work." BusinessWeek. 9 Feb. 2010.
3. "Mannesmann seals deal." CNN Money official site. CNN, 3 Feb. 2000.
4. "$58B bank deal set: J.P. Morgan agrees to buy Bank One in a deal that would combine two of the nation's biggest banks." CNN Money.com. 15 Jan 2004.
Japanisation in the United Kingdom:
Experiences From the Car Industry
This report aims to analyze and compare the systems of power and control in the Japanese and western automobile manufacturing industries. The method was to use a wide range of theory and to support the analysis. The world has become an extremely competitive global economic battle ground. Automobile manufactures from both the east and the west continue to search for opportunities that will allow them to strategically reduce overhead but not affect market share or profitability. Consider that In the 1990's the solution was to literally cut or reduce the labor force and therefore reduce inherent costs of labor. The buzz words of the time were 'they just laid off X amount ... ', or 'they are downsizing ... ' These terms were regulars on the media circuit or on the front page of the morning's business section. These phrases…
Corbett, Brian (2002). Southern hospitality. Ward's Auto World, August.
"Studs Terkel's: The Good ar
In The Good ar Terkel presents the compelling, the bad, and the ugly memories of orld ar II from a view of forty years of after the events. No matter how horrendous the recollections are, comparatively only a few of the interviewees said that if the adventure never happened that they would be better off. It was a lively and determinative involvement in their lives. Even though 400,000 Americans died, the United States itself was not assaulted again after Pearl Harbor, the economy did begin to develop and there was a fresh contemporary feeling of humanity power that revitalized the nation.
A lot of women and Black Americans faced new liberties in the post war nation, but happy life following orld ar II was stained by the danger of the could be nuclear. Studs Terkel interviewed over 120 people by inquiring them to tell…
Terkel, S. (1997). The Good War: An Oral History of World War II. Boston: New Press.
"Executive order 9066" Franklin Delano Roosevelt. February 19, 1942. accessed from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=74#
Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, Personal Justice
Denied. (Washington, D.C.: The Civil Liberties Public Education Fund, 1997),
The market structure of Turkey is quite different from that of the UK. The cultural composition of Turkey is not a guarantee of making proportional sales. The reasons for the low performance of the company's product could as well reverberate in Turkey. If the UK market that the company is accustomed to has failed to yield expected returns, the viability of the company's product in Turkey is doubtful. However, considering the expectation of government grants that will offset the company's tax liability; the venture assumes a would-be profit generator. The company cannot bank on this tax relief as a basis to carry on with the proposed relocation to Turkey. The reason for that being that the amount accruable from the tax relief is on a portion of the entire expenditure of the company. The long run effect of this is still profitable to the company.
Based on the outlay of…
Adekola, a.; Korsakiene, R.; Tvaronaviciene, M. 2008. Approach to innovative activities by Lithuanian companies in the current conditions of development, Technological and Economic Development of Economy 14(4): 595-612. doi:10.3846/1392-8619.2008.14.595-611
Balkyte, a.; Tvaronaviciene, M. 2010. Perception of competitiveness in the context of sustainable development: facets of "Sustainable competitiveness," Journal of Business Economics and Management 11(2): 341-365. doi:10.3846/jbem.2010.17
Black, F (1976). "The Dividend Puzzle,"Journal of Portfolio Management 2, 5-8.
Carland, Jim, and JoAnn Carland (1998). Small Business Management: Tools for Success, Second Edition, Houston, TX, Dame Publications, Inc. p. 444.
In other respects, however, the evidence does not readily conform to theoretical predictions. For example, if gross job turnover is taken as a rough proxy for labor market flexibility -- and since stringent EPL reduces both hiring and firing -- it is quite surprising to find that job turnover rates are very loosely related to EPL rankings. Most remarkably, not only are the estimates for Italy and France, at 21 and 24 per cent respectively, very high in absolute terms (one in every five jobs is either created or destroyed each year), but they are also extremely close to the estimates for the United States and Canada despite the much heavier regulation of dismissals in the European labor markets." (Bertola, Boeri, & Cazes, 2000)
Once the company settled into the Canadian market they faced the new challenges regarding labor. The Canadian business philosophy continued to be pro-union. In Canada, Wal-Mart…
Bertola, Giuseppe, Boeri, Tito, & Cazes, Sandrine (2000). Employment Protection in Industrialized Countries: The Case for New Indicators. International Labour Review, Vol. 139.
Chicago Bureau Chief Weber (2002, July). The Lingering Lessons of Andersen's Fall. Business Week Online. Retrieved on January 18, 2005, at http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/02_26/b3789017.htm
Clements, Jonathan. "Wipe Those Bear Market Worries Away." The Wall Street Journal [New York] 6 Mar. 2001. Retrieved on January 18, 2005, from http://www.s-t.com/daily/03-01/03-11-01/b04bu056.htm .
Cutlip, Scott M. The Unseen Power: Public Relations, a History. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates, 1964.
Air pollution pertains to substances and gases in the air that threaten health and life. Among these are pollutants and irritants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide; particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), toxic substances and some natural substances, like pollen. ut most of the pollution comes from the by-products of industrialization - fossil fuel combustion, transportation, transportation, power plant emissions and those from other industrial processes. The burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity alone is the greatest source of air pollution in the U.S.A. These outdoor pollutants can undermine health and cause environmental disturbances, such as acid rain, and are toxic.
Studies show that we now spend more than 90% of our lives inside buildings and other constructed environments. ecause of this, such structures - including homes and office buildings - are constructed with energy efficiency and comfort foremost in mind. The installation of central heating,…
1. Alpha nutrition Programs. Indoor Air-More Contaminated Than Outdoor Air?
2. Ammann, Harriet M. Is Indoor Mold Contamination a Threat to Health?
Office of Environmental Health Assessments, Washington State Department of Health
If this is possible, it would be useful and relevant to correlate the financial results of each year with the inflation levels. Generally, if the evolution is a positive one and the results of the foreign company increased, then it can be formed an intermediary conclusion that the expatriates are effective in generating financial results.
Yet, in order to make the final decision and assess the very effectiveness of the remuneration of the expatriates, it is necessary to confront the costs with the expatriates with the benefits they generated for the company (not for the foreign plant, but for the multinational parent organization). Having already created the tables with the costs and the benefits, it is now easy to compare the final results.
If the benefits are higher than the costs, it can be argued that the effectiveness of the expatriates' remunerations is increased, whereas if the costs are higher,…
Armstrong, M., Murlis, H., 2007, Reward Management: A handbook of remuneration strategy and practice, 5th Edition, Kogan Page Publishers, ISBN 0749449861
Coleman, P., 2008, The philosophy of expatriate pay, Search Warp, http://searchwarp.com/swa327576.htm last accessed on January 19, 2010
Stroh, L.K., Black, J.S., Gregersen, H.B., 2005, International assignments: an integration of strategy, research and practice, Routledge, ISBN 080585049X
Augusta Canal. There are eight references used for this paper.
Augusta, Georgia has been a thriving textile center for over a hundred years. It is interesting to look at the history of the Augusta Canal, as well as its influence in the past and present.
Southerners during the 1830's and 1840's were concerned that the cotton states were dependent on the industrialization of the Northern states financially, and looked for ways to make their cities prosperous. In "Augusta, Georgia, the city financed the construction of one of the earliest power and transportation canals in the South, which created an industrial base still important to the area's economy (augustacanal.com/haer-report.html).
hile construction did not actually begin until 1845, the concept of "harnessing the Savannah River and building a power canal had been considered as early as 1828, when the Augusta editor to the Georgia Courier debated the possibility of a…
Augusta Canal. (accessed 10 April 2004).
Bankston, John. Financial Woes Close Augusta, Ga.-Area Textile Plant.
The Augusta Chronicle, Ga. Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News. (2001): 05 May.
This has also introduced salt water fish and marine life that can exist in fresh water, the many forms of Jellyfish being one of several who have made their way nearly a hundred miles inland on the river (Salazar, 2000). If the dam had not been built the influx of marine life from the ocean would not have occurred, which would have led to a greater stabilization of the fish ecosystem. The many benefits of a fish and water-based ecosystems matter more in countries with lower per capita incomes where the waters are fished for regularly meals instead of for sport. In China, the river is the equivalent of the western world's grocery store. Creating such a huge disruption to the river has in effect contaminated the "grocery store" for millions of residents who rely on the fish for a source of food along the river's bans. Not only has…
Henry C. Alberts, Renee M. Alberts, Mitchel F. Bloom, a. Diane LaFlamme, & Satu Teerikangas. (2004). The Three Gorges Dam Project from a systems viewpoint. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 21(6), 585.
Joanna Gail Salazar. (2000). Damming the child of the ocean: The three Gorges project. Journal of Environment & Development, 9(2), 160-174.
Manik Suri. (2003). A river in peril: The waters rise at Three Gorges. Harvard International Review, 25(3), 10-11.
Hence, all of these festivals, occasions and other rituals that indigenous Taiwanese celebrated prove that the Indigenous Taiwanese were full of life and were true cultural people who celebrated all their occasions with enthusiasm and ebullience.
Languages: Official language of Taiwan is Mandarin though other local languages were also spoken in originally indifferent tribes. Mandarin is the language that is used for everyday communication in Taiwan but the origin of Mandarin started from Ching dynasty. Mandarin and other languages that were spoken in Taiwan were basically derived from Chinese language families. Indigenous people had their own languages which have survived to date. "From Taiwan to New Zealand and Madagascar to Easter Island, the Austronesian language family is made up of more than a thousand languages and dialects. (Estimates vary from 900-1200 according to how dialects are distinguished from languages)" (Austronesian Expansion).
Other languages that were spoken in Taiwan included Halo…
Austronesian Expansion - Taiwan 4,000 BC' Retrieved from Website: http://www.ualberta.ca/~vmitchel/rev3.html
Taiwan Aboriginals' Retrieved from Website: http://www.tacp.gov.tw/ENGLISH/INTRO/nine/nine.htm
Taiwan Year Book' Retrieved from Website: http://www.gio.gov.tw/taiwan-website/5-gp/yearbook/02PeopleandLanguage.htm
The other side of this is that the companies have to spend finances in areas of language training or job training when they outsource. However, over the years, many U.S.-based companies haven't been discouraged by these additional costs because the overall costs of outsourcing with the job training session and language teaching and outplacement requirements are still far less when compared to the costs that they would have to endure when they don't outsource. If the overall costs of outsourcing was even marginally close to the costs on domestic hiring then there is a high probability that the overall right of firing of the employers would not be employed as much as it ahs been in the past. Of the negative perception of using the firing right at such an extensive level does create negative images which the company has to spend money to correct and rebuild into positive images…
Poor Payers to a Degree," the Economist, June 10, 2004.
David Cay Johnston. "How Offshore Havens Helped Enron Escape Taxes." New York Times. January 18, 2002.
David Cay Johnston. "Tax Inquiries Fall as Cheating Increases." New York Times. April 14, 2003.
Duncan Campbell. "Havens that Have Become a Tax on the World's Poor." Guardian. September 21, 2004.
Damns on Wildlife and the Environment
Background to Dams and Levees - One of the issues resulting from civilization and urbanization is that most of the places humans chose to locate, for reasons of convenience, agriculture, transportation, and economic independence, have been near water. Dams provide hydroelectric power, help control floods, and make rivers navigable. Levees are quite similar to dams in their purpose, although they are primarily build to restrict water in times of high flow -- and for the majority of time are not under water. Per capita, floods are the most destructive and frequent of Mother Nature's natural disasters. In the last 50-60 years, in fact, the number and severity of flooding has worsened globally. Several reasons have contributed to this: global warming and worsening of storm activity; the deforestation and paving of natural watersheds; and more people living and working on known flood-plains. However, many scholars…
Dams Solution. (2010). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved from: http://www.fws.gov/r5crc/Habitat/damsolutions.html
Berga, L. (2006). Dams and Reservoirs, Societies and Environment in the 21st Century, Volume 1. New York: Taylor and Francis.
Chiras, D. (2010). Environmental Science. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Drijiver, C. (1986). Taming the Floods: Environmental Aspects of Floodplain Development in Africa. Nature and Resources. 22 (4): Retrieved from: http://openagricola.nal.usda.gov/Record/IND87078020