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Additionally, plants can house animals or provide prey animals with cover and camouflage to prevent them from being over-hunted. They also help create a more sustainable ecosystem. The presence of plants moderates the temperature and mitigates the effects of the wind and sun. The plants in the rainforest keep the rainfall patterns in balance with the rest of the earth's ecosystem ("The Biology of Plants," Missouri Botanical Gardens, 2009).
Even when plants are not directly consumed for food, they can help sustain human beings. Plants hold the soil together and guard against erosion. Plant compost acts as fertilizer for the soil. Plants can be used as medicine in the form of herbs and other medicinal plant derivatives, or as products in the form of rubber, burlap, and cotton. Plants were and are the first source of warmth -- wood is necessary to heat an old-fashioned stove and to build a…
"The Biology of Plants." Missouri Botanical Gardens. November 15, 2009.
Farabee, M.J. "Photosynthesis." Online Biology Book. June 17, 2007. November 15, 2009.
(3) Macon plant has to dispose 42 bbl of waste to Duras.
(4) Selma plant has to dispose 1 bbl of waste to White water and 52 bbl to Los Canos
(5) Columbus plant has to dispose 29 bbl of waste to Whitewater
(6) Allentown plant has to dispose 28 bbl of waste to Los Canos and 10 bbl to Duras
The total minimum cost involved in shipping waste directly from the 6 plants to the 3 waste disposable sites is $2,822.
NB: Click on the excel object sheet below and scroll up and/or down to view all numbers
The results from excel show that to minimize transshipment costs,
(1) Kingport plant has to drop off 19 bbl of its of waste at Macon and ship 16 bbl directly to Los Canos
(2) Danville plant has to dispose 26 bbl of waste directly to Duras.
(3) Macon plant…
Bernard W. Taylor, III (2007). Introduction to Management Science.
David Ray Anderson, Dennis J. Sweeney, Thomas A. Williams, R. Kipp Martin (2007). An introduction to management science: quantitative approaches to decision making.
Plants and Humans
Plants, one of the six taxonomic Kingdoms of different life forms generally accepted throughout the United States, play an important role in the existence of other life forms such as animals. In fact, plants are so important for life on planet Earth that humans could not exist without plants. Photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert sunlight and carbon dioxide into oxygen and water, is responsible for the creation of the Earth's atmosphere; and the life forms that have evolved in it. In addition to creating the environment, plants also maintain that environment by constantly converting carbon dioxide into the oxygen necessary for human survival. Plants also provide the food that is necessary for humans to survive, as well as providing the basis for the survival of other species that are also essential to human survival. In short, plants are indispensable to the human race and people…
Berg, Linda. (2008). Introductory Botany: Plants, People, and the Environment.
Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education. Print.
Ke, Bacon. (2003). Photosynthesis: Photobiochemistry and Photobiophysics. New York:
Kluwer Academic Publishers. Print.
Disease can also be a worry with Hostas. They are susceptible to certain plant viruses, and these can be serious. Usually, the only cure is to identify and destroy the infected plant before it infects others in the garden. Leaves can also be damaged by chemicals, cold or frost, or by too much sun, resulting in sunburn (Heinke and Martin). As more Hostas are developed, it seems many of these problems will be addressed and Hostas will become even more trouble-free to grow and maintain.
In conclusion, Hostas are the most popular plant in landscaping today. They are beautiful, offer thousands of unique varieties, and are relatively simple for even a beginning gardener to grow and maintain. It is easy to see why Hosta fanciers are so enamored of the plant. The diversity, size, and adaptability of Hostas make them perfect for just about any garden, no matter where it…
Editors. "Hosta Farm." Hostafarm.com. 2007. 14 May 2007. http://www.hostafarm.com/
Editors. "The American Hosta Society." Hosta.org. 2007. 14 May 2007. http://www.hosta.org/index.htm
Heinke, Gretchen and Martin, Jane. "Growing Hostas." Ohio State University. 2001. 14 May 2007. http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/1000/1239.html
Pollock, Dr. Warren. "Hostas in North America." GardenWeb.com. 1996. 14 May 2007. http://www.gardenweb.com/cyberplt/people/pollock.html
People without Plants
When a person goes into the rainforest or the ocean, that person can readily notice that the rainforest and the ocean are teeming with life. An observer of these places will also notice how every form of life works together to sustain the environment. Though human beings build artificial environments such as cities, humans are a part of the ecosystem on Earth, and they participate in this co-dependency on other forms of life to survive as well as to sustain the environment. A form of life that humans are dependent on are plants. Without plants, human beings would have no air to breathe and their respiratory systems would fail. There would exist no human civilizations without oxygen. Perhaps there would be other forms of life in the place of humanity that breathed another gas, but humanity would not exist as we know it today were it…
Pimental, P., Wilson, C., McCullum, C., Huang, R., Dwen, P., Flack, J., Saltman, T., & Cliff, B. (1997) "Economic and Environmental Benefits of Biodiversity."BioScience, 47(11), 747 -- 757.
Raskin, I., Ribnicky, D.M., Komarnytsky, S., Ilic, N., Poulev, A., Borisjuk, N., Brinker, A., Moreno, D.A., Ripoli, C., Yakoby, N., O'Neal, J.M., Cornwell, T., Pastor, I., & Fridlender, B. (2002) "Plants & Human Health in the 21st Century." TRENDS in Biotechnology, 20(12), 522 -- 531.
Botany, te study of plants, can be a tedious subject given te numerous varieties of plants tat are available to study, along wit teir similarities, and redundancy. However, a brigt spot in te plant community is te carnivorous plants, te meat-eaters - te gory plants tat science fiction novels are made about. Tere are almost 600 species of tese plants tat eat meat growing in te wild, and tese plants not only ave an intimidating look, but some species can eat "frogs, birds or even small monkeys" (Stiefel 65).
Wat Makes Carnivorous Plants Different From Regular Plants?
Carnivorous plants are not all tat different from regular plants. Te posses te abilities to attract insects (or oter prey), capture tem, kill tem, digest tem, and absorb te nutrients. Noncarnivorous plants ave flowers tat attract insects (tink bees) and some even can capture insects; some flowers ave te toxic compounds…
http://www.sarracenia.com/faq.html . Accessed 11/17/02
Stiefel, Chana. "Meat-Eating Plants." Science World. 220 March 2000, pp. 65-66
Stone, Doris. The Lives of Plants. New York, New York: Scribner & Sons. 1983, 304 pages.
Narcotic plants and stimulants have been widely used in North as well as outh America even before the discovery, 'not only for the purpose of exhilaration or intoxication, but also in connection with the practice of necromancy and in religious rituals and ceremonies accompanying the initiation of boys into the status of manhood.'(afford, 1916: Pg: 387, P.I) Narcotic plants belong to those categories of plants called Psychedelic or Hallucinogenic plants. The term 'narcotic' indicates the presence of certain chemical compounds in the plant compounds that causes the hallucinating effect. Narcotics that cause hallucinations are known by various names depending on its effects - hallucinogens being hallucination generators, psychotomimetics functioning as psychosis mimickers, psychotaraxics being mind disturbers, and psychedelics being mind manifesters.
Hallucinogenic" is the term most often used in the psychiatric research literature for these substances. (Mesner, 1998: Pg: 2, p. I) The term hallucinogens are generally used to describe…
Safford E. William, Narcotic Plants and Stimulants of the Ancient Americans, Annual Reports of the Smithonian Institute, Pg. 387, p: I, 1916
Shultes, Richard Evans, Hallucinogenic Plants, Western Publishing Company, Inc., New York. Pg 5, p: III, 1976
Shew, Joel Tobacco: Its History, Nature, and Effects on the Body and Mind, (Stoke, England:G. Turner Pub Co, Pg: 16, p:II, 1849
relationship humans plants. How plants acquire carbon dioxide release oxygen? For purposes plants acquire carbon dioxide? Do a plant survive air tight box plant needed a source oxygen?.
Why there would be no people without plants
The connection between humans and nature has been a primordial one, actively discussed not only in life sciences but also in literature. Ever since the start of the evolutionary process plants have been an incredible source for food, medicine and even shelter, however the greatest benefit plants have given the human race is oxygen.
Photosynthesis is the process that converts energy in sunlight to chemical forms of energy, which can be used by biological systems. This procedure is carried out by plants and bacteria; a higher form of photosynthesis is completed by algae, cyanobacteria and their relatives (notably known for the photosynthesis in the oceanic ecosystem). These organisms covert CO2 to organic material by…
Vermaas, W. (1998). An introduction to photosynthesis and its applications. The world and I, Nr. 3, p. 158-165
Wackernagel, M. And Rees, W. (1996). Our ecological footprint: reducing human impact on the earth. Gabriola Island, Canada, New Society Publishers
Whitmarsh, J and Govindjee, (1995). Photosynthesis. Encyclopedia of applied physics, Vol. 13, p. 513-532
stimuli can affect plant growth rates, robustness, flowering, and even fruit production. We also know that nitrogen is an important part of plant development, and contributes significantly to the thickness, leaf count, and stem width in most plants. A plant that is nitrogen deficient is generally small and develops slowly because it lacks the nitrogen necessary to manufacture adequate structure and genetic materials. This could leave the structure pale green, because it lacks adequate chlorophyll. On the other hand some plants may grow rapidly when supplied with excessive nitrogen. They develop protoplasm faster than they can build sufficient supporting materials in cell walls. The plant may grow weaker and be prone to more pathogens or injuries while developing smaller fruits or fruits with less seeds (Foyer and Zhang, eds. 2010).
Background- Coffee grounds have long been known to increase compost value and act as a fertilizer in plants. In fact,…
Chalker-Scott, L. (Winter 2009). Coffee Grounds -- Will they Perk Up Plants?
Master Gardener. Cited in: http://www.puyallup.wsu.edu/~linda%20chalker-scott/horticultural%20myths_files/Myths/Coffee%20grounds.pdf
Foyer, C. And Zhang, H., eds. (2010). Nitrogen Metabolism in Plants. Annual Review of Plants, Volume 42. New York: John Wiley.
The research showed that medicinal plants, commonly referred to as medicinal herbs, have been used by humankind for thousands of years for virtually every type of misery, real or imagined. The research also showed that the resurgence of interest in medicinal plants today relates not only to their potential for providing new medicine preparations, but the fact that there is an enormous amount of money involved as well, with little or none of it being returned by the multinational pharmaceutical companies to the indigenous peoples who depend on these plant materials as a primary source of medicine. In the final analysis, the ancient shamans, witchdoctors and medicine men around the world were clearly on the right track when they observed how these plants affected sick animals, and their trials and efforts at identifying those plants with the most efficacious qualities has provided mankind today with a cornucopia of medicines…
Arntzen, Charles J. (1997). "Edible Vaccines." Public Health Reports, 112(3):190.
Changeux, Jean-Pierre. (1998). "Drug Use and Abuse." Daedalus, 127(2):145.
Changkija, Sapu. (2000). "Folk Medicinal Plants of the Nagas in India." Asian Folklore Studies, 58(1):205.
Crellin, John K. And Jane Philpott. Trying to Give Ease: Tommie Bass and the Story of Herbal Medicine. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1990.
Shoot architecture enhances photosynthesis largely by maximizing the ability of the plant to get sunlight. Obviously light is the crucial resource in photosynthesis, but different plants obtain the resource in different ways. For example, the basic arrangement of leaves on the plant stem (known as "phyllotaxy") is different for every species of plant -- however, in all of these cases the plant has evolved so that the emergence of leaves does not block the available light for leaves above or below. The evolutionary reason for this should be obvious: as leaves exist purely to facilitate photosynthesis, the production of leaves that underperform due to inadequate access to sunlight would be a waste of the plant's resources. We can also see the evolutionary imperative expressed in leaf size: in cold or dry environments without much access to liquid water, the leaf size is drastically shrunken in an attempt to…
earth's rotation affect plant growth?
The seasons of the year are produced by the tilt of the axis of the Earth. The earth's tilt on its axis causes the hours of daylight to shorten during the cooler months of the year. This affects the changing of the seasons and indirectly affects plant growth, as a plant's ability to survive and flourish will depend on the area where it is located and the relative heat or chill of that region and the region's exposure to sunlight. ("ill the equinoxes and solstices switch places in 13,000 years because of the precession of the Earth's rotation axis?" 2005) "Summer in the northern hemisphere occurs at the same time as winter in the south, and vice-versa." ("hat Causes the Seasons?" 2005) The precession of the equinoxes of the Earth is a motion that causes the axis of the Earth's rotation to remain fixed at…
"Does the Earth's magnetic field daily changes affect plant germination and growth?" (2005) Ask a Space Scientist. NASA. Retrieved 16 Oct 2005 at http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/ask/a11575.html
'What Causes the Seasons?" (2005) Windows to the Universe. Retrieved 16 Oct 2005 at http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/the_universe/uts/seasons1.html
'Will the equinoxes and solstices switch places in 13,000 years because of the precession of the Earth's rotation axis?" (2005) Ask a Space Scientist. NASA. Retrieved 16 Oct 2005 at 2005 http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/ask/q1795.html
Strategic Defense in the Plant Kingdom
The purpose of this literature review is to detail the different ways plants protect themselves from predators. Knowledge of plant defenses can help boost understanding of more effective means of minimizing pesticide and herbicide use in agriculture or alternatively, to help develop more effective and targeted chemical pesticides and herbicides. Understanding plant defenses requires knowledge of plant biology and their role in their respective ecosystems. Moreover, their defenses ensure the survival not only of individual plants, but of whole ecosystems.
Plants have no immune system, in the same way animals do (Freeman & Beattie, 2008). Instead, they boast "a stunning array of structural, chemical, and protein-based defenses designed to detect invading organisms and stop them before they are able to cause extensive damage," (p. 1). The defenses plants have evolved to ward off predators can be loosely grouped into three categories: surface-based protections…
Freeman, B.C. & Beattie, G.A. (2008). An overview of plant defenses against pathogens and herbivores. The Plant Health Instructor. Retrieved online: http://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/intropp/topics/Pages/OverviewOfPlantDiseases.aspx
Pare, P.W. & Tumlinson, J.H. (1999). Plant volatiles as a defense against insect herbivores. Plant Physiology 121(2).
"Plant Defense Against Being Eaten," (n.d). Science Daily. Retrieved online: http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/p/plant_defense_against_herbivory.htm
Schardl, C.L. (2002). Plant defenses against herbivore and insect attack. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Retrieved online: http://rubisco.ugr.es/fisiofar/pagwebinmalcb/contenidos/Tema29/defensa_contra_herbivoros.pdf
This physiological process allows plants to make their own food. Being able to make their own food through the process of photosynthesis, plants, unlike animals, no longer need to feed on other organisms in order to exist and survive. And since sunlight is required for this essential physiological process to occur, sunlight therefore makes the plants stronger.
Through the physiological process of photosynthesis, plants are able to release oxygen, the presence of which guarantees that existence of life on earth will continue. According to Hackel, the oxygen in the earth's atmosphere was released over 3,500 million years ago through plant photosynthesis and "without plants, there would be no oxygen in the earth's atmosphere." (22) The sun not only makes plants stronger, it also helps ensure that life on this planet continues.
Sunlight is also required by some plants in order to germinate. The sun helps the seeds of plants to…
Hackel, Hans. "Why Plants Need Sunlight." Courier. February 2004. 13 July 2009 < http://www.agrocourier.com/bayer/cropscience/cscms.nsf/id/Plasun_Agro/$file/plants_sunlight.pdf >.
Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydro Power Plant Disaster
Sayano -- Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station is geographically located on the Yenisei iver, near Sayanogorsk in Khakassia, ussia. It was the largest hydro electrical power plant in ussian and sixth largest hydro electrical power station in the world, until the accident has occurred. The plant was operated by usHydro, which was established in December 2004 during ussia's privatization movement, however about 60% of its shares are owned by ussian government. The milestone of usHydro operation was that it has recorded the satiation's all-time highest electricity output in 24 hours (usHydro, July 2009). usHydro has 55 hydro plants with the installed capacity of 25.4 GW. The annual energy generation recorded by Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station was about 23.4 TWh, which was almost one-quarter of that produced by usHydro's resources for the Unified Energy Systems of ussia and Siberia. The major consumer of the plant…
Akin, Melissa (August 2009). Russia markets ignore Chechen threat. Reuters.
Retrieved 15th Sept 2011.
Boyko, A. & Popov, S. (2010) Investigating the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydro
Japan abolishes current nuclear plant Fukushima Crisis. What effects immediately long-term Japan world a case stop operation of nuclear power plants.
As a brief description, Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power plant was an operating energy facility in Japan particularly in the Fukushima prefecture or province. The plant was established in 1971, which occupied a total of 3.5-kilometer site that makes it as one of the largest nuclear power plants in the world by land area. This nuclear power plant was very useful in the Japanese energy regulation system because it has an economical generation costs that is more reliable than using hydroelectric power sources from dams and streams. It is operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company that is the largest operating agency around Japan as claimed by Arnold (2010).
On March 11, 2011, a powerful earthquake hit the northeastern portion of Japan with an epicenter just off the coast of Fukushima…
Arnold, Wesley., 2010. Nuclear Power Plant facilities. New York: McGraw Hill, 78-97.
Cousins, C., (2011). Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. Retrieved from: http://www.scj.go.jp/ja/info/jishin/pdf/t-110405-3e.pdf .
Fraser, Scotty., 2009. Environmental Issues: Natural Disasters. Alexandria: Tim and Gale Publishing, 35-38.
Gilbert, L.F., 2011. Application of non-conventional and renewable energy sources. Accessed at: http://www.em-ea.org/Guide%20Books/book-4/4.12App%20of%20Non%20conventional.pdf.
Family Background Plant, Breeding History Plan
isconsin fast plants were developed in the mid-1980's by professor Paul illiams as a way of enabling individuals to study the life cycle of plants in a relatively short period of time. isconsin fast plants are of the brassica rapa species, and are ideal for short-term studies because they develop celeritously over a life cycle which is completed within a year's time. They typically bloom in the winter. Although there are many different varieties of brassica rapa (which includes strains such as brassica rapa ssp. campestris L., brassica rapa ssp. sarson and others) (Itis), they are all part of the family known as cruciferae. These plants look like many types of vegetables including mustards, turnips and cabbage. Virtually all of the plants in this family have four petals that cross one another similar to a crucifix, which is where the name of this family…
Marstaller, Tess, Hanmer, Tasia, Lang, Caitlin. "Assessing Fast Plant Growth in Different pH Levels." http://communityemmawillard.org. 2003. Web. http://community.emmawillard.org/Math/mathscienceweb/Fast%20plant%20growth%20in%20different%20pH%20levels_files/Fast%20plant%20growth%20in%20different%20pH%20levels.htm
Itis. "Brassica Rapa." www.itis.gov. No date. Web. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt-search_topic=TSN&search_value=23063
Williams, P.H., Hill, C.B. "Rapid-Cycling Populations of Brassica." Science. 232 1385-1389. 1986. Web. http://www.fastplants.jp/pdf/science.pdf
The geneticist must first identify the wild crop, to be utilized as a comparative, (99) stressing that such information to be considered accurate in time and space must be gleaned from archaeological record and only based on the genetic process determined from the modern research in plant and/or even animal genetics.
In regards to the animal domesticate the issues become much more complicated, sometimes offering a richer picture of the effects of domestication upon animals but more often offering a more laborious process with more missing pieces of information. The difference between the plant and animal studies is largely do to the complicated nature of the animal as compared to the plant. The variables associated with animal selection are far greater in number and far less predictable than with those of plants as within the genetic record of an animal far more variations occur and surprises are historically evident in…
Emshwiller, E. 2006 Genetic data and plant domestication. in, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.99-122. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Smith, Bruce D. 206 Documenting domesticated plants in the archaeological record. in, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.15-24
Bradley, D.G 2006 Documenting domistication: reading Animal genetic texts. in, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.273-278 University of California Press, Berkeley.
Zeder, M.A. 2006 Archaeological approaches to documenting animal domestication.In, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.171-180 University of California Press, Berkeley.
Many plants are grown because they look pretty or because they grow heartily. Landscapers choose certain species based on their environmental needs. The oleander, or nerium oleander, has a multitude of uses both from an aesthetic and holistic perspective. Besides an attractive flower for gardens or streets, the plant has been used for medicines and for crimes. This makes it one of the most dynamic plants of all flowers.
The oleander originated in northern Africa, the eastern Mediterranean Basin, and Southeast Asia. As a nonnative plant, the oleander has had little difficult in adapting. Indeed since the oleander is such a sturdy plant, once a plant has taken root it is very difficult to remove it completely. Because of its high adaptability, the plant can take over once it has been planted in an area, killing off the native plants if it is environmentally unequivalent.
Oleander can grow up…
"Nerium Oleander." Floridata. 2003. Retrieved from:
edland Wastewater Treatment Plant
edland Water is the department of the edland City council that oversees the collection, treatment, and disposal of waste water in edland City. esidential households and commercial premises such as shopping centers, cafes, commercial laundries, butchers, car-washing centers, and restaurants are the main sources of waste water in edland City. Once collected, waste water is stored temporarily in abattoirs, before being released for treatment in one of the seven treatment plants located in Point Lookout, Dunwich, Mount Cotton, Victoria Point, Thorneside, Cleveland, and Capalaba (edland City Council, 2012). The author paid the Capalaba Treatment Plant a visit, and found that the plant had just upgraded to a new waste water treatment technique referred to as the Vetiver Grass System, herein referred to as the VS. The Vetiver system, "a green and environmentally-friendly waste water technology as well as natural recycling method," had just been approved by…
AMPC, 2005. Waste Water. AMPC [online] Available at http://www.ampc.com.au/site/assets/media/reports/Resources/Wastewater-enviromental-best-practice-manual.pdf
Ash, R. And Truong, P., n.d.The Use of Vetiver Grass Wetlands for Sewerage Treatment in Australia. Dokuz Eylul University Library [online] Available at http://web.deu.edu.tr/atiksu/ana58/new80.pdf
Piemonte, V., De Falco, M. And Basile, A. Eds., 2013. Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering: Innovative Technologies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons
Redland City Council, 2010. Waste Water. Redland City Council [online] Available at http://www.redland.qld.gov.au/EnvironmentWaste/Water/Pages/Wastewater.aspx
Ethics and Plant Closure
Situation Analysis -- ABC/DVD Manufacturing, Inc. must decide whether to close its plant in Anytown, MA. The plant closure would result in the lay-off of 50 employees. Management has asked for a brief outlining the ethical issues surrounding plant closures, and the questions apparent on profit vs. ethical behavior.
At the heart of the decision are several questions that must be considered prior to a decision. Each question plays into the overall analysis of the issue, and affects various stakeholders in different ways:
If plant closes, can a good portion of the employee base be transferred to other locations?
Employees: relocation of families, etc.
Company: costs for relocation.
Increased costs for corporation, but would those be absorbed by closing the plant?
Are jobs skilled or unskilled? Where will production be now (offshore?) Is it possible to relocate employees?
What affect would closure have…
MacIntyre, A. A Short History of Ethics. New York: Routledge, 2006.
White, T. Ethics Toolbox. Center for Ethics and Business at Loyola Marymount University.
2011. Retrieved from: http://www.ethicsandbusiness.org/toolbox/philoethics.htm
Straight Line Depreciation -- an equal depreciation amount each year;
2. Units of Activity-- depreciation is based on asset's productivity rather than time passage;
3. Declining Balance -- an accelerated method which uses a fixed percentage of the asset's declining book value each year.
An asset may need to be replaced, bought or sold when it has outlived its useful life. For example, this can occur with trucks used in transporting goods and services. Overtime, their useful life depreciates. As such they will need to be traded in, or sold for cash to purchase new trucks.
What are the options for accounting for these dispositions?
In regards to accounting, irrespective if the firm sells the asset, trades the asset in, or discards it altogether, they will need to follow the ensuing steps.
1. ecord the additional depreciation in the general journal. Update the plant asset record. Depreciation expense is recorded…
1) Kaplan, Robert S. And Bruns, W. Accounting and Management: A Field Study Perspective (Harvard Business School Press, 1987) ISBN 0-87584-186-4
, and inhibits herbivores and pathogens" (Las Pilitas Nursery). This is the reason the manzanita is such an excellent survivor: it has good roots. Thus, the manzanita can grow for over a century if the conditions are right.
Manzanitas also serve as a good source of nectar for some of the more pleasant fauna of nature: butterflies and hummingbirds. The manzanita, therefore, is a shrub that can bring an element of natural beauty to the native Californian landscape.
A view of the different hybrids that are available may give some indication of the different varieties of manzanitas available for different tastes.
First, there is the "Austin Griffith" manzanita -- which is a cross between the A. densiflora and the Dr. Hurd. It can reach a height of 10 ft and a width of 6 ft. It is a flowering shrub (the flowers are small and pink) and the leaves are…
"Las Pilitas Nursery." Web. 24 July 2011.
The price charged for the company's biodiesel product lines will be tied to the prevailing prices charged for feed stock and production costs, but any costs in excess of traditional diesel fuel alternatives will be offset by marketing initiatives designed to promote the environmentally responsible aspects of the products' use, as well as the patriotic aspects of reducing America's reliance on foreign oil.
Distribution (Place). Transportation for the company's product line will be outsourced.
Promotion. As noted above, biodiesel products possess a number of characteristics that can be promoted to different industries and organizations depending on their specific needs. Larger enterprises such as Universal Studios Theme Park could be encouraged to use biodiesel alternatives based on the tax advantages and public relations opportunities such use affords; likewise, governmental agencies could reap economies of scale by converting large vehicle fleets to biodiesel applications and also enjoy the P benefits that accrue…
Cravens, D.W. (2000). Strategic marketing (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Edinger, R. & Kaul, S. (2003). Sustainable mobility: Renewable energies for powering fuel cell vehicles. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Kram, J.W. (2008, April). Biodiesel blossoms in the Sunshine State. Biodiesel Magazine. [Online]. Available: http://www.biodieselmagazine.com/article.jsp?article_id=2209&q=&page=3 .
Schmidt, C.W. (2007). Biodiesel: Cultivating alternative fuels. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(2), 86-87.
Other performance plastic intermediates and products manufactured by Dow include bisphenol a, polyurethane and epichlorohydrin amongst others.
The water solutions business unit of Dow Chemical Company manufactures Film Tec reverse osmosis membranes. These membranes are largely used for water purification for human use and include Dowlex ion exchange resins and Carbowax polyethylene glycols. The agricultural segment of Dow Chemical Company, Dow Agro Sciences, produces various agricultural chemicals and consumer products. This segment is not only responsible for herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, but it also sells different agricultural seeds commercially. On the other hand, consumer products include various chemicals like detergents, soaps and cosmetics.
Despite the fact that Dow Chemical Company is the world's second largest chemical manufacturing firm, the company is also infamous for production of chemicals that are harmful to human beings. Throughout its history, Dow Chemical Company has from time to time come under serious criticism…
"Dow Chemical Company" (2009, October 30). Zacks Investment Research. Retrieved June 25,
2010, from http://www.zacks.com/mediaroom/zer_get_pdf.php?r=Z533773
"Dow Energy-Track Record" (n.d.). The Dow Chemical Company. Retrieved June 25, 2010,
For the plant construction project, we need to have a way to determine if this project is something we should do or not. There are a number of different ways the firms evaluate such projects, but the most common are the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and the modified internal rate of return (MIRR). Each of these is based on the concept of discounted cash flow. The incremental cash flows of the project are evaluated to determine whether or not there is a positive cash flow, on a time-adjusted (discounted) basis (Investopedia, 2012). In theory, if the project makes a positive contribution to the company, it should be accepted. In practice, companies face decisions between mutually exclusive options. Given our tight financing, that might be the case here. So the different projects that people want to have financed will need to be evaluated against…
Investopedia. (2012). Capital budgeting. Investopedia. Retrieved March 6, 2012 from axzz1oHefP0yK
No author. (2012). Modified internal rate of return -- MIRR. Think & Done. Retrieved March 6, 2012 from http://finance.thinkanddone.com/mirr.html
The shrub is fast growing and seeds can remain viable in the soil for as long as five years. It can lie in wait until growing conditions are optimum and then begin its life cycle. It can also spread via sucker propagation. The ability to do this is a key reason for the invasive nature of the plant. As buckthorn leaves fall to the ground, their leaves contain a high concentration of nitrogen, which can change the soil pH and create changes in the soil. This promotes the establishment of more buckthorn trees, but can create a hostile environment for other native plant species.
One of the key reasons why the spread of common buckthorn needs to be stopped is its ability to quickly create, starving other plants around it of needed light. It can prevent the generation of native plant species around it. However, this is not the most…
Aubry, C., Shoal, R., & Erickson, V. Grass Cultivars: Their origins, development, and use on national forests and grasslands in the Pacific Northwest. January 2005. USDA Forest
Service. pp. 23-27. <
>.Accessed November 6, 2010.
evolution of plant viruses. All five peer-reviewed articles are related because they all delve into the evolution of plant viruses.
Plant feeding by insect vectors can affect life cycle, population genetics and evolution of plan viruses, Gutierrez, et al., 2013. Plants use insects as the vectors for the spread of viruses. Insects historically go from one plant (host) to another; but recent evidence shows that viruses in plants, as they evolve, can actually have an influence "vector physiology and behavior" (Gutierrez, 2013). There is the possibility that insect "stresses" -- while feeding on plants -- may cause "major switches" in the way viruses evolve in plants (Gutierrez, 610).
The researchers found that "numerous plant viruses" can be and are transmitted by not just one insect, but by several insects. For example one species of aphids probes into a plant and another aphid species also makes "test probes"; this creates a…
Garcia-Arenal, F., and Fraile, A. (2013). Trade-offs in host range evolution of plant viruses. Plant Pathology, vol. 62, 2-9.
Gutierrez, S., Michalakis, Y., Van Munster, M., and Blanc, S. (2013). Plant feeding by insect vectors can affect life cycle, population genetics and evolution of plant viruses. Functional Ecology, vol. 27, 610-622.
Rojas, M.R., Hagen, C., Lucas, W.J., and Gilbertson, R.L. (2005). Exploiting Chinks in the Plants' Armor: Evolution and Emergence of Geminiviruses. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 43(1), 361-383.
Syller, J. (2014). Biological and molecular events associated with simultaneous transmission of plant viruses by invertebrate and fungal vectors. Molecular Plant Pathology, 15(4),
Transplanting a potted plant seems very simple, but is in fact a multiple step procedure each of which needs to be completed in the correct order. In this case, the discussion will focus on transplanting plants out of pony packs from the store, rather than re-potting an existing plant. A pony pack is a set of four or six seedlings, packaged in plastic containers, that are sold at most home improvement stores. After one has decided what kind of plant one will be growing, one must select the plant at the store. It is best to select plants that are only leaves, as opposed to flowers or fruits and leaves, as they will grow better. In addition, select plants with even colored leaves, that are not drooping or wilting. The soil should be slightly damp, but not wet, and water should not drip from the plant when one picks it…
ubstance Abuse Testing - the substance abuse testing policy for the construction industry that are union workers in British Columbia allows for: (1) pre-access testing prior to entering a job site; (2) voluntary testing; (3) post-accident testing; (4) reasonable suspicion testing; (5) return-to-work testing; and (6) testing following a probationary status. (eale, 2008) However, pre-employment and random testing for substances is considered unacceptable in British Columbia. (Harassment - the law in British Columbia makes it a violation of an employer to allow or contribute to sexual harassment of an employee in the workplace. Ministry of Attorney General, British Columbia, 2008)
Employment Contracts and Restrict Covenants - Restrictive covenants make the provision for several limitations: (1) Employee may be prohibited from working for business competition for a period of time after they leave their employment:; (2) territorial limits may restrict the employee from joining competition within defined a defined territory; (3)…
Substance Abuse Testing - the substance abuse testing policy for the construction industry that are union workers in British Columbia allows for: (1) pre-access testing prior to entering a job site; (2) voluntary testing; (3) post-accident testing; (4) reasonable suspicion testing; (5) return-to-work testing; and (6) testing following a probationary status. (Seale, 2008) However, pre-employment and random testing for substances is considered unacceptable in British Columbia. (Harassment - the law in British Columbia makes it a violation of an employer to allow or contribute to sexual harassment of an employee in the workplace. Ministry of Attorney General, British Columbia, 2008)
Employment Contracts and Restrict Covenants - Restrictive covenants make the provision for several limitations: (1) Employee may be prohibited from working for business competition for a period of time after they leave their employment:; (2) territorial limits may restrict the employee from joining competition within defined a defined territory; (3) Other restrictive covenants have to do with intellectual property of the employer. Restrictive covenants may be contractual in nature and always are exceptional in nature. Ministry of Attorney General, British Columbia, 2008)
Workplace Health, Safety and Standards - Workplace safety standards are set out in B.C. Reg. 312/2003, effective October 29, 2003, and amended by B.C. Reg. 243/2006, effective January 1, 2007. These regulations call for safely constructed and maintained workplace environments. (B.C. Reg 258/2009, effective January 1, 2009)
iordan's plant A is in China and produces the plastic fan blades and housings, with the Michigan, USA, location the customized look of the fans. Challenges were identified that show obstacles to the manner in which the process design and supply chain were handled and could be improved.
Process Design for Production of iordan Electric Fan:
Currently, the Chinese plant uses a made-to-order fabrication process in manufacturing. The process is high in quality, but low in efficiency because it uses batching to allow fans to be made to the consumer's needs. However, the market is growing to the point that this is inefficient. For iordan to remain competitive, it needs to be more aggressive in process design so it can gain more market share.
Inventory management should support a just-in-time delivery system (JIT) and the process should include an overview of material requirements planning (MP) and manufacturing resource…
Greb, E. (2009). "Is JIT Manufacturing the Right Prescription?" Pharmaceutical
Technology. 33 (3): 72+.
Jongebloed, J. (2007). Focused Logistics - Sense and Respond Logistics. Logistics Spectrum, 41(3), 21-9.
Lee, W., & Katzorke, M. (2010). Leading Effective Supply Chain Transformation. Ft. Lauderdale, FL: J. Ross Pubslihers.
The issue of non-native and often invasive species has been a concern for the environment scientists over the decades. The animals, fish and plants that are introduced to a new environment often have two reactions, either demise or invade and dominate and rarely will one find that there is a smooth cohabitation between the new species and the native species. Focusing on plants in specific, most species that are used in gardens represent none native species which can result to two things; they can either become invasive and put at risk the native species that are in existence or they can end up dying at the end of each season. As a policy maker I will look at some of the disadvantages of having non-native species in my area and suggest alternative ways of achieving the same ends without necessarily involving the non-native species.
The introduction of non-native…
Manchester, S. & Bullock, J. (2001). The Impacts of Non-native Species on UK Biodiversity and the Effectiveness of Control. Journal of Applied ecology. Retrieved March 26, 2014 from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2000.00538.x/full
Creating Word Class Performance in a Jaguar Assembly Plant
Multiple Cause Diagram
In the above multiple cause diagram, six feedback loops exist and they relate to the following sub-systems.
Stores, and Production
The model indicates that the goal is matching the demand with production and is causal to seamless back-to-back activities in the areas of purchasing, production and planning. The diagram explores significant areas such as the impact changes in customer schedule has on production requirements. Customer schedule changes are difficult to determine precisely, especially as pertains to production due dates and material needs (Tomar, 2008).
The diagram below can be very helpful in identifying the factors driving a certain change event. It can be used to identify "cause chains" and help in the identification of key elements. While it is relatively simple, it indicates clearly why a change is taking place and in doing so…
Belogolovsky, E. & Bamberger, P., 2014. Signaling in Secret: Pay for Performance and the Incentive and Sorting Effects of Pay Secrecy. Academy of Management Journal, 57(6), pp. 1706-1733.
Ahmed, A. & Hussain, E., 2014. Effect of Disturbance on Closed-Loop Control System. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 3(8), pp. 15672-15676.
Andrews, R., Boyne, G. & Enticott, G., 2007. Performance failure in the public sector. Public Management Review, 8(2), pp. 273-296.
Bajorek, Z. & Bevan, S., 2015. Performance-related-pay in the UK public sector: A review of the recent evidence on effectiveness and value for money. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 2(2), pp. 94-109.
The advocator of the Iran Democracy Act incorporates the Iranian Monarchist groups, The American Israeli Public Affairs Committee -- AIPAC, and the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs -- JINSA.
It also includes the well established organizations that may get sanctions under the Bill such as Coalition for Democracy in Iran -- CDI- which was formed by Morris Amitay of JINSA, ob Sobhani, President of Caspian Energy Consulting and Michael Ledeen of the American Enterprise Institute who were recognized as the staunch supporters of the change in the rule of Iran. Moreover, the advocators also put forth that the previous U.S. funding of opposition groups in other countries was important to promotion of democracy in such countries and Iran cannot be an exception to this. This necessitates the U.S. To include human rights and democracy on its agenda in respect of Iran. (Senator Brown Back Announces Iran Democracy Act with…
Afrasiabi, Kaveh L. Regional Obstacles to Democracy in Iran. 24 January, 2001.
Retrieved from http://www.payvand.com/news/01/jan/1144.html Accessed on 7 May, 2005
Chomsky, Noam. Promoting democracy in Middle East. Khaleej Times. 4 March, 2005. Retrieved from http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticle.asp?xfile=data/opinion/2005/March/opinion_March6.xml& ; section=opinion& col= Accessed on 7 May, 2005
Kazemzadeh, Masoud. Political culture and obstacles to democracy in Iran. The Iranian. 30
In 2016, E brought a world class office space to Boston that features natural light, sweeping urban views, reclaimed timber, rooftop PV solar and green roof plantings. The E Boston headquarter building design is consistent with corporate commitments to sustainability and environmental impact. However, it is essential to consider innovative approaches to continue to improve the space for all employees.
Studies document that green plants improve indoor air quality, decrease levels of particulate matter, manage acoustics and increase general wellbeing (Lohr, 2010). According to Terappin (2012), natural design elements including plants have measurable effects on employee health and productivity. The cost of employee absenteeism, staff retention and reduced productivity due to mental stress and fatigue should be should be considered by corporations when designing green office spaces (Terrapin 2012). I will present research to support why E should invest in green plants as well as a feasible plan…
Kumar, G.B.S., Ganapathi, TR. Bapat, V.A. Revathi, C.J. & K.S.N. Prasad. (2002). Expression
of Hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants and NT- I cell line of tobacco. BARC. Retrieved from: http://barc.gov.in/publications/nl/2003/200310-12.pdf
ne of the most difficult and intractable health issues worldwide is that of Hepatitis B The disease is difficult to treat and potentially deadly. "There are about 350 million chronic carriers in the world and it is estimated that 75- 100 million of them will die of liver cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma" (Kumar, Ganapathi, Bapat, Revathi, Prasad 2002:85). Although vaccinations do exist, the injectable form of the vaccine is expensive and has been difficult to distribute throughout the developing world where Hepatitis B is most prevalent. Injectable vaccines also require trained healthcare professionals to disseminate. There is also the risk of needle contamination in unsanitary conditions, again, making vaccines in the developing world potentially more dangerous. Cold…
One possible solution is the development of oral vaccines. This proved to be a great advantage in the treatment of polio. Unlike injectable vaccines, "they can activate the mucosal immune system against many pathogens by oral delivery" and also because they do not contain whole pathogens, there is no risk of actually transmitting the disease by accident through the vaccination process (Kumar et al. 2002: 86). Plant-based vaccines have proven to be particularly effective in the developing world through the use of transgenic banana plants. At present, the surface antigen of Hepatitis B (HBsAg) has been successfully found to be expressed in transgenic tobacco plants as well. "The HBsAg derived from transgenic tobacco plants is physically, biochemically and immunologically similar to yeast derived rHBsAg" but is cheaper to produce (Kumar et al. 2002: 87). Both transgenic tobacco and banana plants, it is hoped, hold the potential to develop an effective oral vaccine.
The series of experiments conducted by the study's authors to support their exploratory research to find plant-based vaccines were promising. For the transgenic tobacco plants, "Western analysis confirmed the presence of HBsAg specific band corresponding to yeast derived rHBsAg in pHBs100 and pHER100 transformed tobacco cells whereas in the control non-transformed cells the same was absent…the denatured HBsAg expressed in plant cells showed 4 kDa peptides similar to yeast derived rHBsAg" (Kumar et al. 2002: 91). This antigen is not naturally occurring in tobacco plants, it should be noted: transgenic manipulation would be required for the vaccine to be generated, thus there still would be considerable expense in generating the vaccine initially. The hope would be, however, that once it was developed, it would be useful in the context of the developing world to provide treatment.
The most desirable and promising potential vaccine source, however, would still be to derive the vaccine from a banana plant, given the proliferation of the fruit in the tropics and also its palatability. "Expression of HBsAg in bananas may be advantageous as they are grown in most of the tropical and subtropical countries, where cost effective vaccines are required and their digestibility and palatability by infants makes it an attractive choice" (Kumar et al. 2002: 93). It must be noted that the development of the vaccine in any plant form is still very much in its nascent stages. At present, the closest to an oral vaccine that has been derived in a lab is an HBsAg prototype from a transgenic potato plant tested in mice. Still, the research indicates potentially promising developments in this area which should not be ignored.
Cell division in plants is a process that is currently under intense study by biologists. One team of researchers in Australia has recently published a paper describing their research into the role that microtubules play in cell division and morphogenesis. While these structures have been identified to be involved in cell division and growth, how they form, disassemble, and reappear is not fully understood. The Australian team's research consisted of their testing the hypothesis that a gene in the plant A. thaliana, called mor 1, plays a role in the development of microtubules.
In order to test this hypothesis, the team determined that the mor1 locus in a mutant A. thaliana caused temperature sensitive mutations in the development of microtubules when the temperature was increased from 21?C to 29?C. They used immunofluorescence microscopy, a technique that stains cell structures with a fluorescent dye, to visualize the actual…
Whittington, Angela, et al.. "MOR1 is Essential for Organizing Cortical Microtubules
in Plants." (31 May, 2001). Nature 411, 610-613. Retrieved from www.nature.com
Examining Power Infrastructure Projects
With natural gas and oil resources dwindling and the greenhouse gas threat continues to grow, it will be crucial to examine alternatives for cleaner power. The project will explore two different categories of infrastructure projects, including the construction of water power plants and solar plants. The two projects will be from developing nations in order to help expose potential for changes for future projects. The hydroelectricity plant to be examined is the Brantas iver Basin Development Project in Indonesia, while the solar plant is the Ourzazate Solar Power Station project in Morocco. Ultimately, this will help this current research explore the strengths and weaknesses of both in order to provide recommendations not just for projects here in the United States, but also around the world that help strengthen growing economies.
Integrated power production construction projects are enormous endeavors and are quite complicated. There are…
Konate, Ibrahima, Arfquoi, Youssef, & Faller, Tanja. (2012). Project Ourzazate Solar Power Station. American Development Bank. Web. http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Project-and-Operations/Morocco%20-%20%20AR%20Ouarzazate%20Project%20I%20%282%29.pdf
Shimomura, Yasutami. (2011). Infrastructure construction experiences in East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa: A comparative study for mutual learning. SOAS International Workshop on Aid and Development in Asia and Africa. Web. http://www.jica.go.jp/uk/english/office/topics/pdf/topics111028_04_02.pdf
poor air quality in major cities in China has increasingly been viewed as a serious health threat -- and an economic problem as well -- over the past few years. The major culprit for this persistent pollution has been identified as coal-fired power plants, but auto emissions and factories are also contributors to this environmental problem. It has gotten so bad in Beijing, China, that on Tuesday December 8, Chinese leaders triggered a "red alert" closing schools, suspending factories, and keeping one-half of the vehicles off the streets (Mader, 2015). hat are the health-related issues brought on by this hazardous smog in China? This question will be addressed in this paper.
China's Air Pollution Kills up to 500,000 People Each Year
According to Chen Zhu, the former Chinese Health Minister -- who is a professor of medicine and a leading molecular biologist in China -- the terrible smog that envelops…
Kaiman, J. (2014). China's toxic air pollution resembles nuclear winter, say scientists.
The Guardian. Retrieved December 11, 2015, from http://www.theguardian.com .
Mader, I. (2015). China smog triggers closure. Associated Press. Retrieved December 11, 2015, from http://www.ap.com .
Moore, M. (2014). China's 'airpocalypse' kills 350,000 to 500,000 each year. The Telegraph. Retrieved December 11, 2015, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk .
The author of this report has been asked to step in as an Environmental and Safety Manager to inspect a polluted work location that was bought "as is" with the understanding that the acquiring company would pay any and all costs of remediating and fixing the polluted ground and such on the worksite. The early study indications include the fact there is oil pollution in the higher earth around the plant. However, the actual source material is not known and thus a waste delineation study will be necessary. There are also three buildings where equipment has been stored and there seems to be a pit where amounts of oil and other potential substances were discarded. The author of this report is being asked to design a waste delineation program that addresses all of the necessary factors including soil impact, groundwater impact, whether there are any dissolved contaminants in…
EPA. (2016). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Epa.gov. Retrieved 19 February 2016, from http://epa.gov
Nolo. (2016). Unenforceable Contracts: What to Watch Out For -- Nolo.com. Nolo.com. Retrieved 19 February 2016, from http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/unenforceable-contracts-tips-33079.html
OSHA. (2016). Occupational Safety and Health Administration - Home. Osha.gov. Retrieved 19 February 2016, from https://www.osha.gov/
Personal Protective Equipments for Process Technicians
Personal Protective Equipment in chemical plants
Protection at work
A process technician document and perform daily manufacturing operations in bio-industrial, biopharmaceutical and biomedical settings. They are involved in the operation of process equipment especially within a sterile or clean-room environment. This environment is usually made up of large stainless steel vats with various pipes as well as control equipment linked together. Since various different complex steps exist in biomedical research and bio-manufacturing environments, a process technician need to be equipped with personal protective equipment that suit their work as well as much orientation on how or where these protective are used and their limitation.
It is important for employees to demonstrate that they have understood the training as well as the ability to use Personal Protective Equipment effectively prior to be allowed to start working so that they are prevented from various forms of…
food offered at the BMW plant in Spartanburg, South Carolina is unhealthy and caters to workers' wants instead of focusing on nutritional needs.
Overview of Alternatives: BMW's Spartanburg cafeteria could (1) offer only health foods including organic, low-fat, and vegetarian options or (2) could continue to offer its current choices but increase the number of healthy options available and increase employee education about healthy food choices.
Criteria: The criteria used to judge the feasibility and likelihood of success of the program include: affordability and the likelihood that employees will choose healthier options.
Evaluating the costs and benefits of implementing a healthy food program will be multi-dimensional and include an examination of the benefits of healthy eating, the likelihood that healthy habits will transition from the workplace to the home, and the financial costs of these changes.
Evaluation of Alternatives: Alternative A is offering only healthy options. Alternative B is offering…
Consumer Reports. (2015, March 19). The cost of organic food. Retrieved February 7, 2016
Hall, D. (2011). How much does a good wellness program cost? Retrieved February 7, 2016
from Wellsource, Inc. website: http://wellsource.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/How_Much_Should_a_Wellness_Program_Cost.pdf
Plant in Mexico
GM501-xx (xx = section #)
Management Theories and Practice II
Introduction (Summary of the Case)
This case study looks at the need for American management in Mexico and the benefits and obstacles to such a working relationship. More contemporary and dynamic management is needed in Mexico for the most part and many firms desire it strongly. Many of the most successful companies still understand that the maquiladora industry needs to be able to step up its level of production so that it can compete on a more versatile level that can play a more rigorous hand within the world market and with what can be constructed within the U.S. There needs to be more of a general perspective of American managers acting as ambassadors of goodwill. There needs to be a more heightened sense of responsibility in this light.
Major Issue (What and Why and How)…
De Forest, M.E. (1994). Thinking of a Plant in Mexico? Academy of Management Executive.
What other phyla relies on "hydraulics" as part of their locomotion system?
How do medusa of Aurelia and Gonionemus differ in size, arrangement of tentacles, and shape of manubrium?
Aurelia has tentacles that are evenly spaced around their center; they also have a single attached to a single tentacle bud. They are more circular in shape.
The Gonionemus is narrow and has many tentacles. They are also small and are bell shaped.
What structures within the coral polyp do the radial ridges within each depression support?
Calyx and stomach
How does fragmentation contribute to the evolutionary success of anthrozoans in their environment?
For many corals, the damage that is caused to the initial coral structure by storms or strong wave actions may create fragments. These fragments move through the water and create new colonies of coral.
Planarians have a head. In biological…
However, animals or human intervention are often needed to achieve seed dispersal over long distances (Czarnecka, 2005). Hurricanes are also responsible for transport of seeds over long distances (Czarnecka, 2005).
Grasslands were found to consist of a mosaic pattern where dense clusters of a single plant form. This suggests that seed rain around the plant is the primary seed dispersal process at work in these areas (Czarnecka, 2005). Wind may help to spread species to new patches, but the primary seed dispersal mechanism would be likely to be seeds falling to the ground. Compared to brush lands, the dominant species were within the Carex family. The dominant species in the brush lands was Origanum vulgare. Seed dispersal by anemochore dominated in the grasslands, with nearly 43% of the plants using this methods exclusively. Among brush land plants, dispersal by plants that depended on animals for dispersal, either by eating the…
Au, N., Corlett, R., & Hau, B. (2006). Seed rain into upland plant communities in Hong Kong, China. Plant Ecology. 186 (1), 13-22.
Czarnecka, J. (2005). Seed dispersal effectiveness in three adjacent plant communities xerothermic grassland, brushwood, and woodland. Ann. Bot Fennici. 42: 161-171.
Elsa, W., Lee, B. Hau, C., & Corlett, R. (2005). Natural regeneration in exotic tree plantations in Hong Kong, China.
Forest Ecology and Management. 212 (1-3), 358-366.
Genetically Modified Crop Plants
The term genetically modified organisms, popularly referred to as GMOs, constitute crops, animals and even microorganisms that have undergone development my man and technology. Through the great leaps man has developed in technology, it is now possible to 'create' organisms and plants through the combination of genes considered superior, resistant and quick-maturing. Farming and animal rearing land brings a challenge in the current world, due to population explosions. This trend has been brought about by the necessity to feed the ever-increasing food demand by world populations.
The world today carries over six billion people, a number that increases every day. The natural means of plant reproduction cannot support to feed this population due to the long time taken to grow to maturity, poor yields and the limited space for planting. Therefore, genetic modification has gained an edge in the development of such crops as…
Conway, G. 2000. Genetically modified crops: risks and promise. Conservation Ecology 4(1): 2. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol4/iss1/art2
McMichael, D. Costanza, R., H. Daly, C. Folke, P. Hawken, C.S. Holling, A.J. Pimentel, and D. Rapport. (2000). Managing our environmental portfolio. Bioscience 50: 149-155.
Deborah B. Whitman (2000) Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful? (Released April 2000) http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/gmfood/overview.php
Ellstrand, N. 2000. The elephant that is biotechnology: Comments on "Genetically modified crops: risks and promise" by Gordon Conway. Conservation Ecology 4(1):8. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol4/iss1/art8
The project in question that of Building a reduced-sulfur generating, coal-fired plant by GHECO-One in Map Ta Phut, Thailand was examined for potential environmental impact due to the possible damage that the plant could cause. The company has stated throughout that their wish is to construct a plant that will be both environmentally and physically safe for the people, plants and animals that live within the region. This evaluation looks at that report with a specific view towards whether this environmental assessment is overly politicized in order to pacify the examining board of the country, and whether the site will have a cultural impact for the regions fishermen and others who either work in the area or are in some way affected by it. This evaluation is conducted to determine if the impact assessment met all of the requirements of a truthful and straightforward telling of the facts.…
EBR., 2009. Construction of GHECO-One coal-fired IPP power plant continues in Thailand. Retrieved from http://www.energy-business- review.com/news/construction_of_ghecoone_coalfired_ipp_power_plant_continu es_in_thailand_090526
Fujitsu., 2012. Fujitsu's ICT helps to solve environmental issues in Thailand. Retrieved from http://www.fujitsu.com/global/news/pr/archives/month/2012/20120207 - 02.html
GHECO-One., 2010. Thermal power plant project. Retrieved from http://www.glow.co.th/OurProject/EN/GHECO- ONE/Summary%20report%20of%20GHECO-ONE_English.pdf
Hariharan, M., 2011. Thailand's Map Ta Phut crisis -- The NGO side of the story. Retrieved from http://www.icis.com/blogs/asian-chemical - connections/2010/03/thailands-map-ta-phut-crisis -- .html
role a hired consultant organization. You asked president organization prepare a background paper results research findings make recommendations improve group productivity organization.
The manufacturing plant is characterized by the fact that it conducts manufacturing operations for the parent company, yet it is physically separated from it. In the current case, a problem has been observed in the fact that the manufacturing plant is also culturally separated from the parent company. In other words, the internal culture of the parent company is one based on operational efficiency and profitability, but attained through the adequate integration of all resources available. The parent company as such develops and implements an extensive human resource programs, which is underdeveloped at the manufacturing plant.
Within the manufacturing facility then, a wide array of problems arises among the staff members and these unavoidably lead to productivity shortages. In such a setting then, it is believed…
Fischer, F.M., 2010, The application of the controllability principle and managers' responses: a role theory perspective, Springer
Holt, M., Best practices for productivity improvement, Chron, http://smallbusiness.chron.com/practices-productivity-improvement-695.htmllast accessed on July 18, 2012
Mercer, C., What is 'role conflict' in organizations?, eHow, http://www.ehow.com/about_6304551__role-conflict_-organizations_.html last accessed on July 18, 2012
Thompson, M., 7 steps to exceptional virtual team communication, Ezine Articles, http://ezinearticles.com/?7-Steps-to-Exceptional-Virtual-Team-Communication&id=440334last accessed on July 18, 2012
The government has rather low environmental expectations. In fact, the consultant found that they are about as lenient as the Mexican restrictions, though the Philippines presents no public relations nightmare as protestors are not rallying against health concerns, as they were in Mexico.
Although the conditions in the Philippines may seem even more ready for outsourcing then the conditions in Mexico, the ethical costs of operating the company in the country are once again too high. Like the situation in Mexico, workers in the Philippines may work for lower wages than workers in the United States, but owners are not being provided with the same level of skill that they would be if continuing to operate the factory in the United States. Because the factory workers would consist mainly of underfed adults and impoverished children, the company would be lucky if workers managed to produce sufficient amounts of products throughout…
Esselaar, Jeanne. (2002). The Debate over Outsourcing in South Africa: Evidence from a case study. Proceedings from Development Policy Research Unit Conference '02. Muldersdrift, Johannesburg.
Casale, Frank J. (2006). The Outsourcing Institute: Mexico Trends & Opportunities.
Retrieved June 1, 2008, from, http://www.outsourcing.com/mexico_trends/mexico.html
Roberts, Russell (2000). The Choice. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Employee theft is noted by Mishra and Prassad (2006) to be a major component of private and public retail shrinkage.There is a consensus that theft in the workplace constitutes a serious offense and is a cause of serious problem (Weber, Kurke & Pentico, 2003).Employees have been noted to steal time, money, merchandise as well as other forms of company property like information in exchange for cash and other forms of favors. Wells (2001) noted that opportunity is the main reason for commissioning fraud. According to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, U.S. employees lose between $20-$40 billion annually through employee theft alone. This theft is noted to be responsible for 30% of all business failure (Condon,2003).Bamfield (2004) further indicated that employee theft is commonplace in the business today.
General prevention strategies against employee theft: A literature review
Vigilance is noted as the key to the prevention of corporate fraud and the…
Albrecht, WS., Albrecht, CC., Albrecht, CO. Zimbelman, MF (2011) .Fraud Examination. Cengage Learning
Anderson, R. 2007. The Credit Scoring Toolkit: theory and practice for retail credit risk management and decision automation. New York: Oxford University Press.
Albrecht, W.S., and G.W. Wernz.( 1993). The three factors of fraud. Security Management 95: no pagination as electronic article
Bamfield, J. (2004), "Shrinkage, shoplifting and the cost of retail crime in Europe: a crosssectional analysis of major retailers in 16 European countries," International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 32 Nos 4/5, pp. 235-241.
Buying a 17 acre farm with the inheritance left him at age 21 by his father, Burbank got to work on producing better strains of plants and trees to increase yield, promote disease resistance, resist environmental changes, and resistance to insects and fungus'. Burbank cross pollinated all the flowers of plants by hand and planted all the resulting seeds. From these seeds, he then selected the most promising plants to cross with other ones to ensure the best was achieved. From the book, "The Cavalcade of America," the unknown author refers to Burbank as the "Plant Wizard" and writes of the many lasting accomplishments he made in regards to the field of agriculture. (Cavalcade, 1946, pg 129). Many scientist dispute Burbanks and his work due to the documentation kept was not in line with 'proper' scientific documentation.
The opinion of this researcher is that while Mendel studied hybridization and…
Stegemann, S. & Bock, R. Exchange of genetic material between cells in plants tissue
Grafts. Science, pg 649-651. Retrieved on April 1, 2010 from www.sciencemag.com.
The cavalcade of America. (1946). Retrieved on April 7, 2010 from http://www.otrr.org/FILES/Scripts_pdf
water in your area? ("Your perspective on water differs whether you live near the Great Lakes, in the arid west, or by the coast."(McCarthy, 2009)
Outline a brief water conservation plan for your own daily use. How will these changes affect your personal life? What impact will it have on your local water supply?
There is plentiful water in my region (I live in the Great Lakes region). Nonetheless, a brief water conservation plan is the following:
To use water for just its needs and to ensure that tap water is not left running in between those needs.
To double used bathwater as water that can be used for washing the floor.
To, as much as possible, use rainwater for gardening
In order to supply water to humans certain technologies must be utilized.
Desalination is one of the methods that are used for promoting pure water supply. It literally means…
FAO report reveals GM crops not needed to feed the world http://www.psrast.org/faonowohu.htm
Forbes.com (11/03/2012) GMO Food Debate in the National Spotlight http://www.forbes.com/sites/rachelhennessey/2012/11/03/gmo-food-debate-in-the-national-spotlight/ )
Greenopolis. Top 10 Environmental Success Stories and 10 Future Challenges. http://greenopolis.com/goblog/joe-laur/top-10-environmental-success-stories-and-10-future-challenges
Groves, J (19 December 2009 ) Climate change summit accepts 'toothless' U.S.-backed agreement - but deal is not legally binding DailMail.com http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1236659/Copenhagen-climate-change-conference-World-leaders-reach-Copenhagen-agreement -- officials-admit-enough.html#ixzz2Cg3714zQ
Human esource Management class focus area. Here questions: 1. Your company plans build a manufacturing plant undecided locate .
New manufacturing plant
The opening of a new manufacturing plant in a different location is pegged to a series of uncertainties and risks. In order to minimize these risks, it is necessary for the economic agent to consider a wide array of elements in making the final decision of the location. At this level, a notable role is played by the purpose of the new location. The two more common reasons for opening new manufacturing plants are either a desire to expand production, or a desire to cut costs and as such support profitability.
In the first scenario then, more emphasis in choosing the location would be placed on the identification of a new site that possesses some comparative advantage in the field of manufacturing. This advantage could refer to skilled…
Greenhouse, S. (2011). Union membership in U.S. fell to a 70-year low last year. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com /2011/01/22/business/22union.html?_r=0' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Because of the importance of a plant or other large employer in a town, virtually everyone in that town can be considered a stakeholder that will be affected when the plant closes down and people are laid off.
Who takes responsibility for the closure is also significant. Company managers and owners that attempt to pawn the closures and problems off on others are usually not well-received. Those that are truly responsible for the decision to close the plant should be honest with everyone about their roles in the closing and why they have made this type of decision. Large companies rarely do things without good reason, but making employees that are about to be laid-off understand the reasons can be difficult, and should not be done vaguely or through third parties in order to avoid 'taking the blame.'
One of the best ways that these individuals can give the news…
The analysis as described William E. Koffel, P.E., FSFPE of Koffel Associates in the Fire Protection Engineering magazine article, "A Methodology to Analyze the Concept of Balanced Design," states, the fire impact can be managed by either managing the fire or managing the exposed. The fact that the diagram contains an "or" gate indicates that one need only manage the fire or manage the exposed. However, the use of the "or" gate also assumes 100% effectiveness and reliability associated with the chosen strategy, assuming that the fire safety objectives are to be achieved in all reasonably credible fire scenarios (Koffel, 2002, ¶5).
The concept evaluates all scenarios that can happen and any failures that can occur with the fire safety and prevention equipment.
Analysis of the fire at the Watts Bar Hydroelectric Plant and the NFPA 550, Guide to the Fire Safety Concepts Tree, indicates that the fire could…
Francis, G. 2003. "TVA Concludes Watts Bar Hydro Fire Investigation." Retrieved on October
5, 2010 from http://www.tva.gov/news/releases/janmar03/fire.htm
Koffel, W. 2002. "A Methodology to Analyze the Concept of Balanced Design." Fire Protection
Engineering. Retrieved on October 5, 2010 from http://www.fpemag.com/archives/article.asp?issue_id=10&i=208
Lee College Financial Activities
Lee College is an academic non-profit organization that awards both undergraduate and graduate degree program to students across the world. Located in the United States, the financial statements of the Lee College conform to the Government Accounting Standard Board (GASB). (Lovvorn & Kieschnick, 2011). Overview of the Lee College financial activity reveals that total unrestricted revenues at the end of the 2012 fiscal year is totaled $16,230,000 while total unrestricted expenses are $17,050,000. However, $3,290,000 is total amount record for the increase in permanent restricted revenues and $650,000 is increase in temporary restricted. Temporary restricted consists of contributions totaled $1,500,000, gain on long-term investment and net assets released from restrictions. Permanent restricted revenues consist of income of endowment totaled $2,540,000 and gains on long-term investment totaled $750,000. Overall amount of permanent restricted revenues are $3,290,000.
Unrestricted revenues reveal the total revenues and total expenses, and unrestricted…
Lovvorn & Kieschnick .(2011). "Lee College District Annual Financial Report for the Year Ended August 31, 2011. Lovvorn & Kieschnick."
A CEO who has elected to allow workers to make their own choices as to whether they want to do something dangerous as part of their work for the company is setting herself up for an entire host of problems. There are several reasons why it is not a good idea for the CEO to allow this kind of behavior, and the most compelling moral argument on the subject comes from utilitarianism (Cornman, et al., 1992). This particular type of moral theory states that the good of the masses is more significant and important than the good of the few (osen, 2003). In other words, people should not be allowed to have "free reign" to do what they please if that is going to harm others. In this case, one could argue that the workers would only be harming themselves, but that is not true. The chemical exposure…
Cornman, J., et al. (1992). Philosophical problems and arguments - An introduction, 4th ed. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Co.
Rosen, F. (2003). Classical utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. New York, NY: Routledge
Describe where you would locate your urban forest and explain why you would locate it there. emember to take into account major features, waterways, elevations, roads, etc. As well as climate and soils of the location. You can describe the area by noting bordering roads and features.
The devastation created by Hurricane Katrina was at least partially due to the decision to build homes in areas highly prone to flooding during frequent storms. Given the likelihood of another catastrophic hurricane, 'locating' an urban forest as inland as possible on elevated ground would be essential. "New Orleans offers an opportunity to study an urban forest in a subtropical environment…The city has been built on the natural levees of the Mississippi iver, backswamps, marshes, and reclaimed land along Lake Pontchartrain. Little of the natural vegetative cover of the site remains; today's urban forest is anthropogenic" (Talarchek 1987: 217). This means…
Gill, Dan. (2012). Fruit trees provide sweet harvest for your landscape. Times Picayune.
New Orleans' urban forests survived Katrina. (2005). MSNBC. Retrieved:
egulations and requirements
The Federal Aviation Authority -- FAA passed the "Vision100 - Century of Aviation eauthorization Act," which among other regulations also allowed for the allocation of the AIP funds for the facilities like hangars and fuel farms. This is stated in the law that the secretary can pay the funds "apportioned to the airport sponsor under section 47114 (d) (3) (a) and if the Secretary determines that the sponsor has made adequate provision for financing airside needs of the airport." ("Airport Improvement Program," 2004) Therefore all planners and builders are required to submit a business plan. In the event where the promoter of the proposed airport is not requiring the genera fund, still considering these guidelines will help in determining the profitability and the types of facility and structures required. The foremost concern is to evaluate the need. The plan must show the demand envisaged for the facility.…
Banister, David; Berechman, Joseph. (2000) "Transport Investment and Economic
Development" UCL Press: London.
De Neufville, Richard; Odoni, Amedeo R. (2002) "Airport Systems: Planning, Design, and Management" McGraw-Hill.
Doganis, Rigas. (2002) "Flying off Course: The Economics of International Airlines"
Analyze the Harvard case the Treadway Tire Company: Job Dissatisfaction and High Turnover at the Lima Tire Plant 2189
Analysis of Treadway Tire
Analysis of the Harvard case the Treadway Tire Company: Job Dissatisfaction and High Turnover at the Lima Tire Plant 2189
An analysis of the dilemma facing the Treadway Tire Company, particularly at its Lima plant in Ohio, is one that reveals many aspects and problematics of contemporary human resource management. This case is in essence a model for many of the themes and issues facing modern management and leadership in large-scale industry.
The Treadway Tire's plant in Lima has been confronted with high levels of job dissatisfaction, which is accompanied by high turnover rates, particularly among there line foremen at the company. This is partly due to the position of the foremen as they are uncomfortably situated between management and the unions. However, central to the…
Bandura, A. (1993) Perceived Self-Efficacy in Cognitive Development and Functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28( 2).
Greenberg, J. (Ed.). (2003). Organizational Behavior: The State of the Science (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110700896
Jackson S. And Schuler R. (1990) Human Resource Planning Challenges for Industrial/Organizational Psychologists. American Psychologist, 45( 2) pp. 223-239
Kalliath, T, and Beck A, (2001) Alexandra Is the path to burnout and turnover paved by a lack of supervisory support? A structural equations test. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, December 01, 2001. Retrieved from http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-83447488/path-burnout-and-turnover.html