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Poland throughout its history has periodically disappeared from the face of the map only to re-emerge phoenix-like mainly due to the dogged perseverance and a strong sense of national identity exhibited by the Poles that has transcended prolonged periods of foreign domination. At the start of the First orld ar in 1914, Poland had been under one of the periodic "partitions" that it has suffered in its tragic history -- having been divided among the three neighboring powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia for over a century. The events that followed during the ar proved to be another turning point in the history of Poland and the Polish people -- although, the war resulted in untold suffering for the Polish people, it also provided them with an unexpected opportunity of independence. This essay describes the fortunes of the nation during the First orld ar, assesses the post-war peace settlement that…
Biskupski, M.B. The History of Poland. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.
Buell, Leslie Raymond. Poland: Key to Europe. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1939.
While even environmental pollution can be a concern, in terms of worker safety in some areas of Eastern Europe, Poland still has a substantial amount of pristine land.
Q4. What are two key factors for success that will be important if this project is to be successful?
Key success factors include availing one's self of a cheaper yet skilled labor supply to produce a high-quality product that is still affordable in the region, and ensuring the cooperation of the government so the company will not be burdened by unnecessary regulations. At present, Poland has experienced some setbacks: its budget deficit increased "7.1% last year after the global economic crisis depleted government revenue," and preventing it meeting its goal of adopting the euro in 2012, as formerly hoped (Bartyzel & ozlal.). But virtually all European nations were hard-hit by the recession, and Poland's deficit does not indicate a crisis of governance…
Bartyzel Dorota & Monika Rozlal. (2010). Poland's budget draft may not make progress toward
EU budget deficit goal. Bloomberg. Retrieved November 5, 2011 at http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-07-12/poland-s-budget-draft-may-not-make-progress-toward-eu-budget-deficit-goal.html
Geert Hofstede cultural dimensions. (2011). Comparison. Retrieved November 5, 2011 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_dimensions.php?culture1=95&culture2=70#compare
As XXXX points out from the onset, the attendance of nonviolence is a daily effort. This is to say that nonviolence is not an automatic response, but rather a deliberate and considered course of action. There are numerous nonviolent movements that have been active in the past. In seeking to demonstrate that nonviolence is indeed achievable, it would be prudent to highlight two of these movements. The two movements that will be discussed in this text are: Czechoslovakia’s Velvet Revolution (1989) and Poland’s Solidarity Movement (1980-1989).
Poland’s Solidarity Movement (1980-1989)
It is important to note, from the onset, that the groundwork for Poland’s Solidarity movement was set in 1946 following the parliamentary electoral fraud perpetrated by the communists. This is more so the case taking into consideration the resulting civil resistance that went on until Solidarity become prominent – and the larger society found a way of embracing…
Polish Antipathy towards the Soviet Union
After the conclusion of the Second World War, the victorious Allies were showered with the spoils of their success in the conflict. The victorious nations - the Soviet Union, United States, Great Britain, and France -- were left to decide what to do with the war ravaged countries that remained throughout Europe and Asia. The major question on the minds of the leaders and politicians remained: how to divide up the crumbled nations of the broken continent? When dividing up the spoiled nations, the job was broken into different geographical tasks: Europe, Asia, and the third world countries (Gaddis, 1997).
In February 1945 the leaders from the big three countries - Franklin oosevelt (President of the United States), Winston Churchill (Prime Minister of Great Britain) and Josef Stalin (Soviet Premier) met in the City of Yalta to discuss how to divide Europe (Judge…
Dziewanowski, M.K. A History of Soviet Russia. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1989. 266-267.
Gaddis, J.L. (1997). We now know: rethinking cold war history. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc.
Judge, E.H., & Langdon, J.W. (1999). The cold war: a history through documents. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Kenez, Peter. A History of the Soviet Union from the Beginning to the End. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1999. 132-133, 163-164.
GDP growth in Poland has been steady throughout the past few years. This is almost entirely based on economic growth as the population has remained essentially the same over the past several years. One of the main precursors for Poland's growth has been in its workforce. It left the communist days with a largely outdated industrial sector, but has swiftly joined the information age due to the quality of its workforce. Literacy is near 100% and Poles receive an amount of schooling that is comparable to other leading astern uropean countries. Moreover, the average amount of education received by Poles is higher amongst younger demographics, which shows that Poland is on par with other developing countries in terms of having an increasingly educated workforce.
Poland's economic base has moved to a majority service-base, with industry representing just 31.7% of the GOP in 2006. Moreover, Poland is a net importer, which…
Education Attainment by Gender and Average Years of Education." Organisation for Economic Development and Cooperation (OECD). retrieved Feb 19, 2008 http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/56/9/37863998.pdf
Foldvari, Peter. "An Estimation of the Human Capital Stock in Eastern and Central Europe." retrieved Feb 19, 2008 http://ideas.repec.org/a/mes/eaeuec/v43y2006i6p53-65.html
Bennett, Andrew. "Poland." EDC. January 2008. EDC. retrieved Feb 19, 2008 http://www.edc.ca/english/docs/gpoland_e.pdf
Overall, it can be said that the fall of the communist systems around Europe has had different effects and repercussions. These determined the historical evolution between economic success and disarray. Poland is a good example for the effects Western countries had on its economic and political scene, whereas Yugoslavia represents a country still facing the chains of transition, with little European prospects.
C News. "Profile: Serbia and Montenegro."C World. 2006. 6 April 2007 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/country_profiles/1039269.stm#overview
CIA. "Serbia." The World Factbook. 2007. 6 April 2007 https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/rb.html
Energy Information Administration. "North Central Europe." Energy Information Administration. 2002. 6 April 2007 http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/czech2.html
European Commission. "Commission Staff Working Document Serbia 2006 Progress Report." EU Enlargement. 2006. 6 April 2007 http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2006/nov/sr_sec_1389_en.pdf
European Commission. "Commission Staff Working Document Montenegro 2006 Progress Report." EU Enlargement. 2006. 6 April 2007 http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2006/nov/mn_sec_1388_en.pdf
Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Poland. "History." Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 6 April, 2007. http://www.poland.gov.pl/the, Economy,369.html
BBC News. "Profile: Serbia and Montenegro."BBC World. 2006. 6 April 2007 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/country_profiles/1039269.stm#overview
CIA. "Serbia." The World Factbook. 2007. 6 April 2007 https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/rb.html
Energy Information Administration. "North Central Europe." Energy Information Administration. 2002. 6 April 2007 http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/czech2.html
European Commission. "Commission Staff Working Document Serbia 2006 Progress Report." EU Enlargement. 2006. 6 April 2007 http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2006/nov/sr_sec_1389_en.pdf
France and Poland: A Study in Contrasts
France and Poland:
Study in Contrasts
Few countries in Europe have such widely differing modern histories as France and Poland. Both began the modern era as ancient Catholic monarchies. Each nation covered a large expanse of territory and could claim, at least in theory, to be a power within its own region. There however, the comparison stops. France was a relatively well-organized, and fairly coherent state under the rule of a powerful king and a centralizing absolute monarchy. Poland, on the hand, was a hold-over from the medieval past, an elective monarchy dominated by an overweening, exceedingly numerous aristocracy. While France was destined to enter the Nineteenth Century as a powerful empire, and to become more highly centralized than ever before, Poland would, at almost the very same time, completely disappear from the map. Absorbed into ussia, Germany, and Austria, the Polish people…
Davies, Norman. (2001). Heart of Europe: The Past in Poland's Present. New York: Oxford University Press.
Haine, W.S. (2000). The History of France. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=64229429
Nagengast, C. (1991). Reluctant Socialists, Rural Entrepreneurs: Class, Culture, and the Polish State. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Changes in smoking and in the consumption of fruits and vegetables probably played a minor role in this decrease." (Disease Priorities in Developing Countries, nd) This information is shown in the following chart labeled Figure 1.
Source: Willet et al. (nd)
The work of eblo and Lauer (2002) reports an analysis of the "intergenerational transmission of poverty from Polish parents to their children through children's educational attainment during the transition process of the 1990s." In an investigation of the relationship that exists between the background of the family and the education findings show that "children' education is strongly related to the structure of the household, the education of parents, the size of the city and the region of residence." However, the income of the household and the labor market situation of the parents are found to have only a weak, although significant effect on the education of children. (eblo and…
Beblo, Miriam and Lauer, Charlotte (2002) Intergenerational Poverty Dynamics in Poland: Family Background and Children's educational Attainment During Transition. Centre for European Economic Research 15 June 2002. Social Science Research Network. Online available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=320980
Country Facts Baltic Sea Region: Poland (nd) Online available at http://bibl.sh.se/baltic/countryfacts.htm
Culture of Poland (2008) Every Culture. Countries and Their Culture. Online available at http://www.everyculture.com/No-Sa/Poland.html
Fratczak, Ewa (2004) Family and Fertility in Poland - Changes During the Transition Period. Institutes of Statistics and Demography. Warsaw School of Economics. The PIE International Workshop on Demographic Changes and Labor Markets in Transition Economies February 20 & 21, 2004 hosted by Institute of Economic Research (IER), Hitotsubashi University at Sano Shoin (President's Guest House of Hitotsubashi University) Kunitachi, Tokyo, Japan
At present there are only two documents are present along with the program under regulatory environment in Poland and EU support initiatives that make the use of coal more environmentally sustainable. These documents are Green Paper and VII Framework Program for esearch and Technological Development. While programs include EU program-Zero Emission Technology Platform that aims at promoting technological solutions for energy development based on coal.
As discussed by Piebalgs (2006) that in the Green Paper it has been emphasized by European Commission that an incorporated global approach is required to climate change. Thus Green Paper does not specify the future of any fuel rather it emphasizes that it should be obligatory that the fuel being used in any country is contributing in the sustainable development. The green house gas emission is the challenge that is being faced by many countries and Poland is one of them. Elaborating Green Paper, Ministry…
Blaschke, W. "Hard-Coal as a source of Clean Energy in Poland." 19th World Energy Congress, Sydney, Australia. 2004
International Energy Agency, "Toward a Sustainable Energy Future" 2006
Kyoto Protocol published online from the United Nations website http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php accessed on November 17, 2011
Montgomery, C.W., "Environmental Geology (6th edition)." New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. 2003
nvasion of Poland by the German army began World War . Germany invaded against the warnings of their Allies, specifically France and German. Germany conquered the territories very quickly with the strategies that Hitler and his generals had developed. While Germany had once been in favor with the other nations of the world, this was lost during this time in history. When Pearl Harbor was attacked by Japan the American armies joined the Allies and entered into World War . The strategies of Patton and Eisenhower worked well against the German forces and the German surrender began and Hitler went to hiding in his bunker and killed himself. At the ending of the war in 1945 there were decisions made on the part of the allies to prevent Germany from starting yet another war. The capital of Germany, Berlin was divided when the Allied powers of the United Kingdom, United…
It is reported that the Japanese had a torpedo that was better than those possessed by the Americans however as the American's equipment became improved and specifically as their submarines overtook the Japanese the war ended. The merchant ships of the Japanese were eliminated by the Americans and the U.S. acquired Okinawa and Iwo Jima and established bases used to attack the mainland of Japan. The Japanese ended World War II with losses that were unnecessary including the loss of their home island, their ship fleets, citizens and ultimately their power.
III. Italy and Germany
The leaders of Italy desired to get rid of Mussolini following the fall of Palermo and ultimately Mussolini resigned and was then arrested. The allies had hoped to invade France but Churchill following the Trident Conference that took place in Washington proposed that the Italy mainland be invaded and gained the compliance of the Americans. A deal was made with the Allies with Italy involving protecting Italy from Germany and on the 3rd day of September 1943 the Allies invaded the Italian mainland. Italy surrendered on September 8th. There was still a stalemate in Italy and the Allies decided that they would attack the Anzio beachhead. The Germans were defeated and the Americans went up the coast and when they met in the middle they broke the Gustav line and the Hitler line and took Rome. However, Germany was in control of Italy until the war finally ended.
Poland is one of the biggest Central European countries and is divided into 16 subdivisions. Approximately 60.1% of the population of 38.4 million people live in urban areas (CIA, 2019). A majority of the population identify themselves as Poles and speak Polish as their native language (CIA, 2019). The capital in Warsaw, and it is a Unitary parliamentary constitutional Republic with a president and prime minister. It has a legislature divided into and upper and lower house (CIA, 2019). It is bounded by the Baltic Sea, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Slovakia, Russia’s Kaliningrad Oblast, the Czech Republic, and Germany (InfoPoland, n.d.).
The geography of Poland is relatively low, with 91% of the country at just 300 meters above sea level (InfoPoland, n.d.). It has a relatively flat terrain, but glaciers in the region formed low hills and numerous small lakes in the northern portion of Poland (InfoPoland, n.d.). The…
The overall function, cause and purpose of ghettos varies a lot throughout history. However, the ghettos in Poland and other parts of what eventually ecame Nazi-controlled had a defined and definite purpose. Indeed, they were a way to separate and control the Jews that the Nazis wanted to confine and kill. Even with all of that, there were variations and performance reasons that led to the Nazis massaging and changing their tactics. A few things that will e answered in this rief report was how things were for the different groups living in the ghettos, how the ghettos operated overall and so forth. Even things like whether the Nazi control over the areas was accepted or resisted shall e covered. While the results of the Nazis and their efforts are widely known, they didn't get as far as they wanted (or as fast) with the ghettos.
Roskies, D. (2016). Jewish Cultural Life in the Vilna Ghetto. Columbia. Retrieved 27 October 2016, from https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/.../vilna_roskies.pdf
USHMM,. (2009). SELECTED DOCUMENTS SHOWING KEY LEGAL MECHANISMS USED TO IMPLEMENT THE NAZI AGENDA. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 27 October 2016, from https://www.ushmm.org/m/pdfs/20091123-ljh-antisemitic-law.pdf
Solidarity (Solidarnosc) Movement in Poland Led to the Collapse of Communism in Poland
History has shown time and again that when people are subjected to inordinately oppressive conditions long enough, they will rise up and slay their oppressors, literally or figuratively, and this is precisely what happened in Poland during the 1980s. This paper provides an analysis of the Solidarity (Solidarnosc) movement in Poland that led to the collapse of communism in Poland. A description of the events that led to the growth of the Solidarity movement is followed by the identification and an analysis of the events that followed Gorbachev's policy of political pluralism in Poland. Finally, an evaluation of the relative success of democracy and capitalism in Poland after the end of the Cold War is followed by a summary of the research in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
In retrospect, the events that led up to the…
Magner, M. (2005, March-June). Civil society in Poland after 1989: A legacy of socialism?
Canadian Slavonic Papers, 47(1/2), 49-55.
Poland. (2013). World factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library / publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pl.html.
Poland economy. (2013). World factbook. Retrieved from
" (Walsh, est, and Rai 133) Neither does the article pay sufficient attention to the motivational aspects that led Walensa to enter the Solidarity movement, and the reason for the rejection of communism.
For example, the important aspect that personally motivated Walensa was not so much any intellectual disagreement with communism - in fact he virtually ignored the student protests of 1968, which he felt was "... A problem for the intellectuals." (Walsh, est, and Rai 133) However this attitude was to change when"...on December 12, 1970, the Communist regime decreed steep increases in the prices of basic foodstuffs. The suddenness of this action in the immediate pre-Christmas season shocked Polish workers, and many went into the streets in spontaneous protest. "(Walsh, est, and Rai 133)
Not enough attention is given to the reasons that lay beneath the Soviet reaction to Walensa. This refers to the"... change in Soviet leadership…
sa November 2, 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Walensa' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
ut help is on the way. A elgian theologian is cited as saying: 'It is important and healthy for women, for families, for societies, that we are dealing with the return of the human male, almost from the dead'." (2007) It is interesting to note that there appears to be great fear among the Polish majority mindset that the strong role of men in their society will somehow be diminished by women also entering into a role that is modified from the present role attributed to Polish womanhood and strengthened. The media in Poland has actively and imaginatively played with the Polish nationalist party and served to drive the country back into pre-E.U. accession mindset.
The cover of Wprost in May 2004 is stated to feature a man "placed well above the woman" who is looking "proudly and sternly ahead, into the future; the woman teeth bared in a submissive…
Abizadeh, Arash (2004) Liberal nationalist vs. postnational social integration: on the nation's ethno-cultural particularity and 'concreteness. Nations and Nationalism 10 (3), 2004, 231 -- 250. r ASEN 2004
Agnieszka Graff (2005) The Return of the Real Man: Gender and E.U. Accession in Three Polish Weeklies. Online available at: http://www.iub.edu/~reeiweb/events/2005/graffpaper.pdf
Alsop, Rachel and Hockey, Jenny (2004) in: In Women in society: achievements, risk, and challenges. Nova Publishers, 2004
Dizard, R., Korte, H. And Zamejc, A (2007) Right-Wing Nationalism in Poland: A threat to human rights? 2007 by Rachael Dizard, Henrike Korte and Anna "amej." Online available at: http://humanityinaction.org/docs/Reports/2007_Reports_P oland/Dizard_Korte_Z
The country of Poland has been one with a history of complex politics and a difficult time retaining independence from foreign invaders. During the 19th century, Poland was controlled by a series of other nations, earning this era of Polish history the moniker of "The Age of Partitions." hile the rest of the continent was expanding economically through the industrial revolution and from literature and scientific exploration during the Scientific Revolution, Poland was a perpetual battleground, constantly in flux between authoritarian governments and an attempt to regain autonomy. In a short 100 years, Poland had been occupied by the Russia, Prussia, and Austrian governments. Despite all this political upheaval and a constant fluctuation of power, the Polish people were able to keep a unified national identity.
Fighting against three very strong nations was an impossible task for the Polish nationals. However, that did not stop the people from…
Davies, Norman. God's Playground: a History of Poland. New York: Columbia UP, 1982. Print.
Sanford, George. Poland: The Conquest of History. OPA. 1999. Print.
prospective members of the European Union pecified by the Nice conference, Poland bears the distinction of both having the largest population at 38.6 million, and the largest GDP at 176 billion. From 1997 through 2001, the Polish economy has grown at a steady 4.1% a year and is in many ways beginning to resemble its new western partners rather than its still-troubled eastern neighbors. (Economist, Jul. 29, 2002) Despite this, Poland differs from the traditional continental powers in several distinct ways. Perhaps most unique is the Republic's relationship with the United tates.
It may surprise those that know little of Polish history that the republic owes its existence to the United tates. In 1918, the country was re-established by the treaty of Versailles after 123 years of Prussian and Russian control of the region. This was achieved primarily in light of the lobbying activities of the Polish emigre population living…
Poland: Factsheet. Economist, Jul. 29, 2002
Poland: Economic Structure. Economist, Nov 19th 2001
Warm Feelings Toward the United States in Central Europe. Economist, Jan. 30, 2003.
Europe's Mexico Option. Economist, Oct 3, 2002.
ies by Eva Stachniak
Eva Stachniak's book Necessary ies is a book whose main character is mostly based on the author's own biography. He book is about life in Poland in communist times, the cultural shock encountered by an immigrant to Canada from a communist country, a destroyed marriage as a consequence of the estrangement of the spouses, love and betrayal. Up to a point, the book is dealing with the difficulties every immigrant encounters when moving form Europe to North America, or even from a country to a different country from the same continent. The protagonist here is just carrying the burden of twenty-eight years of living in communist Poland, until she immigrated to Canada in 1981.
The main character in Necessary ies left Poland the year following the workers strike that led to the formation of the Independent Self-Governing Union Solidarnosc, under ech Walesa's leadership.
From the moment…
Lukowski, Jerzy. Zawadzki, Hubert. .A concise history of Poland. Cambridge University Press, 2001
Poland Maps. Retrieved: Dec 9, 2009. Available at: http://www.staypoland.com/history-map.htm
Stachniak, Eva. Harper Collins Canada. Retrieved: Dec 9, 2009. Available at: http://www.harpercollins.ca/authors/60052774/Stachniak_Eva/index.aspx
The Variant Paths of Post-Communist Russia, Poland, and Hungary
The past ten years have seen great changes in the formerly Communist countries of Eastern Europe. Bound together for years under the Soviet yoke, these nations have now embarked upon their own individual paths as sovereign states. Representative of these emerging one-time Eastern Bloc nations are Russia, Poland, and Hungary. All three once shared a common form of government and a single social system. In each of these cases, Communism overlay a pre-existing civilization and set of traditions. This relatively brief interlude of Marxism, Leninism, and Stalinism was thus, a veneer, a covering over, if you will, of far older patterns of behavior and ways of thinking. It was these underlying cultural and historical characteristics that, combined with the shared history of Soviet rule, produced the countries we know today. Three distinct nations were put together into the crucible of…
Allison, Graham. "Deepening Russian democracy: progress and pitfalls in Putin's Government." Harvard International Review 24.2 (2002): 62+. Questia. 2 May 2003
The less negative situation encountered in the zech Republic could be explained by the fact that since 1990 the expenditure on health services per capita has been permanently increasing despite the restrictions of social expenditure imposed on the zech economy (data from EORG research Health are System in entral Europe: December 2004).
onclusions. A survey conducted by the EORG in November 2004, 5 months after the accession of the four entral European countries (data from EORG research EU Membership: November 2004) illustrates the positive feelings of Hungarian, zech, Slovakian and Polish citizens regarding the European Union membership of their countries. The rate of agreement with EU membership was generally very high - over 75% in all the four countries - with variations among age groups, gender and occupation, and ranges from 81, 6% in Slovakia to 74, 7% in Hungary of the total number of respondents agreeing with EU membership…
Central European Opinion Research Group. "Personal Trust in Different Categories of Social Institutions. http://www.ceorg-europe.org/
Central European Opinion Research Group. "EU Membership. http://www.ceorg-europe.org/
Gallup International. "Voice of the People 2005: Trends in democracy. www.voice-of-thepeople.net/ContentFiles/files/VoP2005/VOP2005_Democracy%20FINAL.pdf
Also, Anna finds more lies as she analyses illiam's past, concluding that lies play a vital role in people's lives. The fact that even illiam's mother had to lie relating to her son's real father convinces Anna to think less about illiam's life. Ursula having similar beliefs to Anna contributes to them wanting to find out more about illiam's past, and, to try to understand it.
hen finally deciding to brake up from Piotr, Anna does not attempt to bring any reasons for her decision, as she simply claims that she fell in love with someone else. This proves to be too much for Piotr that cannot conceive how something like this can simply happen. Anna's mother also finds it hard to accept that her daughter would brake up with her husband. Even with that, she had not actually been against Anna's decision because of her being determined to quit…
1. Duffy, Christopher. (1991). "Red storm on the Reich: the Soviet march on Germany, 1945." Routledge.
2. Kemp-Welch a. (2008). "Poland under Communism: a Cold War history." Cambridge University Press
3. Stachniak, Eva. (2000). "Necessary lies." Dundurn Press Ltd.
Kemp-Welch a. (2008). "Poland under Communism: a Cold War history." Cambridge University Press.
In this regard, artee (2000) points out that the Leipzig protest of January 15, 1989, was a good example of how social protest in the East was becoming more sophisticated and organized, with thousands of activists distributing leaflets calling for attendance at the rally all over Leipzig around midnight of January 11-12, 1989: "The leaflets boldly called for an open demonstration the next Sunday afternoon in front of Leipzig's old Rathaus (City Hall). The occasion, the 70th anniversary of the murders of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, offered the opportunity to publicize Luxemburg's famous statement that 'freedom means always freedom for those who think differently'" (artee 2000, 121). This author adds that the efforts by the activists during January 1988 to join the official parade with banners of their own clearly inspired the Leipzig protestors: "The Leipzig event would be different, however; it would be independent of any official ceremonies.…
Bartee, Wayne C. 2000. A time to speak out: The Leipzig citizen protests and the fall of East Germany. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Berger, T. 2001. German unification and the Union of Europe. German Politics and Society 19(1):80.
Conradt, D.P. 2002. Political culture in unified Germany: The first ten years. German Politics and Society 20(2):43.
Edwards, Vincent, Gennadij Polonsky, Danijel Pucko, Malcolm Warner and Ying Zhu. 2004. Management in transitional economies: From the Berlin Wall to the Great Wall of China. New York: Routledge.
Lastly, a loss of Ajaristan (Ajaria) would weaken Georgias buffer with Turkey and increase loss of lack Sea shoreline:
In the conflict between the Ossetians and Ingush, the Russian government favored the "always loyal Ossetians" over the discontented Muslim Ingush. The conflicts with the Georgians in the south and the Ingush in the west have fueled the growth of Ossetian nationalism, but the majority hope for autonomy, not full independence, fearing the loss of Russian protection in the volatile region they have inhabited since ancient times. The Ossetians, although needing Russian protection in the mostly Muslim region, continue to work for the unification of their small nation in a single political entity. In 1996, the governments of North and South Ossetia signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation. Relations between the South Ossetians and the Georgian government improved in the late 1990s. The Georgian government of Eduard Shevardnadze proposed in…
Abbott, Wilbur Cortez. The Expansion of Europe: A History of the Foundations of the Modern World. Vol. 2,. New York: H. Holt and Company, 1918.
Atal, Yogesh, ed. Poverty in Transition and Transition in Poverty: Recent Developments in Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Georgia, Russia, Mongolia. New York: Berghahn Books, 1999.
Black, Cyril E., Robert D. English, Jonathan E. Helmreich, a. James McAdams, and Paul C. Helmreich. Rebirth: A Political History of Europe since World War II. 2nd ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.
"Bulgaria, Romania Pledge Support in Georgia's EU Aspiration" May, 9th 2005, http://www.washprofile.org/en/node/6355
Munich is famous for many tourist attractions. In the center of the city is the Marienplatz - a large open square with the Old and the New Town Hall. Structures from demolished medieval fortification have survived to this day, including three gates. There are also a number of remarkable churces - the Peterskirche, close to Marienplatz, the gothic hall-church Heiliggeistkirche (The Church of the Holy Ghost), the Frauenkirche ("Dom zu unserer Lieben Frau" - Cathedral of Our Lady), which is the most famous building in the city center or Michaelskirche, the largest enaissance church (Cityguide).
The palaces are another feature of the old city. The Alte Hof, a medieval castle and first residence of the Wittelsbach dukes in Munich can be seen in the inner city. The large esidenz palace is one of Europe's most significant museums of interior decoration. The international renown Nationaltheater is another attraction. As far as…
Wikipedia Online Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/
Yahoo! Travel, http://travel.yahoo.com/
Polish Immigration -- a Journal
A Journal Entry from a Catholic Polish Immigrant
The voyage across the sea was treacherous, and the water splashing on the deck was cold as ice, but the hope, the fantastic hope of seeing the Great City was the calmest and warmest force within me that kept me going through the seasickness and the cold. My voyage started in Warsaw and it seems like it lasted for years and years. o great was my excitement that I became seasick many times. It was actually fortunate that we did not have a lot of food because that way I was, I think, less seasick than if I had been full.
Poland is a beautiful country, but there is very little hope of making any money. ometimes we cannot even have dinner because there is nothing to eat. I have seven children and many other Catholic families…
Sources utilized for background information (not directly cited):
No Author. (2012). Ellis Island Background Information. Ellis Island. Retrieved from: < http://www.ellisisland.org/Immexp/index.asp >.
Reisner, L., Davis, S., and Miara, L. (2012). Polish Immigration to America. Polish Immigration. Retrieved from: .
They point out that if a suspected terrorist gets on a plane and gets off at a place like Copenhagen or Toronto and demands asylum, even if he is not granted asylum, he's pretty much got a safe haven to operate in because he can' be deported or extradited back to where ever he came from. They believe that such lenient 'European' laws create a huge gap in security, which need to be tightened and that human rights conventions such as the Convention Against Torture make it almost impossible for states to gain a reasonable and necessary degree of assurance against devastating attacks in an age of asymmetrical warfare against international terrorists.
Former U.S. officials such as Michael Scheuer, who helped to set up the CIA's rendition program during the Clinton administration, are more forthcoming about commenting on the nature and existence of 'extraordinary' renditions. Scheuer has in different statements…
Begg, Moazzam. "Rendition: Tortured Truth." New Statesman 26 June 2006: 19.
Below the radar: Secret flights to torture and 'disappearance.'" Amnesty International Report. April 5, 2006. February 5, 2008 http://www.amnesty.org/en/alfresco_asset/5d82f002-a2d8-11dc-8d74-6f45f39984e5/amr510512006en.html
Charter, David. "Britain accused on secret CIA flights." Times Online. November 29, 2006. February 5, 2008. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article653418.ece
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment." Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 1987. February 5, 2008. http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/h_cat39.htm
Nevertheless, at the same time when Churchill took his place as leader of the ritish armed forces, the Germans had dealt an impressive blow by invading and eventually conquering elgium, France, and the Netherlands. Standing as one of the greatest powers in the world at the time, France had only managed to hold off its oppressors for a month and a half before signing an armistice with the Axis forces and allowing the German and Italian troops to occupy its territory.
eing excited by their wonderful victory over France, the Germans went on a mission to invade ritain using various tactics. However, all efforts proved to be useless, as the ritish had managed to defend their country excellently. The United States had neuter at the time when the Germans had been sweeping across Europe. However, because of their connection to ritain, they backed the ritish by agreeing to a trade…
Being excited by their wonderful victory over France, the Germans went on a mission to invade Britain using various tactics. However, all efforts proved to be useless, as the British had managed to defend their country excellently. The United States had neuter at the time when the Germans had been sweeping across Europe. However, because of their connection to Britain, they backed the British by agreeing to a trade of destroyers meant to strengthen the British naval forces.
Japan, Italy, and Germany had signed a Tripartite Act in September 1940, stating that any country that would attack the Axis powers would be required to go at war against the three. Romania, Slovakia, and Hungary joined the Tripartite Act in November, influencing the Germans in wanting to attack the Soviet Union. The Germans advanced into Greece consequent to Bulgaria signing the Tripartite Act. The Germans did not hesitate to unleash a surprise attack on the Soviets with operation Barbarossa on 22 June, 1941, once again proving that the German armed forces could easily brake through defense lines, regardless of their strength (the Soviets had been preparing defensive campaigns even before the start of the war).
The Axis advance in the east had come to a halt near Moscow, thus marking the moment when the German could no longer continue the Blitzkrieg and had to engage in traditional warfare.
trips that I made to very different places were Mexico City and the Auschwitz extermination camp in Poland, and I will describe the impressions that I remember best from these visits to two very different places. Mexico City stands out in my mind because it was my first trip to a foreign country, but Auschwitz is a place I cannot forget simply because of what it is and the evil that it represents -- and I mean that in the literal sense, because it's no exaggeration to say that evil is just in the very atmosphere of the place. I did see some terrible things in Mexico, too, but Auschwitz was always unique in my limited experience and in a category by itself. I did go back to Mexico more than once after that first visit, but had no desire ever to return to Auschwitz or anyplace like it, since…
peers made claim "The History Love," largely history loss. Argue assertion. hether support refute claim, explain significance. YOU CAN FIND A BROAD SUMMARY OF THIS BOOK ON IKIPEDIA USE THE ACTUAL BOOK- "THE HISTORY OF LOVE: A NOVEL" BY NICOLE KRAUSS This I .
The History of Love: Love as chosen loss
The History of Love could just as easily be titled 'a history of thwarted love.' None of the main characters in either of the parallel narratives that run through the book ever achieve their heart's desires. Leo Gursky pines for his neighbor Alma, but war separates the two young lovers. hen they reunite, Leo is devastated to learn that Alma has moved on with her life, gotten married, and had another child with her husband. Leo spends the rest of his life living in a kind of suspended animation, his life entirely fixated upon Alma. Leo seems more…
Krauss, Nicole. The History of Love. New York: W.W. Norton, 2006.
eanie-the Flavor Company-was born in the homely garage of Mark Porteus in February 2009. It was the brainchild of Chris Tarling and Mark Porteus, former employees of oater's Coffee. As more investors joined the company, the eanies brand was officially launched and registered. As operations began to expand out of the scope of Mark's garage, a 1000 square foot space was rented as an economical alternative in May 2009. Four varieties of flavored instant coffee were introduced in the same month. eanies truly became an "international" brand when it commenced exporting its product for the coffee lovers in Poland. With business growing further, the firm moved to a 2000 square foot space at the end of the winter in 2010. Growth in the digital realm is of prior importance to eanies and it launched its user friendly, fully integrated e commerce website that allows users to create a profile…
Beanies. (2012). Retrieved April 28, 2012, from Beanies Coffee: http://www.beaniescoffee.co.uk/
Coffee in Germany. CBI Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Netherlands.
(2010). Exporter Guide Germany Country Brief December 2010. New Zealand Trade & Enterprise.
German Coffee -- Flavor And Smoothness. (2011). Retrieved April 28, 2012, from German City: http://www.mygermancity.com/german-coffee
Germany Demographics Profile 2012. (2011, July 12). Index Mundi .
Germany Economic Structure. (2010, April 8). Economy Watch .
Germany in Transition: Traditional Markets in decline. (2004, June 14). Coffee and Cocoa International .
(2012). Hot Drinks in Germany February 2012. Marketline Industry Profile.
Between 1618 and 1648, there was an outbreak of war which was mainly caused by the struggle between a militant Calvinism and a militant Catholicism in fact it was referred to as the "last of the religious wars." Furthermore, prior to, all through, and after this three decades war, a sequence of civil wars and rebellions hit Europe. All this events and problems greatly affected Europe economically, socially, and even politically and actually qualify to be categorized as crises.
For the period of the 16th and 17th centuries, the European society did not respect women at all since they considered them inferior to men both mentally and morally thus were directly linked to witchcraft during the witchcraft craze. To make it worse was the fact that these low estimates were not just held by the witch hunter but also by the elites such as lawyers, theologians, and philosophers.…
Cook, et al. (1980). British Historical Facts 1760-1830. London: Macmillan.
Europe in crisis: Social disintegration, war, and revolution (1560-1650). Retrieved in March 1,
2010 from .
The article continues by presenting the argument that adults are unable to acquire a new language (although most are capable of acquiring a new accent) due to the fact that adults no longer possess the tools to build a new "Sound House." According to the article's author a Sound House is the process a newborn child begins when acquiring a language. The article states "the Sound House is the 'home' of the language, or what we have been calling accent - the phonology - of the child's native tongue" (46). The Sound House, according to the author, is the place where children learn to speak and to communicate in the most effective manner with the largest amount of individuals. The problem with this scenario is that the newborn only consistently comes in contact with a certain few people. These are normally parents, aunts, uncles, cousins and other close relationships. These…
The British created a well-educated, English-speaking Indian elite middle class d. new jobs were created for millions of Indian hand-spinner and hand-weavers
The Indian National Congress can best be described in which of the following ways:
a. An Indian Civil Service that administered British rule.
b. A group of upper-caste professionals seeking independence from Britain.
c. white settlers who administered British rule.
d. anglicized Indians who were the social equals of white rulers.
Under the Culture System, Indonesian peasants had to Answer:
a. learn to speak and read Dutch b. plant one-fifth of their land in export crops to be turned over to the Dutch colonial government c. convert to the Dutch Reformed Church d. join large state-run farms.
Modern Vietnamese nationalism traced much of its inspiration to Answer:
a. Japanese modernization.
b. China's "Hundred Days" Reform program.
c. The U.S. Declaration of Independence.
d. British Fabian socialism.
Robespierre had Danton and his followers arrested, convicted, and beheaded.
A movie produced on Danton by Poland's Andrzej Wajda in 1983 clearly showed the zeal of the revolutionaries against this Rule of Terror (Weiss). The movie argues that Robespierre was so concerned with keeping his own power, he destroyed the principles on which the revolution was founded. In a scene of the film, the onvention realizes Robespierre's intentions, and someone yells, "Down with the dictator!" Robespierre destroys the revolution by using violence to enforce democratic ideals. During the trial Danton sums up what Robespierre has done: "Revolutionary principles have made you forget the revolution."
The Enlightenment ended after the devastation of the French Revolution and Napoleonic era, rise of a religious revival and growth of the Industrial Revolution and business class. However, much of the philosophies of this time continue today through constitutions of countries including the U.S.'
Cranston, Maurice. The intellectual origins of the French Revolution. History Today, 1989, 39.
Dubois, Laurent. Avengers of the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004
Weiss, Andrew. Danton and the Destruction of the French Revolution. Website retrieved 12, June 2005. http://shakti.trincoll.edu/~aweiss/danton.htm
elationship Between Individual & Society: Understanding Contemporary Society
The human being, by his nature, is a social creature. This nature drives him to live as a member of society, in which he interacts with others to satisfy his needs and instincts. No person can manage to satisfy his needs on his own; rather, he requires specific relationships with other human beings in order to satisfy them. The nature of these relationships is determined by the system which is implemented in the society. However, every system, in order to produce a progressive society, has to balance between the needs of the individual and the needs of the society. If the individual's needs are ignored, then he will live in misery. Also, if the society's needs are ignored, then the society will not function properly as the environment in which the individual's strive to satisfy their needs. (LBA, 2010)
Blake, NCPsyA, M. (2012). Individuation. Web, Available from: http://www.marthablake.com/individuation1.html . 2012 November 14.
Furlong, A., & Cartmel, F. (2006). Young people and social change. Mcgraw-Hill International: Poland, 35 -- 53.
Health Knowledge. (2012). The Sociological Perspective: Society. Web, Available from: http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/medical-sociology-policy-economics/4a-concepts-health-illness/section1 . 2012 November 14.
Jeffs, T., & Smith, M.K. (2002). Individualization and youth work. Youth and Policy, 76, 39 -65.
Life has some form of development through a range of events that could be considered rites of passages for every person. These experience that individuals face during their lives is substantial different yet contains many similarities at the same time. This essay will look at two accounts of different experiences by two famous authors that tackle aspects of what it means to face different stages in one's life. Both stories offer insights as to how our identity is shaped by our memory and our memory can be shaped by a plethora of individual and cultural experiences. Memory certainly serves as a "catch-all" term that encompasses a widespread range of factors that occur in the human experience.
Eva Hoffman's memoir, Lost in Translation, illustrates events from her life as she emigrated from Cracow, Poland to Vancouver, Canada. N. Scott Momaday's, The ay to Rainy Mountain is also about a journey…
Hoffman, E. Lost in Translation: A Life in a New Language. New York: Penguin, 1990. Print.
Kensinger, E. And D. Schacter. "Memory and Emotion." N.d. Boston College. Web. 28 October 2012.
Lanigan, J. "All Stories So Far." 1 Septiember 2009. English. Web. 28 October 2012.
Momaday, S. The Way to Rainy Mountain. University of New Mexico Press, 1976. Print.
Polish Companies Reacted to Ethical Issues and Changes in usiness Standards Since the Fall of Communism in 1989?
Poland's Economy Pre-Communism's Fall
Poland's Natural Resources
Minerals and Fuels
The Polish Economy Under Communism
The Centrally-Planned Economy
Establishing the Planning Formula
Retrenchment and Adjustment in the 1960s
Reliance on Technology in the 1970s
Reform Failure in the 1980s
Poland's Economy After the Fall of Communism
Poland After the Fall of Communism
Fall of Communism
Marketization and Stabilization
Required Short-Term Changes
Section 2.3.2. The Shock Strategy
Section 2.3.3. Initial Results
Section 2.3.4. Long-Term Requirements
Section 2.4. Macroeconomic Indicators for 1990-91
Section 2.4.1. Price Increases
Section 2.4.2. Impact on Productivity and Wages
Section 2.4.3. Statistical Distortions
Section 2.4.4. Agricultural Imbalances
Section 2.4.5. Causes of Decline
Section 2.5.The Polish Post-Communism Privatization Process
Section 2.6. Structure of Poland's Economy: Post-Communism
Section 2.6.1. Fuels and Energy
Bowie E. (1999) Business Ethics a Kantian Perspective Oxford: Blackwell
Ciszewska B. (1998) Unethical behaviour Warszawa: Rzeczpospolita
Cryssides G.D.; Kaler J.H. (1999) Introduction to the ethics of business. Warszawa: PWN
Davies W.F. (1997) Current issues in business ethics London: Routledge
Culture Group- the Polish
Culture Group -- the Polish
The polish culture group is a category of people who speak the Slavic lingo of Poland and practice the cultural norms in line with their beliefs and customs. It is perceived that the culture essence of the polish is one that unconstrained emotional expressions (Wierzbicka, 2003, pg 121). The culture originated from a confluence with interweaving ties alongside Germans, Latinos and the Byzantines. The originality is also as a result of cultural traits of the proto-slavs. The geographical position and occupancy of the polish are found in the heart of Europe, the nation of Poland. Their nation is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Ukraine and Belarus, Germany, Czech epublic and Slovakia to the northern side, east, and west and southern respectively. The polish people experience a long-term climatic environment. It is rough and adverse and has taken long…
Albala, K. (2011). Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia. New York: ABC-CLIO.
Dyczewski, L. (2002). Values in the Polish cultural tradition. Chicago: CRVP.
Jasinski, P. (1999). Environmental regulation in transforming economies. Great Britain: Ashgate Publishing.
Kronenberg, J., Bergier, T., et al. (2010). Challenges of Sustainable Development in Poland. Pomerania: Fundacja Sendzimira.
Thereafter, Poland and the Czech Republic were required to provide evidence concerning their compliance with the requirement to improve their commitment to environmental standards as well (Medvec 2009).
Both Poland and the Czech Republic were successful in satisfying the EU's leadership of their commitment to full integration by providing evidence of their commitment to improving their track record on environmental issues and achieved membership in the EU in 2004; in fact, the Czech Republic even assumed the presidency of the EU in 2009 (Medvec 2009). Both Poland and the Czech Republic have also become more fully integrated into the EU in other ways as well, including a transition from their former status as members of the Soviet Union's Warsaw Pact to become members in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1999 (Medvec 2009). Despite these achievements, both Poland and the Czech Republic are still confronted with a number of constraints…
Source: Hofstede, 2009
As can be readily seen
These types of trips accounted for 33% in 2004, a major increase since 2002, when they only accounted for 17% in all international trips. Finally, the third most common stimulus for trips abroad was that of visiting family and friends. In 2002, the rate of these trips was of 28%, but by 2004 it had declined to 22%.
Another trend obvious in the past recent years is that of Polish tourists visiting destinations considered untraditional so far. This is generally the result of intensified marketing efforts and the most relevant example in this sense is the still growing number of Polish individuals traveling to the African countries, namely Kenya. Also, the results are due to a long historical relationship between Poland and Kenya, basically the fact that Poland has offered scholarships to the Kenyan students and that they have also helped defend the British territories in Kenya against Germany, during…
Ebrill, L.P., 1994, Poland: The Path to a Market Economy, International Monetary Fund
Smith, M.K., Robinson, M., 2006, Cultural Tourism in a Changing World: Politics, Participation and (Re)presentation, Cahnnel View Publications
Thomas, R., Augustyn, M., 2006, Tourism in the New Europe: Perspectives on Some Policies and Practices, Elsevier
2002, Number of Polish Tourists Up, Polonia Global Fund, http://pgf.cc/2002/06/15/number-of-polish-tourists-up/last accessed on January 13, 2009
Polish immigrants have always been an integral part of the melting pot of America. Indeed, a Polish War Hero named Casimir Pulaski was granted a legion of men during the Revolutionary War. This particular immigrant was partially responsible for a victory over ritish troops in Charleston. He would later die in battle, defending the newly formed country. Stories of this particular immigrant have trickled down through the years. Many of the newly arrived Poles saw Pulaski as a hero, someone to emulate - a true Polish-American hero.
After the last shots of the Civil War were fired, a new era began in the United States, an era of emigration. etween 1865 and 1900 over thirty-five million immigrants sought refuge within the United States. A tremendous number of these immigrants came from the faltering nation of Poland.
In the late seventeen hundreds and then throughout the eighteen hundreds, Poland was systematically…
The Second Generation's New Ethnic Identity." Polish-American Folklore. http://wings.buffalo.edu/info-poland/DAS.html
Chicago's Northwest Polish Community." Chicago Historical Society. www.chicagohs.org/global/ipugh0613.html
Parot, Joseph John. "Historical Research and Narrative." Multicultural Difficulties in Chicago's Polish Catholic Community. http://www.lib.niu.edu/ipo/iht629923.html
Lorys, Jan. "Polonia Rich in History." Chicago Sun-Times. http://suntimes.com/century/m1917.html
Germany West East
In the post-unification Germany of the present, the country seems to be caught between two worlds. Certainly, reservations about German power have tapered off. Germany has not become an irredentist nationalist power in European Union attire. In its relations with Western Europe, Germany has been successful in dispelling such fears. In Eastern Europe, the perception and the actual role of Germany is not bathed as much in the warm light of multilateralism. The challenge is not just for Germany to work harder to convince the East that it is well-intentioned. The deeper challenge however is to confront the fact that historical and structural constraints converge to create a situation of asymmetric dependence, rather than asymmetric interdependence, complicated further by the process of European integration and globalization. As being the land in between ussia and Germany, one can understand their nervousness. However, Germany is part of the West…
Adebahr, Cornelius. The Comprehensive Approach to Crisis Management in a Concerted Weimar
Effort. Genshagen: Genshagen Foundation, 2011. 1-18.
"Berlin's European Recession." German-foreign-policy.. German-foreign-policy., 16 March 2012. Web.
22 Mar 2012.
atrocities happening in recent modern history of civilization. The two orld ars in the first part of the 20th century have demonstrated the human capacity to inflict harm and destruction on its peers. Perhaps one of the most significant event in the history of the Second orld ar is that of the genocide that took place on the Jewish community. During the war and immediately afterwards more than six million Jews are reported to have been massacred by the Nazi forces
However, despite the fact that the holocaust that took place during this time is mostly attributed to the Nazi forces and Adolf Hitler's plan to exterminate the Jewish population, there are numerous accounts of historians that point out the fact that the SS German troops would have been unable to achieve this great atrocity without the assistance of the local populations such as the Polish or the French. One…
Dallaire, Romeo. Shake Hands With The Devil: The Failure Of Humanity In Rwanda. Carroll & Graf/Avalon, 2005
Gross, Jan T. Neighbours: The Destruction of the Jewish Community at Jewabne, Poland.Princeton University Press, 2002 .
Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995
Steiner, George. "Poland's willing executioners." The Guardian. April 08, 2001. http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2001/apr/08/historybooks.features (accessed April 23, 2013).
Six weeks later the Czech Republic became the 27th and final nation to sign the Treaty. On December 2, 2009 the Lisbon Treaty went into full effect one month prior to the date originally projected.
The driving force behind the drafting and ratification of the Lisbon Treaty was German Chancellor Merkel. When she assumed her six-month presidency of the European Union in January of 2007 she was determined to effect a change in how the Union was operated. At the European Council meeting in June of 2007 she was able to convince other EU leaders to join her in amending the treaties under which the Union operated. A prior attempt at organizing the Union under a constitution had failed and so it was believed that proceeding under the treaty procedure would be more acceptable to the other member states. The constitution concept had been rejected several other times…
Bale, T., the End of the nation-state?. In European Politics: A Comparative Introduction, 2nd edit., Houndmills: Palgrave MacMillan (2008).
Cini, M. & Borragan, N.P, European Union Politics, Oxford, Oxford University Press (2010)
Dedman, M., the Origins & Development of the European Union 1945-2008: A History of European Integration, London, Routledge Publishing (2009)
These new laws applied to native-born Jews only; foreign, that is, Russian, Jews still suffered from restrictions. This division between native and foreign Jews was of importance then and still exists in present-day German law as it did in the days of the German empire, the eimar Republic, and the Nazi regime. (Cohn 10)
These old standards left the door open for new and modern forms of the same archaic segregations and prejudices.
hen the Nazis rose to power, they revived many of the old evils. Restrictions on Jews owning businesses or entering certain professions were instituted, ghettos were reestablished, and special taxes were placed on the Jewish community at large rather than on individuals. The new ghettos were governed by Nazi-appointed Jewish officials, the Judenrat, right up to the point when the entire ghettos were "cleansed" and the inhabitants either shot out of hand or deported to extermination camps.…
Christie, Clive. "Unity and Diversity: A Critique of Religion and Ethnicity in Europe." The Ecumenical Review 47.1 (1995): 12+. Questia. 23 Oct. 2004 http://www.questia.com/ .
Cohn, Michael. Jewish Bridges: East to West. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1996.
Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup
hen a greater variety of representatives were
present, the term zemskii sobor or assembly of the land was applied to the
group. This group did not really have any political power as a legislative
body. However, it was a way for Ivan's administration to gather support
amongst a wide range of people.
Ivan felt that he needed the support of the people and of the church
to accomplish his reforms. Consequently, one of his early and important
reforms involved changes in the church. ith Ivan's blessing, the Stoglav
Council made many revisions in church policy ranging from ways of worship
to church court to monastic life to Christianity for the average person.
All of these new policies were documented in a book called Stoglav.
Ivan was a pious person himself and he saw the necessity of bringing the
church on board with the various changes that he intended to make.…
Crummey, Robert O. The Formation of Muscovy: 1304-1613. London: Longman,
De Madariaga, Isabel. Ivan the Terrible: First Tsar of Russia. New Haven:
University Press, 2005.
Pavlov, Andrei and Maureen Perrie. Ivan the Terrible: Profiles in Power.
Pearson Longman, 2003.
psychosocial smoking cessation interventions for coronary heart disease patients effective?
The association with smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been well documented. To prevent further heart attacks, as well as to preserve their life, smokers have been consistently and strongly advised to quit smoking, and associations such as the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Task Force have drafted recommendations and reams of advice to assist patients in doing so. Nevertheless, many patients diagnosed with CHD continue to smoke despite the possibility of interventions and programs (many of them free) helping them to stop. Mortality can be reduced by as much as 36% if smokers with CHD determine to stop smoking 3-5 years after diagnosed (Critchley, 2003) aside from which dramatic reductions in cardiac attacks have been discovered when smokers have stopped smoking for as short a time as a year (Quist-Paulsen, & Gallefoss, 2003). The Coronary…
Barth, J., Critchley, J., & Benget, J. (2008). Psychosocial interventions for smoking cessations in patients with coronary heart disease, Cochrane Heart Review.
Critchley JA, Capewell S. Mortality risk reduction associated with smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease. J Am Med Ass;290:86 -- 97.
Frothingham, S. et al., (2006). How much does smoking cessation cut CHD risk? Clinical Inquiries, 57, 10, 675-679
Huey-Ling W., Harrell, J & Funk, S (2008). Factors Associated With Smoking Cessation
Halban in Konrad allenrod
The epic poem Konrad allenrod written by Adam Mickiewicz tells the story of 14th century Lithuania from the perspective of a 19th century author. Readers stood behind this story which symbolized the strength of the Polish people against all potential foreign invaders, whether in the past, the present, or the future. Not only did this give Polish nationalism a reason to have pride in their ancestors and in their heritage but they used this story as a rallying cry of sorts in their current difficulties with Russia. In the Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era, author Christopher John Murray even points to this poem as inspiring the November 1830 uprising against the tsar and his endeavors to take over Poland (742). The character of Halban represents the old guard, those who cannot fight the wars of the young but who can survive though their defenders live. He…
Davies, Norman. God's Playground: A History of Poland. New York: Columbia UP, 1982. Print.
Mickiewicz, Adam. Konrad Wallenrod. Lanham, MD: University of America, 1989. Print.
Murray, Christopher John. "Adam Mickiewicz." Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era: 1760-1850.
New York: Fitzroy Dearbonr, 2004. 739-42. Print.
Inner strength lies in following the values and old traditions, as compared to the false powers that are bestowed by freedom of no values and traditions (Kelly 44).
The play described in the sections above has a stronger meaning that needs increased comprehension and understanding. Here the main aim of the author is to highlight the fact that order, rather than rebellious bohemian behavior, traditions and values are the strengths that can help in surviving through life. There is no grace in freedom that is itself free of all values. This represents the political situation of Poland in the Second orld ar as well as the modern day as brutality and power is the main order rather than justice and values.
Kelly, E. Katherine. The Cambridge companion to Tom Stoppard, Cambridge companions to literature. Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Mro-ek, S-awomir., and Gerould, Charles, Daniel. The Mro-ek reader.…
Kelly, E. Katherine. The Cambridge companion to Tom Stoppard, Cambridge companions to literature. Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Mro-ek, S-awomir., and Gerould, Charles, Daniel. The Mro-ek reader. Grove Press, 2004.
Salter, Mark., and Bousfield, Jonathan. Rough guide to Poland, Poland (Rough Guides), The Rough Guide, Rough Guide to Poland. Edition 5. Rough Guides, 2002.
Small usiness' Need for a CPA
One of the critical investments a small business can make to mitigate loss and risk is hiring a CPA and putting that CPA on the 'management team.' As Wells notes in his groundbreaking research, "Denise, a bookkeeper for a small trucking firm in irmingham, Alabama, wishes she had never heard of Ralph Summerford, CPA. ecause of his thoroughness, Denise is facing several years in prison for embezzling $550,000 from her employer. At least she will look good standing before the sentencing judge: Denise spent a great deal of her illegal loot on head-to-toe cosmetic surgery. She blew the rest on a shiny new Lexus, luxury vacations, clothing and jewelry. And, of course, Denise had to have a big house to store all of her finery." (Wells, 2003)
Surprisingly, it was not at all the fancy standard of living that made her employer suspicious. "The…
Wells, Joseph. 2003. Protect small business: small companies without adequate internal controls need CPAs to help them minimize fraud risk. Journal of Accountancy.
Small Business Administration. 2005. www.sba.gov.
Federal Reserve Bank. 2004. www.federalreserve.gov.
AICPA. 2005. At www.aicpa.org/antifraud/training/homepage/htm.
Irony and Humor in French Literature
Delphine Perret's analysis of irony and humor is apparently well-founded and well-supported by famous literature. Due to obvious differences in the French and English notions of irony, Perret explored irony by returning to its roots. Starting "at square one" with definitions of "irony" from notable dictionaries, Perret then traces irony through historical eras and developments with the aid of such great thinkers as Socrates and Aristotle. Her exhaustive analysis results in clearly defined types of irony/humor, basic elements of the phenomenon and dimensions that are or should be present in that form of writing. The intelligence of Perret's examination is illustrated in two famous French plays of the 19th and 20th Century: "Ubu Roi" and "The ald Soprano." Though written by different playwrights in different centuries, both plays fully support Perret's analysis and findings regarding irony/humor.
a. Perret's Applicable Points
Delphine Perret's "Irony"…
Ashton, Dore. "On Blaise Cendrars...But I Digress." Raritan, 31(2) (Fall 2011): 1-42, 164. Print.
Dittmar, Linda and Joseph Entin. "Jamming the Works: Art, Politics, and Activism." Radical Teacher, 89 (Winter 2010): 3-9, 79-80. Print.
Hrbek, Greg. "The Science of Imaginary Solutions." Salmagundi, 170/171 (Spring 2011): 240-252, 280. Print.
Ionesco, Eugene and Donald M. Allen. The Bald Soprano and Other Plays. New York, NY: Grove Press, Inc., 1958. Print.
in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…
Beauvoir, Simone de, and Parshley, H.M. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.pp. lv, 786
Eisenstein, Zillah R. The Radical Future of Liberal Feminism. The Northeastern Series in Feminist Theory. Northeastern University Press ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986.pp. xi, 260
Engels, Fredrick. "The Development of Utopian Socialism." Trans. Lafargue, Paul. Marx/Engels Selected Works. Revue Socialiste. Ed. Basgen, Brian. Vol. 3. New York: Progress Publishers, 1880. 95-151.
Origins of the Family, Private Property, and the State. 1894. Retrieved April 10, 2003 from. http://csf.colorado.edu/psn/marx/Archive/1884-Family/
In Poland, a ritual exists by which a znajomy becomes a kolega: When the two parties-- regardless of gender -- give mutual permission to allow each other to drop the "Mr." And "Miss" and call each other by their first names. A celebration involving drinking frequently follows, frequently with the two drinking shots of alcohol with arms linked. The English terms closest to kolega are "buddy," "pal," and "companion."
The authors (McAndrew & ybak, 2006) hypothocized that since the Poles had more formalized and precise friendship words, they would differentiate more readily and consistently between different types of friends than Americans. They also looked at sex differences in judgments made about friendship, expecting that women in both America and Poland would probably make more discriminating judgments about relationships than would men.
Participants were either college students from the U.S. Or Poland. There were 56 Polish and 57 American participants. All…
Bell, S., & Coleman, S. (Eds.). (1999). The anthropology of friendship. Oxford: Berg.
Bond, M.H. (1988). Finding universal dimensions of individual variation in multicultural studies of values: The Rokeach and Chinese value surveys. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 1009-1015.
Erikson, E.H. (1968). Identity: Youth and Crisis. New York: Norton.
Greenberger, E., & Chen, C. (1996). Perceived family relationships and depressed mood in early and late adolescence:a comparison of European and Asian-Americans. Developmental Psychology, 32, 707-716.
Americans receive two to three weeks of paid vacation per year, while Europeans receive between 5 and 7 weeks. In addition, the U.S. has generally 8 paid holidays per year; the comparable figure for Europe is 12 to 18 days (holidays such as Easter and Christmas, plus national days and even the Queen's irthday in the Netherlands). As a result, Americans average only 10.2 vacation days per year (Zuckerman). Americans work on average nearly 2,000 hours a year, while Germans work about 1,500 hours. This significant difference in hours worked may help to account for a significant portion of the 43% difference in per capita GDP for the two countries.
Retirement Age and Associated Pension Costs third reason are the retirement ages and associated pension costs. Europeans retire at an earlier age than Americans: generally between 57 and 62, while Americans tend to retire between 62 and 65. This difference…
Alesina, a and Tabellini, G.U.S.-Europe income gap: Is it for real? Economic. Cambridge: VOX, 2007.
BBC. "EU unemployment stabilises." BBC News 5 March 2002: n.p.
Blanchard, O. "European unemployment: the evolution of facts and ideas." Economic Policy (2006): 5-59.
BLS. "How the Government Measures Unemployment." July 2004. BLS, Dept of Labor. 1 November 2007 http://www.bls.gov/cps/cps_htgm.htm .
Life" by Gerda Weissmann Klein. In this book Gerda has narrated her ordeal during the Nazis regime and how she survived the holocaust and the death march. It is a highly emotional book, which narrates the horrors and sorrows faced by the survivors.
All But My Life"
Introduction classic of Holocaust literature, Gerda Weissmann Klein's celebrated chronicle tells the moving story of a young woman's six frightful years as a slave laborer of the Nazis and her miraculous liberation. All But My Life stands as the ultimate lesson in humanity, hope and friendship.
It is the unforgettable story of Gerda Weissmann Klein's six-year ordeal as a victim of Nazi cruelty. From her comfortable home in Bielitz (present-day Bielsko) in Poland to her miraculous survival and her liberation by American troops -- including the man who was to become her husband -- in Volary, Czechoslovakia, in 1945, Gerda takes the reader…
All But my life, by Gerda Weissmann Klein, Published: September 1997
Orion Publishing Co
Shorter Sales Cycles
As an expert in the field, Remont will also enjoy the benefit of shorter sales cycles. People who come to them will require less research, and will push more people to their product (Charlesworth 2009). They will approach the site with confidence and they will find them buying quicker than ever.
Becoming an expert will also influence others in the trade to seek a business out. They will look to connect with Remont because of their money making potential, and whether they are offering similar or complimentary products, it will enhance business (Reis 2001).
The basics steps of leveraging the Internet must be understood before the technical one, and these following ones will serve as the foundation of the sales approach.
Step 1 -- Be Giving
Having the right attitude on the website is essential for making progress with Internet pages. The company needs to…
Charlesworth, A. 2009, 'Internet Marketing: A Practical Approach', Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK.
Ferrell, O.C. And Michael D. Hartline, 2008, 'Marketing Strategy, 4e', Thomson South-Western, Mason, OH.
Lee, O. 2001,'Internet Marketing Research: Theory and Practice', Idea Group Publishing, Hershey, PA.
Ries, A. And Jack Trout, 2001, 'Positioning: How to Be Seen and Heard in the Overcrowded Marketplace', The McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, NY.
The fact that the Ottoman Empire had experienced significant losses until that time meant that other European powers needed to intervene and attempt to gain control over areas that the Ottomans lost. The Allies eventually won the conflict but it was difficult to determine the exact effects that their victory would have on their relationship with the Ottoman Empire, as its leaders seemed determined to maintain most of their attitudes with regard to non-Muslims within their borders, thus meaning that one of the primary reasons for which the French, the English, and the Sardinians entered the war was believed to be unimportant by the Ottomans.
6. Crisis in the Ottoman Empire
People across Greece saw the Crimean War as an opportunity to concentrate their powers into removing Ottoman control from within their borders. Individuals in the Epirus region started to publicly express revolutionary attitudes in an attempt to influence others…
9. Wilson, H.W., "The Great War: the standard history of the all Europe conflict. Digging in," (Trident Press International, 01.12.1999)
10. Wolf, Eric L., "Peasant wars of the twentieth century," (University of Oklahoma Press, 1969)
11. Woloch, Isser, "Revolution and the meanings of freedom in the nineteenth century," (Stanford University Press, 1996)
12. "The State and Revolution in the Twentieth Century: Major Social Transformations of Our Time," (Rowman & Littlefield, 2007)
Lost in Translation
This story is a typical immigrant success tale. It is a rich and an ambiguous story with the first section of the narrative representing, "Paradise," and revolves around Hoffman's childhood and adolescence in Cracow. The most prominent image in Eva Hoffman's mind during her family's immigration to Canada was the crowd gathered at the shore to see the ship off. She was thirteen years old and left Gdynia, Poland together with her father, mother, and younger sister. To her the crowd at the shore waving at them as the ship drifted away, was symbolic, it meant the end of everything she knew. Deep inside her there was sorrow and pain, she never wanted to leave Poland. As they journey on, her memory is filled with the loss she has suffered, Cracow a place she loved just as one would love a person. Her mind wonders around the…
Baldwin, James. "Stranger in the Village." Press, Beacon. Notes of A Native Son. Beacon Press, 1955 .
Hoffman, Eva. "Lost In Translation." Ed." Robert, DiYanni and Pat C. Hoy . Occassions for Writing: Evidence. Boston: Thomson, 2008. 176-77.
Nomaday, Scott. The Way to Rainy Mountain . UNM Press, 1976.
WW2 Momentum Shift 1942-1944
One of the events that rocked the world and consequently shaped the world was the WWII that commenced effectively in 1939 and ended in 1945. It is however worth noting that some of the conflicts that eventually ended up in the culmination of the WWII started much earlier. The WWII parse involved majority of the nations, including the powerful nations at that time taking sides and aligning themselves and their military and diplomatic allegiance to either the Allies or the Axis, each side forming their combined forces. The commanding forces in the Allies were France, Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States and to some little extent China (odye-Smith J., 2014). One the other side of the divide the Axis were Italy, Germany and Japan. This war was largely seen as a continuation of the WWI bearing the 20 years of unresolved disputes that emanated from…
Rodye-Smith J., (2014). World War II. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/648813/World-War-II
Rogole J.A., (2002). The Strategic Bombing Campaign against Germany during World War II. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=10&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CGoQFjAJ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fetd.lsu.edu%2Fdocs%2Favailable%2Fetd-0413102-132317%2Funrestricted%2FRigole_thesis.pdf&ei=rnTVU7T2HOHj4QTl6YCwCA&usg=AFQjCNGr0G5t3esuMHkyG6efcmsHwe2lVg&sig2=f4uVuDX2XSnYn89JcB0wYA&bvm=bv.71778758,d.bGE
Yale Law School, (2008). The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Chapter 7 - The Attacks. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/mp07.asp
During World War I, the eagle is hidden, and only later found by a metalworker.
Quotation: Second to last paragraph
At the end of the story, the symbolism of the menorah is confirmed: "They removed the menorah and brought it to the Great Synagogue, where they stood it on the reading table where the menorah had once stood. And so the menorah stood on the reading table, as it had in earlier days when peace was in the land. "Now I will cut off the bird with the two heads, because Austria has ceased to rule over Buczacz. And if there are young boys in town, I will make dreidels from the brass eagle for them to play during Hanukah, just as our grandfathers did for our fathers" (252). The return of the Jews and the menorah, which is now 'properly' maimed of its extra branch and stripped of transient…