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It is increasing taxpayer more and more every year. More than likely the officer in question will be fired or put in paid leave of absence. Never is the officer investigated by internal affairs or federal agencies. This shows an inconsistency within the law enforcement infrastructure that needs changing in order to protect against further risk.
In this review of previous studies and related literature, information is presented in support of and in anticipation of the methodology and the analysis of this study. In order to constrain the literature review to a manageable yet representative account of the development of the concepts and constructs employed in this study, the focus was on studies within the framework of police. brutality and its relationship to monetary judgment. Agencies throughout the country with settle and alleged cases of police brutality were examined. Within those studies cited however, are many more and far-reaching references…
Azikiwe, A. (2003, August 21). Detroit killer cop found liable in civil suit. Workers World magazine. Retrieved October 31, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://www.workers.org
Board of the County Commissioners of Bryan County, Oklahoma v. Brown, et al. (1997, April 28). United States Supreme Court, No. 95-1100
Cheh, M. (1995). Are lawsuits an answer to police brutality. And Justice for All, p. 233-259.
Chesley, R. (1997, April 20). Police training program could cut lawsuits. Detroit Journal.
There have been numerous situations in which people have been aggressed because of their skin colour or because they found themselves at the wrong time in the wrong place. Police brutality was indeed an abuse of power whenever these situations occurred.
How do you come with such an abuse of power? Is it just? Or, more accurately put, can it ever considered to be just? Is there anything in this world which could make us justify the complete abandonment of power of the individual? The answer is "no" and the reasons that support it are more than numerous.
First and foremost, such an abuse of power can not be tolerated because it would be just the beginning of a series of actions that would probably end up with the construction of a totalitarian regime. Secondly, justice and law must be reinforced, but the manner in which this happens is fundamental.…
MacKinnon, Barbara. (2008)Ethics and contemporary issues. Wadsworth Publishing
Pierce, Jessica.(2004) Morality Play: case studies in ethics .McGraw Hill Humanities/Social sciences/Languages
Scheingold, Stuart A.(2004) The politics of rights: lawyers, public policy and political change.University of Michigan
Skolnick, Jerome H., Fyfe, James.(1994). Above the law police and the excessive use of force. Free pres
In recent years there has been an increase in the number of cases of police brutality reported. It is important to look at police brutality against Hispanics and African-Americans to gain a better understanding of this serious problem.
History of Brutality
The contrast between "law-abiding and lawless people is racialized, making the depreciation of liberty it legitimates equally racialized (oberts, 1999)." This in turns creates a racist pattern of police brutality. The "social norm theory helps to explain why this pattern strikes most Americans as benign. Myths of Black criminality are so embedded in the white psyche that it seems perfectly natural to many Americans that Blacks are disproportionately stopped for traffic infractions, arrested for drug offenses, swept off the street for loitering, and sent to prison (oberts, 1999)."
New York City's police department has a history of racial abuse. Police officials there report a decrease in crime…
Chanen, David. (27 October 2003). "Chief Olson's legacy is like his tenure: Complicated; As Minneapolis' top cop prepares to leave, he gets credit for a lower crime rate but criticism for being more politician than leader." Star Tribune.
Federal data on police shootings lacking. (accessed 07 May 2004). www.enquirer.com/editions/2001/04/14/loc_federal_data_on.html.
Lacayo, Richard. (01 April 1991). "Law and disorder: for cops, fear and frustration are constants.
Sometimes even the best of them snap under pressure." Time.
Cole (2007) discusses how in many cases, incidents of police brutality, can often be confused with various self-defense tactics or an actions that a suspect may have taken resulting in the use of force (such as: resisting arrest or attempting to physically attack the police). After examining various incidents from the National Association of Justice, they found that: law enforcement will use force in a limited manner. Where, it is usually involving low levels of force such as: pushing, grabbing and shoving. In most cases, these incidents will often occur during the process of making an arrest (with the suspect resisting). This is significant, because it shows how the various abuses that are often being reported in the press are based upon isolated incidents.
Yet, when looking at the information from the article lack America in Uproar over Police rutality (1999), it highlights how racial profiling has often led to…
Black America in Uproar over Police Brutality. (1999). Jet, 96 (4), 4 -- 9.
Cole, G. (2007). Use of Force. The American System of Criminal Justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, pp. 222- 224.
You can watch police stun cowering protesters with Tasers on YouTube." In 2009, the city agreed with court complaints that it had trampled citizens' protected rights to free speech by forcing marchers back from planned protests and then settled out of court with Amnesty International, the filer of the suit (Porter, 2010). Evidentally, walking while holding a protest sign is still not a criminal offense, but tell that to arresting Miami police officers who are lauded publicly while privately settling court complaints and acknowledging that they systematically violated individual constitutional rights. If you do not yell too loudly in pain while you cowering and being tasered by police, you might just win at your court date.
hile these incidents could and in many cases are mirrored in many other parts of America outside of the South, it is clear from all of these incidents is that police in places like…
Jackson state. (2001, May 4). Retrieved 13 July, 2010 from http://www.may41970.com/Jackson%20State/jackson_state_may_1970.htm .
Owens, Simon. (2010, June 16). An Internet activist's war against police brutalit.
Retrieved 13 July 2010 from http://themoderatevoice.com/76749/an-internet-activists-war-against-police-brutality/ .
Lendman, Stephen. (2010, July 13). Police brutality in America. Retrieved 13 July 2010
There are certainly "cons" when discussing the problem of police brutality, but are there also positives ("pros") when those events occur? This paper points to the issue of police brutality from several viewpoints and critiques the literature.
Police Brutality Cases on the rise since 9/11
Incidents in which police, prison guards or other law enforcement authorities have used "excessive force" or otherwise have violated civil rights "…have increased 25% from fiscal years 2001 to 2007 over the previous seven years" (Johnson, 2007). hy are there more incidents that involve police misbehavior? James, Pasco, the executive director of the National Fraternal Order of Police (the largest police union in the U.S.), believes part of the problem can be explained because there has been "…reduced standards, training and promotion of less experienced officers into the higher police ranks," and that tends to undermine "more rigid supervision" (Johnson, p. 1). Johnson…
Harris, Paul. (2011). Police brutality charges sweep across the U.S. The Guardian. Retrieved March 14, 2013, from http://www.guardian.co.uk .
Johnson, Kevin. (2007). Police brutality cases on rise since 9/11. USA Today. Retrieved March
14, 2013, from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com .
Pinizzotto, Anthony J., Davis, Edward F., Bohrer, Shannon B., and Infanti, Benjamin J. (2012).
"There is no question that police brutality, when it occurs, is one of the most egregious violations of public trust that a public servant can commit."
This statement is an example of circular reasoning. It posits a premise in which the truth of the conclusions is assumed. Police brutality may not be one of the most egregious violations of public trust that a public servant can commit, or it might be, just as I have claimed, but nothing in the paper supports that statement. Providing evidence that people consider police brutality is this type of serious violation of public trust, such as a poll supporting that statement would bolster the argument, as would reasons that these violations are so damaging. As it stands, this statement is simply an unsupported statement.
"There are many arrest and non-arrest scenarios where officers need to use force to protect self or others;…
Johnson, K. (2007, December 18). Police brutality cases on rise since 9/11. Retrieved
February 22, 2012 from USA Today website:
Keteyian, A. (2011, August 10). Feds crack down on police brutality nationwide. Retrieved February 22, 2012 from CBSNews.com website: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2011/08/10/eveningnews/main20090883.shtml
How the Black Lives Matter Movement Changed the Law Enforcement Landscape
Today, the United States faces multiple existential threats from a global Covid-19 pandemic and the concomitant economic downturn as well as rising racial tensions following the murder of an African American man, George Floyd, on May 25, 2020 by officers with the Minneapolis police department. This event, taking place amidst a once-in-a-century global pandemic with many Americans already nerve-wracked, served to further underscore the fragility of the American experiment when confronted with widespread unrest. To determine the antecedents to the current situation and help identify potential solutions, the purpose of this paper is to provide the background concerning police brutality and systemic racism in the United States, and why this issue has assumed new importance and relevance in recent years. Further, a discussion concerning potential solutions to these seemingly ubiquitous problems is following by some unconventional recommendations for…
AMA policy recognizes policy brutality as product of structural racism. (2020). American Medical Association. Retrieved from https://www.ama-assn.org/press-center/press-releases/ama-policy-recognizes-police-brutality-product-structural-racism .
Dutcher, T. (2020, July). Killing with prejudice: Institutionalized racism in American capital punishment. Theory in Action, 13(3), 148-151.
Harris, S. M. (2020, July). Black Lives Matter to systemic family therapists. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 46(3), 383.
Matthews, A. (2020, January 1). Racialized youth in the public library: Systemic racism through a critical theory lens. Partnership: the Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research, 15(1), 1.
McCarthy, N. (2020, July 15). U.S. police shootings: Blacks disproportionately affected. Statista. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/chart/21857/people-killed-in-police-shootings-in-the-us/ .
Panwala, A. S. (2009, January). The failure of local and federal prosecutors to curb police brutality. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 30(2), 639-642.
Wood, S. (2020, July 9). Universities plan fall initiatives to address systemic racism and police brutality. Diverse Issues in Higher Education, 37(10), 7.
Even with that, considering the large numbers mentioned, one can be suppose that not every individual that is being fired at deserves to be shot. Of course, it is logical to believe that police officers receive proper instruction in order to know when it is right to fire a shot. However, considering the fact that police officers are also human, it is possible for them to fail to detect when it is right to use excessive force.
An exceptional account of police brutality is the case of Rodney King vs. The LAPD. King was pulled over by the police on the 3rd of March, 1991, as he was driving his car. Consequent to a disagreement between the police officers and the man, the former started to cruelly beat him. After the confrontation the man was arrested, accused that he had performed several illegalities. The situation became public because of an…
1. Alpert Geoffrey P., Smith William C." How Reasonable Is the Reasonable Man?: Police and Excessive Force." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Vol. 85, 1994.
2. Knight, Frederick. Justifiable Homicide, Police Brutality or Governmental Repression? The 1962 Los Angeles Police Shooting of Seven Members of the Nation of Islam." The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 79, 1994.
3. Winright, Tobias. "The Perpetrator as Person: Theological Reflections on the Just War Tradition and the Use of Force by Police." Criminal Justice Ethics, Vol. 14, 1995.
Knight, Frederick. Justifiable Homicide, Police Brutality or Governmental Repression? The 1962 Los Angeles Police Shooting of Seven Members of the Nation of Islam." The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 79, 1994.
Doctrines of Duty Care Failure Protecting Laws on Vehicular Pursuits and Police rutality
Title 42, Section 1983 of the United States Code, or the federal civil rights statute, officials of the state and local governments may be sued in they violate an individual's constitutional rights, such as the Fourth Amendment (atterton, 2015; Dean, 1998; Rutledge, 2010). This amendment explicitly protects an individual from unreasonable arrest and seizure. It is often invoked when a police officer makes the unreasonable arrest or seizure. The complainant may take this course of action, imploring the Fifth and 14th amendments due process clause under one of two doctrines, namely the special relationship doctrine and the state-created doctrine (atterton, Dean, Rutledge).
The Special Relationship Liability Doctrine
Under this doctrine, the state takes control of a person by way of an affirmative duty to protect him (atterton, 2015; Dean, 1998; Rutledge, 2010). Examples of recipients of this…
Batterton, B.S. (2015). Motor vehicle pursuit liability. Public Agency Training Council.
Retrieved on July 31, 2015 from http://www.patc.com/weeklyarticles/vehicle-pursuit-liability.shtml
Dean, M.A. (1998). The failure of law enforcement to enforce the law. Mdean: Tripod.
Retrieved on July 31, 2015 from http://mcdean.tripod.com/immunity.html
How has systemic oppression and discrimination impacted each of the three cases in this documentary?
Every Mother's Son depicts the challenges which face young black men when they are confronted by law enforcement officials who perceive all African-American males as a threat solely as a result of their skin color. In the case of Amadou Diallo, he was profiled as a potential suspect purely on his rough resemblance to a man accused of rape. Anthony Baez (who was training to be a police officer) was placed in a chokehold that killed him after an enraged officer was livid because Baez accidentally bounced a football off of his car; Baez was seen as disrespectful because of this accident even though he meant no harm. Gary (Gidone) Busch was killed because he was carrying a small ceremonial hammer used on Orthodox Jewish prayer; officers had no idea of its symbolic significance…
Racial Equality and Justice
This essay discusses racial equality and justice in the United States within the context of the events in the spring and summer of 2020. On May 25, 2020 George Floyd was killed while in police custody. The killing was videotaped and showed a non-resisting Floyd suffocated by an officer kneeling on his neck. Neither the officer who killed Floyd nor any of his fellow officers was arrested following Floyd’s death. This kicked off a series of protests in the United States, which brought the lingering racial inequality that plagues the country into the spotlight. In this essay, we investigate racial equality and justice. We discuss George Floyd, the protests surrounding his death, riots in Minneapolis, the role that Antifa played in the protests, the role of Black Lives Matter, the death of Breonna Taylor, the concept of defunding the police, the celebration of Juneteenth, and…
Barker, Kim and Furber, Matt. “Bail Is at Least $1 Million for Ex-Officer Accused of Killing George Floyd.” The New York Times. 8 June 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/08/us/derek-chauvin-court.html . Accessed 14 July 2020.
Black Lives Matter. “What We Believe.” Black Lives Matter. 2020. https://blacklivesmatter.com/what-we-believe/. Accessed 14 July 2020.
Kenney, Michael and Clark, Colin. “What Antifa Is, What It Isn’t, and Why It Matters.” War on the Rocks. 23 June 2020. https://warontherocks.com/2020/06/what-antifa-is-what-it-isnt-and-why-it-matters/ . Accessed 14 July 2020.
Peeples, Lynne. “What the Data Say About Police Brutality and Racial Violence- and Which Reforms Might Work.” Nature. 19 June 2020. https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-01846-z. Accessed 14 July 2020.
The Sentencing Project. “Report of The Sentencing Project to the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Contemporary Forms of Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Related Intolerance: Regarding Racial Disparities in the United States Criminal Justice System.” The Sentencing Project. March 2018. https://www.sentencingproject.org/publications/un-report-on-racial-disparities/ . Accessed 14 July 2020.
United States Senate. “Senate Passes the 13th Amendment.” Senate Historical Office. ND. https://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/Senate_Passes_the_Thirteenth_Amendment.htm#:~:text=The%202012%20film%20Lincoln%20told,Representatives%20on%20January%2031%2C%201865 . Accessed 14 July 2020.
One of the most significant social movements that has emerged within the past few years is #BlackLivesMatter. #BlackLivesMatter is a social justice movement focusing on issues like police brutality and disparities in the criminal justice system, as well as other manifestations of institutionalized racism. The movement started after George Zimmerman was acquitted on charges of murder of an unarmed black teenager, Trayvon Martin. While #BlackLivesMatter was not the first social movement to raise awareness about racial disparities in America, it is the first major social justice movement of its kind to capitalize specifically on social media to achieve its goals (Day, 2015). #BlackLivesMatter addresses issues of intersectionality of race, class, gender, and power, aiming to achieve broad but seemingly elusive social justice objectives.
Critics of #BlackLivesMatter have portrayed the group as a “security threat,” while others have responded the movement with mocking hashtags and countermovements like #alllivesmatter (Day, 2015). These…
Black Lives Matter (2018). https://blacklivesmatter.com/
Day, E. (2015). #BlackLivesMatter. The Guardian. 19 July, 2015. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jul/19/blacklivesmatter-birth-civil-rights-movement
Police officers are authorized to use force when necessary, a policy that is generally used to protect innocent people from violence and abuse, and protect the general public from harm. However, the authorization to use force can be easily abused. Police abuse of power in the form of police brutality is an ethical problem because it constitutes abuse of power, and also leads to mistrust of law enforcement. Mistrust of law enforcement in turn undermines the authority and legitimacy of the police and prevents cooperative measures of stopping crime like community policing models. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (2015), 44 million people on average each year in the United States have some kind of face-to-face contact with police and of those 44 million, just under two percent experience use of threatening or nonfatal force. While this number may seem small, on the ground the high rate of police…
Police Brutality and Race
Police Violence and African Americans
When Does the Use of Force Become Police Brutality?
Police Brutality and the Black Lives Matter Movement
Police Brutality and the Blue Lives Matter Movement
The Use of Violence: Is there a Limit to the Amount of Force Police Officers Should Use on a Suspect?
Why Just Comply Is Not the Answer to Police Brutality
Are Minorities the Victims of Higher Rates of Police Violence?
Police Brutality: Is there a War on Cops or a War by Cops?
I. Introduction - Definition
B. Racial Disparity in American Criminal Justice
C. The Black Lives Matter Movement
D. Subsequent Killings
E. Delrawn Small on July 4, 2016
F. Alton Sterling on July 5, 2016
G. Philando Castile on July 6, 2016
H. Blue Lives Matter
I. Police Brutality and Attacks on the Police are…
.....police brutality against people of color has a long history in the United States, the Rodney King incident and the media attention it received promised to alter policy and public discourse. Yet police brutality continues to be a problem and threatens to undermine civil rights in America. Police brutality against visible minorities also erodes public trust in the institution of the law and the system of law enforcement. Those effects are palpable not only at the community level but also at the individual level of perceptions of police, as one study shows a substantial number of Americans have evolved contempt for law enforcement, suspicion of law enforcement, or "perceive law enforcement as agents of brutality," (Chaney and Robertson 480). Community policing models cannot take root or hope to mitigate or reverse the effects of these results unless there is a nationwide policy change to law enforcement organizational culture and training.…
While no one is immune from police brutality, statistics show that African-Americans are far more likely to be the victims of police brutality than are whites. As Lopez notes, “Black people accounted for 31 percent of police killing victims in 2012, even though they made up just 13 percent of the US population.” Moreover, of the people killed by police who were not attacking, 39% were black (Lopez). These statistics have not improved over time. Between 2015 and 2016, there were 1,146 victims of police violence and nearly 40% of those victims were either African-American or Hispanic, according Bui, Coates and Matthay. The tragedy is, of course, that according to the U.S. Census Bureau, African-Americans and Hispanics only account for a quarter of the U.S. population. So how is it that roughly half of all victims of police brutality are minorities who altogether make up only a quarter of the…
Police Abuse/Problems with Guilty Pleas
From time to time, the media highlights stories about police abuse that can best be described as disturbing. It is unfortunate that some police officers do turn against the same people they have sworn to keep safe. Indeed, most victims of police brutality are left feeling frightened, betrayed and helpless. Further, police abuse triggers a cycle of mistrust in which case the community gradually loses confidence in those they rely on for safety and protection. Though a majority of police officers in the community I come from are dedicated and act within the confines of the law; there are a few bad elements (based on previous incidences of police brutality) who soil the otherwise warm relations the community shares with the police.
It is important to note that only a fraction of the total incidences of police abuse are reported by the media.…
Recklessly creating a situation that increases the required amount of force is immoral. Officer Smith should have ordered the occupants out of the car from the cover of her own vehicle. Using cover effectively would have required the occupants to take far more overt action, getting out of the car and turning around, in order to be a threat to the officers. Officer Smith unnecessarily increased the danger to herself, and therefore the risk that she would have to use deadly force. Creating a dangerous situation for others is immoral, and that was the result of Officer Smith approaching the car. Some might argue that the death of an armed robber may be a net positive for society, but death is an excessive punishment for robbery, and the police do not have the moral, or legal authority to appoint themselves judge, jury and executioner upon encountering criminals on the street.…
Kappeler, V, et. al. "Perspectives on the development of police character. Forces of Deviance: Understanding the Dark Side of," 84-108 Waveland Press, Inc. 1998
Worden, Robert. "Ther "causes" of police brutality: theory and evidence on Police Use of Force. And Justice For All: Understanding and controlling police abuse of force." 31-60, Police
Executive Research Forum, 1995.
Bell was unarmed, yet the officers fired more than 50 shots into his car" (2007, p. 46). Following a grand jury investigation of the incident, three of the five detectives who were involved were charged for the shooting (Mayer, 2007). ccording to Mayer, "The incident is reminiscent of a similar situation in New York in 1999, in which a West frican street vendor, madou Diallo, was killed when police shot at him 41 times. Diallo was also unarmed" (2007, p. 46). The fact that these events occurred almost a decade apart and were unrelated was not the primary focus of the media coverage that attended them, and it is reasonable to assume that sensationalized media coverage of these and other instances of police brutality simply reinforce the perception in the minds of the merican public that the police are out of control.
ll of this is not to say, of…
All of this is not to say, of course, that police officers never engage in acts of brutality and the use of excessive force, but it is to say that little attention is paid to the millions of police-citizen encounters that take place every year in the United States where law enforcement authorities would be justified in using force -- even deadly force -- but refrain from doing so at their own personal risk based on their high regard for citizens' rights and the sanctity of human life. This precise point is made by Elicker (2008) who emphasizes that the statistics bear out just how restrained the police departments across the country are in their use of force at all. According to Elicker, "Despite the way mass media presents the subject of police brutality, the occurrences of police use of force cases are not all that common" (2008, p. 33).
Citing the results of a 1999 study sponsored by the United States Department of Justice based on the statistics from more than seven thousand arrests made by six different law enforcement agencies in urban settings wherein statistics had been collected concerning the use of force by and against police officers, Elicker reports that, "There were only 52 cases (or .07%) where police officers used weapons in the arrest. The use of weapons includes stick, knife, handgun, chemical agent, rifle/shotgun, motor vehicle, canine, and other" (2008, p. 34). The results of the Department of Justice study also showed that police officers used one or a combination of weaponless tactics to effect the arrest in 15.8% of the cases (Elicker, 2008). According to Elicker, "Weaponless tactics include grabbing, arm twisting, wrestling, pushing/shoving, hitting, kicking, biting/scratching, use of pressure hold, carotid hold, control hold, and other tactics. Grabbing was, by a vast margin, the most used weaponless tactic (12.7% or 954 cases), followed by arm twisting (3.7% or 281 cases), and wrestling (3.1% or 233 cases)" (2008, p. 34).
While some observers might suggest that there is no place in modern law enforcement for "biting/scratching" or the other weaponless tactics used by the police in the Department of Justice study, the fact that they were used at all when other, more harmful methods were readily available makes it clear that even when their lives are on the line, police officers can and do resort to using their training and discipline rather than simply pulling out a gun and shooting a criminal suspect. In this regard, Elicker concludes that, "To some, these statistics could be shocking. They
Police Programs and Strategies between New York and Los Angeles Police Department
For the past decade, the prevalence of deaths caused by crimes and other crime-related activities in the society has increased. Especially with the increasing development of weaponry, strategies, and prevalence of drug addiction, the occurrence of crime in the America society has been one of the primary concerns of most police enforcers and the government in the present time. New York and Los Angeles are examples of cities wherein the occurrence of crime and other offenses against the law and society are prevalent. This paper will discuss the police programs and strategies and crime statistics of the New York and Los Angeles Police Departments, and analyze each department's effectiveness in combating crime an offenses caused by the criminals and delinquents of the society. In relation to the analyses of both departments' police programs, this paper will also study…
In places such as Richmond, that have an already checkered past in their relationship with the public, the public perception is further damaged by the rise in crime. This is true of the police department in the rest of the country as well. The rise in crime affects the perception of the public with regard to the police department, and not the government. In actions such as racism and extralegal searches the police department and not President Bush is implicated. Many of the harmful effects of current police actions and policies are the result of government policies. The police has thus become somewhat of a scapegoat as a result of the latest government policies.
The profile of violent crimes has also changed dramatically and dangerously. Fewer police officers mean more violent criminals, which raises the crime rate.
Government policy, rising crime rates, and police actions have therefore combined into a…
Barbash, Fred (2005, June 28). Court Backs Town In Lawsuit Over Domestic Violence. In Washington Post online (Washingtonpost.com).
Lucas, Scott (2001, April 23). Good cop, bad cop - police violence against African-Americans - police in movies and TV - Timothy Thomas. In New Statesman.
Maclin, Tracey. (1998, Summer). Terry v Ohio's fourth amendment legacy: Black men and police discretion. In St. John's Law Review.
Seron, Carroll (2004, Dec). Judging Police Misconduct: "Street-Level" versus Professional Policing. Law & Society Review, Blackwell Publishers.
Though women constitute only 12.7% of the sworn police force they are implicated in only 5% of the total cases registered against the use of excessive force. Statistics further indicate that women officers account for only 6% of the total dollars paid out for court settlements for The Use of Police Force 4
police abuse related cases. [DR. Kim Lonsway, 2002] It is clear that a women police officer is less likely to resort to excessive force use compared with a male police officer and this presents a clear case for more representation of women in the police force. Inducting more women would therefore be a positive step.
Another study by the University of California compared the effects of race, gender, and experience of the officer and the link to the possibility of the officer being investigated by Internal affairs for the use of excessive force. For the study, the…
1) Amnesty International, (2008) ' Less than Lethal'? The use of Stun weapons in U.S. Law Enforcement', Accessed 14th July 2009, Available at, http://www.amnestyusa.org/uploads/LessThanLethal.pdf
2) Anthony J. Micucci & Ian M. Gomme (Oct 2005), 'American Police and Subcultural Support for the use of Excessive Force', Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol 33, Issue 5
3) BJS, (June 25, 2006) 'Citizens Complained more than 26,000 times in 2002 about Excessive Police Force', Available at, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/press/ccpufpr.htm
4) DR. Kim Lonsway, Michelle Wood & Megan Fickling et.al (2002), ' Men, Women and Police Excessive Force: A Tale of two Genders', Accessed July 13th 2009, Available at, http://www.womenandpolicing.org/PDF/2002_Excessive_Force.pdf
Policy Analysis Essay on Police Killings
The recent police killings and other forms of abuse of authority by law enforcers in the US reinforce the critical and long-demanded need for policy reforms in the nation, a need that has too frequently been disregarded. While some attempts, on the part of authorities, at dealing with these issues have enjoyed a certain degree of success, others have proven unsuccessful. The issue of poor law enforcement relations with communities and police abuse of authority continues to acutely plague several communities in the country. The incidents at Baltimore and Baton Rouge highlight the urgent need to tackle this problem. Though all cases (Ferguson, New York, Baltimore, Baton Rouge, and Minneapolis, to name a few) are unique, they are characterized by one highly disturbing similarity – implicit racial prejudice and unwarranted use of official force against Black Americans, especially male Black Americans. The incidents…
Police, Terrorism, Ethics, And Corruption
The traditional mission of police forces in the United States is fighting criminality and upholding the law in the defined geographical area or boundary they belong to. This translates to the local police forces of towns, municipalities and cities engaging in policing activities in these respective areas. Outside of these boundaries, the state police forces have responsibilities and on the national level, the Federal ureau of Investigation (FI) has jurisdiction. Prior to the onset of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the American homeland, the mission and boundaries of the aforementioned police forces are clear and distinct. Immediately thereafter, there has been a tremendous paradigm shift in the mission of police forces in the United States because the growing threats of terrorism and terrorist activities have entered into the very heart of the nation. Even several years after the 9/11 attacks, terrorists have taken…
Caldero, M.A. & Crank, J.P. (2011). Police ethics: The corruption of noble cause. Burlington, MA: Anderson Publishing.
Terwilliger, G.J., Cooperstein, S.G., Blumenthal, D., & Parker, R. (2005, February 15). The war on terrorism: Law enforcement or national security? Retrieved April 27, 2011 from http://www.fed-soc.org/publications/detail/the-war-on-terrorism-law-enforcement-or-national-security
Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil
A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).
The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…
Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.
Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.
Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.
Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.
The author of this report has been asked to conduct two interviews of police officers with six basic questions being the crux of both interviews. To protect the anonymity of the officers as well as a way to get the most honest and complete answers, the identity of the officers as well as the departments they have or do work for will not be identified in any way, shape or form. The answers garnered were insightful, honest and illuminating. The perspective they offer is perhaps not nearly as known as it should be given the reporting going on as it relates to the incidents in Ferguson and other places where cops have been shot or allegedly unarmed and/or innocent people on the street have endured the same. While there are two sides to each story, both the police and the people have the right to have their voice…
Cooper, H. (2009, July 22). Obama Criticizes Arrest Of a Harvard Professor. The New
York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/23/us/politics/23gates.html?_r=0
Reyes, D. (1994, November 2). Only One Drunk Driver in 500 Is Caught: Enforcement:
Even with tough Highway Patrol policy, probability of arrest in California is small.
However, another frequently unseen instigator in negative behavioral tendencies amongst officers is the incapacity to properly assimilate the stresses of the occupation. Indeed, a 2004 study, published by the Canadian Police College, outlines the conditions which tend most to provoke police extortion, embezzlement or other such malfeasant behaviors. Amongst its findings, the account asserts that, of those surveyed in its sample population, "officers who experienced frequent operational stress were more accepting of financial corruption." (Sunahara, 2) for some, the study elaborates, the heavy burden of anxiety, fear, discontent or nihilism which can be the reality of police work may inspire the rationalization of this misappropriation.
The compensatory dissociation from the realities of law, order and ethical responsibility can, in such cases, be the cause of gross deviation from policy and procedure. Both within the insular social structure of a police department and in the employ of a responsibility which is…
Kurke, M.I. (1995). Police Psychology into the 21st Century. Hillsdale, New Jersey
Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
O'Connor, Dr. T. (2001). Police Psychology. Forensic Psychology.
Stearns, G.M. & Moore, R.J. (1993). The Physical and Psychological
However, in certain instances, the element of fear in a policeman cannot justify the use of lethal force. This restraint, according to the Federal Bureau of investigation, is highly advocated for since deadly force is unlawful and can be mostly be used against a law enforcement officer. Areas of shoot out in schools and traffic and in states or cities, where the populous if high highly exempt the use of deadly force. In these situations, there is usually a dynamic interaction of the police, suspects or confirmed criminals and the public. This is the deadly mix concept that provides rational insights on the restraint of lethal force by the police. By so doing, the police adhere to the law enforcement training offered to them, which invokes their perception towards the use-of-force situations in handling offenders. Whether, during the on-duty or off-duty performances, the restrain upon the use of lethal force…
Pinizzotto, a.J., Davis, E.F., Bohrer, S. B and Infanti, B.J. (2012). Restraint in the Use of Deadly Force. [Online] Retrieved from URL
The charges were quietly dropped against the suspect and an Internal Affairs investigation cleared them of all wrong doing. (Terruso, 2011)
Explain the outcomes of the cases. Did you agree with the outcomes? Why or why not?
The situation involving the New York City police officers is still in the court system. So far I agree with the outcome. This is because they were deliberately breaking the law by selling automatic weapons to criminal elements. Moreover, they were also working with organized crime to sell cigarettes that were stolen from the police evidence room. This can erode the confidence of the general public in the department's ability to objectively enforce the law. When this happens, it will affect investigations and their outcomes. As a result, they had to be stopped before the situation became worse. (ashbaum, 2011)
While the case in Elizabeth, resulted in the suspect suing the department for…
2010 NPMSRP. (2010), Police Misconduct. Retrieved from: http://www.policemisconduct.net/2010-q2-npmsrp-national-police-misconduct-statistical-report/
Johnson, K. (2007). Police Brutality Cases on the Rise. USA Today. Retrieved from: http://usatoday30.usatoday.com /news/nation/2007-12-17-Copmisconduct_N.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
According to ohe and his colleagues, though, "Over time, however, there has been a tendency for departments to expand their programs to involve a larger number of officers and to cover wider geographic areas. Besides these special units, a number of police departments also expect all of their officers to embrace the principles of community policing and to undertake at least some community problem-solving activities" (ohe et al., 1996, p. 78).
Constraints to Implementation study by Sadd and Grinc in 1994 concluded that, of all the implementation problems these programs faced, "the most perplexing... was the inability of the police departments to organize and maintain active community involvement in their projects" (p. 442). Hartnett and Skogan suggest that because every community is unique, the implementation problems will likewise be local in nature but there have been some consistent problems reported with implementation across the country that can serve as a…
Bass, S. (2001). Policing space, policing race: Social control imperatives and police discretionary decisions. Social Justice, 28(1), 156.
Comey, J.T., Hartnett, S.M., Kaiser, M., Lovig, J.H., & Skogan, W.G. (1999). On the beat: Police and community problem solving. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Davis, G.J., III, & Gianakis, G.A. (1998). Reinventing or repackaging public services? The case of community-oriented policing. Public Administration Review, 58(6), 485.
Fielding, N. (1995). Community policing. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
COPs and POPs
Community- and problem-oriented policing have been touted by some as representing the biggest changes to policing implemented at the end of the 20th century (reviewed by Maguire and King, 2004). However, as Maguire and King point out, defining these policing innovations is not a straightforward task since there may be as many variations as there are police agencies. This essay will define and contrast these two policing strategies in an attempt to better understand how crime control strategies have changed.
Department of Justice's website devoted to community-oriented policing (COPs) defines community policing as having three components: community partnerships, organizational transformation, and problem solving (Community Oriented Policing Services, n.d.). Under this definition, community not only includes residents, but also other government agencies, groups, nonprofits, service providers, businesses, and the media. Proper implementation of community policing requires police organizational transformation that may impact every corner of the…
Clarke, Ronald, V. And Eck, John E. (2005). Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers in 60 Small Steps. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 22 Jan. 2013 from www.cops.usdoj.gov/pdf/CrimeAnalysis60Steps.pdf.
Community Oriented Policing Services. (n.d.). Community policing defined. Community Oriented Policing Services, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 22 Jan. 2013 from http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Default.asp?Item=36 .
Goldstein, Herman. (2001). What is POP? Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. Retrieved 22 Jan. 2013 from http://www.popcenter.org/about/?p=whatiscpop .
Lombardo, Robert M., Olson, David, and Staton, Monte. (2010). The Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy: A reassessment of the CAPS program. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 33(4), 586-606.
Discuss how social psychologists might view the conflict between police officers and video advocates.
What many (but certainly not all) social psychologists would feel and think is that police officers are being singled out when they happened to get caught on tape doing something they should not be and/or something that is illegal. They would probably feel that police officers are being treated unfairly in that only the bad events and illegal events are being focused on. At the same time, video advocates would potentially appear to have the intentions of only zeroing in on situations and events where the police officer is truly doing something bad and probably would not pay a second thought to when a police officer is actually doing a good thing.
In short, a social psychologist would probably center on the idea that police officers are in a very stressful job and the…
ABC News. (2015). Video: 3/7/91: Video of Rodney King Beaten by Police Released.
ABC News. Retrieved 7 June 2015, from http://abcnews.go.com/Archives/
Feldman, R. (2011). Understanding psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
history of the police department in America. The writer explores why the nation determined police departments were necessary and how they began their ascent to various cities.
Before one can understand the current police departments in America it is important for one to understand how the police came to be viewed as something that was needed. Police departments in America origins have been traced back to early English Society. Before the Norman Conquest there were no police forces that were formally administered and implemented. Instead society depended on something called the pledge system which entailed a type of code of honor. This code said that each village member pledged to protect the entire village against crimes such as thieves and murderers. If any member of the village saw something occurring they were honor bound to make such a fuss the rest of the village would be alerted. They as well…
Police History and Organization History of Police (Accessed 2-2-2003)
Define the Concept and Create Measures
This study will use the survey method in order to measure officers’ perception of the effectiveness of body cameras in reducing tension in everyday situations in which police are at work. For the purpose of this study, tension is defined as a feeling in which insecurities, uneasiness, paranoia, anxiety, or other feeling of pressure is heightened (Ariel, Farrar & Sutherland, 2015). The body camera program recently adopted by the metropolitan police force is meant to encourage and promote accountability and verifiability while simultaneously helping to de-escalate situations through the knowledge of the fact that every engagement of an officer with a citizen is being recorded. This study aims to use the quantitative survey method in order to assess the extent to which officers find the body cameras to be effective in achieving the policy aims.
The survey will consist of a series of 5-10…
preponderance of abuse of power and excessive force incidence by law enforcement, it makes sense that citizens would use technologies to take back their rights. Smartphone apps offer an ideal means by which to document instances of police infringement on citizen rights, police brutality, and other issues that might be helpful for illuminating patterns of problems in communities or even in some cases, help the legal cases of victim of police abuse. Some of the apps that have been developed include CopWatch, Evidence Locker, Mobile Justice, and Police Tape. Each of these and similar apps are evolving and are designed to empower citizens thorugh the use of audio and video recording. The principles by which these apps work include alerting the user of rights regarding law enforcement stops and probable cause. Moreover, these apps include safeguards against unlawful police confiscation of the device, which is remarkably commonplace (Hess, 2012). It…
Hess, A. (2015). Justice through a lens. Slate. Retrieved online: http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/users/2015/04/copwatch_mobile_justice_and_other_apps_for_citizens_filming_police_encounters.html
Tuccille, J.D. (2012). Recording police encounters? There's an app for that. Reason. Retrieved online: https://reason.com/blog/2012/09/26/recording-police-encounters-theres-an-ap
In addition, today's police officer faces different challenges from police officers of even two decades ago. One of these 21st century problems facing law enforcement is terrorism. Almost every community across the nation has some building or government location that could be considered a target of terrorism, and large metropolitan areas have many of these targets within their boundaries. Because of this, police models may have to change to be more involved in preventing terrorism from occurring, rather than responding once a terrorist act has been committed. Community policing can aid in this by allowing community police officers to become familiar with their neighborhoods and citizens, and knowing exactly what targets lay in their area. To create better police officers, training in terrorism and how to recognize typical terrorism suspects must be stepped up and addressed in all communities.
Perhaps the biggest challenge facing many officers is the use of…
Bucqueroux, B. (2007). Community criminal justice: What community policing teaches. Retrieved from the Policing.com Web site: http://www.policing.com/articles/ccj.html26 March 2007.
Gianakis, G.A., & Davis, G.J. (1998). Reinventing or repackaging public services? The case of community-oriented policing. Public Administration Review, 58(6), 485.
Glenn, R.W., Panitch, B.R., Barnes-Proby, D., Williams, E., Christian, J., Lewis, M.W., et al. (2003). Training the 21st century police officer: Redefining police professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department / . Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Leuci, R. (1999). 13 the enemies within: Reflections on institutionalized corruption. In Police and policing: Contemporary issues, Kenney, D.J. & McNamara, R.P. (Eds.) (2nd ed., pp. 216-219). Westport, CT: Praeger.
Police and Politics
Do you believe there is a connection between politics and the police? Why or why not?
Yes, there is a connection. The police is a key pillar of governance and is thus closely related to politics. However, the link between the two is not as simple as individuals may think. The majority of the people have the view that any buffer between the political leadership of a country (especially the executive) and the police in the form of representation and bureaucracy will bring about a police force that is truly independent (Stevens, 2005; Noble & Alpert, 2009). Politics is defined as the art of exerting power over government affairs. For instance, political power can be seen through one's control of the power of the office they hold; control of certain aspects of leadership in government; and exerting one's interest on government. Thus, some individuals with political influence…
Noble, J. J. & Alpert, G. P. (2009). Managing Accountability Systems for Police Conduct: Internal Affairs and External Oversight. Prospect Heights, Illinois: Waveland Press.
Ozcan, Y. Z. and R. Gultekin (2000) Police and Politics in Turkey, British Criminology Conference
Stevens, J. (2005). Not for The Faint-Hearted: My Life Fighting Crime. Weidenfeld and Nicolson
terrorism has impacted the police mission in the U.S. Be sure to provide examples. Describe at least two disagreements that exist regarding the appropriate law enforcement behavior to fight terrorism and maintain personal liberties?
Terrorism and the events connected to September 11, 2001 have impacted the world in ways we could never imagine, affecting the way we view our safety and the way that we view ourselves. State and local police forces have been impacted as well, being confronted with new tasks and new dangers. Just as the Federal government created an entire new department of Homeland Security, police departments were faced with massive changes as well. For instance, these changes were: "coordinating homeland security at the state level; collecting, analyzing and sharing critical information and intelligence; protecting critical infrastructure and key assets; securing the nation's borders, air and sea ports; collaborating with federal and local law enforcement on task…
Csg.org. (2011). The Impact of Terrorism on State Law Enforcement. Retrieved from Csg.org: http://www.csg.org/knowledgecenter/docs/Misc0504Terrorism.pdf
Delattre, E. (2011). Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing. Washington DC: AEI Press.
FBI.gov. (2011, May). Police Corruption. Retrieved from FBI.gov: http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/law-enforcement-bulletin/may_2011/law_enforcement_professionalism
Ncjrs.gov. (2006). The Impact of Terrorism on State Law Enforcement. Retrieved from ncjrs.gov: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/216642.pdf
law enforcement agencies have often struggled with officer dishonesty and the impact such an action leaves not just in the criminal justice system, but more specifically in court proceedings. When an officer lies, their credibility may be threatened due to their previous dishonest comportment. Agencies must, on a continued basis, disclose information to prosecutors concerning the issue of officer dishonesty if the officer in question must testify against a defendant. That defendant must also be made aware of the instance of officer dishonesty and if this is not done, the agencies and officers may be held accountable as well as potentially lead to dismissal of charges against the defendant. An example of this was seen in Brady v. Maryland.
The landmark case of Brady v. Maryland demonstrated the effects of withholding information or evidence in case proceedings by the decision of the prosecutors to not submit Boblit's confession as evidence.…
Lewis, R. & Veltman, N. (2015). The Hard Truth About Cops Who Lie. WNYC. Retrieved 16 October 2016, from http://www.wnyc.org/story/hard-truth-about-cops-who-lie/
ole of Education in Police Management
The police force in any country has a vital role to play in terms of achieving its intended mission of crime prevention, protection of life and property and apprehending violators of peace. The police force, therefore, are the upholders of justice and peace, and to that extent, it is they, more than anyone else who need to practice an underlying code of ethics that is true to the spirit of democracy: "...the mission 'to protect and serve' is not so simple...require distinct and separate skills artistry of police work lies in the ability to handle explosive situations without resorting to force." (Delattre, 1989, p. 25-26) The practice of justice in police work does not only involve overt criminal acts but various types of community service including assisting the sick and injured or defusing domestic tension and violence. Now, the fact is, even if the…
Delattre, E.J. (1989). Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing. American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. Washington D.C.
Morn, Frank. (1995). Academic Politics and the History of Criminal Justice Education.
Thibault, E.A., Lynch, L.M. & McBride, R.B. (1995). Proactive Police Management.
Eras of Policing
According to most experts there are three distinct eras of policing, the political (1840-1930), reform (1930-1970) and community problem-solving era (1970-current). During the political era policing was focused on making politicians happy, was loosely based and had limited civic ties or regulatory bodies. The reform era of policing began to normalize policing in the civic sense, with stronger connections between bureaucratic agencies and the police, moving away from political motive and toward the needs of the community. It was during the reform era of policing that police agencies and departments began to be governed by a hierarchy, in a more militaristic style, began to wear uniforms reflective of a more professional level of policing and began to answer to a less political body, i.e. The public. After the 1970s a demand began to make police more accountable to the public and the community-problem solving era began. This…
Greene, J.R. (2000) Community policing in America: Changing the nature, structure, and function of the police. Criminal Justice 2000. Retrieved June 18, 2011 from: http://www.ncjrs.gov/criminal_justice2000/vol_3/03g.pdf?q=understanding-community-policing .
Hartman, F.X. ed. (1988) Debating the evolution of American policing. Perspectives on Policing. Retrieved June 18, 2011 from: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/114214.pdf .
Curtis, Lynnette. (2011, Aug. 5) Police Union talks raise concerns about saving North Las Vegas recreation centers. Las Vegas eview-Journal.
As the nation comes to grip with the budgetary problems associated with a poorly performing economy, and the prospects of better economic days seem a long lost dream, cities all over America are having difficulties with their own financial issues. In the city of North Las Vegas, there is a budgetary issue which directly effect the police department, and the officer's union. ather than close several recreation centers, the city has asked the police officers to make financial concessions in order to raise the necessary funds. The article "Police union talks raise concerns about saving North Las Vegas recreation centers" described the current situation relating to the negotiations between the police union and the city.
There are actually two unions involved in the negotiations with the city, the 60-member police…
Curtis, Lynnette. (2011, Aug. 5) Police Union talks raise concerns about saving North Las Vegas recreation centers. Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved from http://www.lvrj.com/news/police-union-talks-raise-concerns-about-saving-north-las-vegas-recreation-centers-126870533.html?ref=533
The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency ill Clinton. Yet in the slew of articles on the Clinton years that followed Clinton's departure from power, there was barely a mention of the genocide."
The UN, pressured by the ritish and the U.S., and others, refused to use the word "genocide" during the event, or afterward when it issued its official statement of condemnation of the genocide in Rwanda.
Since that time, ill Clinton has said that Rwanda is one of his regrets of his presidency, but that he lacked the information to "fully grasp what was going on in Rwanda."
Reports to the UN and its member states, as reported by William Ferroggiaro (1995), online at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAE/NSAE119/index.htm, were based on reports via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), said that there was a "probability" of certain individuals and groups being responsible for certain…
Anderson, D.L. The Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War. Columbia University Press, New York, 2002. p. 232.
Brahimi. L, Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2000), found at http://www.un.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Police Community elations
Does it eally Exist?
The policing organizations throughout the United States have been the subject of vast amounts of negative publicity in recent years. Although these relationships have always perceived as tense, especially by minority groups, in recent years many instances of police brutality have been digitally recorded and shared throughout many forms of media, including social media. The advancement of technology has allowed for most people to be able to create their own videos on demand, typically with the use of smart phones, which has created a situation in which many questionable acts by police officers have been documented. Because of this relatively recent development, it is unclear if there is actually a rise in occurrences of issues such as police brutality, or if there are just more examples of such instances that are being documented and shared.
ecently, the U.S. Justice Department's Office of Community…
Gest, T. (2015, October 2). DOJ Slams St. Louis County Cops on Community Relations. Retrieved from The Crime Report: http://www.thecrimereport.org/news/inside-criminal-justice/2015-10-cops-on-st-louis-county
Weitzer, R., Tuch, S., & Skogan, W. (2008). Police -- Community Relations in a Majority-Black City. Journal of Research in Crime & Deliquency.
Ethical Concerns in Criminal Justice: Police Brutality
In the field of criminal justice, it is important to be mindful of the moral or ethical problems which might arise. In a perfect world, police officers, prosecuting attorneys, judges, and juries would always act above board and with the singular interest of seeking out justice. However, this is a highly imperfect world and every society has had an incidence at some point in their history wherein someone abused their position in the process of criminal justice for their own ends. Those involved in criminal justice must be ever mindful of these past abuses and keep a watchful eye on their cohorts to ensure that the occurrence of similar unethical behaviors is kept to a minimum in the future. One of the most controversial aspects of criminal justice in recent years has been the question of police brutality and the consequences of officer's…
Byers, B. (2002). Ethics and criminal justice: some observations on police misconduct. Crime and Justice International. Sam Houston University, Texas. (18:68).
Krupanski, M. (2012). Policing the police: civilian video monitoring of police activity. Global Minds.
Locke, H. (1966). Police brutality and civilian review board: a second look. 625.
Skolnick, J. (1995). Community-oriented policing would prevent police brutality. Policing the Police. Greenhaven: San Diego, CA. 45-55.
Gangster Rap Responds to Police Brutality
Gangster Rap Speaking Out Against Police Brutality
Art often reflects life. When life creates situations that are dire, the art projected from that experience echoes that sense of urgency for change. In today's modern existence, the values of various subcultures do not always correlate with that of the dominate culture. This can often result in a clash of cultures, where minority groups are left to deal with the judgment of the majority group. A prime example of this is the gangster rap coming out of Los Angeles in the late 1980s and the early 1990s. At the time, gang violence was increasing, thus prompting for up scaling of law enforcement strategies. Ultimately, this led to LAPD acting out often much too aggressively in order to curb the increasing violence of the region. The art coming from such circumstances thus illustrates a clear defiance for…
Criminal justice is an inherently ethical profession. The judiciary ostensibly crafts laws that reflect the ethical sensibilities and social norms of the society, which are often embedded in the American Constitution. The role of the criminal justice system is to ensure that local, state, and federal laws are applied and enforced in a manner consistent with constitutional and regional codes. Issues like the equal protection clause are also ethical matters. The core objective of the criminal justice system is built on ethical responsibility: the ethical responsibility of the system to its main stakeholders, which is the American people.
However, there are also ancillary ethical issues associated with criminal justice that are not codified. Such issues are often linked with ambiguities and philosophical complexities. Applying criminal justice ethics entails sensitivity and awareness to prevailing political and social climates. Among the most pressing ethical issues in criminal justice include those related…
American Civil Liberties Union (2012). Racial profiling. Retrieved online: http://www.aclu.org/racial-justice/racial-profiling
Banks, C. (2012). Criminal Justice Ethics. Sage.
Block, W.E. & Obioha, V. (2012). War on black men: Arguments for the legalization of drugs. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 106-120.
Harfield, C. (2012). Police informers and professional ethics. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 73-95
Unethical behavior that a few years ago would have been considered appalling has become acceptable. Dishonesty, cheating, lying, and sexual misconduct, is not only common, but in most cases is expected" (Ramirez 2006).
In order to reduce police brutality and force the use of force matrix, criminal justice managers suggest exercise for police officers. If officers are healthier and more physically fit, this could lead to better community perception and relations, and may decrease the amount of citizen complaints against officers for verbal abuse and excessive physical force. Physically fit officers can increase the safety of themselves and fellow officers and change the public perceptions that police officers are out of shape donut eaters. Police departments can lower their medical premiums through decreased sick leave and injuries, as well as decreasing lawsuits from citizen complaints of verbal abuse and/or excessive physical force. Decreasing these lawsuits will also lower the city's…
From the evidence in this paper, it is apparent that police officers need more outlets relieve their stress in order to force ethical issues because they could eventually hurt others. Police organizations must find more help for their officers due to the fact they are in danger of the affects of chronic stress, which could permanently alter their personalities and behavior and that could add to ethical issues that criminal justice managers have to deal with. Beyond physically fitness, more effective research and funding must be put into the mental health of police officers so that they can serve and protect their communities and ethical issues can be addressed properly (Finn 2000).
Assata Shakur's Autobiography
Assata Shakur is a member of the Black Panthers and an activist. She is also an escaped convict and has been linked to the Black Liberation Army (BLA). She was accused of various crimes between 1971 and 1973, and became the subject of a police hunt that reached across several states (Christol, Gysin, & Mulvey, 2001). In 1973 she was part of a New Jersey Turnpike shootout where she was wounded along with a trooper. Another trooper and a BLA member were killed in that altercation. Between then and 1977, Shakur was indicted in relation to six other crimes, including armed robbery, murder and attempted murder, kidnapping, and robbing a bank (Christol, Gysin, & Mulvey, 2001). Three charges were dismissed, and she was acquitted on the other three charges. Then she was convicted in 1977 on eight felony counts including first-degree murder for the New Jersey Turnpike…
Christol, Helene. Gysin, Fritz, and Mulvey, Christopher (eds.). (2001). Militant Autobiography: The Case of Assata Shakur in Black Liberation in the Americas. Berlin-Hamburg-Munster: LIT Verlag.
Shakur, Assata. (1987, New edition November 1, 1999). Assata: An Autobiography. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books.
After continuous pleading, I realized that the officers were not going to help me, and in fact they seemed to perceive that I was mentally unbalance and were even more aggressive with me. I took it upon myself to defend my issues the only way I could -- which was to raise my voice and let the officers know I was in distress and needed help.
The officers shoved me into the back seat of the patrol car, further injuring my ribs. I was lying on my back, coughing, having difficulty breathing and still bleeding from the handcuffs. I kicked the seat and yelled that I needed to be move to a position in which I could breathe. The female officer turned around and dropped me off with one of the male officers as the Emergency Medical Team arrives. At first, the EMS team does not understand my condition even…
Why Breathalyzers May Not Accurately Measure Alcohol Levels. (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.mcminnlaw.com/criminal-law/austin-dwi-lawyer/why-breathalyzers-may-not-accurately-measure-alcohol-levels/#top
Green, S. (January 25, 2011). Family of Man Shoved into Wall by Deputy Settles. Newsbank. Retrieved from: http://infoweb.newsbank.com/iw-search/we/InfoWeb-p_action=doc&p_topdoc=1&p_docnum=1&p_sort=YMD_date:D&p_product=AWNB&p_text_direct-0=document_id= (%20135099C883E81388%20)&p_docid=135099C883E81388&p_theme=aggdocs&p_queryname=135099C883E81388&f_openurl=yes&p_nbid=W4DG51RKMTM3MDIyMjU2Ny41MDU0MDU6MToxMzoxOTIuMTYwLjIxNi4w&p_multi=STIW
Jabali-Nash, N. (December 14, 2010). California Police Officers Kill Man Pointing Water Nozzle, Not Gun. CBS News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-504083_162-20025657-504083.html
Mangan, D. (1996). Police Brutality: The Use of Excessive Force. Retrieved from: http://www.drury.edu/ess/irconf/dmangan.html
Frank Jude Jr.
How ethics are ignored and human rights are violated is one of the main discussion these days. There are a number of levels at which these two important rules of life are violated each day by individuals belonging to different speeches of life on the daily basis. Many pains are taken by the victims of human rights violations. One of such examples is that of Abner Louima. The paper will discuss the misdemeanor that was faced by Frank Jude Jr. And how the event faced by the victim has caused damages to the public trust.
Frank Jude Jr., a bi- racial man ling in isconsin, was performing as a stripper in one of the bachelorette parties on the night of October the 30th, 2004. After the [party, he and his black friend Lovell Harris, were invited to a party by Kirsten Antonissen. The party was hosted by…
Delattre, J. Edwin. Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing. 6th Edition. AEI Press, 2011.
Gaines, K. Larry., and Kappeler, E. Victor. Community Policing: A Contemporary Perspective. 6th Edition. Elsevier, 2012.
Gaines, K. Larry., and Kappeler, E. Victor. Policing In America. 7th Edition. Elsevier, 2011.
Lawrence, G. Regina. The Politics of Force: Media and the Construction of Police Brutality, The Politics of Force: Media and the Construction of Police Brutality, The Politics of Force: Media and the Construction of Police Brutality. University of California Press, 2000.
legal system of the United States of America rests on the Constitution, including the Bill of ights? The answer is that this is not completely true; the Constitution, when it was initially developed, did not enable authorities to cope successfully with all the disputes that would arise in a basic human society. As the country started to grow and develop, it became more complex, and many issues started to arise, when initially there were none. The need for these problems to be addressed and answered adequately also became important, and finally, it was understood that the only way in which to obtain all the required answers would be the English Common Law. Common Law can be defined as a body of enforceable rules that have grown because of the disputes and arguments that take place all the time within any particular country, and this body of common law in fact…
Fighting Police Abuse: A Community Action Manual. December 1, 1997. Retrieved From
http://www.aclu.org/PolicePractices/PolicePractices.cfm?ID=5009& ; c=25
Accessed on 28 July, 2005
Former CNN Producer Jack Smith confirms we have a secret army and are a step away from Secret police. Retrieved From http://www.cuttingedge.org/news/n1190.cfm
It is difficult to discern what the most egregious act of injustice was during the criminal case involving Frank Jude and the police department of Milwaukee, isconsin. The brutal beating the young man incurred, which clearly transgressed the line from a mere drubbing to wanton, pernicious acts of torture, would appear to lead the unspeakable travesty that would befall him in the months and years following his initial 2004 encounter with this police department. However, the duplicity involved in the farce of the investigation that was filed, culminating in the state trial in which justice was made a mockery of, is equally if not more so insidious because it directly deceived not only Jude and his civil rights, but also those of all others who depend on the criminal justice system for some semblance of righteousness. Or, quite possibly the most disturbing if not outright criminal aspect of this…
The Associated Press. "Wisconsin: Sentences for Former Officers." The New York Times. 2007. Web. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9902E4DA143CF934A35751C1A9619C8B63
Department of Justice. "Five Former and Current Milwaukee Police Officers
Indicted on Civil Rights Charges; Additional Officer Pleads Guilty To Obstruction." www.justice.gov. 2006. Web. http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2006/October/06_crt_715.html
Diedrich, John. "3 Ex-Officers Guilty." Milwaukee Wisconsin Journal Sentinal. 2007. Web. http://www.jsonline.com/news/milwaukee/29464434.html
g. A Police Office in a large metropolitan area like New York will have different duties and dangers than a County Sheriff in a rural Oklahoma area) (Barlow, 2000).
ightly so, modern society has a certain level of expectations for its military and law enforcement branches. While it is known that both must, at times, deal with the underside of society, it is also assumed that the group will rise above base and animalistic reactions and upload both the law and a sense of compassion -- coupled with self-preservation and safety. Officers are often in danger of infectious disease, motor vehicle fatalities, apprehension of persons under substance abuse, and line of duty deaths are not uncommon. For instance, approximately 200 police officers die per year in the United States, with over half of those deaths from direct assaults from suspects or criminals (obert, 2008). Still, individuals are sociologically drawn to…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Amnesty International, (2007), Amnesty International Report 2007. Cited in:
Baker, T. (2005), Effective Police Leadership, Looseleaf Law Books.
Barlow, D. (2000). Police in a Multicultural Society. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
The film "Dirty Harry" revolves around a sniper terrorizing San Francisco. Known as "Scorpio," the sniper tries to extort $100,000 from the city in return for stopping the killing of innocent people. To ensnare the sniper, SFPD Inspector Harry Callahan, also known as "Dirty Harry," is assigned to the case. His new partner is Chico Gonzales. Together, the two are locked in a cat-and-mouse game with the killer.
In the film, Eastwood's character is nicknamed "Dirty Harry" because of his unorthodox and shady handling of cases. More often than not, he uses violence to extract confessions from his victims. In the particular case involving Scorpion, he has little regard for the Bill of ights, the legal responsibilities that go with being a police officer, and such issues as the Miranda ights and warrants. It is not that he is not aware of these responsibilities, it is that he…
Egbert, R. (1971, Jan. 1). Reviews: Dirty Harry. Retrieved from: http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/dirty-harry-1971
Macklin, T. (2009, March 1). The Values in Dirty Harry (1971). Retrieved from: http://tonymacklin.net/content.php?cID=202
Ethics-CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
Details of the Source
When does police mistake become murder?
The Christian Science Monitor,
Date of publication: 04-05-1999,
Summary of Facts
Racial profiling is probably the biggest concern of minorities groups in our country because it has been the cause of numerous injustices against them. Our law enforcement agencies appear to be ruthlessly biased in their exercise of duty as is clear from this article. The author shows that racial profiling has resulted in prosecution and death of many innocent immigrants. The article argues that when death results from irresponsible actions of the police, it should be counted as murder because it violates basic civil rights provided by the constitution to every citizen regardless of color or creed. However it has been noticed that our police would open fire on any immigrant who appears to be a threat. The author asks: "Should the police officer be tried…
these little slivers of plastic provide commerce at the swipe of a wrist, but every time that card is swiped, the time, date, location, value, and often the items of a purchase are recorded several times over, by banks, credit card companies, superstores, fashion chains, transport industries, and many other points on the economic tree (Trango, n.d.). These details, over time, can and are used to create a 'picture' of you and your buying habits; Can you be trusted to pay back a loan? What times do you usually come into a store? Do you take public transport because you can or because its cheaper? What bra size are you? All of these details can be correlated over time, and can often then be sold onto third parties for marketing purposes, and, depending on where you are, that information can all be sold including your name and address. (The EU…
1. Schenkel, G. (2009, September 17). Livewave cctv system. Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/privacy/privacy_pia_ice_livewave.pdf
2. Trango, . (n.d.). Wireless surveillance systems & homeland security. Retrieved from http://www.trangobroadband.com/solutions/security-surveillance-cctv-systems.aspx
3. Ng, K. (2010, April 20). Why Cctv is a priority for asian homeland security. Retrieved from http://www.futuregov.asia/articles/2010/apr/20/cctv-priority-asian-govts/
4. Post, . (2002). Cctv. POSTNOTE, (175), Retrieved from http://www.parliament.uk/documents/post/pn175.pdf http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/article-23412867-tens-of-thousands-of-cctv-cameras-yet-80-of-crime-unsolved.do
However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).
y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.
Definition of Terms
Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.
Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…
Choo, A., and Mellors, M. (1995) Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (Or Didn't Say). Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, Blackstone Press, University of Leicester. Web site: http://wenjcli.ncl.ac.uk/articles2/choo2.html
Girodo, M. (1985) Health and Legal Issues in Undercover Narcotics Investigations: Misrepresented Evidence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3(3),299-308.
Girodo, M. (1991) Drug Corruption in Undercover Agents: Measuring the Risk. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 361-370.
Girodo, M. (1997) Undercover Agent Assessment Centers: Crafting Vice and Virtue for Impostors. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(5), 237-260.
The odney Kind riots resulted in 50 deaths, 4000 injuries, 12,000 arrests, and $1 billion in property damage ("The Los Angeles iots, 1992").
While riots give a voice to the oppressed, it remains questionable whether they create meaningful structural change. Ten years after the odney King riots, "South Central remains one of the city's poorest neighborhoods. Unemployment remains well above 20% even after the boom of the 1990s," ("The Los Angeles iots, 1992"). iots reflect poorly on their communities, frightening away potential investors, social service institutions, and other means of community enrichment.
However, cities and their governments can learn from these four significant events in American urban history. Law enforcement officials must be trained to anticipate riots. Police departments should eliminate racial profiling and more vigorously prosecute officers using excessive force. Minorities should become well-represented at all levels of city government including law enforcement and criminal justice but also in…
The 1965 Watts Riots." Retrieved Mar 12, 2007 at http://www.usc.edu/libraries/archives/la/watts.html
Herman, M. (nd). "Newark Riots-1967." The Newark and Detroit Riots. Retrieved Mar 12, 2007 at http://www.67riots.rutgers.edu/n_index.htm
Los Angeles Riot Still Echoes a Decade Later." (2002). CNN.com.
The Los Angeles Riots, 1992." Retrieved Mar 12, 2007 at http://www.usc.edu/libraries/archives/la/la_riot.html .