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This is when they will abide by these guidelines. The enforcement of these provisions will create a procedure for investigating offenses, protecting the rights of the accused and punishing those who violate the code of ethics. ("Police Officer Code of Ethics," 2004) (Berg, 1999)
What makes this approach so unique is the department will function as an independent entity. This means that Internal Affairs will have the power to overrule the Chief of Police and the officers inside the department. They are accountable to the oversight committee which is responsible for enforcing these provisions. This process will occur by taking a balanced approach that is focused on transparency, protecting the rights of the accused and effectively investigating any kind of violations. ("Police Officer Code of Ethics," 2004) (Berg, 1999)
Clearly, police deviance and integrity are major issues that every department must deal with. This is because there are times…
National Police Misconduct Statistics. (2009). UCIMC.org. Retrieved from: http://www.ucimc.org/content/national-police-misconduct-statistics-released
Police Officer Code of Ethics. (2004). Police Crimes. Retrieved from: http://www.policecrimes.com/police_code.html
Berg, B. (1999). Policing in Modern Society. Boston, MA: Butterworth.
Long, C. (2009). Stop and Frisk. Huffington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/10/08/stop-and-frisk-police-sto_n_314509.html ?
Analyze the relationship between the U.S. government and the policing organizations throughout the United States.
The relationship between the U.S. government and policing organizations is loosely coordinated. This means that local agencies will determine what personnel they hire and how different resources are utilized. In some cases, the various departments work for specific entities such as: colleges / universities or transit departments. Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Cordner (2010) who found that there are a total of 830 thousand law enforcement personnel in the U.S. Out of this number, 74% work for local agencies. While 13% are employed with the states / special jurisdictions and 13% by the federal government. These figures are illustrating how Washington has a limited relationship with local officials. (Cordener, 2010)
However, there are many situations where the federal government will work in coordination with police departments throughout the U.S.…
Protecting America from Terrorist Attack. (2012). FBI. Retrieved from: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/terrorism/terrorism_jttfs
Cordener, G. (2010). Information Sharing. HSAJ. Retrieved from: http://www.hsaj.org/?fullarticle=6.1.5
Roberts, A. (2003). Critical Issues. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Travis, L. (2011). Introduction to Criminal Justice. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
Ethics, therefore, is not something that a policeman learns in the classroom -- yet, training classes are regularly scheduled -- and this picture of student not understanding why he is in the classroom is indicative of the problem of police ethics as a whole (Crank, Caldero, 2011). There is no established, realistic connection between policing and classroom ethics. The world of the streets is a different from the world of the textbook. This is one reason that the lengthy and often wasteful enforcement of discipline in law enforcement agencies seems negligent: it is dealing with personnel who have a negligible sense of the reason they are being investigated and/or punished. This paper examines the need to better guarantee police ethics through the development and implementation of an acceptable police ethics system, which incorporates education with corrective (i.e., punishment) procedure. Through literature review and interview assessment, this study concludes…
Baca, L. (2007). Psychology of Discipline. Leadership Message from the Sheriff.
Accessed November 12, 2011, from: http://www.lasd.org / divisions/leadership-training-div/bureaus / ebd/assets/leadership-message-psychology-ofdiscipline.pdf.
Barker, T. (2011). Police Ethics: Crisis in Law Enforcement. IL: Thomas Books.
Braswell, M.C., McCarthy, B., McCarthy, B. (2012). Justice, Crime and Ethics. MA:
Police Department Organization:
The local, state, and federal agencies are part of the criminal justice system that focuses on dealing with the problem of crime. The main components of the criminal justice system at all levels of government include police, courts, and corrections that deter or prevent criminal activities through arresting, trying and punishing criminals respectively. The local, state, and federal agencies have different functions that are geared towards the enforcement of laws and provision of security. The police departments in these levels of government are public agencies with the purposes of maintaining order, provide services, and implement the criminal law. Generally, the police departments and personnel work in the community to thwart and control crime.
Types of Police Agencies at Every Level of Government:
There are many different kinds of law enforcement or police agencies including the small town police departments to the huge federal police agencies. However, these…
"Administration of Police Agencies, Theories of." (n.d.). What-when-how: In Depth Tutorials
and Information. Retrieved April 18, 2012, from http://what-when-how.com/police-science/administration-of-police-agencies-theories-of/
Harkins, D. (2011, April 19). What Are the Differences Between Federal, State & Local Law
Enforcement? Retrieved April 18, 2012, from http://www.ehow.com/info_8251672_differences-state-local-law-enforcement.html
It was thus decided that the use of force by the police was justified by the circumstances and that accusations were more of an issue of violation of rights rather than violent demeanor against Graham. The motion filled by the accused for a directed verdict was granted. The case is now known to have provided, and still does, insight as to what defines reasonable use of force. According to Graham v. Connor, excessive use of force is recognized only when police officers maliciously intend to harm suspects. Nevertheless, had Graham's condition been any worse, we can assume his life would have been endangered. Because of such situations, police officers are required provide necessary help for suspects, regardless of subjective opinions. And, in Graham's case, none of the officers had the ability to specifically address medical conditions. Indeed, the officer claiming Graham was drunk acted upon personal perceptions, according to what…
Alpert, G.P., & Dunham, R.G. (2000). Analysis of Police Use-of-Force Data. National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/183648.pdf
Delattre, E.J. (2011). Character and cops: Ethics in policing (sixth ed.). Washington: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group.
Frontline (Interviewer) & Gates, Darryl (Interviewee). 2001. The Legacy of Rodney King [Interview Transcript]. Retrieved from PBS Official Website:
Police Corruption and Citizen Complaints elative to Ethnicity
Police has a rather crucial role to play in the society. However, at more than one occasions, people have lodged complaints against police officers. ather than maintaining justice and equality, police offers are discriminating against people. This problem should be addressed as priority since the role of the police can be tainted if such events keep on taking place.
A contemporary event
The case of George Zimmerman and Trayvon Martin is a classic example of police corruption regarding ethnicity. Even though George Zimmerman was charged as "not guilty," many people are against this decision. This shooting took place on the night of February 26, 2012 in Sanford, Florida. Trayvon Martin was a seventeen-year-old high school student who was heading back from a local store to his house. George Zimmerman, who is 28 and was of mixed race, was the coordinating officer of…
Abulhawa, S. (2013). Trayvon Martin case a travesty of justice. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2013/08/201384102857620336.html [Accessed: 11 Aug 2013].
Livingston, Deborah (2011). Citizen Review of Police Complaints: Four Dimensions of Value. National Association for Civilian Oversight of Law Enforcement.
Newport, F. (2013). In U.S., 24% of Young Black Men Say Police Dealings Unfair. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.gallup.com/poll/163523/one-four-young-black-men-say-police-dealings-unfair.aspx [Accessed: 11 Aug 2013].
Tiger, J. (1971). Police Discretion and Discriminatory Enforcement. Duke Law Journal, 20 (4), pp. 717-743.
Ethics is a delicate topic in the context of policing, as police officers are often coming across situations when they need to act on account of their instinct rather than on ethical thinking. Individuals are subjected to a continuous amount of stress during their jobs as police officers and they thus have to be able to put across the best performance possible on a constant basis. Even with this, one needs to understand that police officers are only human and that in spite of their struggle to put across exemplary behavior they are sometimes likely to act in disagreement with generally accepted legislations. It is only safe to say that law enforcement is seeing a crisis as it is becoming increasingly difficult for officers to focus on ethics in the diverse environment in the present. While the fact that cameras are very common today means that police…
Barker, T. (2011). Police Ethics: Crisis in Law Enforcement. Charles C. Thomas Publisher
Dice, M. (2011). Big Brother: The Orwellian Nightmare Come True. Mark Dice.
Douglas, J.E. (2008). John Douglas's Guide to the Police Officer Exams. Kaplan Publishing.
Gaines, L.K. Criminal Justice in Action: The Core, 7th ed. Cengage Learning.
In most cases, their duties revolve around statewide investigations, highway patrols, and enforcing other traffic laws. They usually work with the Bureau of criminal investigations in dealing with emergencies, training law enforcement official and social crime such sex offenders and illegal drug abuse and other investigations that go beyond the jurisdiction and resources of the local police (Dantzker, 1999).
On the other hand, the federal agency deals with not only statewide concerns, but also oversees the solving and tackling crimes that directly or by extension affect the entire state. This level requires high specialization, training, and knowledge on both the local and state laws as it covers the entire country. Some of the bodies in this category include the Secret Service, Federal Bureau of Investigations (F.B.I), the Border Patrol, and the United States Enforcement Administration (D.E.A) (Stevens, 2011).
The patrol unit is one of the most significant departments in police…
Dantzker, ML. (1999). Police Organization and Management: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow. Boston, MA: Elsevier
Palmiotto, M. J & Unnithan, N.P. (2010). Policing & Society: A Global Approach. New York, NY: Cengage Learning
Stevens, D.J. (2011). An Introduction to American Policing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Jones & Bartlett Publishers
The Police have the most dangerous, though the most rewarding, job in the world. They risk their lives to protect the weak and maintain public order. ecause of the many hazards they face, many officers die in the line of duty. A police officer must be well-trained and well-equipped in order to protect herself while protecting the public. Thesis: Technology is allowing the police more effective non-lethal weapons for restraining offenders, although firearms are still essential. More importantly, communications technology such as infrared and thermal imaging promise to improve protection and surveillance.
Dangers of policing
There are a number of dangers encountered during policing. The first and most conspicuous type of danger comes from criminal offenders or potential offenders. Such individuals might attempt to harm the intervening officer or deceive him/her. Typically, this danger comes in the form of unarmed violence, e.g. shoving, kicking, and punching. In particularly…
Hess, K., Orthmann, C., Cho, H. (2010). Police Operations: Theory and Practice. Cengage Learning.
Gardbaum, S. (1996). Rethinking Constitutional Federalism, 74 Texas Law Review 795, 798-801.
Broder, David (July 8, 2007). "Arizona's Border Burden." The Washington Post. Online. Available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/07/06/AR2007070601929_pf.html
Still other theorists have noted that the same officer may proceed through all of these syndromes over the course of a career (O'Connor, 2005). Finally, some social scientists dispute the singularity of the authortarian mindset within police officers at all. "Other approaches in the study of police culture are devoted to the topic of typologies, or types of police officers," like the idealists who are "college educated" with "high ideals" versus "enforcers" who are ends oriented" (O'Connor, 2005)
It might be added that different police brotherhoods will also likely have different police cultures. A small municipality is likely to have fewer yatt Earps or enforcers types than a police department located in a large city. An urban police force may have a more tolerant attitude, and a higher percentage of idealistic or college educated officers than a small Southern town.
The specific characteristics of the force, rather than policing in…
Is there a Police Personality?" (2007). Slide 12. John Jay: CUNY Psychology 377.
Week 4. Retrieved 5 Feb 2007 at http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~pzapf/classes/PY377/week_04/sld012.htm
O'Connor, Tom. (2005). "Police Culture and Behavior." Last updated: 26 Jun 2005. Retrieved 5 Feb 2007 at http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/205/205lect02.htm
They have found "when they got those officers that the engagement with these communities was tremendous, which then reflected in their ability to fight crime" (Hilpern 2004). There has also been an attempt to boost the number of non-white officers rather than merely deploy current minority police in greater numbers to the community. One of the most controversial aspects of the new London plan is fast-tracking applicants who speak languages spoken by ethnic minorities into the police service under a positive discrimination plan. The language recruitment system has been defended because of similar successful campaigns in the United States, much like the one implemented in Chicago in the Mazurek and Malin article. The director of recruitment states "If we can't communicate clearly with the general public, we can't do our job as well as we could otherwise" (Hilpern 2004). However, one problem in London not present in est Chicago, but…
Hilpern, Kate (2004). "Speaking the language." The Independent.
Retrieved through Find Articles database on 17 Sept 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20041028/ai_n12812022/print
Mazurek, James L. & Bruce Malin (Dec 1991). Today's policing within the Hispanic community. Illinois Municipal Review. 9-12. Retrieved through the Illinois Periodicals Online on 17 Sept 2007 at http://www.lib.niu.edu/ipo/1991/im911209.html
Furthermore, there is often a veil of silence from witnesses in these types of assaults, which makes investigation very difficult. However, when an officer exercises the discretion to treat these incidents as lesser-crimes, he reinforces the devaluation of the gang members and actually increases the validity of the gang culture. Furthermore, gang violence does not occur in isolation, and it is unfair to the non-criminal members of gang-afflicted communities for officers to fail to fully investigate such crimes.
One crime where officers, at least initial responders, should not be permitted to exercise any discretion is in the area of child abuse. Child abuse is a serious crime, but there is a tendency for adults to minimize complaints by children. Because the stakes are so tremendously high if the complaint is correct, officers should be required to respond to all reports of child abuse as true and zealously investigate them. If…
The focus of every police administrator should be to prevent officers from experiencing overwhelming stress with which they do not have the means to cope.
Discussion and Conclusion
Finding ways to help managers and administrators to help officers cope with the daily chronic stress of their jobs should be a key priority. Although the statistics disagree as to the severity of these problems as compared to the general population, they still pose a significant problem for the officers and the departments for which they work. Officers need to be at their peak performance every day that they are on the job. Departments need to focus on providing the opportunity for optimum performance for every officer on the force. In order to do this they need to develop strategies for helping officers to effectively cope with the daily stresses that they face.
Administrators and manager often cannot do anything to reduce…
Brown, J. (2003). Suicide by Cop. Police Stressline. Retrieved April 26, 2009 from http://www.geocities.com/~halbrown/suicide_by_cop_1.html
Curran, S. (2003). Separating fact from fiction about police stress: the author examines long-
standing beliefs. Behavioral Health Management. January 1, 2003. Retrieved April 26,
2009 from http://www.allbusiness.com/human-resources/employee-development/482217-1.html
As this study points out, these encounters can lead to negative situations and even to death, injuries and legal issues.
In essence, the relationship and involvement of the police from a formal point-of-view is based on two common law principles. These are, the facility and the responsibility of the police to protect the safety and welfare of the public, and secondly the principle of parens patriae, which dictates protection for disabled citizens such as mentally ill persons. (Teplin L.A., 2000)
Usually mental health codes are specified as to the degree of involvement of the police with the mentally ill. These "...instruct police to initiate a psychiatric emergency apprehension whenever the person is either dangerous to self or others or is unable to provide for basic physical needs so as to protect him/herself from serious harm" (Teplin L.A., 2000).
While there are legal parameters to the involvement of the police with…
Badawi, C. (2002, Spring). Officer Joel Fay Helps Mentally Ill Homeless People Get off the Street and into Care. Whole Earth 26+. Retrieved February 4, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000736701
Bittner E. (1967) Police Discretion in Emergency Apprehension of Mentally Ill
Persons. Social Problems, 14 (3), pp. 278-292
Community Policing. Retrieved January 2, 2008, at http://safestate.org/index.cfm?navID=7
From all neighborhoods the answers were the same, that when police, residents and merchants worked together, crime was reduced. It was also recognized that there was room for improvement in Seattle's community policing efforts. First, it was stated that the citizens of Seattle must become more involved in crime-fighting activities, for it is insufficient for only a handful of residents in neighborhoods across the city to identify projects for the community and its police force to tackle. Instead, people from racially, ethnically, ideologically, and economically diverse backgrounds must get involved in community policing projects. Second, it was noted that Seattle's political leadership must demonstrate support for community policing. Anything less undermines the public's already-damaged confidence. When citizens are discouraged from working with police officers, the department loses its most valuable asset, the community it serves. Finally, it is stated that the department must fully embrace community policing (Community policing works…
Christopher, W. & Arguelles, J. (1991, July 9). Report of the Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police Department.
Cohen H.S. & Feldberg, M. (1991). Power and restraint: The Moral dimension of police work. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.
Community policing works if all take part (2000, February 19). Seattle Post-Intelligencer.
Delattre, E.J. (1989). Character and cops: Ethics in policing. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.
It is only logical that a large amount of power comes along with high profiles and that this power can be detrimental when it falls into the hands of people more interested in their personal gain than in the well being of their community.
The fact that the mayor died of a single shot in the head influences me in believing that the murder had not been accidental, nor had it been the result of a robbery. It appears that the mayor had been the victim of an execution. Also, the criminal had most probably known whom he was pointing the gun at and why he was doing it. In order to have better chances of solving the case, I have to find out what the motives for the crimes have been, and who could have benefited from the mayor's death.
One of the greatest problems faced by police departments…
As in many organizations, the common viewpoint among police officers and supervisors that referral to a mental health professional meant the loss of one's job. The perception prevented the victim from taking the proper action. The victim's superiors would attempt to help or protect him by denying the reality of his problem. As a result, the victim was denied the help he needed. These superiors were unduly concerned about the threat to employment and economic security (aker and aker).
The department should educate its officers and personnel on depression and suicide (aker and aker, 1996). They should be told that seeking help would not make them lose their job or end their career. It could even improve their job and career. A program of education should emphasize that asking for help was a sign of strength and not weakness. ut such a program would work only if the entire department…
Baker, T.E. And Baker, J.P. (1996). Preventing police suicide. FBI Law Enforcement
Bulletin: Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved on December 11, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2194/is_n10_v65/ai_18920164?tag=content;col1
Gorski, E. (2001).. no easy answers on police suicides. The (Colorado Springs)
Gazette: ProQuest Information and Learning Company. Retrieved on December 11, 2008 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4191/is_20010707/ai_n9989887?tag=content;col1
At the same time though, they are often used in cases of violent arrests and intense police operations. Also, ultrasounds weapons are used in riots and mob control as well as in violent manifestations.
At the military level, these are common especially when engaging in peacekeeping operations and in the missions where the risk of hurting civilians is relatively high. Still, in these situations, police forces are also equipped with fire arms.
The community is divided on the issue of the use of non-lethal weapons. Some actually salute their introduction in the police arsenal, while others decide to take their defense in their own hands. More precisely, those who recognize the ability of the police to maintain order and security and are at the same time against police abuse consider this method to be useful. Those who disagree however make their point through statements such as "we cannot trust police…
Adachi, Ken. (2005) "Sanctioned Torture & Summary Execution in America." Educate yourself website. Accessed 24 June 2008, at http://educate-yourself.org/pnt/index.shtml
America Civil Liberties Union. (1997) Fighting Police Abuse: A Community Action Manual. Accessed 24 June 2008, at http://www.aclu.org/police/gen/14614pub19971201.html
Bunker, R.J. (n.d.) Nonlethal Weapons: Terms and References. INSS Occasional Paper 15. USAF Institute for National Security Studies. Accessed 24 June 2008, at http://www.angelfire.com/or/mctrl/nonlethal.html
Corlett, a.J. (2001) Responsibility and Punishment. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Police Culture and the Perpetuation of the Officer Shuffle
Martha L. Shockey-Eckles conducted this ethnographic study in her pursuit to understand social change in the society. She aimed to identify key areas in need of change. The author worked tirelessly to mobilize and encourage local residents to combine efforts towards imparting change, where it is most demanded (ushkoff, 2013).
The ethnographic approach served as the instrument for picking up data about the culture of the local police, expectations, and that which lies covered up behind The Blue Wall. These same techniques, initially utilized principally by sociologists, have now been discovered to be applicable and credible around a cluster of disciplines due, in extensive part, to their capacity to take dig into themes previously unexplored (Shockey-Eckles, 2010).
This ethnographic study has shown that police culture assumes a crucial role in domestic violence executed by police officers. Police culture has been in…
Chambliss, W.J. (2011). Key issues in crime and punishment. Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE.
Rushkoff, D. (2013). Present shock: When everything happens now. Mulgrave, Vic: Images Publishing.
Shockey-Eckles, M. (2010). Police culture and the perpetuation of the officer shuffle: the paradox of life behind "the blue wall" article.
Research Question: When do police interrogation techniques lead to false confessions/false witness testimony, and how can false confessions be prevented?
Reference: Orlando, J. (2014). Interrogation techniques. OLR Research Report. https://www.cga.ct.gov/2014/rpt/2014-R-0071.htm
The Office of Legislative Research (OLR) is a branch of the Connecticut state government, specifically the State Capitol and General Assembly. This is an OLR Research Report, published on the .gov site. Therefore, authority and credibility have been established using the CRAP test. The site is also from 2014, making it current. The report offers an overview of the most commonly used police interrogation techniques: the Reid method. This method has been accused of leading the interrogation subject into a false confession. The author discusses the research findings related to the limitations of the Reid method, and offers several alternative methods including the Preparation and Planning, Engage and Explain, Account, Closure and Evaluate (PEACE) method most commonly…
Research Question: When do police interrogation techniques lead to false confessions/false witness testimony, and how can false confessions be prevented?
eBook: Trainum, J.L. (2016). How the Police Generate False Confessions. [eBook Kindle Edition].
This eBook is written more for the general public than for a scholarly audience. However, the book does offer some valuable information and insight into the processes of interrogation used by police, and how those processes could lead to false confessions. Trainum (2016) also explains why it is important to pay attention to police interrogation techniques and how to improve them. The author is a former cop, with almost thirty years of experience. Including an eBook written from the perspective of a police officer offers good counterpart to the scholarly research conducted by those who might not have as much familiarity with the real day-to-day experiences of police officers. This eBook is also different from a lot…
Persuasive Speech Police ReformsConcerning democratic values, police reforms aim to transform the culture, policies, deals, and practices of organizations run by the police for the police to perform their duties. The main goal of these reforms is to ensure that potentially risky behaviors within the police departments are spotted. This will help in taking preventive steps to reduce the occurrence of police misconduct. Police reforms, for example, in the United States have a history that includes a lot of efforts that involved external commissions like the Wickersham Commission. This commission formulated the reforms, but the police were left to implement them with limited success. Responding to the police brutality in 1981 in the U.S, enforcements from the police departments gave early intervention programs to spot and help reduce police misconduct. First, I am going to provide an analysis of the causes of police reforms. I will discuss the effects of…
Blair, Graeme, et al. “Does community policing build trust in police and reduce crime? Evidence from six coordinated field experiments in the global south.” Science, revise and resubmit (2021). https://web.sas.upenn.edu/ggros/files/2020/12/abd3446_CombinedPDF_v1.pdf
Cheng, Tony. “Input without influence: the silence and scripts of police and community relations.” Social Problems 67.1 (2020): 171-189. https://academic.oup.com/socpro/article-abstract/67/1/171/5427936
Dammert, Lucía. “Challenges of police reform in Latin America.” Routledge handbook of law and society in Latin America. Routledge, 2019. 259-277. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9781315645193-17/challenges-police-reform-latin-america-luc%C3%ADa-dammert
Edwards, Frank, Hedwig Lee, and Michael Esposito. “Risk of being killed by police use of force in the United States by age, race-ethnicity, and sex.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116.34 (2019): 16793-16798. https://www.pnas.org/content/116/34/16793?fbclid=IwAR2dUEiKwYaTG6EY2Po5tquAtlIcd8Av1vuKYzMe7-gqosucqBkqg_0PT8s
There seems to be a national-level divide between ethnic/racial minority populations and law enforcers. Studies indicate a record decline in citizens’ satisfaction with law enforcers, with the Hispanic and African-American communities displaying lowest levels of police force satisfaction. Countrywide statistics for the year 2014, presented by Gallup, suggest that under half the Hispanic population in America and not even thirty-five percent of the African-American population believes they will be treated justly by policepersons (Smoot, 2016). In this paper, the link between minorities and policepersons with regard to racial politics and race will be delved into.
Linkages between racial/ethnic minority groups and law enforcers pose a few highly complex and persistent policing issues worldwide. Though these associations have the potential of being congenial and positive, they usually aren’t. Minority communities, for instance, largely find they are unable to avail themselves of services they have a right to enjoy,…
Cao, L. (2011). Visible Minorities and Confidence in the Police 1. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 53(1), 1-26.
Gamal, F. (2016). The Racial Politics of Protection: A Critical Race Examination of Police Militarization. Cal. L. Rev., 104, 979.
Natarajan, R. (2014). Racial profiling has destroyed public trust in police. Cops are exploiting our weak laws against it. Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2014/12/15/racial-profiling-has-destroyed-public-trust-in-police-cops-are-exploiting-our-weak-laws-against-it/?utm_term=.61831eb2ee3f on 6 November 2017
Smoot, S. M. (2016). THE PRESIDENT\\'S TASK FORCE ON 21ST CENTURY POLICING: PROCEDURAL JUSTICE, POLICING, AND PUBLIC HEALTH. S. Ill. ULJ, 40, 427-561.
Weitzer, R. (2014). Police race relations. The Oxford Handbook of Police and Policing, 339.
1. Define community participation. Community participation is the involvement of members of the community in working with law enforcement to achieve common goals for the benefit of the community.
2. Why are some communities more desirous of control than other communities? Community-identity and esteem play a large role in the extent to which some communities seek a larger role in defining the overall community status.
3. How has the federal government become a part of community participation in police agencies? The federal government provides grants and subsidies to communities that participate in policing. For example, the DoJ’s Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS Office) supports community policing initiatives.
4. Contrast several different methods of community participation in the criminal justice system. Within the criminal justice system, there are several methods of community participation: community policing, community cleanup, community oversight committees, community watches, community events, and so on.…
International Association of Chiefs of Police. (2016). 10 ways community members can
engage with law enforcement. Retrieved from https://theiacpblog.org/2016/08/12/10-ways-community-members-can-engage-with-law-enforcement/
One protest song from the 1960s that stands out is Nina Simone’s “Mississippi Goddman.” It is a song about the racism in the South that was tearing the country apart in the 1960s. As an African American and friend of Malcolm X, Nina Simone was angry about what she saw and this song’s lyrics express that anger: “I can’t stand the pressure much longer,” she sings early in the song. Compared to another protest song from today called “No Justice No Peace” by Z-Ro from 2016, not much has changed. Z-Ro is another African American who is angry about police violence against blacks. His song, like Nina’s is about taking a stand and facing the racism straight on. This paper will compare and contrast three themes from these two songs.
The first theme that emerges in both is the racism against blacks. Nina Simone sings about blacks having…
Q1. Do you think that privatization of public services is good? Why or why not?
Privatizing public services is often promoted as a way of improving state services through competition. Unfortunately, what works in capitalist theory is seldom true in practice. First of all, unlike the government, for-profit private services must be profitable. This can result in less-than- ethical actions, for example, in terms of how companies make use of the environment or carry out their basic functions. Secondly, in the case of security services such as the police, there is ambiguity to whom the employees are beholden, to the Constitution which upholds the rights of citizens (including to be protected from egregious police actions) or to the owners of the organization and the private organization’s policies and shareholders (Lessenberry, 2016).
Q2. What are the political questions at stake with the privatization of police?
Privatizing the police is popular amongst…
Gollust, S. E., & Jacobson, P. D. (2006). Privatization of public services: organizational reform efforts in public education and public health. American Journal of Public Health, 96(10), 1733–1739. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1586133/
Goodman, J. & Loveman, G. (1991). Does privatization serve the public interest? HBR. Retrieved from: https://hbr.org/1991/11/does-privatization-serve-the-public-interest
Lessenberry, K. (2017). Privatizing the police would be a dangerous policy. Michigan Radio. Retrieved from: https://www.michiganradio.org/post/privatizing-police-would-be- dangerous-policy
Final Report of President’s Task Force: Key Points in Building Trust and Legitimacy
The key points of Pillar One of the Final Report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing (2015) are that 1) People are more likely to obey the law when they see that those who enforce it follow the law as well and thus have the legitimate authority to enforce it; 2) trust and confidence play an important part in developing relations between officers and members of the community; 3) appreciating diversity is instrumental in promoting community relations; and 4) a democratic approach to leadership can help cultivate a more integrated and cohesive police department, which in turn can help to promote systematically the values that the department wants to implement.
The report recommends several action items; however, the most important of them have to do with the integrity and legitimacy of law…
Policing Policies Analysis
This study seeks to strengthen the practice of policing by demonstrating the effectiveness of the problem-oriented policing. The information provided herein is useful to practitioners as it compares problem-oriented policing against community-oriented policing. Practitioners will be able to create much robust policing intervention when addressing real life situations within the field by grasping the theoretical mechanisms (Hess & Orthmann, 2011). In addition, by linking academic theories to policing, this review helps theoretical criminologists ponder about the most useful concepts for practical police level.
Zero tolerance Policing
Zero-tolerance policing lacks a specific definition; it can be understood in various ways. The recent definition entails non-discretional and strict enforcement of law regardless of the magnitude or circumstances of the crime. While this approach involves positive police actions, it does not equate to automatic arrests of trivial crimes. This is the most aggressive policing approach and cannot be equated to…
Wakefield, A., & Fleming, J. (2008). The SAGE Dictionary of Policing. London: Sage Publications.
Palmiotto, M. (2009). Community policing: A policing strategy for the 21st century. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen.
Do-lling, D. (2013). Community policing: Comparative aspects of community oriented police work. Holzkirchen/Obb: Felix.
Ikerd, T.E. (2007). Examining the institutionalization of problem-oriented policing: The Charlotte-Mecklenburg police department as a case study.
Hidden Dangers, Real Weapons, and Potential Technologies
Police officers are, undoubtedly, society's primary protectors. These individuals undertake assignments knowing that they could be placed in lethal danger, and do so in order to help complete strangers and keep a community safe. For this reason, police officers ought to be very much admired. Despite the personal and professional satisfaction that comes with being a great police officer, these individuals are also well aware that, as mentioned above, there are various aspects affecting their daily professional routines, many of which are not present in other careers, and many of which involve great risks. Yet despite knowing this, many police officers absolutely love their job. The paragraphs below will thus discuss policing operations in detail in order to better understand this particular and very important field of work. The essay will be separated into five sections focusing on the dangers of…
Shreeve, J.L. (2012). CSI Foils Felons. Police Technology. Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .
Scheider, M. & Chapman, R. (2003). Community Policing and Terrorism. Homeland Security Wesite. Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .
Simon, S. (2011). Former LAPD Chief Bill Bratton Predicts the Future of Policing. National Public Radio (NPR.com). Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .
The Functions of Policing at the Local, State and Federal Levels
The functions of police work are highly complex and filled with myriad unpredictable challenges. Officers must place their safety and their lives at risk every day in the interests of maintaining order, protecting the pubic and apprehending law-breakers. The result is an occupation that is filled with stressors, pressures and dangers. One way that the structure of modern police-work helps officers to contend with these conditions is through the division of jurisdictions. American law enforcement is a sector comprised of many interdependent and overlapping agencies. And correspondent to the broader structure of American governance, this overlapping is somewhat hierarchical in nature, with jurisdictions generally determined by the unit of civil incorporation with which a precinct or department is affiliated. Therefore, at the local, state and federal level, responsibilities are generally divided among these different types of policing…
Gaines, L.K. & Kappeler, V.E. (2011). Policing in America. Elsevier.
Kappeler, V.E. & Gaines, L.K. (2009). Community Policing: A Contemporary Perspective. Elsevier.
Wright, A. (2002). Policing: An Introduction to Concepts and Practices. Taylor & Francis U.S..
Policing Services and Programs:
Even as policing services and programs are being restructured across the globe, understanding this change in customary terms is rather difficult. In these new policing services and programs, the difference between public and private domains of policing is also problematic. However, understanding the ongoing changes is dependent on distinguishing between the authorization of policing and the way these services are provided. This is because of the fact that those who authorize policing services and programs may differ from those who provide these services (Bayley & Shearing, 2001). The restructuring of policing incorporates the weaknesses of the public police and is due to increases in crime, social structure, ideas and culture, character of government and the nature of economic systems. Due to the ongoing restructuring of policing, the role of the public police is significantly changing adopting a governmental rather than individual agenda. Furthermore, policing services and…
Bayley, DH & Shearing, C.D. (2001, July). The New Structure of Policing: Description,
Conceptualization and Research Agenda. Retrieved from National Institute of Justice -- U.S. Department of Justice website: http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles1/nij/187083.txt
Cohen, B. & Leinen, S.H. (2009). Research On Criminal Justice Organizations: The Sentencing
Process. Retrieved May 4, 2011, from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reports/2009/R2018.pdf
Policing in America:
As compared to the 1920's, policing in the United States has had to change over the years in order to cope with the numerous changes in the society.
Most of these changes have occurred during the 20th Century because of the rapid technological advancements and globalization. During this period, telephones, car ownership, and use of personal computers have become commonplace in the society. While these are positive changes, they have also contributed to significant changes that are sometimes negative in relation to law enforcement.
With the innovations of computers and telecommunication technologies in America, the police force and other criminal justice practitioners has really improved in terms of opportunity and challenges. These technologies have empowered the police force in the sense that they can now collect, store, study, and share records with stakeholders within and outside administration. The innovations of these technologies have created opportunities in the…
Reichert, K. (2001, December). Use of Information Technology by Law Enforcement. Retrieved from University of Pennsylvania website: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/jerrylee/programs/fjc/paper_dec01.pdf
Not only doe s this approach include the participation of the community it also incorporates organizational change. Both community involvement and organizational change is necessary if policing efforts are going to be effective. This approach also emphasizes the importance of trust between the police and the community. The community oriented approach to policing is the most effective in the solving and reducing of crime within a community.
For the purposes of this discussion: Two police officers are arguing about the policies of community-oriented and problem-oriented policing as opposed to zero-tolerance policing. The research analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches to policing. Both approaches seek to understand crime. However, both approaches had disadvantages related to the boundaries of community residents and the time required to solve crime using a problem oriented approach. The investigation also explained the ideologies that support these policy perspectives. The research will also…
"Community Policing Defined." http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/default.asp?item=36
G Cordner, EP Biebel. Problem-Oriented Policing in Practice. Criminology & Public Policy, Volume 4, Issue 2 (p 155-180)
Lum, C. 2009 Community Policing or Zero Tolerance. British Journal of Criminology. http://bjc.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/azp039v1
Maguire, M. 2004. 'The Crime Reduction Programme in England and Wales: Reflections on the Vision and the Reality', Criminal Justice 4(3): 213 -- 37.
At this time there is no uniform consensus about what agencies have authority in the Middle East. The Dubai police are working with agencies including the Department of Homeland Security to establish a more democratic policing system. Despite their best efforts however, there still exist many groups within the Middle East that adopt radical approaches to policing. Not every agency agrees on uniform democracy, and some still prefer an authoritarian approach to policing (Exum, 2006, p. 1). This can and often does lead to greater violence within the region, with in many cases people living within the regions of the Middle East still lacking freedom of expression and living in fear of violent punishment for any crimes committed.
As Exum (2006) noted in his overview of policing in the Middle East, a bus driver was at one point withdrawn from his vehicle and beaten as well as sodomized as a…
Exum, Andrew. (2006). "Hizballah at War: A Military Assessment." The Washington
Institute for Near/East Policy, Accessed 3, May 2007: http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/templateC05.php?CID=2574
Institute of Race Relations. (2007). "The politics of fear: Civil society and the security state." Institute of Race Relations, Accessed 3, May 2007:
(Frederickson, 2000, p. 3) Police forces became the fodder for systematic research on the need for and development of improved minority representation in public service as well as a frequently attached public entity with regard to minority status in the community. (Frederickson, 2000, p. 3) As early as the 1960s and 70s police forces all over the nation began to be scrutinized for limiting their hiring pool to white males and began to make changes to support the reduction of this reality. (Broadnax, 2000, p. xx)
The development of police forces within the guidelines of public scrutiny as one of the most significant and public hiring authorities in the public sector has created a hiring protocol that though variant to some degree is similar in most agencies and is reflective of public demand for diversity in representation. Many would likely call the last frontier of this more egalitarian hiring process…
Broadnax, W.D. (Ed.). (2000). Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Frederickson, H.G. (2000). Part One Representative Bureaucracy and Equal Employment Opportunity. In Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service, Broadnax, W.D. (Ed.) (pp. 1-4). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Hahn, H., & Jeffries, J.L. (2003). Urban America and Its Police: From the Postcolonial Era through the Turbulent 1960s. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.
Kogut, C.A., & Short, L.E. (2007). Affirmative Action in Federal Employment: Good Intentions Run Amuck?. Public Personnel Management, 36(3), 197.
Police, Terrorism, Ethics, And Corruption
The traditional mission of police forces in the United States is fighting criminality and upholding the law in the defined geographical area or boundary they belong to. This translates to the local police forces of towns, municipalities and cities engaging in policing activities in these respective areas. Outside of these boundaries, the state police forces have responsibilities and on the national level, the Federal ureau of Investigation (FI) has jurisdiction. Prior to the onset of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the American homeland, the mission and boundaries of the aforementioned police forces are clear and distinct. Immediately thereafter, there has been a tremendous paradigm shift in the mission of police forces in the United States because the growing threats of terrorism and terrorist activities have entered into the very heart of the nation. Even several years after the 9/11 attacks, terrorists have taken…
Caldero, M.A. & Crank, J.P. (2011). Police ethics: The corruption of noble cause. Burlington, MA: Anderson Publishing.
Terwilliger, G.J., Cooperstein, S.G., Blumenthal, D., & Parker, R. (2005, February 15). The war on terrorism: Law enforcement or national security? Retrieved April 27, 2011 from http://www.fed-soc.org/publications/detail/the-war-on-terrorism-law-enforcement-or-national-security
Management, irrespective of the particular industry, has a profound effect on organizational effectiveness. For one, management has the ability to drive results through proper motivation and incentives. A manager must also effective lead through his or her ability to inspire action on the part of subordinates. These broad requirements of management demands various skill sets. Many of these skill sets including leadership, time managements, the ability to inspire, financial acumen, and so forth are acquired over time. Through a broad array of experiences, management is better equipped to handle varying and often conflicting circumstances. The law enforcement arena is no different in this regard. Management, particular those in law enforcement must be cognizant of a litany of behaviors and activities. Policing management, has undergone extensive change due primarily to the changing societal demographics prevailing in the world today. Cultures are now becoming more profound in America. The Hispanic…
1) Seabrooks, T.J. "Why Are so Many Felons Repeat Offenders?" Geek Politics. Web. 02 Apr. 2012. .
2) Blake, R.; Mouton, J. (1964). The Managerial Grid: The Key to Leadership Excellence. Houston: Gulf Publishing Co...
3) Carlyle, Thomas (1841). On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic History. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 1-4069-4419-X.
4) Fiedler, Fred E. (1967). A theory of leadership effectiveness. McGraw-Hill: Harper and Row Publishers Inc.
The police adapting to rapid changes in technology is felt in two ways -- primarily in using the technology that comes with new inventions for the police like better weapons, communication networks and so on for which they have to be thoroughly trained. The specialist has also to be trained in many issues like cyber crimes, and use of sophisticated computers and machines for crime. Police with an up-to-date mass communication system can be easily mobilized and can have faster response to events. The negative aspects of technology cannot be wished away and there must be research done to overcome these defects in communication with the public and also reliance must be placed on more robust methods of data access.
Buzawa, Carl G; Buzawa, Eve S. (1992) "Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal
Justice." Auburn House: Westport, CT.
Couldry, Nick; Mccarthy, Anna. (2004) "Mediaspace: Place, Scale, and Culture in…
Buzawa, Carl G; Buzawa, Eve S. (1992) "Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal
Justice." Auburn House: Westport, CT.
Couldry, Nick; Mccarthy, Anna. (2004) "Mediaspace: Place, Scale, and Culture in a Media
Age." Routledge: New York.
Just like every other institution in the country, American policing system went through a long period of evolution to finally achieve the shape that it has today. And similar to other laws and institutions in America, even police recruitment methods were heavily borrowed from Britain. In the 19th century or at least for most part of it, American police was shaped after the British policing laws (O'Keefe, 2004). However the one important difference lied in the separation of national and local police bodies. Since in most western countries, police was under the direct control of the national government, it was easier to manage them from one central location and their development was also almost simultaneous. However that was not the case in the United States where every county and state had its own local police department, which is why development of sporadic and departments were created at different…
1) Miller, Wilbur R. (1999) Cops and Bobbies: Police Authority in New York and London, 1830-1870. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
2) Wadman, Robert C. And William Thomas Allison (2004) To Protect And Serve: A History Of Police In America. Upper Saddle River. New Jersey
3) James O'Keefe. (2004) Protecting the Republic: The education and training of American police officers. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Describe the impact of Sir obert Peel on American policing
Sir obert Peel was not an American police officer, or an American politician. He served twice as the Prime Minister of Britain as a Tory, passing a series of significant laws. Part of Peel's concern was in the field of criminal justice and law enforcement. He helped pass major prison reform legislation and also established the first significant metropolitan police force in the United Kingdom. In transforming British police organizations and law enforcement, Peel helped to lay the foundation for the modern American police force and its underlying philosophy.
Peel developed a law enforcement philosophy that was based on involving community residents in the process of crime prevention. The modern concept of community policing is in part based on Sir Peel's original "nine principles," which were outlined in the 19th century. The first of Peel's nine principles is that…
Larrabee, A.K. (2007). Law enforcement: Sir Robert Peel's concept of community policing in today's society. Yahoo! Nov 8, 2007. Retrieved online: http://voices.yahoo.com/law-enforcement-sir-robert-peels-concept-community-638595.html
New Westminster Police Service (n.d.). Sir Robert Peel's Nine Principles. Retrieved onine: http://www.newwestpolice.org/peel.html
Sabath, D.O. (n.d.). The evolution of American policing. Retrieved online: http://www.aphf.org/hist.html
Likely, there will never be a police department with a completely paper-less information system (Police report writing, 2011). Until then, the basics of report writing will remain the same and is the bread and butter of law enforcement.
Incident Data and Burglary Data
Time the police officer received the call- 1537 hrs.
Address of the burglary -- 2914 E. Indiana, Spokane, ashington 99207
Call sign of the police car -- Paul 302
Erynne M. Vodde
Name of victim -- Erynne M. Vodde
Date of Birth -- 5-31-77
Home Phone [HIDDEN]
Place of ork- Sacred Heart Medical Center -- Pediatrics
ork #- 474-5110
Missing Items -- Cell phone, change jar with around $15 in it (both of them were on top of the dresser in the bedroom next to the bathroom where the window was). There was also some Bud Light Beer Bottles missing…
Moss, M. (2011). How to write a police report. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/how_4441251_write-police-report.html>
Police report writing. (2011). Retrieved from ttp://www.careerpoliceofficer.com/PoliceandVictims/police_report_writing.html>
Police Report on a Missing Girl
Amber Hall was reported missing yesterday at 16.00 at her grandfather's yard which is located at 976 Grand Avenue. According Mr. Pinckney, Amber Hall was at her grandfather's backyard playing when they went inside to start having their dinner and to answer a phone call which took them less than 5 minutes.
However, when they returned to the outside yard, they noticed Amber was missing. The police arrived at the scene at 18.27 and started searching the area, and at 20.00 the police begun to invite other people to come and help them in carrying out the search. Amber Hall is a 1st grade student at Hawthorne Elementary, a daughter of Marci Hall of 34 Magee CT and a friend to Terese Pinckney.
According to her grandparents, the girl usually likes playing with woods and sometimes she would accompany them inside the wood, especially…
What is the role of police in society? What would happen if the role of the police were lessened as it applies to the theory and practice of community policing?
Generally, the most important roles that police play in civilized society are that of criminal deterrence (Schmalleger, 2009). More specifically, the public awareness of the presence and authority of law enforcement deters most members of the population from criminal conduct that they might otherwise consider if there were no negative consequences. In community policing, police serve a much wider role than criminal deterrence, prevention, and response (Schmalleger, 2009). Modern police also play important roles in ensuring public order and public safety, as well as in addressing contemporary counterterrorism (Schmalleger, 2009). They maximize opportunities to work with proactive members of the community to establish and maintain positive and mutually beneficial relationships (Ellison, 2006). If the role of police were…
Ellison, J. "Community Policing: Implementation Issues." Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 75, No. 4 (Apr/06).
Schmalleger, F. (2009). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Challenges to policing in the 21st century
Policing has taken a different dimension from the traditional policing habits of maintaining law and order and combating the usual crimes to handling new forms of crime, which can be termed as white collar crimes. The society is faced with criminal activities which are as a result of the advanced level of technology use across the globe. The 21st century criminals are not the hardcore type law breakers but very intelligent individuals who are well informed and highly educated, they use very sophisticated systems to execute several crimes in different parts of the world as more people are embracing the use of technology in their day-to-day life (Interpol, 2012). This is an era where the criminals are technologically savvy and use this as a tool to commit crimes without the use of force or inflicting any bodily harm to the victims…
Patricia Linn, (1999). what are the five types of Crimes. Retrieved April 3, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/list_7245606_five-types-crime_.html.
Interpol, (2012). Cyber Crimes. Retrieved April 3, 2012 fromhttp://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Cybercrime/Cybercrime.
Police Information Systems
In the scenario where your Uncle Bob is visiting Miami Florida from California and is pulled over for speeding, and after some discussion with the officer, Uncle Bob is handcuffed and taken into custody, it is likely that the officer on the scene has had contact with their local police department. This contact could have taken place through two way radio over police frequencies, but as more police departments come to rely on computers and Miami is a first rate department with adequate resources, it was probably done through the officer's "mobile office." This would include a dash-mounted laptop computer, called a mobile data computer (MDC), with access to the department's database and certain other information such as "drivers license, local, state, and national wanted persons databases and databases concerning stolen vehicles." (Foster, 2005, p.168)
Through the mobile data computer, and it is important to realize that…
Foster, R.E.. (2005). Police Technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Print.
The American system of criminal justice and investigations stem from English common law and practice, which advised colonial governments and gave rise to subsequent systems in the United States. In fact, the standing police force that most Americans take for granted did not always exist. Early Americans, like the English before them, were averse to the concept of a government-sponsored standing police force that could at any time be authorized to strip citizens of their rights and liberties. The current method of law enforcement, from apprehension to pre-trial investigations, also owes its roots to the English.
The first professional, paid American police forces started in the early seventeenth centuries: first in Boston in 1631 and about fifteen years later in New Amsterdam. Known initially as watchmen and later as constables, the officers did not enjoy the same level of responsibility or the same role in society as modern…
Engel, R.S. (2011)Police: History - Early Policing In England, The Beginning Of "modern" Policing In England, Early Policing In Colonial America." Retrieved online: http://law.jrank.org/pages/1647/Police-History.html
"Early Police in the United States." Encyclopedia Brittanica. Retrieved online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/467289/police/36619/Early-police-in-the-United-States
"History of Law Enforcement," (n.d.). Infosheet retrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:q1n8bE8PqeYJ:teachers2.wcs.edu/high/rhs/maryc1/Criminal%2520Justice%2520I/History%2520of%2520Law%2520Enforcement%2520Info%2520Sheet.doc+law+enforcement+history+united+states&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjKuxGm5bbh8GjrtJ5yn4AHn2bIiIWlGBAWSGHopoH9f51uVsygxxkwB5I83si1CkPS_E4Ry83mW7oZ6hQqbjOlD6NYV1qH3lXjh3-T_vu58Mk4_-H6k2V9qchHrfRrO_hH5Nn2&sig=AHIEtbQPG0dtcbkFj_Q-1gi8wj6BmauLrg
Kelly, M. (n.d.). A brief history of the Pinkertons. About.com. Retrieved online: http://americanhistory.about.com/od/19thcentur1/a/allan_pinkerton.htm
Police Abuse/Problems with Guilty Pleas
From time to time, the media highlights stories about police abuse that can best be described as disturbing. It is unfortunate that some police officers do turn against the same people they have sworn to keep safe. Indeed, most victims of police brutality are left feeling frightened, betrayed and helpless. Further, police abuse triggers a cycle of mistrust in which case the community gradually loses confidence in those they rely on for safety and protection. Though a majority of police officers in the community I come from are dedicated and act within the confines of the law; there are a few bad elements (based on previous incidences of police brutality) who soil the otherwise warm relations the community shares with the police.
It is important to note that only a fraction of the total incidences of police abuse are reported by the media.…
Because of the type of individuals police officers in mid-to large cities often deal with, they can engender a mind-set of violence and abuse of power. Certainly, the military approach is efficient; the command style authoritarian so it can get quicker results. However, in going with more modern leadership approaches, the servant leadership, or service style might be more appropriate in many areas. This would stress community service; keeping areas safe, but referring as many problems as possible to social agencies, trying for education and partnership, and working to improve society through a more egalitarian approach in which police are integral to the community's entire philosophy.
Part 4 -- Design for an effective police department would entirely depend on the size and composition of the area affected. For instance, large urban area with a concentrated inner-city would require a different organization than a smaller community of 30,000 people. Hypothetically, if…
Patrol Staffing and Development Study. (n.d.) International Association of Chiefs of Police. Retrieved from: http://www.theiacp.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=AKL78d4MBw8%3 D&tabid=252
Hesser, L. (2010). Police Chief's Desk Reference. International Association of Chiefs of Police. Retrieved from: http://www.olemiss.edu/ciss/Academics/Research/Police_Chiefs_ Desk_Reference/pdf/4%20org%20strategy%20guide.pdf
Church, J. (April 2007). Non-Sworn Positions in Law Enforcement. Officer.com. Retrieved from: http://www.officer.com/article/10249940/non-sworn-positions-in-law-enforcement
Earle, J. (June 2012). Police Say No Magic When Calculating Staffing Levels. Reporter Newspapers. Retrieved from: http://www.*****/2012/06/28/police-say-theres-no-magic-when-calculating-staffing-levels/
Identify the different domains police psychologists work in, and discuss some of the roles psychologists might assume when working in different domains.
A police psychologist will work primarily in the assessment domain. In many instances, police officers must be properly screened and evaluated prior to duty. In other instances, officers will be evaluating during duty to proper access their ability to fully protect society. As such, psychologists have the primary function or determining the adequacy of a police officers skill set relative to predetermined metrics of success. Through periodic evaluation, the psychologist has the distinct role of assessing the skills and abilities of current and prospective police officers.
Psychologists also operate within the intervention domain. This domain is particularly important due to the nature of police officer work. Law enforcement officers are unique to many professions, as their job requires exposure to very contentious issues. Particularly troubling, is…
1) Kitaeff. JackHandbook of Police Psychology, 2011. Bookshelf. Web. 07 November 2013
2) Walker, Samuel (2005). The New World of Police Accountability. Sage. p. 5. ISBN 0-534-58158-7.
Video cameras on police cars
Before the mounting of the in-car cameras for the police, there used t be several unresolved or wrongly resolved issues in the process of their duty. One advantage that came with the cameras is the possibility of verification of the racial profiling while doing their normal checks along the highways which was a major complain heard in courts across the U.S.A. In various cases in the courts, the defendants will try to skew facts in order to walk with crimes and this was a rampant happening especially in police arrest cases along the highway. With the recording of happenings between a person arrested and the police, the evidence stands out in the event the accused tries to twist facts. A clear instance is as depicted by ICAP Staff (2013);
"An officer was responding to a major incident requiring immediate police assistance. As he…
IACP Staff, (2013). The Impact of Video Evidence in Modern Policing. Retrieved October 8, 2013 from http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Publications/video_evidence.pdf
In addition we have made, and continue to make, efforts to employ people of all backgrounds for Jupiter's police force so that people of all backgrounds see people from their cultures in law enforcement.
People, no matter where they are from, tend to fear the unknown (Carter, 1995), so we feel that a policy of community policing -- getting the officers into the various neighborhoods of Jupiter in positive ways -- is important. One of the things we have done to accomplish that is to put our officers in the vicinity of school crosswalks when children are traveling to and from school. This allows them to interact positively with children from an early age as well as allow the parents to see police officers in their most important role -- protecting all of Jupiter's inhabitants. I hope these comments will put any concerns to rest.
Carter, Ronnie A. 1995.…
Carter, Ronnie A. 1995. "Improving minority relations." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, December.
Police Systems and Practices Question Set
Discuss how temperament can impair communication?
The ability control one's temperament at all times while working as a police officer is crucial to the performance of daily duties, because there are many instances when law enforcement personnel may be provoked to reaction in a purposeful manner. If an officer is unable to refrain from responding to insults in kind, or begins to yell or otherwise express anger, the course of an investigation or civilian interaction will become irrevocably altered. Simply put, ordinary people are less willing to cooperate with police officers and other authority figures who are openly frustrated, angry, spiteful, impatient, or otherwise perturbed -- so it is imperative that maintaining an even-keeled temperament become both a departmental and personal priority.
Discuss how failure of supervisors to act can impede future communication from subordinates.
A police officer's locker room is like any other…
You are a police psychologist for a major metropolitan area. You are also a member of its hostage negotiation team. You have been called to a crisis incident at 3:15 P.M. On a Friday. It is in a residential area about three blocks from a middle school and a public library. The information you have at this time is that the subject is a 42-year-old male who is holed up in his house with his wife, son, and a family friend. He has murdered his next-door neighbor and is threatening to kill those in the house if his demands are not met. One of his demands is for immunity from the murder charge if he surrenders without harming any of the people in the house. His other demands are a case of beer and some fast food. He wants his demands met or "something will happen."u
Alaxander, D., & Klein, S. (2010). Hostage-taking: motives, resolution, coping and effects. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 176-183.
Cooper, H. (1981). Hostage-takers. Retrieved from National Criminal Justice Reference Service: https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=75936
Goldaber, I. (1979). Typology of Hostage-Takers. Police Chief, 21-23. Retrieved from Hughes, J. (2009). A Pilot Study of Naturally Occuring High-Probability Request Sequences in Hostage Negotiations. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 491-496.
McMains, M., & Mullins, W. (2010). Crisis Negotiation (4th ed.). New Providence: Lexis/Nexis/Anderson.
Can text I uploaded a file a reference. BIBLIOGAPHY: Stuckey, G., oberson, C., & Wallace, H. (2006). Procedures justice system (8th Ed.). Upper Saddle iver, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Discuss police encounters individuals required level police suspicion needed justify encounters.
Discuss police encounters with individuals and the required level of police suspicion needed to justify these encounters. We will learn about consensual encounters, traffic stops, Terry stops, and arrests. You will take a look at the factors used to determine when a person is under arrest as well as the appropriateness of any searches performed during these encounter
Protection from unreasonable searches and seizures is accorded to all citizens of the United States by the Constitution. Determining precisely what constitutes an unreasonable search or seizure, however, has been an issue of continued debate amongst law enforcement throughout the history of the United States. "Until 1967, a search was an…
Stuckey, G., Roberson, C., & Wallace, H. (2006). Procedures in the justice system. (8th Ed.).
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
That female officers -- or any officers for that matter -- would feel uncomfortable approaching their chief or any other superior shows that our department is not doing enough to ensure the well-being of our employees. No matter that the men in question are becoming solid, reliable officers of the law. All members of our team are highly qualified and all personnel must be treated with dignity and respect. Any behavior that harms another officer or impedes their ability to perform duties as part of a cohesive team should be taken seriously.
2. Anonymous complaints and unproven allegations of slashed tires are not enough to warrant any punishment. However, the officers in question can indeed be watched closely and carefully for any misogynistic behavior. Female officers must be encouraged to complain freely and without fear of retribution. It would be wise to arrange an informal consultation with any officers concerned…
This model provided for a hierarchical chain of command based on rank but there are many experts who argue that such system is out-dated. New systems where command is much less centralized and individual police are allowed autonomy in their specific neighborhoods and areas. This is an attempt to integrate the police more heavily into their neighborhood and to develop the idea that police work is a community challenge and not the work of the police alone. The long-range goal of this type of policing is to have the public view policing as a service and the public as customers. Eventually this will result in the effectiveness being measured by public satisfaction and not by harsh statistics such as the number of crimes occurring and the number of arrests being made.
Whatever changes are eventually implemented in regard to policing in America such changes will not be easy. Police agencies,…
Butterfield, R. (2005). The New Public Management and Managerial Roles: the case of the Police Sergeant. British Journal of Management, 329-341.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2011). Investigations & Operations Support. Retrieved from the FBI.
Gau, J.M. (2010). Procedural Justice and Order Maintenance Policing: A Study of Inner-City Young Men's Perceptions of Police Legitimacy. Justice Quarterly, 255-279.
Grabosky, P.N. (2007). Private Sponsorship of Public Policing. Police Practice and Research: An International Journal, 5-16.
Stress Associated with Policing
A look at some of the stresses that are associated with police fulfilling their job duties in the line of fire
Stress on the Job 4
The police profession is a highly stressful endeavor that often places officers in highly stressful situations on a regular basis. Police work is one of the few jobs out there where the employees must deal with murders, accidents, and the constant threat of personal injury. The effects of this environment can be cumulative and build up over time. Furthermore, many police officers are resistant to finding suitable outlets to deal with the effects of stress in a clinical setting or through counseling. There are many common objections for officers seeking help for the psychological issues that can emerge through the course of service. These include items such as it is not consistent with the image of masculinity that…
Anderson, B. (N.d.). Confidentiality in Counseling: What Police Officers Need To Know . Retrieved from PTSD Resources for Survivors and Caregivers: http://www.giftfromwithin.org/pdf/confide.pdf
Glass, I. (2010, September 10). Transcript. Retrieved from This American Life: http://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/414/transcript
University of Buffalo. (2008, September 29). Impact Of Stress On Police Officers. Retrieved from Physical and Mental Health: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080926105029.htm
Vogel, D., Wester, S., & Larson, L. (2007). Avoidance of Counseling: Psychological Factors That Inhibit Seeking Help. Journal of Counseling and Development, 411-422. Retrieved from Iowa State.
Police: History, Structure, and Functions
The policing system's development in Britain was closely followed by a similar development in America. Policing by the initial colonizers assumed two forms: "The Big Stick" (for-profit, private agency policing) and the "Watch" (communal as well as informal) (Spitzer, 1979). Community volunteers primarily charged with warning citizens of imminent danger made up the latter system. The night watch was first implemented in the year 1636 in Boston. New York and Philadelphia implemented night watch system in the years 1658 and 1700, respectively. This system did not prove particularly successful in controlling crime. Supplementing the "watch" mode of policing was a group of official law enforcers, labeled "constables," who were often salaried by a fee system, based on number of warrants served by them. Policing's informal procedure continued for several years following the 1765-83 American evolution. Only in the 1830s did the U.S. first introduce a…
Davis, Rowenna. (2009). Policing the police, The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/libertycentral/2009/feb/28/convention-modern-liberty-police on October 5, 2016.
Lewis, M.A. (2011). "Perspective: Peel's Legacy," FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. The FBI. Retrieved from https://leb.fbi.gov/2011/december/perspective-peels-legacy on October 5, 2016.
Lundman, Robert J. (1980). Police and Policing: An Introduction, New York, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Spitzer, Stephen, (1979). The Rationalization of Crime Control in Capitalist Society, Contemporary Crises 3, no. 1.
Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil
A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).
The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…
Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.
Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.
Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.
Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.
Patrol crafts would be deployed along the coastal areas waiting to act upon any information provided to confiscate drugs and arrest drug traffickers. For this purpose, the city police would be armoured with 2 well-equipped fast patrol crafts. Communication services between the stations and the patrol crafts would be state of the art including GPS systems and radar networks to facilitate identifying and tracking down of suspicious activity in the coastal waters. Further, the use of latest thermal imaging and laser optics tools would provide effective supervision at nights.
The police department has immense responsibility in maintaining law and order and providing safety and security would necessitate a strong police force based on a clear and sound organizational philosophy. As a coastal city with its growing population, the urban city of Metropolis is faced with numerous problems, in particular the high drug trade activity along the coastal regions. The…
NCWC, " Police in Society," Accessed 16th Apr 2007, Available online at, http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/205/205lects.htm
Author not Available, "Community Policing," Accessed 15th Apr 2007, available at http://law.jrank.org/pages/1648/Police-Community-Policing-Definition-community-policing.html
James T. Quinlivan, Burden of Victory: The Painful Arithmetic of Stability Operations, Available Online at, http://www.rand.org/publications/randreview/issues/summer2003/burden.html
City of Phoenix, 'Police Officer Processing Procedures', Accessed Apr 16th 2007, available at http://www.ci.phoenix.az.us/POLICE/pdjob3.html