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Police Ethics: Identifying Opportunities for Improvement
Many people have are afraid of the police, and some would even argue they are afraid for good reason. Indeed, sensationalized and high-profile accounts of police brutality, corruption, sex scandals, malfeasance and abuse of power in the mainstream media have fueled this mindset in recent years. Further exacerbating this negative image of law enforcement are popular views of police extortion in the form of receiving free food and beverages wherever they go, even if these are freely offered. In this environment, identifying opportunities for improving the ethical image of police officers represents a timely and valuable enterprise. To this end, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning police ethics and how ethical training can help achieve this goal. A summary of the research and important findings are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
For some Americans, the…
Cohne, H.S. & Feldberg, M. (1999). Power and restraint: The moral dimension of police work.
Westport, CT: Praeger.
Dickson, M.W., Smith, D.B., Grojean, M.W. & Ehrhart, M. (2001). An organizational climate regarding ethics: The outcome of leader values and the practices that reflect them.
Leadership Quarterly: Special Issue, 12, 197-217.
Order #: Police ethics
Police ethics have always been a big concern in the United States and the criminal system have to deal with it on a regular basis. The law enforcement personnel have the obligation of operating in a professional and efficient manner when expressing their personal views, emotions and their duties but remain within the laid down code of ethics and a code of conduct as required.
Police ethics has an essential role within the law enforcement. The code of ethics became established in 1957 by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) to specifically govern its member's conduct. There were revisions that were done to the code in 1989 at the IACP conference after which reviewed and finalized by the IACP membership. The new code was adopted after a unanimous vote by IACP members in 1991.
There are set of values and norms that…
The research plan as outlined in the previous section is well on course and the outlined steps are relevant to the main objective of the research. There are however several challenges that are already being experienced. One of them is at section 1 where the types of sources to be used are to be identified. The difficulty is in classifying some sources like the police themselves among the sources since it may turn out at the data collection stage that the police may restrict the amount information they can give or even refuse to give information hence leaving a gap. This also may present the alteration in terms of the time schedule particularly in pursuit of primary sources of information since the few police authorities that have indicated interest in helping with crucial information often have to give a time frame for the interview and official appointment which…
Police Ethics: Presentation Summary
The presentation to be delivered to my organization concerns the critical public safety issue of police ethics. The primary source for this presentation would be the data gathered from an interview with an individual working in the county sheriff's department to reinstate an internal affairs unit are a twelve year absence.
The subject of the interview would provide detailed and first-hand insight into the importance of the role played by ethics in shaping police work. In his responses, he would assert that ethical policing extends from ethical leadership. The example for fair and honest police work must start at the top of a police department and must be extended through every arm of law enforcement. The interview would reveal the internal priority of training law enforcement agents to function as role models and also to hold themselves to the same set of ethical standards that govern…
Police Ethics Questionnaire
Do you believe police officers should let personal judgments or opinions enter their decision process?
Do you think profiling based on race is EVER permissible?
Is a white person loitering in a high-black area something that should be a cause for concern?
Should a black person loitering in a gated community a cause for concern?
Is a nervous Arab person boarding an airplane a concern?
Do you believe that racial profiling is a massive issue?
Do you think race-oriented groups are too sensitive to some police actions and initiatives?
Do crime statistics at all justify targeting of people based on race?
Do you agree with the use of police dogs and infrared sensors to gain warrants or probable cause to search cars or houses?
Is the scent of a drug or the sight of typically associated paraphernalia (e.g. Chore Boy, papers, etc.) enough probable cause for a…
Serpico/Blue wall of silence.
There is a need to present a complete, objective 'front' when issuing an incident report. If two officers saw the same incident the same way it will appear to be better evidence in a court of law that events transpired as they did. Also, the knowledge of having to vouch for a colleague when generating a report can encourage honesty amongst officers. On the other hand, this stress upon uniformity can have a negative effect, causing officers to turn against officers who have a legitimate grievance about the ways in which enforcement is conducted. There is a great deal of evidence that in actual practice the subculture of policing views whistleblowing as a betrayal rather than as a necessary corrective action against abuses.
There are a number of factors which can contribute to the creation of such a blue wall of silence, first and foremost the…
Driver, J. (2009). The history of utilitarianism. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Jones, J.R. & Carlson, D.P. (2004). Reputable conduct: Ethical issues in policing and corrections (2nd ed.). Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Law Enforcement Areas of Interest
Law Enforcement Moral Code of Ethics:
Although various police departments have individual rules and morals based upon the community in which they live, there are universal morals and ethics which police officers must be held up to. There are always unwritten or unspoken laws of morals and ethics regardless of the society in question. Members of law enforcement are tasked with protection of the innocent and in finding out which members of the society have broken laws in order to punish them appropriately for their actions (International 2013). Because of the high station they fulfill in the community, police officers must possess high moral character and behave in the most ethical manner that is possible. Both on-duty and off-duty officers must conform to the highest moral standards, thereby ensuring that they will be unable to be touched by scandals such as bribery or other means…
Gallagher, C., Maguire, E.R., Mastrofski, S.D., & Reisig, M.D. (2001, Oct). The public image of police. International Association of Chiefs of Police. IACP: Alexandria, VA.
Geller, W. & Toch, H. (1996). Police Violence: Understanding and Controlling Police Abuse of Force. Yale UP.
International Association of Chiefs of Police. (2013). Model policy on standards of conduct.
IACP: Alexandria, VA.
Philosophy Police Ethics
Learning Police Ethics
Learning police ethics and responsible behavior on the job are important functions of a police professional's duty. By definition, police officers have sworn to protect and serve the community. However, if they act unethically at any time then they could do harm to the community as opposed to help support it. Deviant behaviors among the police force can do significant harm to the reputation of the force as well as make the job of the police to serve the public more complicated as well as more difficult to accomplish. This analysis will look at some of the ethical standards that are expected of this profession as well as the importance of learning the correct ways of behaving in this role.
Ethics Standards in Policing
hen policing came to the United States, there was little concern among police officers about adhering to legal norms, despite…
Banks, E. "Ethics and the Police." 1 July 2008. Sage Pub. Online. 1 April 2013.
IACP. "Ethics Training in Law Enforcement." N.d. International Association of Police Chiefs. Online. 2 April 2013.
O'Donnell, E. "Fostering Ethical and Humane Policing." 13 April 2011. IIP Digital. Online. 2 April 2013.
U.S. Department of State. "Ethics and Effective Policing." April 2011. U.S. Department of State. Online. 2 April 2013.
but, ultimately, police officers should not be making selective judgments about the relative quality of the people they arrest (Fuller, 2001). They have a moral obligation to enforce the law fairly and consistently. If police officers were allowed to make such selective judgments, perhaps they would never arrest a mother, for fear she would lose her children, or a religious figure, for fear of its impact on the community. Such a policy potentially would put certain classes of people above the law. As a result, we can conclude that the Rampart police officers who covered up their colleagues crimes committed a serious ethical breech.
As with the case of Officer Malone in the Untouchables, the Rampart investigation revealed that ethics can be an amorphous thing, bent and shaped by police officers to defend questionable actions. but, ultimately, the high moral standard to which we hold police officers must preclude such…
"Canons of Police Ethics" (No date). Retrieved March 25, 2007, at http://ethics.iit.edu/ codes/coe/int.assoc.chiefs.police.canons.html.
De Palma, B. (Director). (1987). The Untouchables [Film]. [With Kevin Costner, Robert De Niro, & Sean Connery]. United States: Paramount Pictures.
Fuller, John (2001). "Street Cop Ethics." The Law Enforcement Trainer. Retrieved March 25, 2007, at http://commfaculty.fullerton.edu/lester/ethics/street_cop.html.
"LA to pay $70m in police corruption cases" (2005, April 1). Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 25, 2007, at http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2005/04/01/la_to_pay_70m_in_police_corruption_cases .
As law enforcers, police officials are in a position to engage in decision- making capable of impacting people’s lives, possessions and freedom, and ethics- related knowledge would ensure they decide appropriately. Policepersons are responsible for enforcing the law and familiarity with ethics would ensure they do so impartially and with integrity. In this paper, ethical code is applied to the incident of police brutality at the time of Hurricane Katrina, on 4th September, 2005. Six civilians making their way across New Orleans’ Danziger Bridge were shot at by policepersons, with two losing their lives and the rest suffering from serious injury.
Code of ethics and the case study
Policepersons playing the role of law enforcers are chiefly responsible to serve humanity through defending their lives and possessions, upholding citizens’ constitutionally guaranteed rights to freedom, fairness and equality, and ensuring innocents are defrauded, the peaceful don’t suffer aggression and chaos,…
Westmarland, L. (2005). Police ethics and integrity: Breaking the blue code of silence. Policing and Society, 15(2), 145-165.
What contributes to unethical conduct?
Clark was the victim of a gunshot that hit him while at the backyard of his grandparents’ house. The event took place on the 18th of March. According to information from the Sacramento police the responsible officers were answering an emergency 911 call with information that a man had broken the window to a car in the area. The shooting and subsequent death of Clark is just one in a series of police shootings targeted at black men in recent times. The fatal force data suggests that 264 individuals have suffered the same fate as Clark since 2018 in the hands of police officers (Washington Post’s, 2018). Of the 264 fatalities, 57 of them were revealed to be black from the news reports. According to research there are evident racial disparities advanced by the police department in their use of force. Although most of…
Barker, T. (2011). Police ethics: Crisis in law enforcement. Charles C Thomas Publisher.
Lockhart, P.R. (Updated Mar 30, 2018). Police shot and killed an unarmed black man in his own backyard. All he was holding was a cellphone. Vox. Retrieved from https://www.vox.com/identities/2018/3/21/17149092/stephon-clark-police-shooting-sacramento on 19 September 2018
The Washington Post, (last updated 2018, Aug. 30). Fatal Force. Accessed from https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2018/national/police-shootings-2018/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.fdc0245259d6 on 18 September 2018
Ethics, Terrorism, & the Future of Policing
The devastating attacks on United States soil that took place on September 11, 2001, became the turning point for all police activity. The police mission went from protecting people against day-to-day violence, to protecting a society from foreign attack. Terrorism is defined as "the systematic use of terror [fear] especially as a means of coercion" (merriam-webster.com). It was this idea that something that could not be fully understood, such as a terrorist attack, could indeed cause so many people to be afraid. However, this changed what it meant to be in law enforcement. Despite problems that do exist on a local level, the focus has shifted from making sure that any threat of a potential attack could be prevented. Personal liberties have been violated, discriminatory profiling has risen, and corruption within police force has elevated -- all in the name of terrorism prevention.…
Baker, Al. (2012) Independent agency gets new powers to prosecute New York police officers. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com /2012/03/28/nyregion/civilian-complaint-review-board-gets-new-powers-to-prosecute-new-york-police.html?_r=2&scp=1&sq=police%20abuse%20of%20power&st=cse
Foster, C., Cordner, G., Frakes, K., Collins, P., & Mayberry, L. National Institute of Justice, (2005).The impact of terrorism on state law enforcement. Retrieved from The council of State Governments and Eastern Kentucky University website: http://www.csg.org/knowledgecenter/docs/Misc0504Terrorism.pdf
Nalle, D. (2011). Repeal or revise. Retrieved from http://www.rlc.org/2011/01/31/repeal-or-revise-the-problems-with-the-patriot-act/
Rayman, G. (2010). New york's finest cover-up. Retrieved from http://www.villagevoice.com/2010-10-13/news/nypd-cover-up-cabbie/
Police, Terrorism, Ethics, And Corruption
The traditional mission of police forces in the United States is fighting criminality and upholding the law in the defined geographical area or boundary they belong to. This translates to the local police forces of towns, municipalities and cities engaging in policing activities in these respective areas. Outside of these boundaries, the state police forces have responsibilities and on the national level, the Federal ureau of Investigation (FI) has jurisdiction. Prior to the onset of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the American homeland, the mission and boundaries of the aforementioned police forces are clear and distinct. Immediately thereafter, there has been a tremendous paradigm shift in the mission of police forces in the United States because the growing threats of terrorism and terrorist activities have entered into the very heart of the nation. Even several years after the 9/11 attacks, terrorists have taken…
Caldero, M.A. & Crank, J.P. (2011). Police ethics: The corruption of noble cause. Burlington, MA: Anderson Publishing.
Terwilliger, G.J., Cooperstein, S.G., Blumenthal, D., & Parker, R. (2005, February 15). The war on terrorism: Law enforcement or national security? Retrieved April 27, 2011 from http://www.fed-soc.org/publications/detail/the-war-on-terrorism-law-enforcement-or-national-security
Ethics in Policing
It is crucial for organizations to clearly define ethics and ethical behaviors in the workplace and to also clearly tell its employees what constitutes unethical behavior (oufa, 2016). There is a strong push to uphold the high ethical standards set for the law enforcement community. However, without clear definition of those ethical standards, such efforts would likely not achieve any significant results.
Our understanding of ethics and ethical conduct is based on our personal and societal values. Personal values are those which are based on our personal experiences, religious beliefs, ethnic and cultural backgrounds. These values are unique to every person, which means they are not the best values to inform our professional conduct. Other values, however, are dear to the entire societies or groups. They are derived from the groups' history and understanding of ethical behavior. This is the proper platform on which to base professional…
Davis, W. A. (2014). Examining Student Perceptions: Ethics and Misconduct in Today's Police Department. The Aquila Digital Community. Retrieved from http://aquila.usm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1038&context=masters_theses
Roufa, T. (2016, October 12). Ethics in Law Enforcement and Policing. Retrieved from The Balance: https://www.thebalance.com/ethics-in-law-enforcement-and-policing-974542
Stephens, D. W. (2011, June). Police Discipline: A Case for Change. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/234052.pdf
United States Attorney's Office District of Connecticut. (2014, January 23). Former East Haven Police Officer Sentenced To Five Years In Prison For Criminal Civil Rights Violations. Retrieved from The United States Department of Justice: https://www.justice.gov/usao-ct/pr/former-east-haven-police-officer-sentenced-five-years-prison-criminal-civil-rights
Ethics in Law Enforcement
Ethics are what almost anyone would define as a person's determination between what is good or bad, or more accurately what is right or wrong. Although many of these attitudes can be a product of parenting or other factors in one's maturing environment, ethical decisions could also be a product of environmental factors that are outside of the control of individuals. It is difficult to determine where a person's ethical code, but some professions demand an ethic that is not needed elsewhere.
One such profession is law enforcement. Officers of the law are called upon to "stand in "harm's way" not so much against enemies with bullets, but against enemies skilled in every form of trickery, deceit, feigned ignorance, and deception" (Stevens, 2005). Because of the environment that they must exist in, police officers are constantly deciding whether to make the right decision or take the…
Gilmartin, K.M., & Harris, J.J. (1998). Law enforcement ethics: The continuum of compromise. Retrieved November 24, 2010 from http://emotionalsurvival.com/law_enforcement_ethics.htm
Russell, B. (1910). Determinism and morals. From The Elements of Ethics. Retrieved November 26, 2010 from http://fair-use.org/bertrand-russell/the-elements-of- ethics/section-iv
Sanford, DH (2010). Indeterminism: Causation and conditionals, ethics and history of philosophy, primer on determinism. Retrieved November 24, 2010 from http://science.jrank.org/pages/22033/indeterminism.html#ixzz16cFBtAvu
Stevens, M. (2005). Police deviance and ethics. Retrieved November 24, 2010 from http://faculty.ncwc.edu/mstevens/205/205lect11.htm
Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil
A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).
The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…
Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.
Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.
Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.
Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.
Ethics in Law Enforcement
"Sometimes [police officers] may, and sometimes may not, lie when conducting custodial interrogations. Investigative and interrogatory lying are each justified on utilitarian crime control grounds. Police are never supposed to lie as witnesses in the courtroom, although they may lie for utilitarian reasons similar to those permitting deception & #8230;" (Skolnick, et al., 1992)
Is it ethical for law enforcement officers to use deception during the interrogation process? It appears that when officers are attempting to extract a confession from a suspect, deception is, in many cases, commonly applied strategy. Does a code of ethics conflict with the way in which law enforcement conducts its interviews and interrogations? hat do the courts say about deceptive interrogation tactics? These issues will be reviewed in this paper.
Deception in the Interrogation Room
Is it ethical to lie to obtain the truth? No. Do the ends justify the means?…
Braswell, Michael C. (2011). Justice, Crime, and Ethics. Maryland Heights, MO: Elsevier.
Leo, Richard A. (2009). Police Interrogation and American Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
McMullen, Patrick M. (2005). Questioning the Questions: The Impermissibility of Police
Deception in Interrogations of Juveniles. Northwestern University Law Review, 99(2),
Whistle-blowing can have many adverse effects on the person doing the whistle-blowing and there are definitely feelings of loneliness that can arise when a whistle-blower decides to make some noise. Cooper gives some prime examples of whistle-blowing cases in chapter six, but he insists that there are still many who have "gone away quietly" (202), which may appear to be the safest option for the individual, yet that means that the public will never know the truth about what was going on -- and so, the individual really does have a moral responsibility to the public so that unethical behavior isn't allowed at any level as it will eventually seep into the very core of the organization and back into society.
Whistle-blowing, no matter what way it is looked at is "risky," according to Cooper (203). People who blow the whistle not only face scrutiny and alienation, but they may…
More than replacing a Code of Ethics, solutions to the issue might revolve around simply understanding, adopting, and enforcing codes that are already in place. For instance, the IACP code of ethics for law enforcement has four major themes that would clearly handle most situations: 1) Fairness towards everyone -- the public, clients, the accused, colleagues, etc. Fairness also implies the maxim of not using one's power to take advantage of the public (e.g. bribes for service, etc.); 2) Service -- Public service is a calling -- the community holds law enforcement personnel to a high standard, and expects service to be part of the regular job description; 3) Importance of the law -- Upholding the Constitution or the statues of the law that are mandated by the profession, and; 4) the importance of personal conduct -- law enforcement professionals must hold a standard of behavior that is consistent and…
Banks, J. (2004). The Importance of Ethics in Criminal Justice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/4031_Banks_Chapter_1_Proof.pdf
Chery, D. (May 7, 2009). Judges on Wrong Side of the Law. CBS News. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/08/04/national/main566433.shtml
IIT (Illinois Institute of Technology. (2012). Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions. Ethics.itt.edu. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://ethics.iit.edu/
Pollock, J. (2012). Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal Justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Before resuming my educational endeavors at the University of Phoenix I was fortunate enough to experience life and many of its travails as a business person and employee. During my tenure in those endeavors I observed a number of events that I considered unethical, and a number of actions taken by individuals that I found both reprehensible and repulsive. I was often amazed at the capabilities of mankind to justify their actions, when it was quite evident that such actions would not be considered ethical in any circumstances, no matter what the justification.
Ethics has always been a concern, whether individuals worked in education, business or even the medical field. One early study determined that there were many young managers that had reported being asked implicitly to do things they personally believed were unethical, and sometimes illegal (Badzek, Mitchell, Marra, Bower,1998). Oftentimes these young managers feel the pressure to…
Badzek, L.A., Mitchell, K., Marra, S.E., Bower, M.M., (1998) Administrative Ethics and Confidentiality/Privacy Issues, ANA Periodicals, Vol. 3, No. 3
Chaloner, C.; (2007) An introduction to ethics in nursing, Nursing Standard, Vol. 21, Issue 32, pp. 42 -- 46
Dessoff, A.; (2010) Battling sexual abuse, District Administration, Vol. 46, Issue 3, pp. 50-56
Rosenkoetter, M.M. & Milstead, J.A.; (2010) A code of ethics for nurse educators: Revised, Nursing Ethics, Vol. 17, Issue 1, pp. 137-139
Ethics Leadership Analysis
One of the biggest advantages of globalization is that many different companies are able to receive cheap labor to produce a wide variety of products that are sold at numerous retail stores in the United States. However, an ugly facet to what has been happening, is that there are a number of different sweat shops in a host of regions around the world and in some cases within the U.S. itself. Evidence of this can be seen with an investigation that was conducted by the Department of Labor. They found that over half of the companies they were looking at, were breaking numerous labor laws by operating 10,000 of these kinds of facilities illegally inside the nation. At the same time, they discovered that a variety of governments around the world were encouraging these kinds of factories. (Elliot, 2009)
In the case of Kathie Lee Gifford, her…
Youth and Labor. (2011). Department of Labor. Retrieved from: http://www.dol.gov/dol/topic/youthlabor/
Elliot, J. (2009). Santa's Little Sweat Shop. Albimonitor. Retrieved from: http://www.albionmonitor.com/sweatshop/ss-intro.html
Farrell, O. (2009). Business Ethics. Mason, OH: South Western.
National Labor Committee. (2000). Children Found Sewing Clothes for Wal Mart. Harvard Law School. Retrieved from: http://www.law.harvard.edu/programs/lwp/NLC_childlabor.html
The ole of Ethics in My Life
Ethics refers to the systematic and logical study of right and wrong behavior. The challenge with ethics is that ethical decisions are often subjective. Variables like personality, culture, and upbringing can all affect one's ethical character. Age and gender can also impact one's ethical decision-making process. The study of ethics has been an ongoing one in the field of philosophy, but it also has direct applications in fields ranging from law to medicine.
Almost all decisions have an ethical component. Even deciding what food to eat is an ethical decision, because the consumer chooses things like fair trade and organic over factory farmed and exploitative. Therefore, ethics can help me to create a more ethical and just society, by making choices that are congruent with core ethical principles. Ethical principles may include such things as fairness and the refrain from harm. Generally,…
Hill, Kate. "The bystander effect: keeping silent on family violence." ABC. Retrieved online: http://www.abc.net.au/local/photos/2014/05/07/3999663.htm
Ethics: Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
The main thrust of the readings
The readings focus on the U.S. statutes prohibiting U.S. companies, citizens, and employees from issuing any valuable thing to foreign government executives for securing business benefits. The underlying thrust of the readings is twofold: first, that corruption must be deterred and second that government officials must promote economic relationships between their companies and foreign firms through the promotion of ethical foreign investment.
The rigid enactment of the FCPA has placed these two thrusts in a state of tension. Law enforcers and courts could interpret the readings broadly. For instance, any valuable thing includes not just payments in cash but also meals, gifts, entertainment and drinks. This element is not associated with any de minimis value and makes companies uncertain when they are expected to comply with the FCPA. From the readings, the FCPA has been enforced and institutes criminal…
Brenkert, G.G., & Beauchamp, T.L. (2010). The Oxford handbook of business ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cory, J. (2005). Business ethics: The ethical revolution of minority shareholders. New York: Springer.
Kumar, B.N., & Steinmann, H. (2008). Ethics in international management. Berlin, Ge: Walter de Gruyter.
Pastin, M., & Hooker, M. (1980). Ethics and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Business Horizons, 23(6), 43
Ethics in Criminal Justice:
The police function has continued to be the most needed elements since the beginning of the existence of human societies because social coordination and harmony have never prospered without some kind of supervisory authority. The supervisory authority or power has usually been shared among several agencies or departments including policing. These various departments have been planned and synchronized to provide the service efficiently and effectively. Since its inception, policing have been mandated with the task of identifying and convicting criminals. However, the police have been expected to have an increasingly wider social role in acting as crisis managers or problem busters. As the police have been faced with numerous moral challenges, there are various theories that have been developed to describe ethics within the field of criminal justice.
Slippery Slope and Gratuities:
One of the long-standing and controversial practices within the police force is police gratuities…
Andrews, W.C. (2004, June). Police Gratuities, Public Perception after September 11, 2001.
Retrieved April 12, 2013, from http://www.clearwaterpolice.org/articles/andrews.asp
Delattre, E.J. (2002). Character and cops: ethics in policing (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.:
American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.
A written policy regarding sexual misconduct is imperative, as is stringent hiring practices including applicant screening, adequate supervision, training, and a structured investigative process regarding allegations of sexual misconduct (Abner et al., 2011). Addressing Sexual Offenses further states that it is necessary to clearly outline the consequences for sexual misconduct as a means of deterring it (Abner et al., 2011). Additionally, Addressing Sexual Offenses outlines other strategies which need to be employed to eliminate the possibility of police sexual misconduct including videotaping all officer interactions, requiring strict time reporting, and implementing unannounced spot checks on officer's electronic devices and communication devices (Abner et al., 2011).
Specific strategies, policies, training, screening, and supervising must be employed to eradicate sexual misconduct by law enforcement officers. Obviously, sexual misconduct by law enforcement officers is a reality and has far reaching implications within a society. Only by eliminating the behavior, will it be possible…
Abner, C., Clark, D., Dahmer-Farris, T., Di Pino, B., Gamble, a., Gibbs, T… Firman, J.
(2011, June). Addressing Sexual Offenses and Misconduct by Law
Executive Guide. Retrieved November 27, 2012 from website:
Ethics of the Death Penalty
The death penalty is a majorly decisive issue. Some countries feel that it is a cruel punishment and have outlawed it, such as England. Others practice the punishment liberally with small caliber crimes receiving the harshest possible punishment. In the United States of America, the death penalty exists in some states but has been abolished in others. Crimes that qualify for the death penalty are serious felonies such as murder. Those on opposing sides of the issue often look to the philosophy of ethics to prove their own position or to subvert the opposition's perspective. Often those who support the death penalty argue that this is the only just punishment for someone who has committed heinous crimes against other people. The dignity of the victim is the only one they consider. Antithetically, those who oppose the death penalty argue that committing a crime like that…
Bedau, H.A. (2004). The death penalty in America, yesterday and today. Killing as Punishment:
Reflections on the Death Penalty in America. Northwestern UP: Boston, MA. 3-15.
Kant, I. (1972). Justice and punishment. Philosophical Perspectives on Punishment. Ed. G.
Ezorsky. State University of New York Press: Albany, NY. 103-106.
Policing Services and Programs:
Even as policing services and programs are being restructured across the globe, understanding this change in customary terms is rather difficult. In these new policing services and programs, the difference between public and private domains of policing is also problematic. However, understanding the ongoing changes is dependent on distinguishing between the authorization of policing and the way these services are provided. This is because of the fact that those who authorize policing services and programs may differ from those who provide these services (Bayley & Shearing, 2001). The restructuring of policing incorporates the weaknesses of the public police and is due to increases in crime, social structure, ideas and culture, character of government and the nature of economic systems. Due to the ongoing restructuring of policing, the role of the public police is significantly changing adopting a governmental rather than individual agenda. Furthermore, policing services and…
Bayley, DH & Shearing, C.D. (2001, July). The New Structure of Policing: Description,
Conceptualization and Research Agenda. Retrieved from National Institute of Justice -- U.S. Department of Justice website: http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles1/nij/187083.txt
Cohen, B. & Leinen, S.H. (2009). Research On Criminal Justice Organizations: The Sentencing
Process. Retrieved May 4, 2011, from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reports/2009/R2018.pdf
The author of this report has been asked to conduct two interviews of police officers with six basic questions being the crux of both interviews. To protect the anonymity of the officers as well as a way to get the most honest and complete answers, the identity of the officers as well as the departments they have or do work for will not be identified in any way, shape or form. The answers garnered were insightful, honest and illuminating. The perspective they offer is perhaps not nearly as known as it should be given the reporting going on as it relates to the incidents in Ferguson and other places where cops have been shot or allegedly unarmed and/or innocent people on the street have endured the same. While there are two sides to each story, both the police and the people have the right to have their voice…
Cooper, H. (2009, July 22). Obama Criticizes Arrest Of a Harvard Professor. The New
York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com /2009/07/23/us/politics/23gates.html?_r=0
Reyes, D. (1994, November 2). Only One Drunk Driver in 500 Is Caught: Enforcement:
Even with tough Highway Patrol policy, probability of arrest in California is small.
Ethics Must Be Global Not Local
Ethics Must Be Global, Not Local
International Business equirements
Global Business Ethics
The large business units expand their operations in global markets through their own presence as well as franchising and distributors. The business operations are expanded on the basis of various standard practices. The business freedom provided by countries and various global practices are utilized as a basis for taking global operational decisions. The business also encounters various legal, operational, and ethical issues related to the local market. However in order to expand business beyond borders and physical boundaries of countries it is required to maintain a degree of uniformity in products and ethical practices followed throughout the manufacturing processes. It is advised to understand various aspects of international business requirements, global operations, ethical practices, and recommendations to assert a standard for global ethical business operations.
International Business equirements:
Beer, L.A. (2010). A Strategic and Tactical Approach to Global Business Ethics. USA: Momentum Press.
Ferrell, O.C., Fraedrich, J., & Ferrell, L. (2012). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making & Cases. USA: South-Western Pub.
George, B. (2008, February 12). Ethics must be global, not local. Bloomberg BusinessWeek, Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2008-02-12/ethics-must-be-global-not-localbusinessweek-business-news-stock-market-and-financial-advice
Martens, P., Akin, S.-M., Maud, H., & Mohsin, R. (2010). Is globalization healthy: a statistical indicator analysis of the impacts of globalization on health.Globalization and Health, 6(1), 16.
esearch also showed that offenders tend to be part of or return to communities with high concentrations of offenders. The concentration of offenders in these neighborhoods affects the community negatively by increasing the stigma associated with the community and also saddling the community with additional problems without providing added resources needed for restoring or maintaining order. The ultimate consequence is the that the criminal justice system destabilizes informal networks of social control and increases poor attitudes towards formal social controls, both of which have been shown to contribute to increases in crime and disorder in the communities. Churning results in unnecessary pressure being put on the other residents of the communities who are law-abiding in disadvantaged communities. The removal of men from the community through incarceration has the chilling effect of changing the family's socio-economic structure. The families of incarcerated members, especially men, of the community also face stigma and…
Burke, K. And Leben, S. (2007). Procedural Fairness: A key Ingredient in Public Satisfaction.
Court Review: The Journal of the American Judges Association. 44 (1), 4-25.
Davis, A.J. (2008). Racial Fairness in the Criminal Justice System: The Role of the Prosecutor. Colombia Human Rights Law Review. 202 (39), 202-32.
Hurwitz, J and Peffley, M. (2001). Racial Polarization on Criminal Justice Issues:
Ethics-CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
Details of the Source
When does police mistake become murder?
The Christian Science Monitor,
Date of publication: 04-05-1999,
Summary of Facts
Racial profiling is probably the biggest concern of minorities groups in our country because it has been the cause of numerous injustices against them. Our law enforcement agencies appear to be ruthlessly biased in their exercise of duty as is clear from this article. The author shows that racial profiling has resulted in prosecution and death of many innocent immigrants. The article argues that when death results from irresponsible actions of the police, it should be counted as murder because it violates basic civil rights provided by the constitution to every citizen regardless of color or creed. However it has been noticed that our police would open fire on any immigrant who appears to be a threat. The author asks: "Should the police officer be tried…
Ethics and Behavior in Organizational Culture
Criminal justice uses a series of tools with the purpose of fighting criminal activities, with these respective tools working together in deterring, catching, judging, and penalizing criminals. The police are one of the principal elements in the system that are directed at addressing criminal activities. The presence of the crime problem in society has encouraged the masses to get actively involved in fighting it through devising complex systems that focus on discouraging criminal acts and on punishing individuals who commit them.
The state uses legislature with the purpose to create funds that are directed at supporting criminal justice agencies. The judiciary branch determines people's guilt and focus on devising penalties that are in accordance with their crimes. In addition to devising laws in situations that have no precedent, courts are also in charge of interpreting legislations and determine whether a person's act can be…
Harr, J. "Constitutional Law and the Criminal Justice System." (Cengage Learning, 1 Jan 2014)
"When Rivalry Between Departments Goes Too Far," Retrieved July 15, 2014, from http://www.geocities.com/stressline_com/rivalry.html
Ethics in Nursing
Every professional in the field of healthcare has a special responsibility and obligation to treat patients with care and dignity -- and at all times there should be an ethical approach as well. Nurses, too, is a vitally important component of healthcare, are nurses are certainly bound by ethical rules and values, and this paper delves into the various aspects of ethics in nursing.
Ethics and Nursing
"Codes of ethics refer to systems of rules and principles by which a profession is expected to regulate the moral behavior of its members and demonstrate its responsibility to society" (Numminen, et al., 2011, p. 710).
Ethics in nursing boils down to taking responsibility for providing good care to patients, being fair, professional and just, Zane olf writes in the peer-reviewed journal Nursing. But there is more to it than just offering professional care, olf continues. The author, who is…
Kangasniemi, Mari. (2010). Equality as a central concept of nursing ethics: a systematic literature review. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Science, 24(4), 824-832.
Lachman, Vicki D. (2012). Applying the Ethics of Care to Your Nursing Practice. Nursing.
Numminen, O.H., Leino-Kilpi, H., van der Arend, A., and Katajisto, Jouko. (2011).
Is discretion ethical?
Not only is police discretion ethical, but it is absolutely essential if police are to be expected to perform their functions effectively. Without discretion, police would, for one example, be duty-bound to conduct a traffic stop of every vehicle that changes lanes without signaling and to issue a summons to every pedestrian who crosses the street against the light (Schmalleger, 2008). On the other hand, it has become common practice for police to misuse their discretion to enforce the law preferentially, especially in connection with traffic stops of off-duty officers (Schmalleger, 2008).
Define the differences between "grass eating" and "meat eating" among officers.
According to the Knapp Commission that coined the term, "grass-eaters" are officers who accept (or even solicit) gratuities in minor ways and largely as a function of learned institutional culture (Schmalleger, 2008). Meanwhile, "meat-eaters" are officers who actively pursue major corrupt initiatives and who…
Delattre, E. (2006). Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing. Washington, DC: AEI Press.
Schmalleger, F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Zalman, M. (2008). Criminal Procedure: Constitution and Society New Jersey: Prentice
When ordinary 'beat cops' act unethically, it immediately garners negative media attention because it affects the public in such a visceral and immediate fashion. Police officers are the average citizen's main source of contact with the justice system and so they are carefully watched. However, prosecutors may decide to proceed with a prosecution despite questionable evidence or act unethically in other ways, and unless it comes to the media's attention or there is very stringent oversight over the office from an outside authority, prosecutors' transgressions may go unnoticed. Prosecutors and police officers both have the most serious and complex obligations of members of the justice system: not to get a conviction, but to pursue justice.
What suggestions might you offer to avoid errors in human inquiry?
First and foremost, to prevent errors in human inquiry causing errors in judgment, it is essential that members of law enforcement staff are cognizant…
Ethics and Behavior in Organizational Culture
A number of distinct advantages, as well as disadvantages, apply to Zero-Based Budgeting (ZZB). Essentially, this budgeting format requires an organization to completely re-analyze every single expenditure on its budget. It works by starting with a blank slate, and then evaluating all aspects of expenditures in order to see how they can be reduced to meet their objectives. The benefits for such an approach include the fact that organizations can increase their degree of competitiveness as well as restructure themselves according to the results of the budget -- which is useful in situations in which transformational leadership is employed or perhaps even required. Other benefits include the fact that a number of expenses can be reduced and lead to alternative means of accomplishing the same objective such as through consolidation, outsourcing, and other modern forms of downsizing. Conversely, determinants include the fact that there…
Donvito, P.A. (1969). The Essentials of a planning-programming budgeting system. www.rand.org. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/pubs/papers/P4124.html
The Economist. (2009). Zero-base budgeting. www.theeconomist.com Retrieved from http://www.economist.com/node/13005039
While the actions of Kato are more serious in principle, I would recommend informal reprimand absent specific reason to believe that informal addressing of the matter might be insufficient to achieve the desired result in the future.
Officer Ramos did not violate any ethical or legal standards. His excessive detail in his police report is a routine matter of report writing proficiency common to young officers. Nevertheless, Ramos could be counseled informally as to the need to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant facts, particularly when unnecessary details could potentially expose the department to civil liability or other officers to unnecessary formal departmental scrutiny when informal counseling off the record would suffice to resolve apparent misunderstandings or miscommunications in the field.
Why are cases such as the one described here of importance to the public?
Discuss the competing interests involved in this case.
Cases such as the one described here are…
However, another frequently unseen instigator in negative behavioral tendencies amongst officers is the incapacity to properly assimilate the stresses of the occupation. Indeed, a 2004 study, published by the Canadian Police College, outlines the conditions which tend most to provoke police extortion, embezzlement or other such malfeasant behaviors. Amongst its findings, the account asserts that, of those surveyed in its sample population, "officers who experienced frequent operational stress were more accepting of financial corruption." (Sunahara, 2) for some, the study elaborates, the heavy burden of anxiety, fear, discontent or nihilism which can be the reality of police work may inspire the rationalization of this misappropriation.
The compensatory dissociation from the realities of law, order and ethical responsibility can, in such cases, be the cause of gross deviation from policy and procedure. Both within the insular social structure of a police department and in the employ of a responsibility which is…
Kurke, M.I. (1995). Police Psychology into the 21st Century. Hillsdale, New Jersey
Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
O'Connor, Dr. T. (2001). Police Psychology. Forensic Psychology.
Stearns, G.M. & Moore, R.J. (1993). The Physical and Psychological
149-150). When the inmate failed to deliver on the guards' demands, the guards then planted drugs in the inmate's bunk (p. 150). The inmate was subsequently prosecuted, and received an extended sentence (p. 150).
Often people will doubt these kinds of stories, because, after all, the inmates are already imprisoned for offenses like drugs, and often much worse kinds of crimes. This puts the inmates at risk of guards and other prison employees who might not embrace a high set of ethics or personal morals. Everyone wants to see crime punished, but when the crimes are being committed within the prison environment, people seem to be less concerned about them, even if they are crimes being committed by the guards or prison officials. People should, in fact, be very concerned about these kinds of crimes, because it is the prison officials and those employees, including guards, who are willing to…
Bowman, J.S. & Elliston, F.A. (Eds.). (1988). Ethics, Government, and Public Policy: A Reference Guide. New York: Greenwood Press. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=30400116
Cody, W.J., & Lynn, R.R. (1992). Honest Government: An Ethics Guide for Public Service. Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6854498
Coyle, A., Campbell, A., & Neufeld, R. (Eds.). (2003). Capitalist Punishment: Prison Privatization & Human Rights. Atlanta: Clarity Press. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99960585
Dolovich, S. (2005). State Punishment and Private Prisons. Duke Law Journal, 55(3), 437+. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015707307
Public health ethics relates to the ethics as it relates to an entire population, in contrast to medical ethics, which relates more to the rights of individuals. osenau and oemer (2013) note that there are often ethical conflicts that emerge when individual rights conflict with the greater good. They highlight the overarching public health principles, that provision of care is regardless of external factors, that there should be equity in the distribution of resources, and that there should be respect for human rights. The case of the burn patient is primarily regarding the human rights dimension.
The human rights dimension results in an ethical dilemma here for a couple of reasons. The first is that the individual in this instance has rights -- or the family members have rights -- and there is question as to whether those rights were respected. The outcome might have been the same…
Curtis, J. & Vincent, J. (2010). Ethics and end-of-life care for adults in the intensive care unit. Lancet. Vol. 375 (2010) 1347-53.
Rosenau, P. & Roemer, R. (2013). Chapter 15: Ethical issues in public health and health services. Introduction to Health Services In possession of the author.
Sprung, C., Cohen, S., Sjokvist, P., Baras, M., Bulow, H., Hovilehto, S., Ledoux, D., Lippert, A., Maia, P., Phelan, D., Schobersberger, W., Wennberg, E. & Woodcock, T. (2003). End-of-life practices in European intensive care units. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 290 (6) 790-797.
With respect to the ethics audit, the company shouldn't change anything other than to institute it. Where we left off, the ethics audit was external, and this is critical, because many of the current ethical issues arise because of the relationships within the company and the way that the different interests within the company are represented in the current ethics program. So the ethics audit has to be external.
The other issue with the ethics audit is that too many people within the company did not seem to want the external audit to take place. This is a major problem, so the delays in the timing of the external audit should be eliminated. The external audit needs to take place as soon as possible, which is the major change that should occur. Let the external auditors determine how and what to investigate -- their ability to ask questions that…
Ethics of Spider Man
The character Spider Man is a foundational superhero of the modern era. His history and life demonstrate the development of an ordinary and even some would say subpar or at the very least "un-cool" young adolescent into a super hero by a twist of fate, i.e. being bit by a genetically modified spider on a science filed trip. The early life of the Spider Man character as depicted in both comic books, television cartoons and movies in live action or animation depict a young man, who stumbles upon a great power and then struggles with how to use that power. In the 2002 film depiction, and true to the comic storyline Peter's/Spiderman's ethics are developed through the film as he struggles with his new found powers, seizing the opportunity to use them for personal gain, by attempting to win money as an amateur fighter/wrestler in a…
Lee, S. (1962) (Spider Man) Amazing Fantasy Vol. 1 #15.
Jenkins, P. (September 2002) Peter Parker, Spider-Man Vol. 2 #48, titled "The Big Question,"
Raimi, S. (Director). (2002) Spider-Man [Motion Picture]. USA. Columbia Pictures Co.
Raimi, S. (Director). (2004) Spider-Man 2 [Motion Picture]. USA. Columbia Pictures Co.
Ethics and Promoting Your Site
Search Engine Optimization -- SEO techniques is the methodology of making a website and its content more relevant for search engines and eventually for the user community who search them through 'keywords' and 'phrases' for getting appropriate results. The entire process includes making strategies to enhance web pages so that they are able to gain a higher ranking in actual search engine results. The ideal scenario is the particular enterprise's website to get listed on the first page of search engine results when the targeted keywords and phrases are searched and for this the enterprise's website needs to be optimised for these terms. (Majchrzak, 2008)
Unethical marketing techniques used in e-business:
An ongoing debate often encountered is what is "unfair" or "unethical" in promoting website for e-business. Essentially the objective of SEO is to manipulate the search engines into ranking the particular site…
Dunford, Terry. (2008) "Advances Search Engine Optimization: A logical Approach"
American Creations of Maui.
Jenkins, Sue. (2007) "Web Design: The L. Line, The Express Line to Learning"
Purpose of a Prison Sentence
Crimes are committed daily in our modern day society and can be loosely defined as any action, that by society's standard, equals the breaking or disobeying of some accepted rule, standard, statute or cultural opinion. Crimes can be committed by either or both adults and juveniles. There is no age requirement to committing a crime but age often does affect other aspects of how and when a perpetrator gets caught and/or treated by law information. Many things can get people incarcerated such as selling drugs, jaywalking and premeditated murder to name a few. That brings to light the topic of the system of jurisprudence and the criminal justice system. Even though crime continues to rise, our criminal justice system is underfunded, understaffed and most likely overwhelmed. So, if this is the case, what is the purpose of a prison sentence? There are many…
New World Encyclopedia. (2009). Prison. Ed. All American Patriots. 2005 March 1. Retrieved on December 1, 2009, from New World Encyclopedia at http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Prison
He has already placed himself under a cloud of suspicion by the community, and while he still possess the same essential rights, he cannot be regarded deserving of the same attention as the boy. Cappa's rights must be respected to the fullest because he, in so far as anyone knows, has always respected the rights of others. Smoot has not. The temporary abridgment of Smoot's rights in order to ensure the Natural Rights of Mickey Cappa would seem to be in accord with an ideal of happiness for all. In this kind of situation, the existence of a predator or abductor in the community represents a threat to everyone's natural rights. It is a threat that should be removed. If indeed, Sylvester Smoot is innocent, his interrogation can be viewed as means both of making sure that Mickey Cappa's rights were protected, as well as away of showing to the…
Accepting Client Assignments
Outstanding client service begins with a full understanding of the client organization, its business needs and the position to be filled. An AESC member should:
Accept only those assignments that a member is qualified to undertake on the basis of the member's knowledge of the client's needs and the member's ability to perform the specific assignment.
Disclose promptly conflicts of interest known to the AESC member and accept assignments only if all affected parties have expressly agreed to waive any conflict.
Develop an understanding with the client that, among other things, makes clear the organizational entity that is defined as the client organization, the fees and expenses to be charged, and any ongoing assurances or guarantees relating to fulfillment of the assignment.
Agree with the client concerning any "off-limits" restrictions or other related policies that govern when and how the member may recruit from the defined client…
Atkins, B. (2006) "Corporate Social Responsibility: Is it irresponsibility?," the Corporate Governance Advisor, pp.28-29.
Baker M.J. (2003) Business and Management research: How to complete your research project successfully. Argyll, Westburn Publishers.
Beach, Elaine 1999: The business of consulting - the basics and beyond. San Francisco, USA:
Ethics of Selling on eBay
When first examining the inventory of items available on eBay, I was impressed by the degree to which there is freedom to sell almost any kind of item. eBay is a service, and a means for individuals to buy and sell the items which they want. As such, I did not believe that eBay had either the right or the duty to police what was sold using its service. That is, eBay itself is the broker, not the seller, and I did not think it should be held liable for the ways in which individuals used its service. However, as I looked further at the items that were for sale, I changed my opinion. I believe eBay must be responsbile for conforming with laws of the country in which it operates, both on the side of the buyer and the seller. In other words, eBay…
Of course, during any tenure of leadership, ethical issues will arise regarding personal conflicts between students and teachers. Some ethical issues which may arise may concern the need to police harassment, which can take place between students and also between teachers and other members of the staff. Mediation is usually the first step in dealing with any complaints, but there must also be a clearly-articulated policy by the school to reduce the chances of such complaints arising in the first place. egardless, policy must be clearly articulated in writing and the rights and confidentiality of staff members must be respected during any disputes that occur.
The hierarchical nature of a school's leadership means that it is very easy to 'pass the blame' when things go wrong. Administrators must take responsibility for areas which the school is working on, and create a plan for success. Goal-setting should be both for the…
Fowler, Denver J. (2010). Review of Rebore, Ronald W. (2000) The ethics of educational leadership. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall. Academic Leadership, 8 (3):
Retrieved November 9, 2011 at http://www.academicleadership.org/article/The_Ethics_of_Educational_Leadership
In "Crime's" conclusion, set at Ben's daughter's wedding, Ben, who is the film's true just and loving man, copes with inevitable blindness, dancing sightless with his daughter the bride, as self-important Judah justifies the "crime" he has committed -- albeit told to Stern at the wedding, in a folkloric way). Judah has literally gotten away with murder. It is bleak, grim and evil triumphs. It is Allen at his darkest and yet, as a film, "Crimes" succeeds. It is entertaining and thought-provoking, yet the audience ultimately identifies with a killer.
And here is where the aforementioned "mis-step" has relevance. Where he so clearly was successful in telling the "Crimes & Misdemeanors'" tale, Allen is less so in "Match." "Match's" Jonathan Rys-Myers' Chris, a social-climbing tennis instructor, is, right from the start, less sympathetic than Landau's Judah. Judah is a healer, he has saved sight, he has done some good; in…
terrorism has impacted the police mission in the U.S. Be sure to provide examples. Describe at least two disagreements that exist regarding the appropriate law enforcement behavior to fight terrorism and maintain personal liberties?
Terrorism and the events connected to September 11, 2001 have impacted the world in ways we could never imagine, affecting the way we view our safety and the way that we view ourselves. State and local police forces have been impacted as well, being confronted with new tasks and new dangers. Just as the Federal government created an entire new department of Homeland Security, police departments were faced with massive changes as well. For instance, these changes were: "coordinating homeland security at the state level; collecting, analyzing and sharing critical information and intelligence; protecting critical infrastructure and key assets; securing the nation's borders, air and sea ports; collaborating with federal and local law enforcement on task…
Csg.org. (2011). The Impact of Terrorism on State Law Enforcement. Retrieved from Csg.org: http://www.csg.org/knowledgecenter/docs/Misc0504Terrorism.pdf
Delattre, E. (2011). Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing. Washington DC: AEI Press.
FBI.gov. (2011, May). Police Corruption. Retrieved from FBI.gov: http://www.fbi.gov /stats-services/publications/law-enforcement-bulletin/may_2011/law_enforcement_professionalism
Ncjrs.gov. (2006). The Impact of Terrorism on State Law Enforcement. Retrieved from ncjrs.gov: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/216642.pdf
In the wake of numerous public complaints as well as allegations within the last two years that point towards excessive use of force by police officers in the apprehension of suspects within the city, there is need to develop a brief that explores the various measures that could be adopted in seeking to enhance our officers’ relations with the community while at the same time attempting to minimize instances of unnecessary aggression and use of force. In essence, in seeking to effect arrests, officers should utilize force that is not only commensurate with the risk posed, but also objectively reasonable. The relevance of formulating blueprints and implementing strategies meant to address the use of force as well as promote or advance the de-escalation of scenarios that turn violent cannot be overstated. In seeking to comprehensively address the issue raised by members of the public regarding the use of force…
One of the authors in the review, in fact details a reporting system that effectively makes the use of force scene an investigated crime scene, where forensic and other evidence, physical and testimonial, is collected to develop a clear understanding of the events as they unfolded. (2005) Some would argue that this sort of method smacks of the police policing the police, and yet the OSCE Guidebook and many experts would argue that this sort of transparency is necessary for public trust and the insurance of reduced opportunity for corruption at every level. (2006) This emphasis on transparency is relatively new to policing, but in my opinion is demonstrative of positive social change and the eventual development of a much clearer sense on the part of the police, their governing agencies and the public of the nature and definitions of justifiable.
Suspect Coercion by Force or Threat of Force:
Buker, H. (2005) Book Reviews, International Journal of Police Science and Management 7: 3 pp. 208-312
Carty, K. (2006) "Guidebook of Democratic Policing Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe" Vienna
Council of Europe Committee of Ministers (COECM) "Recommendation Rec (2001)10 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the European Code of Police Ethics" 19 September 2001, Retrieved, November 15, 2007, at http://www.legislationline.org/legislation.php?tid=155&lid=4886
Evans, M.D., & Morgan, R. (1998). Preventing Torture: A Study of the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
In 1997, numerous key educational institutions including the AASA (American Association of School Administrators); ASCD (the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development), NAESP (the National Association of Elementary School Principals), and the NASSP (National Association of Secondary School Principals) worked in the auspices of ISLLC, funded by the CCSSO (Council of Chief State School Officers), to increase educational management standards. The National Policy Board for Educational Administration used the ISLLC principles for accreditation, efficiently holding educational administrative training programs accountable for not only creating pre-service instructive leaders' knowledge of moral concepts and structures but also for budding their capability to apply such ideas and structures to make moral decisions that would optimistically affect the experiences of pupils. This is in line with the fifth criterion deals with morals, saying that "a school superintendent is an educational organizer who promotes the achievement of all pupils by acting with honesty, justice, and…
Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O., & Weber, T.J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421-449.
Blanchard, K. And Hodges, P. (2003). Servant leadership. Nashville, TN Thomas Nelson.
Farling, M.L., Stone, A.G., & Winston, B.E. (1999). Servant leadership: Setting the stage for empirical research. Journal of Leadership Studies, 6(1-2), 49-72.
Fullan, M. (2003). The moral imperative of school leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Corrections / Police / Criminal Justice
ould I lie to a suspect to get a confession even it was legal to do so?
Legal or not, lying to get a confession creates a moral black hole for an officer. To wit, how would an officer who was otherwise a good Christian later feel about getting a conviction albeit he obtained that conviction through deception? That is the question here. Chances are he would feel guilty; and it's possible that his wife, if she knew he used lies to tease a confession out of a suspect, would confront him. He would have had no place to hide from his sin in his earthly world and certainly spiritually he would live with a sense of guilt. Looked at a different way, when a good officer who was not a Christian but has always practiced ethical values is told by his superiors in…
Jones, J.R. (2006). Reputable Conduct: Ethical Issues in Policing and Corrections. Don Mills,
Ontario: Pearson Canada.
Perez-Pena. R. (2012). Studies Find More Students Cheating, With High Achievers No
Exception. The New York Times. Retrieved June 30, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Throughout history, police management has experienced numerous changes because of the various significant changes that have continued to occur in the society. The emerging trends have contributed to the development of new policing governance, which has had considerable implications for police management. Towards the end of the 20th Century, the governmental police reforms have contributed to an end to public policing, a claim that is regarded as extrapolated towards a certain extreme. However, in light of the changes that have occurred in the recent past, it's evident that public policing has not come to an end but that the monopoly of public policing has come to an end. As a result, the dominance of public policing that characterized the 19th and 20th centuries is no longer a characteristic of the modern era. Actually, the emerging diverse totality of public policing is a reflection of the so-called post-modern period.…
Cope, S., Leishman, F. & Starie, P. (1997). Globalization, New Public Management and the Enabling State: Futures of Police Management. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 10(6), 444-460.
"Cooperation Agreement between the Government of Canada and the European Police Office."
(n.d.). Europol. Retrieved December 8, 2012, from https://www.europol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/flags/canada.pdf
Forcese, D. (2002). Police: current issues in Canadian law enforcement. Kemptville, Ontario:
Law enforcement has a distinct professional culture that is comprised of both formal and informal elements. Formal elements are ensconced in rules and regulations. For example, training, hours of work, how to fill out paperwork, and wearing a uniform according to an individual’s status in the organization are formal elements of the culture. Informal elements are unspoken, including norms of behavior and the jargon used between officers. For example, informal cultural norms are what have a direct bearing on “how to go about their tasks, how hard to work, what kinds of relationships to have with their fellow officers and other categories of people with whom they interact, and how they should feel about police administrators,” (“The Police Culture,” p. 98). Both formal and informal culture impacts productivity, identity, and performance.
Language and Behaviors
One of the defining features of a culture is language. In the professional sectors, jargon…
Lessons of Police Force
A History of the United States Police Force
The story of the American experience is one of principled laws that reflect the values of our society. Laws establish the boundaries of permissible conduct that guides particular aspects of interactions between individuals. hile the military is generally tasked with countering large scale and organized external threats, the modern police force accomplishes the bulk of maintaining order and security at the local level.
The history of the police force demonstrates three primary themes illustrating that its duties are both reactive and proactive, the size and scope of the organization is an adaptation of the local community, and the unique role in upholding justice entails a greater expectation of virtuous conduct. Recognizing the themes that characterize the history of the police force demonstrate that the future will encompass change, yet the guiding principles of the past enhance us with…
Walker, S., & Katz, C.M. (2008). The Police in America: An Introduction (6th Edition). New York, New York: McGraw-HIll.
Answers.com. (2012). Who said that with great power comes great responsibility? Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Who_said_that_with_great_power_comes_great_responsibility #ixzz26x2sMR5B' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The importance of ethics in the criminal justice field cannot be overemphasised. All participants must portray acceptable moral conduct for positive criminal justice outcomes to be achieved (Braswell, McCarthy & McCarthy, 2008). This is particularly true for correctional institutions, a major component of the criminal justice system. Correctional authorities play a crucial role in rehabilitating offenders and facilitating their transition back to the society. The role places huge ethical demands on correctional personnel. This paper outlines ethical requirements for correctional officers. First, a comprehensive job description of correctional officers is offered, along with the key stakeholders they work together with in the fulfilment of their day to day duties and responsibilities. Next, a number of practical work scenarios where ethical decision making is required are highlighted, with an evaluation of the relevance of theoretical perspectives to the scenarios. Finally, a code of ethics and best-practices checklist relevant for correctional officers…
.....personal ethics derive from a combination of established codifications of moral conduct, such as those embedded in political documents or in religious scripture, but also from my personality, my upbringing, and my worldview. I tend towards a utilitarian point-of-view, in that I do believe that the consequences of actions are more important than worrying about whether an action is inherently right or wrong. I also believe that there are situational variables that make true deontological ethics almost impossible to apply universally and without hypocrisy. Although I make some decisions based on the principle of doing the maximum amount to good for the maximum number of people, I also recognize the importance of a strong ethical character when making decisions "Six Ethical Theories Rough Overview," n.d.). This is why I believe that there can be no one ethical theory that encompasses all situations. A person who has a strong ethical character,…
In addition, today's police officer faces different challenges from police officers of even two decades ago. One of these 21st century problems facing law enforcement is terrorism. Almost every community across the nation has some building or government location that could be considered a target of terrorism, and large metropolitan areas have many of these targets within their boundaries. Because of this, police models may have to change to be more involved in preventing terrorism from occurring, rather than responding once a terrorist act has been committed. Community policing can aid in this by allowing community police officers to become familiar with their neighborhoods and citizens, and knowing exactly what targets lay in their area. To create better police officers, training in terrorism and how to recognize typical terrorism suspects must be stepped up and addressed in all communities.
Perhaps the biggest challenge facing many officers is the use of…
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Glenn, R.W., Panitch, B.R., Barnes-Proby, D., Williams, E., Christian, J., Lewis, M.W., et al. (2003). Training the 21st century police officer: Redefining police professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department / . Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Leuci, R. (1999). 13 the enemies within: Reflections on institutionalized corruption. In Police and policing: Contemporary issues, Kenney, D.J. & McNamara, R.P. (Eds.) (2nd ed., pp. 216-219). Westport, CT: Praeger.