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Police Reform in Post Authoritarian Brazil
Words: 12011 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 41646569
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Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil

A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).

The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…


Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.

Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.

Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.

Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.

Police History Structure and Functions
Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71182572
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Police: History, Structure, and Functions

The policing system's development in Britain was closely followed by a similar development in America. Policing by the initial colonizers assumed two forms: "The Big Stick" (for-profit, private agency policing) and the "Watch" (communal as well as informal) (Spitzer, 1979). Community volunteers primarily charged with warning citizens of imminent danger made up the latter system. The night watch was first implemented in the year 1636 in Boston. New York and Philadelphia implemented night watch system in the years 1658 and 1700, respectively. This system did not prove particularly successful in controlling crime. Supplementing the "watch" mode of policing was a group of official law enforcers, labeled "constables," who were often salaried by a fee system, based on number of warrants served by them. Policing's informal procedure continued for several years following the 1765-83 American evolution. Only in the 1830s did the U.S. first introduce a…


Davis, Rowenna. (2009). Policing the police, The Guardian. Retrieved from  on October 5, 2016.

Lewis, M.A. (2011). "Perspective: Peel's Legacy," FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. The FBI. Retrieved from  on October 5, 2016.

Lundman, Robert J. (1980). Police and Policing: An Introduction, New York, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Spitzer, Stephen, (1979). The Rationalization of Crime Control in Capitalist Society, Contemporary Crises 3, no. 1.

Police Corrupted
Words: 5292 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92625669
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Course Number
Police Corruption
A Problem with the law

This paper will focus specifically on police corruption and the ways in which to lessen and decrease instances of police corruption. The first section includes an introduction explaining the effects of police corruption from rapes to murder and how it impacts society. It also expresses the need to act, as the United States becomes more like the exceedingly corrupt African countries of Nigeria and South Africa. Comparison of other countries reveals a lack of authority and government as well as public safety concerns.
The other section explains and identifies the different forms of corruption that happen with police officers including: opportunistic theft, tampering of evidence, and accepting of bribes. When police officers commit these crimes, they are often not prosecuted. This is due to the lack of evidence of witnesses against them. Most police officers are trained to…

Aremu, A. O., Pakes, F., & Johnston, L. (2011). The moderating effect of emotional intelligence on the reduction of corruption in the Nigerian Police. Police Practice and Research, 12(3), 195-208. Retrieved July 30, 2014, from 
Beggs, J., & Davies, H. (2009). Police misconduct, complaints, and public regulation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
California Innocence Project. (n.d.). Police Corruption Cases \ Police Misconduct Statistics \ CIP. Retrieved August 1, 2014, from 
Einstein, S., & Amir, M. (2003). Police corruption: paradigms, models, and concepts: challenges for developing countries. Huntsville, TX: Office of International Criminal Justice.
Gottschalk, P. (2012). White-Collar Crime and Police Crime: Rotten Apples or Rotten Barrels? Critical Criminology, 20(2), 169-182. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from 
Lee, H., Lim, H., Moore, D. D., & Kim, J. (2013). How police organizational structure correlates with frontline officer's attitudes toward corruption: a multilevel model. Police Practice and Research, 14(5), 386. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from 
Punch, M., & Gilmour, S. (2010). Police corruption: apples, barrels and orchards. Criminal Justice Matters, 79(1), 10-12. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from 
Roleff, T. L. (2003). Police corruption. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.

Police Officer Might Be One
Words: 2028 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35790299
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In places such as Richmond, that have an already checkered past in their relationship with the public, the public perception is further damaged by the rise in crime. This is true of the police department in the rest of the country as well. The rise in crime affects the perception of the public with regard to the police department, and not the government. In actions such as racism and extralegal searches the police department and not President Bush is implicated. Many of the harmful effects of current police actions and policies are the result of government policies. The police has thus become somewhat of a scapegoat as a result of the latest government policies.

The profile of violent crimes has also changed dramatically and dangerously. Fewer police officers mean more violent criminals, which raises the crime rate.

Government policy, rising crime rates, and police actions have therefore combined into a…


Barbash, Fred (2005, June 28). Court Backs Town In Lawsuit Over Domestic Violence. In Washington Post online (

Lucas, Scott (2001, April 23). Good cop, bad cop - police violence against African-Americans - police in movies and TV - Timothy Thomas. In New Statesman.

Maclin, Tracey. (1998, Summer). Terry v Ohio's fourth amendment legacy: Black men and police discretion. In St. John's Law Review.

Seron, Carroll (2004, Dec). Judging Police Misconduct: "Street-Level" versus Professional Policing. Law & Society Review, Blackwell Publishers.

Building Trust Between Police and Communities Police
Words: 1148 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58441676
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Police: Building Trust Between Police and Communities

Building Trust between Police and Communities: Police

Police Trust, Integrity and Ethics in Bridging the Gap in Community elations

The death of Eric Garner in the hands of New York police, and the shootings of 12-year-old ice Tamir and Michael Brown in Ohio and Missouri respectively, have and continue to brew a wave of public mistrust in the police service. Such incidences often spur massive public protests that eventually destroy relations between police and the communities they serve. A study conducted by euters on 3,600 citizens between December 2014 and January 2015 found that a significant 27.6% of adult Americans do not trust the police to be fair and just (euters, 2015). In December, 2015, President Barrack Obama signed an executive order creating the Task Force on 21st Century Policing, whose primary aim is to build confidence and trust in the local police.…


IACP. (2010). Building Trust between the Police and the Citizens they Serve. The International Association of Chiefs of Police (ICAP). Retrieved from 

Miller, L. & Hess, K. (2007). Community Policing: Partnerships for Problem-Solving (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Raines, J. (2011). Ethics in Policing: Misconduct and Integrity. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Reuters. (2015). Do Americans Trust their Cops to be Fair and Just? New Poll Contains Surprises. Retrieved from

Police vs Public
Words: 3513 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28298945
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Police Interviews

The author of this report has been asked to conduct two interviews of police officers with six basic questions being the crux of both interviews. To protect the anonymity of the officers as well as a way to get the most honest and complete answers, the identity of the officers as well as the departments they have or do work for will not be identified in any way, shape or form. The answers garnered were insightful, honest and illuminating. The perspective they offer is perhaps not nearly as known as it should be given the reporting going on as it relates to the incidents in Ferguson and other places where cops have been shot or allegedly unarmed and/or innocent people on the street have endured the same. While there are two sides to each story, both the police and the people have the right to have their voice…


Cooper, H. (2009, July 22). Obama Criticizes Arrest Of a Harvard Professor. The New

York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2014, from 

Reyes, D. (1994, November 2). Only One Drunk Driver in 500 Is Caught: Enforcement:

Even with tough Highway Patrol policy, probability of arrest in California is small.

Unethical Police Operations Over the
Words: 766 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96529109
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The charges were quietly dropped against the suspect and an Internal Affairs investigation cleared them of all wrong doing. (Terruso, 2011)

Explain the outcomes of the cases. Did you agree with the outcomes? Why or why not?

The situation involving the New York City police officers is still in the court system. So far I agree with the outcome. This is because they were deliberately breaking the law by selling automatic weapons to criminal elements. Moreover, they were also working with organized crime to sell cigarettes that were stolen from the police evidence room. This can erode the confidence of the general public in the department's ability to objectively enforce the law. When this happens, it will affect investigations and their outcomes. As a result, they had to be stopped before the situation became worse. (ashbaum, 2011)

While the case in Elizabeth, resulted in the suspect suing the department for…


2010 NPMSRP. (2010), Police Misconduct. Retrieved from: 

Johnson, K. (2007). Police Brutality Cases on the Rise. USA Today. Retrieved from: 

Rashbaum, W. (2011). 8 Officers Charged with Gun Trafficking. City Room. Retrieved from: 

Terruso, J. (2011). Elizabeth Police Brutality. Star Ledger. Retrieved from:

Criminal Justice - Policing Criminal
Words: 1074 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52654718
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To the extent that crime is a function of larger social issues, it is unrealistic to expect those underlying social problems to be rectified by law enforcement efforts. Even with respect to specific incidence of criminal behavior, law enforcement authorities must address two competing interests that fall within the purview and responsibility of law enforcement.

Specifically, poverty, unwanted pregnancy, lack of educational and vocational opportunities, and perceived social "disenfranchisement" within communities contribute heavily to crime in those areas but none of those social factors are capable of being redressed directly by law enforcement authorities. Likewise, even within the realm of law enforcement responsibilities, emphasis on quality-of-life-oriented policing and crime prevention-oriented policing conflict with the goal of preventing crime in light of empirical evidence and anecdotal experience demonstrating that efforts directed at the former do not necessarily achieve the goals of the latter appreciably.

In that regard, directed police patrols and…

Oversight in Policing Police Wrongs
Words: 2318 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77329548
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The decree also requires a negotiation with the police union and representation by attorney. (Simmons, 2008) Thus there are problems and countermeasures that could effectively bring down the power of investigating complaints.

(d) Critique the effectiveness of citizen oversight as a police management tool, and early warning device:

The tracking system essentially consists of identifying personnel who are exhibiting chronic misconduct patterns. This system could check the unconstitutional violations both with the citizens and within the department as a whole. The intervention systems are good in managing the police and are based on the principle of preventing misconduct by monitoring the police. It was as stated by the Christopher Commission's analysis of one thousand eight hundred Los Angeles police officers showed that the top five percent of the officers were involved in 20% of complaints and the top 10% accounted for 33%. (Simmons, 2008)

Following that the early warning system…


Alexander, Arthur. (2005) "Panel Polishes Police Oversight System"

The Register-Guard, p. d1.

Fielding, Nigel. (1995) "Community Policing."

Clarendon Press: Oxford.

Protections Against Improper Police Behavior
Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79729311
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Protections Against Improper Police Behavior

Ladies and Gentlemen,

It is important to note that in seeking to detect and prevent crime as well as when it comes to the apprehension of lawbreakers, you need to be mindful of the various protections accorded to the citizens of this country against improper police behavior.

To begin with, you need to be aware of the various protections the Federal Constitution accords the citizens of this country against any police behavior regarded improper. A good example of the said protections can be found in the Fourth Amendment. The Fourth Amendment according to Travis III (2011) "protects the homes, papers, and possessions of the citizenry from unreasonable searches." Towards that end, in addition to being judicially suctioned, any warrant should be supported by what is referred to as probable cause.

Further, still on the protections accorded to citizens by the constitution against improper police behavior,…


Bumgarner, J.B. (2004). Profiling and Criminal Justice in America: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO.

Champion, D.J. (2001). Police Misconduct in America: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO.

Travis III, L.F. (2011). Introduction to Criminal Justice (7th ed.). Burlington, MA: Elsevier.

body worn cameras by Police
Words: 1532 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 55334453
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body worn cameras for the police, and the policy for using them.

The Policy

Most police executives claim that their biggest problem is not about the choice of the technology to adopt; it is finding the appropriate combination technologies to use in a particular jurisdiction depending on such factors as its funding levels and crime problems. Deciding on the suitable combination, however, requires one to understand fully how each technology works. Leaders in police departments who have adopted body-worn cameras claim that the cameras are quite beneficial. According to them, the cameras are important in documenting evidence, training officers, resolving and preventing the public's complaints, enhancing police transparency, accountability and performance (Implementing a Body-Worn Camera Program ecommendations and Lessons Learned). Furthermore, since the police can now use the cameras on their cell phones to take video recordings of their encounters, the body-worn cameras ensure that the police departments capture the…


Colorado Public Radio - In-Depth News and Streaming Music. (n.d.). Police Body Camera Recommendations Head to Lawmakers - CPR. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from 

COPS Office: Grants and Resources for Community Policing. (n.d.). Implementing a Body-Worn Camera Program Recommendations and Lessons Learned. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from

Draft Recommendation: A Body Worn Cameras. (n.d.). Draft Recommendation: A Body Worn Cameras. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from - (n.d.). The Cato Institute's National Police Misconduct Reporting Project. Police Body Cameras - Retrieved October 21, 2016, from

When Is it Prudent for a Police Officer to Shoot a Suspect
Words: 793 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33092329
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Alleged Crimes -- Civil Action

The four alleged crimes in this scenario are: a) an alleged armed robbery and assault on a woman at 2:00 A.M. in a high-crime area; b) an individual refused to comply with an officer's commands; c) that individual was found to be in possession of illegal substances (possibly cocaine); and d) providing false information from the woman who alleged she was robbed and assaulted.

Review of the scenario

The officer was in full uniform and so even though it was nighttime, he could be recognized as a bona fide law enforcement officer. Clearly the woman was lying to protect her husband -- albeit he had apparently assaulted her because she was bleeding -- and that behavior (lying to a police officer) brings the possibility of criminal sanctions.

The assault on the wife is a felony domestic abuse incident, though even though the wife lied to…

Works Cited

Berardini, N. (2015). Opinion: How de-escalation is bad business for Taser International.

MSNBC. Retrieved November 21, 2015, from .

Findlaw. (2011). Police Misconduct and Civil Rights. Retrieved November 21, 2015, from .

Travis, A. (2014). Police use of Tasers continues to rise. The Guardian. Retrieved November 21, 2015, from .

Training of the Metropolitan Police
Words: 12930 Length: 47 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50785881
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Based on the foregoing considerations, it is suggested that the DCMP restructure their existing training programs and administration so that a more unified and centralized plan is in place, as well as providing for better instructor qualifications, evaluation, learning retention and more efficient and effective use of resources which are by definition scarce.

These broad general issues were refined for the purposes of this study into the research questions stated below.

esearch Questions

What is the background of the District of Columbia area policy and community relations since World War II?

What are some major problems preventing positive relations between communities and the District of Columbia Metropolitan area police?

Can training programs of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department enhance community relations?

What training modules can be used to enhance relations between surrounding communities in the District of Columbia Metropolitan area law enforcement?

Significance of the Study

esearch Design…


Aben, E.L. (2004, September 13) Local police institution cites linkages with foreign law enforcement agencies. Manila Bulletin, 3.

About OPC. (2008). District of Columbia Office of Police Complaints. [Online]. Available: , a,3,q,495435,occrNav_GID,1469,occrNav,|31085|,.asp.

Bedi, K. & Agrawal, R.K. (2001). Transforming values through Vipassana for principle- centered living: Evidence from Delhi police personnel. Journal of Power and Ethics, 2(2), 103.

Billington, J. (2008, March 7). Officers get crash course. Tulsa World, 1, 3.

Community Oriented Policing vs Problem
Words: 7854 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7099404
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(1990) Municipal Government Involvement in Crime Prevention in Canada. This work provides insight into the way that municipal government interacts with the police in the organization of crime prevention structures and the delivery of crime prevention services and activities. (Hastings, 1990, p. 108)

The idea of municipal government interaction in crime prevention is shown to have been spurred on in Canada by "....the successes of locally organized and community-based initiatives in North America. In both cases, the involvement reflects a sense that, whatever crime prevention is, the police cannot do it alone." (Hastings, 1990, p. 108) This again attests to the prevailing theme in the literature that there is a general consensus that the police force faces problems that are complex and which require the interaction and the assistance of other local community and municipal structures.

Hastings emphasizes this sense of interaction in the field of community policing and particularly…


About Community Policing. Retrieved 16 August 2006, at 

BJA Bureau of Justice Assistance Fact Sheet. Comprehensive Communities Program: A Unique Way To Reduce Crime and Enhance Public Safety. (2000) Retrieved 18 August, 2006, at 

COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING. Retrieved 16 August 2006, at

Community-Oriented Policing: Blessing Or Curse? Retrieved15 August, 2006, from,

Minimizing the Impact of Politics in Police Agencies
Words: 1366 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90689381
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Agency Politics Within the Vbso

Agency Politics

Persons wishing to become police officers in the United States must first pass a battery of tests designed to eliminate those who fail to meet the minimum standards (Thomas & Barringer, 2012, p. 1600-1601). Thus begins the indoctrination process for those that enter the academy and survive long enough to be offered a position within a policing agency. One of the first value systems the recruits face is that of police culture, which does not always align with the official mission statement of the sponsoring policing agencies. The continued indoctrination of green officers is the responsibility of senior training officers and any resistance to becoming a member of the agency's culture would likely result in elimination of the officer from field training.

As Thomas and Barringer (2012) note, the effectiveness of a policing agency depends on the ability of its members to recognize…


Adams, K. (2013 September 15). Ex-VA. Beach sheriff's captain files federal bias lawsuit. Virginia-Pilot. Retrieved 3 May 2014 from .

Balzer, A.J. (1996). International police cooperation: Opportunities and obstacles. Retrieved 3 May 2014 from .

City Manager. (2014a). Police Chief Jim A. Cervera. Retrieved 2 May 2014 from .

City Manager. (2014b). Form of government. Retrieved 2 May 2014 from .

Suspension of the Miami Florida Police Chief
Words: 962 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79119320
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suspension of the Miami, Florida police chief. The suspension was the result of a political dispute between the police chief and the Miami mayor. The mayor and police chief had been involved in a dispute over suspected illegal gambling that the police chief believed that the mayor was supporting. The chief's actions will be reviewed by a special commission. The question as to the level of involvement by the mayor in the gambling operation is still unresolved as well. The chief has requested that the FBI investigate the mayor's involvement and the chief has requested whistle blower status under the federal statutes. The City Council has expressed concerns that the dispute between the mayor and police chief has resulted in dysfunction in the operation of the Miami police force. The circumstances of this situation are such that minimizing or eliminating the politics would be difficult. Although the nature of the…


Baker, A. (2011, August 13). Effort to Fight Misconduct by City Police is Imperiled. New York Times, p. A20.

Don Van Natta, J. (2011, September 7). In Miami, Long and Bitter Feud with Mayor Pushes Police Chief Close to Dismissal. New York Times, p. A16.

Eligon, J. (2011, August 11). Second Ex-Officer in Rape Case Receives a Two-Month Jail Term. New York Times, p. A20.

Criminal Justice

Police Department Rewards for Defusing Violent Situations
Words: 591 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94318131
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Recent fatal attacks by police against unarmed citizens -- in particular African-American males -- have been portrayed as insensitive, illegal, and unnecessary violence by cable news programs over the past few years. And those televised reports (shown over and over) have caused angry citizens to participate in large demonstrations in American city streets. Fairly or unfairly, these incidents have caused citizens to turn against police departments -- albeit most police departments do not train their officers to shoot unarmed suspects. Because everyone with a smart phone can take video of police actions, and share videos with news organizations, this has become a negative for law enforcement. In response to these incidents, some police departments are offering rewards to officers that show restraint in the line of duty. This paper presents examples of those strategies by police departments.

The Philadelphia & Los Angeles Police Departments

In Philadelphia, the police department rewards…

Police Discipline
Words: 1847 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50316667
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The problem with hiring an internal investigator in that his judgment, in most cases, may be clouded by friendship, bias or even personal grudges. Another possible solution would be office shuffling. This police tradition is usually repugnant, superfluous to the public, and ineffective in dealing with the problems in the police. Office shuffle is only effective if competent officers and dedicated to combating police problems replace non-performing officers. For the case of Officer Joe who has had no previous criminal record, shuffling could be effective. The best solution would be progressive discipline for the case of Officer Joe.

To evaluate the success of progressive discipline, the manager has to monitor Officer Joe. Progressive discipline is not a single occurrence; rather it is a continuous process. For the case of Officer Joe, improved dressing, calm in the workplace and evidence of teamwork would be an indication of success of the process.…


Castillo, A., & Martinez, C. (2008). Library Science in Mexico: a discipline in crisis. Progressive Librarian, 31, 29-36.

Ellison, K.W. (2004). Stress and The Police Officer. Spring Field, IL:Charles C. Thomas Publishers

Kelly, S.F. (2003). Internal Affairs, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 72(7), 1 -- "6. Retrieved from =12&hid=10&sid =8b9 339b0-4467-44cd-8072 173f1416b5b8%40sessionmgr13&bdata= JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3 Qtb Gl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=10341537

Raterman, M.T. (2003). Progressive discipline as a police management tool police department disciplinary, Bulletin, 8(9)Retrieved from edu / socialsciences/docview/198687865/13941E3FCEE3AFCCBE7/3?accountid=34544

Police Force to Diffuse Tense
Words: 2390 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 45966480
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Though women constitute only 12.7% of the sworn police force they are implicated in only 5% of the total cases registered against the use of excessive force. Statistics further indicate that women officers account for only 6% of the total dollars paid out for court settlements for The Use of Police Force 4

police abuse related cases. [DR. Kim Lonsway, 2002] It is clear that a women police officer is less likely to resort to excessive force use compared with a male police officer and this presents a clear case for more representation of women in the police force. Inducting more women would therefore be a positive step.

Another study by the University of California compared the effects of race, gender, and experience of the officer and the link to the possibility of the officer being investigated by Internal affairs for the use of excessive force. For the study, the…


1) Amnesty International, (2008) ' Less than Lethal'? The use of Stun weapons in U.S. Law Enforcement', Accessed 14th July 2009, Available at, 

2) Anthony J. Micucci & Ian M. Gomme (Oct 2005), 'American Police and Subcultural Support for the use of Excessive Force', Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol 33, Issue 5

3) BJS, (June 25, 2006) 'Citizens Complained more than 26,000 times in 2002 about Excessive Police Force', Available at, 

4) DR. Kim Lonsway, Michelle Wood & Megan Fickling (2002), ' Men, Women and Police Excessive Force: A Tale of two Genders', Accessed July 13th 2009, Available at,

Police Killings
Words: 2264 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70578666
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Policy Analysis Essay on Police Killings


The recent police killings and other forms of abuse of authority by law enforcers in the US reinforce the critical and long-demanded need for policy reforms in the nation, a need that has too frequently been disregarded. While some attempts, on the part of authorities, at dealing with these issues have enjoyed a certain degree of success, others have proven unsuccessful. The issue of poor law enforcement relations with communities and police abuse of authority continues to acutely plague several communities in the country. The incidents at Baltimore and Baton Rouge highlight the urgent need to tackle this problem. Though all cases (Ferguson, New York, Baltimore, Baton Rouge, and Minneapolis, to name a few) are unique, they are characterized by one highly disturbing similarity – implicit racial prejudice and unwarranted use of official force against Black Americans, especially male Black Americans. The incidents…

Police Honesty
Words: 1604 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 43523034
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Officer Misconduct

Disclosing Officer Untruthfulness to the Defense: Is a Liar's Squad Coming to Your Town?

Officer misconduct scenario

Police officers must not simply be held to the same standards as members of the public. They must be held to a higher standard. This is illustrated in the following scenario: a police officers is found to have searched for pornographic materials on a work computer and when initially confronted about this violation of department policy he lied, claiming he had no idea how the search history of the pornographic materials made its way onto his computer. He only confessed once the link was made between his log-in information and the search. This combination of dishonesty and poor judgment is a compelling argument for the officer's immediate dismissal, despite the fact that he has an otherwise largely unblemished record.

If an ordinary citizen was found to have been searching pornographic websites…

Works Cited

Brady v. Maryland. (1963). Cornell University Law School. Retrieved from: 

Giglio v. United States. (1972). Find Law. Retrieved from:

Discretionary Situations for a Police Chief Discretion
Words: 3257 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54191559
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Discretionary Situations for a Police Chief

Discretion in the Police Department

Discretionary Situations in Criminal Arrests: "Stop" and "Frisk," acial Profiling

The expectation is that public administrators apply a balancing act in the decision making process. Focus for this study is on law enforcement administrators, especially police chiefs, on their responses to their officers' discretion to criminal arrests. The argument put forth is that police discretion is limited by managerial and information technology monitoring methods, which direct police officers to adhere to set up procedures (Chan, 2003; owe, 2007). Given that police officers usually have the opportunity to make a decision on whether to apply laws. This concept paper finds that there is a close relationship between management decisions and use of discretion. It is on this basis the research will focus on the police chief's management decisions and the use of discretion in two major scenarios.

A police department…


Atwater v. City of Lago Vista, 532 U.S. 318, 325-26 (2001). In Nirej, S.S. (2011). Redistributive Policing. The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 101(4), 1171-1226.

Chan, J. (2003). Policing and New Technologies. In T. Newburn (Ed.), Handbook of Policing. New York: Willan, 655-679.

Frase, R.S. (2005). Sentencing Guidelines in Minnesota, 1978-2003. In Tonry, M. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, 32, p131, p201.

Harcourt, B.E. (2007). Against Prediction: Profiling, Policing, and Punishing in an Actuarial Age. 1st ed. University of Chicago Press, 119.

City Police Departments
Words: 1863 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56981886
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City Police Department

Police departments are professional organizations comprised of men and women who are empowered by society to serve as the guardians of society's well being. Organizations of professionals are characterized by extensive and continuing professional training, shared and understanding of and commitment to the values of the profession, and the desire to improve their communities. This paper discusses a city police department that has demonstrated great success over the years -- the New York City Police Department (NYPD).

Founded in 1845, the NYPD is the biggest municipal police force in the world, the oldest in the United States, and the model on which the other city departments have patterned themselves (Larder and Reppetto, 2000). From a population of about 33,000 in 1790, New York City rapidly became a city of nearly 400,000 by 1845. The old constable system, which had policed New York since the days of the…


Kelling, G. (Autumn, 1995). How to Run a Police Department. City Journal, Vol. 5, No. 4.

Lardner, James and Thomas Reppetto. (2000). NYPD: A City and Its Police. New York: Henry Holt.

Livingston, Debra. 1997. "Police Discretion and the Quality of Life in Public Places: Courts, Communities, and the New Policing." Columbia Law Review. 97-3, p. 551-672. April.

New York City Police Department (NYPD). (2004). Retrieved from the Internet at

Curtis Lynnette 2011 Aug 5 Police Union
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Curtis, Lynnette. (2011, Aug. 5) Police Union talks raise concerns about saving North Las Vegas recreation centers. Las Vegas eview-Journal.

As the nation comes to grip with the budgetary problems associated with a poorly performing economy, and the prospects of better economic days seem a long lost dream, cities all over America are having difficulties with their own financial issues. In the city of North Las Vegas, there is a budgetary issue which directly effect the police department, and the officer's union. ather than close several recreation centers, the city has asked the police officers to make financial concessions in order to raise the necessary funds. The article "Police union talks raise concerns about saving North Las Vegas recreation centers" described the current situation relating to the negotiations between the police union and the city.

There are actually two unions involved in the negotiations with the city, the 60-member police…


Curtis, Lynnette. (2011, Aug. 5) Police Union talks raise concerns about saving North Las Vegas recreation centers. Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved from

Ethics in Policing
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Ethics in Policing

It is crucial for organizations to clearly define ethics and ethical behaviors in the workplace and to also clearly tell its employees what constitutes unethical behavior (oufa, 2016). There is a strong push to uphold the high ethical standards set for the law enforcement community. However, without clear definition of those ethical standards, such efforts would likely not achieve any significant results.

Our understanding of ethics and ethical conduct is based on our personal and societal values. Personal values are those which are based on our personal experiences, religious beliefs, ethnic and cultural backgrounds. These values are unique to every person, which means they are not the best values to inform our professional conduct. Other values, however, are dear to the entire societies or groups. They are derived from the groups' history and understanding of ethical behavior. This is the proper platform on which to base professional…


Davis, W. A. (2014). Examining Student Perceptions: Ethics and Misconduct in Today's Police Department. The Aquila Digital Community. Retrieved from 

Roufa, T. (2016, October 12). Ethics in Law Enforcement and Policing. Retrieved from The Balance: 

Stephens, D. W. (2011, June). Police Discipline: A Case for Change. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice: 

United States Attorney's Office District of Connecticut. (2014, January 23). Former East Haven Police Officer Sentenced To Five Years In Prison For Criminal Civil Rights Violations. Retrieved from The United States Department of Justice:

Substance Abuse Among Police Officers
Words: 1704 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 36719883
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Research has shown that people who experience high stress remain more at risk for alcohol abuse (Violanti, Choir Practice:..., n.d.).

A prevention approach has the long-range potential to reduce alcohol abuse. Police departments should note that proactive prevention strategies designed to prevent alcohol abuse are more economical and practical than curing those who abuse alcohol.


Jared. (2008, October 28). Substance abuse among public safety officers. Retrieved April 4, 2009, from

Law enforcement wellness association. (n.d.). Retrieved April 4, 2009, from

National Crime Prevention Council. (n.d.). Workplace substance abuse. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from Philadelphia police department:

Page, D. (2005, September). Drug screening of police: on the high road. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from -- on-the-High-Road/1$26,232

Violanti, J. (n.d.). Choir Practice: Alcohol abuse in policing:. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from Central Florida: Police stress unit:

Violanti, J. (n.d.). Dying from the job:…


Jared. (2008, October 28). Substance abuse among public safety officers. Retrieved April 4, 2009, from 

Law enforcement wellness association. (n.d.). Retrieved April 4, 2009, from 

National Crime Prevention Council. (n.d.). Workplace substance abuse. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from Philadelphia police department: 

Page, D. (2005, September). Drug screening of police: on the high road. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from  -- on-the-High-Road/1$26,232

Paramilitarism Within Police Organizations and
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Finally, the use of military authority and dress, and the adherence to a set of rules that is not observed by the public the police serves can contribute to an 'us vs. them' mentality that is not conducive to creating positive relations between the police and community the police are supposed to serve. (O'Connor, 2004) final contributor to a hostile police and community relations is the development, as a result of this paramilitary emphasis on 'us' (the police) versus 'them' (the civilians who presumably do not understand the dangers and stresses of policing), of what Jerome Skolnick called "the policeman's working personality." A sense of constant professional danger reinforced by one's fellow officers and through the paramilitary, formalized training all policeman face. The policeman becomes a continually suspicious person, constantly aware that persons he or she deals with outside of the ranks of his or her fellow officers may break…

Works Cited

Historical Context within Jerome Skolnick's Theory of Police Organization." (2006) Crime Theory. Retrieved 31 Jul 2006 at 

O'Connor, T. (2004) "Police Organization." Criminal Justice: Lecture 7. Retrieved 31 Jul 2006 at

Weber, Diana Celia. (1999) "Warrior Cops: The ominous growth of Paramilitarism in American Police Departments." 20 Aug 1999. No. 50. The Cato Institute. Retrieved 31 Jul 2006 at

Sexual Misconduct and the Fall of Hollywood Essay
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Table of Contents
I.  Opening
II.  Titles
III.  Related Topics
IV.  Outline
V.  Introduction
VI.  Essay Hook
VII.  Thesis Statement
VIII. Body
A.  Background
B.  Harvey Weinstein
C.  Other Accusations
IX.  Conclusion
X.  Works Cited
XI.  Closing

In this essay about Sexual Misconduct and the Fall of Hollywood, we examine how the allegations of sexual impropriety by some of Hollywood’s power players has led to a major shake-up in the entertainment industry.  This essay will contain a list of some of the Hollywood players accused of sexual harassment or sexual assault, the allegations against them, and at least partial lists of their known accusers.  The essay will also delve into an examination of the casting couch phenomenon.  Although these sexual misconduct allegations may have come as a surprise to much of middle America, there is substantial evidence that many of Hollywood’s rich and powerful were well aware of the sexual…

Delinquent Daughters Protecting and Policing
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She also presents a lengthy notes and iliography section in the ook, including appendixes, which help indicate the depth of her research and study into her topic. This helps make the ook even more credile and elievale, and indicates she understands her topic well, and presents valid and interesting arguments, acked up with factual research. She uses primary and secondary sources, such as newspapers, pulications, journals, and private papers in an attempt to gain as much information as possile to ack up her thesis and key ideas.

This ook elongs on the ookshelf of anyone interested in women's history, sociology, and even criminal justice. It indicates the way morals and society were changing at the turn of the century, and how throughout reform and proper sexual conduct, whites still maintained a clear control over minorities, even in the courts and in sexual conduct. The ook is a fascinating look into…

bibliography section in the book, including appendixes, which help indicate the depth of her research and study into her topic. This helps make the book even more credible and believable, and indicates she understands her topic well, and presents valid and interesting arguments, backed up with factual research. She uses primary and secondary sources, such as newspapers, publications, journals, and private papers in an attempt to gain as much information as possible to back up her thesis and key ideas.

This book belongs on the bookshelf of anyone interested in women's history, sociology, and even criminal justice. It indicates the way morals and society were changing at the turn of the century, and how throughout reform and proper sexual conduct, whites still maintained a clear control over minorities, even in the courts and in sexual conduct. The book is a fascinating look into a society on the brink of changing values, morals, and ideals, and it indicates the true power men held over women during this time, and why reformers were so anxious to change the balance of power. It is also a compelling look at the history of young women and their sexual maturation. In many ways, these young women are not so different from the young women of any generation. They are searching for themselves, attempting to make a difference, and longing to break the bonds with the past and create their own, unique future. Each generation attempts to break with their parents' ideals and morals, at least to some extent, and these young women, torn between the Victorian and Progressive eras, are no different. The author portrays the cases and their participants with detail and with just enough of her own ideas to make the reader understand the nature of sexual reform in America, along with how increasingly; women became the victims of the courts because of their behavior, besides often being the victims of familial sexual abuse. It is a look back in time to a period when not much has been written about women and the court system, and it is fascinating, troubling, and eye opening.

In conclusion, this is a fascinating look into the sexual mores of Victorian America, and how society policed those mores throughout society. The author shows how young women of the time where changing, creating new responsibilities for themselves, and becoming more modern and open, at a time when their parents simply wanted to control them and their activities. Young women were moving out of the domestic sphere, making new lives for themselves, and even consorting with men, and it frightened conservative society. They responded by creating strict laws regarding sexuality, and enforcing those laws in a strict and moral setting. This book really illustrates the dawning of a new age in America, where Victorian values would slowly disappear, and young women would begin to experience more freedom and opportunity in their lives.


Odem, Mary E. Delinquent Daughters: Protecting and Policing Adolescent Female Sexuality in the United States, 1885-1920. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.

Ethics in Criminal Justice Maintaining
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A written policy regarding sexual misconduct is imperative, as is stringent hiring practices including applicant screening, adequate supervision, training, and a structured investigative process regarding allegations of sexual misconduct (Abner et al., 2011). Addressing Sexual Offenses further states that it is necessary to clearly outline the consequences for sexual misconduct as a means of deterring it (Abner et al., 2011). Additionally, Addressing Sexual Offenses outlines other strategies which need to be employed to eliminate the possibility of police sexual misconduct including videotaping all officer interactions, requiring strict time reporting, and implementing unannounced spot checks on officer's electronic devices and communication devices (Abner et al., 2011).

Specific strategies, policies, training, screening, and supervising must be employed to eradicate sexual misconduct by law enforcement officers. Obviously, sexual misconduct by law enforcement officers is a reality and has far reaching implications within a society. Only by eliminating the behavior, will it be possible…


Abner, C., Clark, D., Dahmer-Farris, T., Di Pino, B., Gamble, a., Gibbs, T… Firman, J.

(2011, June). Addressing Sexual Offenses and Misconduct by Law


Executive Guide. Retrieved November 27, 2012 from website:

Internal Affairs Procedures for Handling Investigations
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Internal Affairs


Internal Affairs Procedures for Handling Investigations

All professional organizations have an ethical standard that they are required to comply with, but some occupations have a much greater code due to the reliance of the public trust. Certain medical professionals (doctors and nurses) can be held to what seems a stricter standard because lives are at stake, but they do not have stricter standards than law enforcement professionals. Whether the individual enforces the laws at a federal, state or local level, it is important that there be an exacting code of conduct, and a means of evaluating and disciplining improper actions. This paper examines the Florida state procedures with regard to internal affairs in the areas of investigation, determining findings, discipline and decertification.

The Investigation

The first step in the internal affairs process requires that a citizen or another officer makes a complaint against a police officer (Caldero…


Caldero, M.A., & Crank, J.P. (2011). Police Ethics: Corruption of Noble Cause. Burlington, MA: Anderson Publishing.

Florida Internal Affairs Investigators Association (FIAIA). (2012). About us. Retrieved from 

Goldman, R.L., & Puro, S. (2001). Revocation of police officer certification: A viable remedy for police misconduct? St. Louis University Law Journal, 45.

Miami Police Department. (2012). Internal affairs division. Retrieved from

Governmental Crime and Corruption
Words: 1096 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59809
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Corruption Within the Criminal Justice System

Although the American system of criminal justice and jurisprudence is widely regarded as a model for democratic nations across the globe to emulate, with its guarantee of due process and protection from illegal search and seizure standing as pillars of liberty, glaring defects still exist which warrant further improvement. From the disturbing trend of disproportionate arrest and sentencing among minorities, to the inability of courts to adequately enforce prohibitions levied against sexual predators, America's criminal justice system is imperfect at best, and inherently broken at worst. Widely publicized court cases such as the recent trial of George Zimmerman, a Florida vigilante charged with, and late acquitted of, murdering a young African-American man named Trayvon Martin, only serve to expose the fundamental flaws which are still far too prevalent within corrupt law enforcement agencies, an aging and outmoded judiciary, legions of overburdened prosecutors and defense…


Associated Press. (2013, August 29). Montana judge's remarks about raped teen prompt outrage. BBC News, Retrieved from 

Feinstein, R. (2013). Juvenile Justice and the Incarcerated Male Minority: A Qualitative

Examination of Disproportionate Minority Contact.

Spitzer, E. (1999). The New York City Police Department's Stop & Frisk Practices: A Report to the People of the State of New York from the Office of the Attorney General. DIANE Publishing.

Race Discrimination Justice Discrimination Race Discimination Criminal
Words: 1518 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91802995
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ace Discrimination Justice



ace and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System

acial inequality has long been an issue in the American society. Despite making substantial progress in creating a more racially equal society, there are still many issues involving race and discrimination that can be found today. The criminal justice system was designed to treat all individuals equally under the law. However, covert racism and discrimination still plague the system and many minorities are adversely impacted and are not treated equally under the law. While most judges and public officials profess a strong dedication to remaining racially impartial, the evidence suggests otherwise. This literature review will focus on various points that indicate that there is a substantial amount of inequality to found within the criminal justice system in our modern society.


acial differences in the criminal justice system have been important topics since the…


Crutchfield, R., Fernandes, A., & Martinez, J. (2010). Racil and Ethnic Disparity and Criminal Justice: How Much is Too Much? The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 903-932.

Green, E. (1991). Judicial Attitudes in Sentencing - A Study of the Factors Underlying the Sentencing Practice of the Criminal Court of Philidelphia. National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 157.

Gross, S. (1997). Crime, Politics, and Race. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 405-416.

Staples, R. (2009). White Power, Black Crime, and Racial Politics. The Black Scholar, 31-41.

Change Nursing and Health Care Discuss the
Words: 1133 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49961449
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Nursing and Health Care

Discuss the implications of Whren et al. v. United States (1996) and why many argue that this case has simply allowed for racial profiling to occur under the guise of pre-textual stops. Do you find any issues with pre-textual stops?

The pre-text stops are the stops from police officers in order to investigate the individuals that violated the traffic rules. These violations are minor and the police may stop in order to check the driver and passengers for any illegal possessions including drugs and weapons. These pre-text stops are often criticized because people feel that their freedom is attacked by stopping them without any 'reasonable' violations. Such a case occurred when two persons were stopped by police officers simply for stopping at road side for few seconds. The individuals also sped the vehicle that created suspicion in the minds of officers and led to the…


Barry, D.P., (1999), "Handling Police Misconduct In An Ethical Way," Retrieved from:

Dillon, C.R., (1997), "Whren v United States and Pretextual Traffic Stops: The Supreme Court

Declines to Plumb Collective Conscience of Police," Boston College Law review, 38(4)

Consequences Stewardship and Accountability Talks
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This quality can bridge the strengthening of ethical conduct and building ethical standards in their departments with the rigidity with which these departments are run. This indicates that raising the ethical and humanistic behavioral level of the police force is possible. Record shows that, in recent decades, police departments have gained public support in reducing corruption and of disruptive conduct to the universal rights of man by establishing and strengthening both internal and external accountability standards among their forces (O'Donnell).

. Much of harmony in society is associated with an efficient and honest police force (O'Donnell, 2011). Society still depends on the police for the perpetuation of harmony. When the police behave predictably, with restraint and according to the rule of law, ordinary people become inclined to believe in and trust in the government again. When the most disadvantaged and the poorest in society receive the same treatment as the…


Attard, B. (2010). Oversight of law enforcement is beneficial and needed -- inside and out. Vol. 30 # 5, Pace Law Review: National Association for Civilian Oversight.

Retrieved on March 30, 2013

Johnson, C. (2011). Policing the police: U.S. steps up enforcement. NPR: National

Public Radio. Retrieved on March 30, 2013 from

Kansas City Gun Experiment and
Words: 2922 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98213657
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4. Do some police departments still engage in the "aggressive preventative patrol" strategies that led to the urban riots of the 1960s and the publishing of the 1968 Kerner Commission eport? Are there any similarities or differences between those strategies and the strategies used in the Kansas City Gun Experiment?

One could argue that on other issues, any sting operation, such as those conducted on specified geographic locations for street prostitution or drug enforcement or even electronic crime stings is a model similar to this, as the officers are focusing specifically on one issue and are not required, during operations to answer traditional patrol calls. Though, this model is more a future deterrent model than a prevention model. iots occur as a result of whole groups of individuals feeling particularly targeted, rather than protected by police. Harassment is a highly interpretive concept and issues such as, racial profiling or random…


Brezina, T., & Wright, J.D. (2000). Going Armed in the School Zone. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, 15(4), 82.

Conforti, J.M. (1973). Newark: Ghetto or City?. In Ghetto Revolts, Rossi, P.H. (Ed.) (pp. 59-86). New Brunswick, NJ E.P. Dutton.

Louden, R.J. (2005). Policing Post-9/11. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 32(4), 757.

Schwabe, W., Davis, L.M., & Jackson, B.A. (2001). Challenges and Choices for Crime-Fighting Technology: Federal Support of State and Local Law Enforcement. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.

How Is Bad Behavior Dealt
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Internal Disciplinary Practices

How bad behavior is dealt with Critique the criticism of internal disciplinary practices. Discuss which criticism seems illogical and why? Building on this, discuss the external methods of police accountability and consider which monitoring strategy seems the most reliable and why.

Because of the internal culture of the police department, it is argued that effective self-regulation and discipline is very challenging, because police officers will always sympathize with fellow officers. Issues pertaining to police misconduct are rarely clear-cut, and the natural impetus is to give the officer, rather than the civilian, the benefit of the doubt. Officers know the tremendous strain involved in police work, and are inclined to give fellow officers some leeway so they are able to be as safe as possible when enforcing the law.

Having external internal affairs departments that are separate from the rest of the police force is one way to…

Them vs Us There Has
Words: 1785 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 59478118
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But a better model for examining the public perception of police would be through "neighborhood assessments" the authors assert. An example of this is a study the authors allude to which shows youth in Philadelphia's Village-Northton district view "downtown police" as "distant, impersonal, and often actively looking for trouble"; but local police in their neighborhood are seen as friendly, working for peaceful resolutions, taking time to get to know the names of kids and "spending time in the area." Therein lies the possible answer to the public's mistrust of police; keep patrols in certain neighborhoods consistent, make residents comfortable with the same faces on the beat, get to know folks and be sensitive to diversity.

orks Cited

Bailey, Melissa. (2006). All They ant for Christmas is a Bike Cop. New Haven

Independent. Retrieved February 20, 2009, at

Curtis, Brent. (2009). Police surveys slam city top brass. Rutland Herald. Retrieved…

Works Cited

Bailey, Melissa. (2006). All They Want for Christmas is a Bike Cop. New Haven

Independent. Retrieved February 20, 2009, at .

Curtis, Brent. (2009). Police surveys slam city top brass. Rutland Herald. Retrieved February 20, 2009, at .

Gadomski, Cas. (2001). The "Us vs. Them" Syndrome. Retrieved February 20, 2009, at

Terrorism the American Heritage Online Dictionary Specifies
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The American Heritage Online Dictionary specifies Terrorism as an illegal use or threatened use of force or physical violence by an individual or pre-arranged team against individuals or physical assets with the objective of frightening or pushing societies or governments, typically for ideological or political reasons. Provided this meaning this paper will try to clarify on how terrorism has an effect on society as an entire and how it has actually triggered alterations in existing laws as it relates to the security of all U.S. citizens.

Terrorism is a significant problem in American and has a remarkable affect on individuals of all walks of life, since terrorism has an effect on everybody both directly as ell as indirectly in one form or another.

Considering that the notorious 9-11 terrorist attacks on the United States there have actually been lots of alterations in the way police assess and execute their…


American Heritage Online Dictionary (2009), Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: 

Dantzker, Mark L. (2005, Jul 25). Understanding today's Police. Criminal Justice Press.

Gentile, John. Free Donuts and More: A Commentary on Police Misconduct and Corruption. Problems, Issues and Challenges in Law Enforcement. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from:

Hasisi, Badi. (2008, Spring). Police, politics, and culture in a deeply divided society. (Symposium on Redefining International Criminal Law). Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 98(3), 1119(27).

Government Ethics
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Criminal justice is an inherently ethical profession. The judiciary ostensibly crafts laws that reflect the ethical sensibilities and social norms of the society, which are often embedded in the American Constitution. The role of the criminal justice system is to ensure that local, state, and federal laws are applied and enforced in a manner consistent with constitutional and regional codes. Issues like the equal protection clause are also ethical matters. The core objective of the criminal justice system is built on ethical responsibility: the ethical responsibility of the system to its main stakeholders, which is the American people.

However, there are also ancillary ethical issues associated with criminal justice that are not codified. Such issues are often linked with ambiguities and philosophical complexities. Applying criminal justice ethics entails sensitivity and awareness to prevailing political and social climates. Among the most pressing ethical issues in criminal justice include those related…


American Civil Liberties Union (2012). Racial profiling. Retrieved online: 

Banks, C. (2012). Criminal Justice Ethics. Sage.

Block, W.E. & Obioha, V. (2012). War on black men: Arguments for the legalization of drugs. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 106-120.

Harfield, C. (2012). Police informers and professional ethics. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 73-95

The Trouble with Innocence Article Analysis
Words: 1216 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52364432
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Kerry Max Cook has come into the limelight subsequent to being found guilty and sentenced to life in 1978 for one of the most notorious and gruesome killings in East Texas County. Cook was convicted in the grisly and horrific killing of Linda Jo Edwards, a young 22-year-old girl that was found in her apartment room having been trodden, knifed and mutilated. The thesis of the article indicates the difficulty of proving and maintaining innocence. This is linked to the fact that even after being released from death row, Cook continues to maintain his innocence and is seeking a full and comprehensive exoneration. However, the difficulty of attaining innocence continues to be a daunting task with prosecutors going on with opposition of Cook's claims of actual innocence that would permit him to obtain compensation for the two years spent while on death row.

There are distinctive lessons that can be…

Intruding Ima and Falsified Report
Words: 668 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12240471
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They do not need to give a sworn written statement and instead can simply identify the officer and report misconduct. Similarly now immediate supervisors can play a crucial role and since they are aware of the conduct and watch officers more closely, they can also report misconduct on part of an officer.

The fact that no written proof of misconduct exists should not pose a problem if there are enough witnesses to file a report. Even if no disciplinary action is initiated, the report will give the agency a chance to observe the officer more closely and to see why there are more complaints against one officer and not another. This process even if it remains unofficial is a good way of showing the police officer in question that she is being monitored and her conduct is not going unreported.

Police officers like Ima and their behavior must not be…


Champion, D. Police Misconduct in America: A Reference Handbook 2001

Ryals, S. Discovery and Proof in Police Misconduct Cases 2002

Harrison, J. Police Misconduct. Legal Action Group 1987

Criminal Justice & Criminology Has the Miranda
Words: 3614 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 85919540
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Criminal Justice & Criminology

Has the Miranda vs. Arizona ruling decreased the percentage of arresting official violations of defendant Fifth Amendment rights?


CJ327W esearch Methods in Criminal Justice

The Miranda vs. Arizona ruling has attracted notable attention to the treatment of the accused in the hands of the law. Specifically, the ruling affirmed the rights to the accused under the law and to the legal rights of the accused. The research was to reveal the degree of law enforcement lack of enforcing the Miranda rights to the accused. A questionnaire presented to four group types that have a stakeholder interest in the law enforcement and legal rights aspect of the case was distributed to determine the activity relevant to Miranda enforcement process. The findings are expected to reveal abuse within the system and a notable increase in the Miranda violations for the accused.

Purpose & Audience

The Miranda vs.…


Allen, H. (1967). Miranda v. arizona: Is it being applied? Criminal Law Bulletin, 3(3), 135-1441. Retrieved from

A, M.N. (1971). The court and local law enforcement: The impact of miranda Sage, Beverly Hills, Calif. Retrieved from

Brazier, Alex. "The people on the bus get searched and seized: why police conduct in suspicionless bus sweeps should be circumscribed." George Washington Law Review 78.4 (2010): 908-941. Criminal Justice Collection. Web. 22 Feb. 2011.

H, A.S. (1971). Police authority and the rights of the individual Arc Books. Retrieved from

Ethics in Justice System-How We
Words: 4207 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 46525136
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esearch also showed that offenders tend to be part of or return to communities with high concentrations of offenders. The concentration of offenders in these neighborhoods affects the community negatively by increasing the stigma associated with the community and also saddling the community with additional problems without providing added resources needed for restoring or maintaining order. The ultimate consequence is the that the criminal justice system destabilizes informal networks of social control and increases poor attitudes towards formal social controls, both of which have been shown to contribute to increases in crime and disorder in the communities. Churning results in unnecessary pressure being put on the other residents of the communities who are law-abiding in disadvantaged communities. The removal of men from the community through incarceration has the chilling effect of changing the family's socio-economic structure. The families of incarcerated members, especially men, of the community also face stigma and…


Burke, K. And Leben, S. (2007). Procedural Fairness: A key Ingredient in Public Satisfaction.

Court Review: The Journal of the American Judges Association. 44 (1), 4-25.

Davis, A.J. (2008). Racial Fairness in the Criminal Justice System: The Role of the Prosecutor. Colombia Human Rights Law Review. 202 (39), 202-32.

Hurwitz, J and Peffley, M. (2001). Racial Polarization on Criminal Justice Issues:

Role of Legal Education in
Words: 829 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 76041963
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In that regard, officers who misunderstand reasonable suspicion, probable cause, the limits of officer safety as a predicate to conducting frisk searches, and the complex procedures for securing and executing both search and arrest warrants run the risk of undermining the government's prosecution of criminal defendants by poisoning the evidence necessary to convict them (Dershowitz, 2002;

Hoover, 2005; Schmalleger, 2008).

In modern American criminal justice administration, physical evidence secured and testimonial evidence adduced in violation of established legal standards are subject to exclusion as the judicial remedy for improper police procedure that violates the Fourth

Amendment constitutional and other derivative rights of defendants (Dershowitz, 2002;

Hoover, 2005; Schmalleger, 2008). Furthermore sufficiently egregious violations of constitutional due process in several areas can result in civil liability for the officer personally and for government agencies under Title 42 U.S.C. 1983 and even in criminal

liability under Title 18 U.S.C. 242 (Schott, 2008).…


Dershowitz, A. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:

Little Brown & Co.

Friedman, L. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Hoover, L. "The Supreme Court Brings an End to the 'End Run' Around Miranda" FBI

Current Event
Words: 1367 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57436459
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misconduct of police officers and abuse by law enforcement in the United States. In the past few years, there has been an increase in instances of police misconduct and behavior and lack of reprimanding of such law enforcement officers. These are one of the most stringent and acrimonious human rights desecrations in the nation. Police have taken part in baseless and unwarranted shootings, austere beatings, lethal chokings, and rough treatment without cause. Whereas the percentage of continually abusive and delinquent officers on any force is usually minimal, more often than not, responsible authorities fail to undertake decisive action to contain or reprimand such acts (Human ights Watch, 2016). Police misconduct takes into account unlawful or unethical actions or the violations of people's statutory rights by police officers in the conduct of their day-to-day duties. Instances of police misconduct comprise of police inhumaneness, duplicity, fraud, intimidation, torture to force admissions, abuse…


Burr, V. (2015). Social constructionism. New York: Routledge.

California Innocence Project. (2016). Police Misconduct. Retrieved from: 

CBS News. (2016). Police officer charged with fabricating story that black man shot her. MSN. Retrieved from:

Clinard, M. B., & Meier, R. F. (2015). Sociology of deviant behavior. Nelson Education.

Annotated Bibliography on Corruption
Words: 1003 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46559904
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Barker, T. (2011). Police ethics: Crisis in law enforcement. Springfield, IL: Thomas.

This book deals with problems experienced in law enforcement that demonstrate the inability of police officers to make lawful decisions. Chapter 8 deals specifically with police corruption and identifies three elements that exist in police corruption. The first is, the behave must be forbidden, the second is misuse of officer's position, and third, the reward. Although this chapter offers no study, it does provide a look into what the definition of corruption is along with a possible explanation for the prevalence of corruption amongst police officers and law enforcement in general.

Block, C. (2015, December 30). Florida Police Under Investigation for Laundering $55.6 Million For Drug Cartels. Retrieved from

A newspaper article, this source discusses police corruption in Miami. Florida cops that work for the Bal Harbour Police Department have allegedly laundered an estimated $55.6 million for…

Analyzing the Forth Amendment
Words: 6920 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92815852
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4th Amendment's evolution and history, together with the "search and seizure" law.

4th Amendment Background

People's rights of being secure in personal effects, papers, houses and persons, against unreasonable seizures and searches, may not be breached, nor shall any warrants be issued, but in case of probable cause, which is supported by affirmation or oath, and describes, particularly, the place that must be searched, or the things or individuals that should be seized, under the 4th Amendment. Like most fields in U.S. law, the English common law forms the principal basis of the 4th Amendment. Broadly, it was created for limiting governmental powers and their capacity of enforcing legal actions upon citizens (4th Amendment - constitution -- Amendment IV was implemented in immediate reaction to the historical writ of assistance's abuse. This writ was a sort of general governmental search warrant employed in the American evolution's era. Amendment IV…


(n.d.). Annenberg Classroom. The Right to Protection against Illegal Search and Seizure. Retrieved April 27, 2016, from 

(n.d.). Arizona Defense Attorney James E. Novak Law Blog -- Legal discussions and observations with Arizona Criminal Defense Attorney James E. Novak. Requirements and Exceptions to Lawful Search Warrants in Arizona -- Legal discussions and observations with Arizona Criminal Defense Attorney James E. Novak. Retrieved April 26, 2016, from 

Boyd v. United States, 116 U.S. 616 (1886)

(n.d.). Conservative Policy Research and Analysis. Guide to the Constitution. Retrieved April 25, 2016, from!/amendments/4/essays/144/searches-and-seizures

Arab- and African-Americans and Racial
Words: 2860 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40513026
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(Davis, 2001) That number is sure to have risen dramatically since Davis did her research.

The debates surrounding both the efficacy and the morality of racial profiling have created a lot of disagreement from many communities of color. Kabzuag Vaj is an organizer with the Asian Freedom Project in Madison, Wisconsin. The Asian Freedom Project has garnered hundreds of accounts of racial profiling of Southeast Asian youth over the past year. (Davis, 2001)

"Talking to the mainstream about racial profiling is hard," says Vaj. "The excuse people give us is extreme times demand extreme measures, whatever is necessary to catch the terrorists." (Davis, 2001) Organizers at People United for a etter Oakland (PUELO) also face similar concerns. They understand that although they are on all levels a multiracial organization, their campaign against racial profiling and police misconduct is simply inadequate to address the current political and sociological situation. "The fact…


Nicole Davis. 2001. The slippery slope of racial profiling. Color Lines. December 2001.

St. Petersburg Times, June 8, 2003. Aschroft's America. Editorial.

Anthony Romero. 2001. Letter to Attorney General Ashcroft. American Civil Liberties Union, Oct. 17, 2001.

New York Times, Mar. 13, 2002. Hundreds of Arabs still detained in U.S. Jails. From Reuters.

Officer Accountability
Words: 1736 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40357023
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Officer Accountability

A police officer's proven dishonesty is not a minor matter. Ignoring or covering up that dishonesty, if discovered, could be devastating to the police department's credibility. Furthermore, due to Due Process laws in the United States, his/her dishonesty could affect the outcome of past cases in which he/she testified and future cases in which he/she may testify. Finally, the prosecution is required to hand that information to defendants' attorneys. Simultaneously, the officer has served the department for 15 years with only 2 "bad" incidents. Handling this officer's proven dishonesty will require swift action that is fair to the department, the Prosecutor's office and this officer.

Decision: Remove The Officer From Active Duty And Offer Him An Alternate Departmental Job That ould Never Entail His Testimony In Court


You are the Chief of Police of a municipality. Your Deputy Chief of Police advises you that one of your…

Works Cited

Bernstein, C., & Woodward, B. (2012, June 8). Woodward ad Bernstein: 40 years after Watergate, Nixon was far worse than we thought. Retrieved on June 29, 2012 from Web site: 

Justia. (n.d.). Brady v. Maryland - 373 U.S. 83 (1963). Retrieved on June 29, 2012 from Web site: 

Justia. (n.d.). Giglio v. United States - 405 U.S. 150 (1972). Retrieved on June 29, 2012 from Web site: 

Justia. (n.d.). United States v. Bagley - 473 U.S. 667 (1985). Retrieved on June 29, 2012 from Web site:

Domestic Violence Policies Evolved in
Words: 2645 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46114356
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Though the potential for difficulty with the policy is there the standard is set for the concrete results of removing individuals from positions of physical power who do not have the skills to utilize the power in a safe and effective manner to protect and serve without further victimizing the community.

Though some would argue that such tactics do not take into account anomalous actions, such as in cases where individuals show little sign of abuse potential before incidences occur, but it is clear that these are anomalous and should not be regarded as the most significant risk of the program. Another concern would be that the program will deter officers from performing important tasks as a result of the fear of association with a permanent mark on ones record, as a result of a use of force incident. This may be a real fear, as the system may result…

Up to this point many technology-based systems and programs have been supplemented by federal funding, but even in the face of increased threats such funding may run out and leave the individual, especially small police forces in jeopardy of the loss of technology or the inability to upgrade to meet the demands of the changing face of crime or even quickly communicate between individuals and departments. (Schwabe, Davis & Jackson, 2001, p. 46) the foundational issues with regard to the utilization of technology and its cost to departments have yet to be answered fully, but likely they will, slowly and with many changes.

Lastly the society demands for technological policing, coupled with the collective fear of loss of rights of privacy is a puzzle the law enforcement community has yet to fully respond to. The public wishes for police to rely on servaialnce, both private and public to prevent and solve crimes and yet does not wish to be recorded and watched through the same system. This is an issue that will likely escalate in the coming years, partly as a result of terrorism prevention and response.

Schwabe, W., Davis, L.M., & Jackson, B.A. (2001). Challenges and Choices for Crime-Fighting Technology: Federal Support of State and Local Law Enforcement. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.

Education Plan of Action Allegations
Words: 1068 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30884837
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However, it is now up to me to develop my own "reasonable cause" rather than relying solely on hearsay. An interview with Mr. Brown might help me to clarify the issues. I would request his assistance, by asking for the names of his daughter's friends. I would endeavor to meet privately and confidentially with those students, and with no pressure placed upon them.

Next, I would contact my superintendent. The policy of the Trenton School District is that the principal must notify the superintendent in any case involving suspected abuse. This way, law enforcement can take over the investigation if and when that is necessary. I would consult my superintendent about how to proceed while continuing to gather as much evidence as possible before launching a formal investigation. When sure about how to proceed, I would then consult with Tom Brown. Because Tom Brown is a friend of the alleged…


New Jersey Coalition Against Sexual Assault (n.d.). New Jersey Law. Retrieved online: 

Resignation of Professional Staff Members (n..d). Retrieved online:

Trenton Public School District (2012). Personnel. Retrieved online:

Trenton R-IX School District (2012). Reporting and investigating child abuse/neglect. Retrieved online:

Criminal Justice Protecting the Rights
Words: 1097 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3807584
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As far back as the 1930s, the Texas angers became involved in the African-American struggle for full citizenship and civil rights. The angers were summoned to protect two Black men who had been called for jury duty. (Klarman, 2004, p. 154) Unfortunately, the same fabled angers operated on the other side of the fence when it came to their interactions with Mexican-Americans. According to Joan Moore in a 1970s work, "For decades the Texas angers terrorized the Mexican-Americans of the io Grande Valley, and even today, although they are reduced in numbers, los rinches are still used to 'handle' Mexicans." (Feagin, 2001, p. 218) the angers were also commonly used as a kind of border patrol. Though Mexicans and Mexican-Americans often suffered at their hands, the Texas angers came to be idolized by the State's White Population:

The Texas anger had acquired a strong and positive standing in myth, "eulogized,…


Bechtel, H.K. (1995). State Police in the United States: A Socio-Historical Analysis. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.


Campbell, R. (2003). Gone to Texas: A History of the Lone Star State. New York: Oxford University Press.


The POBR bills case'study
Words: 1237 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 38221639
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POB signifies. POB stands for Police Officer's Bill of ights. This bill, sponsored in the 1971 to 1972 session by late Congressman Mario Biaggi, was a bill that had the support at first, of over 121 cosponsors. A bill that kept the safety of police officers in mind while also providing them with occupational rights, the bill came from a source of concern by Biaggi who himself was a former police officer shot ten times while on duty (Page, 2013).

Although the bill received great support, it took twenty years until it was sent to the Senate floor where it passed by an 8-point margin of 55 to 43 (Schmidt, 2005). It was not until 1995 it would be sponsored by both the Senate and the House. The current name for the POB bills are "State and Local Law Enforcement Discipline, Accountability, and Due Process Act. The POB bills have…


Aitchison, W. (2015). The rights of law enforcement officers. Portland, OR: Labor Relations Information System Publications.

Cronkhite, C. & Cronkhite, C. (2013). Law enforcement and justice administration. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Page, J. (2013). The toughest beat. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Schmidt, W. (2005). Peace Officers' Bill of Rights Guarantees: Responding to Union Demands with a Management Sanctioned Version. Law Enforcement Executive Forum, 5(2), 1-10.

Blue Wall of Silence
Words: 324 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 19118745
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Q1. Discuss whether the police “code of secrecy” can ever be overcome so that acts of misconduct and corruption can be revealed and properly investigated.
The so-called “blue wall of silence,” or the unspoken code of conduct that a police officer never informs on one of his brother and sister officers, is a product of an institutional culture that emphasizes interpersonal loyalty, sometimes at the expense of official police policy or even the law. The code is a product of the close, personal relationship officers have with one another on a day-to-day basis. Officers are also frequently in contact with violent and unsympathetic offenders. This can add the stress officers suffer, as well as the fear of reprisals from suspects, and cause officers to be more sympathetic to a fellow officer who may have “snapped” and violated official policy than with the law.
The code of secrecy can be overcome…

Frank Jude Jr How Ethics Are Ignored
Words: 2265 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85040605
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Frank Jude Jr.

How ethics are ignored and human rights are violated is one of the main discussion these days. There are a number of levels at which these two important rules of life are violated each day by individuals belonging to different speeches of life on the daily basis. Many pains are taken by the victims of human rights violations. One of such examples is that of Abner Louima. The paper will discuss the misdemeanor that was faced by Frank Jude Jr. And how the event faced by the victim has caused damages to the public trust.

Frank Jude Jr., a bi- racial man ling in isconsin, was performing as a stripper in one of the bachelorette parties on the night of October the 30th, 2004. After the [party, he and his black friend Lovell Harris, were invited to a party by Kirsten Antonissen. The party was hosted by…

Works cited

Delattre, J. Edwin. Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing. 6th Edition. AEI Press, 2011.

Gaines, K. Larry., and Kappeler, E. Victor. Community Policing: A Contemporary Perspective. 6th Edition. Elsevier, 2012.

Gaines, K. Larry., and Kappeler, E. Victor. Policing In America. 7th Edition. Elsevier, 2011.

Lawrence, G. Regina. The Politics of Force: Media and the Construction of Police Brutality, The Politics of Force: Media and the Construction of Police Brutality, The Politics of Force: Media and the Construction of Police Brutality. University of California Press, 2000.