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This would lead to some sort of drug treatment and rehabilitation for the prisoners leading to reforms when they are released from prison Davis 20.
This sentiment is shared by Lt. Gannon who stated that many of those who end up in prison do not belong there. They just need drug treatment, rehabilitation and community support services. Most of all, they need a second chance Lemaitre ()
. If reforms can be designed along these lines, the benefits would be extremely huge.
A research study that was conducted in the year 1999 found that there a huge decrease in the rate of incarceration as a result of legalization of abortion. There were two reasons for this. First was that legalization of abortion led to a decrease in the number of unwanted babies and secondly, as a result of this reduction in unwanted babies, the children do not suffer abuse and…
The woman has been a victim of bad experience on the plane when a man started touching her when she was sleeping. "This policy should not be billed as having anything to do with the idea that "men sexually assault," but should be associated with the comfort of grown men and young women in terms of the physical proximity that makes everyone comfortable."
Interestingly the policy has attracted lot of comments and attention. People approach the policy from their own experiences and viewpoints and hence what they contribute gives us a deeper insight into the issue. This policy has already been implemented by some other airlines including Air New Zealand. One person comments that it is rather unfair to women to make them sit next to children: "When Air New Zealand started this policy, many locals pointed out that this discriminated against women too. Who wants to sit next to…
Sarah has been a flight attendant herself and feels that this policy doesn't make sense because in her long career she hardly ever witnessed anything suspicious. "I've been a flight attendant for almost 10 years. In all that time I've had only one flight where someone has been suspicious in this way, and most flight attendants have never, ever had such an issue. Sure it's one time too many, but considering all the seating issues we have on planes, to make such precautions for one possible issue out of perhaps a million - is silly. We might as well prohibit men seating next to children in movie theaters, other public transportation, public gatherings...I could go on but others have well made that point." Sarah is right when she says that this policy could complicate things because then you might have to restrict males from sitting next to children in public transport and movie theaters. In fact I feel this is a perfectly logical thing to do.
The thing is that it is not always possible to make this situation ideal. It is definitely very important to protect our children so I suggest that while the policy must be there, it should also be made mandatory that no child would fly alone. Children must either fly with a parent or there should be a separate section for them closer to the flight attendants so they can fly in peace. Children can also be at risk in other public places, granted but these places are not always controlled by a company that can take such decisions. Any responsible company would want to take all necessary measures to ensure that its customers are safe. And hence this policy should be hailed.
Airlines ban men from sitting next to kids: http://letters.salon.com/mwt/broadsheet/2006/11/28/children/view/index1.html?show=all
Policy Changes in Healthcare Finance
The American Medical Association (2013) developed the Current Procedure Terminology (CPT) codes decades ago in the 1960s. The first edition was published in 1966 and over the subsequent years several updated versions were created. The reasons for developing the CPT code system was to make communications about medical procedures easier between health care providers, help patients and their doctors submit claims for services to insurance providers, create a structure that would facilitate the development of an electronics records system, and create categories that would help researchers collect data on the health care field.
The CPT code system expanded with each subsequent edition and with publication of the second edition the codes were transitioned from a 4 to a 5 digit system (American Medical Association, 2013). This transition was necessary as the services covered by the code expanded beyond medicine, radiology, and…
ACRO (American College of Radiation Oncology). (n.d.). Introduction to Relative Value Units and how Medicare reimbursement is calculated. ACRO.org. Retrieved 30 Oct. 2013 from www.acro.org/washington/rvu.pdf.
Altman, Stuart H. (2012). The lessons of Medicare's prospective payment system show that the bundled payment program faces challenges. Health Affairs, 9, 1923-1930.
American Medical Association. (2013). CPT process -- how a code becomes a code. AMA-ASSN.org. Retrieved 30 Oct. 2013 from http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/solutions-managing-your-practice/coding-billing-insurance/cpt/cpt-process-faq/code-becomes-cpt.page .
Brinjikji, W., Kallmes, D.F., Lanzino, G., and Gloft, H.J. (2012). Hospitalization costs for endovascular and surgical treatment of ruptured aneurysms in the United States are substantially higher than Medicare payments. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 33, 1037-1040.
Eight Models of Policy Change as Related to a Problem-Structuring Method
Comprehensive Rationality and Synectics
According to the text, comprehensive rationality occurs when "an individual or collective decision maker […] weighs the cost and benefits of all available alternatives and takes actions that are motivated by a concern with the efficient use of resources" (Chapter 2, 48).
Here, problems within the community are addressed and discussed in terms of importance to see if they are worth acting upon. Some may not ever be dealt with, while others are sent forth onto the next stage.
An example of this is when a council member prepares a presentation for public policy change independently and then produces it to the Council.
Thus, the City Council should pair this with the Synectics problem structuring approach because of the fact an individual can create and discern comparisons without the distraction of the group.…
Large-scale policy changes on human services practice and education holds massive significance on the daily operations of such services, as well as on the broader scale provision of such services within a given community. In understanding and analyzing the basic significance of such policy changes, as well as in understanding the key factors that contribute to these changes, one can better understand the extensive nature of the process, as policy changes not only take time to formulate and implement, but maintain significant impact on the affected area for time to come as the group affected learns to act under these new policy provisions.
As the primary purpose of the human service worker is to assist individuals and communities to function as effectively as possible in the major domains of living, a policy change as simple as increased continued education for human service workers working in child care centers holds significant…
Baines, D. (2007). Anti-oppressive social work practice: fighting for space, fighting for change, in Introduction in Doing Anti-Oppressive Practice: Building Transformative Politicized Social Work, pp. 1 -- 30. Black Point, NS: Fernwood Press, Ltd. Print.
Hooks, B. (1994). A revolution of values: the promise of multi-cultural change, in Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom, pp. 23-34. New York, NY: Routledge. Print.
McKenzie, B. And Wharf, B. (2010). Connecting policy to practice in the human services. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press. Print.
Narayan, U. (1988). Working together across difference: some considerations on emotions and political practice. Hypatia, 3.2: pp. 31-48. Web. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
American foreign policy change from 1940 to the present?
Before the 20th century, the U.S. had a strong tradition of isolationism and non-interventionism. Beginning with American participation in World War I and continuing with its involvement in World War II after the invasion of Pearl Harbor, the U.S. increasingly began to conceive of itself as not only a player on the international stage, but also the ideological promoter and protector of democracy. When World War II ended with the U.S. bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, it was clear that America had taken a position of power in the world, both militarily and politically.
In the decade that followed World War II, American foreign policy pitted itself against Soviet Communism through the pursuit of "containment:" limiting the expansion of Soviet power and Communist ideology to other nations. This policy of containment was the primary driving force behind the "Cold War" and…
She was endorsed by President Teddy Roosevelt. Many women also worked for the U.S. Navy as clerical workers. The Army hired women to work as phone operators and nurses in the European theater, but playing the role as civilians.
But women also worked on a no-pay basis; more than 25,000 U.S. woman served the war cause by helping nurse some of the wounded as volunteers, helped provide food and other things the military needed. The "Hello Girls" were female volunteer phone operators, and helped entertain the troops. The "doughboys" (soldiers) treated American women entertainers with respect, but the doughboys didn't treat French women with the same respect.
Things during the fighting changed for young men of course, as a draft went into effect in 1917, which called for all men between the ages of 21 and 30 to register for military service; later those ages were change to 18 and…
Carnes, Mark C., & Garraty, John a. The American Nation, 12th Edition. New York: Longman,
Health Care Policy Change
• Current nursing issues related to globalization of healthcare
The term ‘globalization’ has been used in the description of increasing social and economic interdependence among and between countries (Bradbury-Jones & Clark, 2017). The shifting disease and health patterns have been linked to globalization. Global health means the health issues that are not geographically contained and that no one country can handle them alone (Bradbury-Jones & Clark, 2017). As an answer to the global issues of health and globalization itself nurses have had to practice their profession in the context of emerging and new transnational situations (Bradbury-Jones & Clark, 2017). For this reason nurses have to proactively respond to the dynamic global changes and comprehend the consequences of globalization on health.
In this era of healthcare globalization, it is necessary to underscore the positive changes in biotechnology and communication (Da Silva, 2008). Globalization, however, seems to have…
The Center for Disease Control (CDC) endorsed the policy of replacing peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVC) within 48 hours following insertion in order to prevent and decrease local catheter infections. The institution that this author is employed at also made a policy to establish such a procedure based on the CDC's actions. However, there is a large body of empirical research that indicates that the length of the time that the PIVC remains in a patient does not appear to be a major factor that results and infections and/or phlebitis. Thus, this policy of changing the PIVC with 48 hours may be unnecessary.
For instance Zarate, Mandleco, Wilshaw, and avert (2008) studied emergency room trauma patients who received a PIVC. The mean number of days before there were indications of phlebitis in these patients was 3.14 days with the range of 1 to 6 days. Phlebitis rates did not…
Lee, W.L., Chen, H.L., Tsai, T.Y., Lai, I.C., Chang, W.C., Huang, C.H., & Fang, C.T.
(2009). Risk factors for peripheral intravenous catheter infection in hospitalized patients:
A prospective study of 3165 patients. American Journal of Infection Control, 37, 683
Lee, W.L., Liao, S.F., Huang, C.H., & Fang, C.T. (2010). Soft tissue infections related to peripheral intravenous catheters in hospitalized patients: A case control study. Journal of Hospital Infection, 76, 124 -- 129.
Programs and Services
§ Briefly describe the major programs and services, and the population intended to be served.
Before choosing the programs it is pointed out that about three decades ago, the term 'organizational culture', came in vogue. It resulted in a study of the different styles of organizing. Today the organizational change can be achieved easily and the methods of conducting programs themselves can be a part of a project that involves multiple organizations. Non-profits also came into the scrutiny of these concepts. (Wright, 1994)
The theory now is to see that maximum benefits and opportunities are extended to the subjects by the organization in this case the disadvantaged groups, particularly women and children. The programs seem to be created and managed on the general principles that all organizations follow. There does not seem to be any specific study that was done to incorporate the persons who belong to…
Alternativestodv. (2013a) "Administrative Staff" Retrieved 22 April, 2013 from http://www.alternativestodv.org/aboutus/staff.html
Alternativestodv. (2013d) "History of the organization" Retrieved 22 April, 2013 from http://www.alternativestodv.org/aboutus/advhistory.html
Alternativestodv. (2013c) "Financial Information" Retrieved 22 April, 2013 from http://www.alternativestodv.org/aboutus/financials.html
Alternativestodv. (2013b) "ADV Federal 990 form" Retrieved 22 April, 2013 from http://www.alternativestodv.org/images/ADV_Federal_990_Form.pdf
Policies and Emergency Management
ABSTACT/INTODUCTION: As a representative democracy, the United States tries to include as many people and interests into its decision-making processes as possible. Seldom has this practice been more challenged than since the country's intensive focus on emergency planning and preparations because of the rash of high-profile incidents that have brought about death, destruction, fear and critical assessments of our national capabilities, including the 9/11 terror attacks (Perry and Lindell, 2003). For the most part, the main sources of action in this regard have come from the federal government, which has been adopting various mandates and incentives to invite more effective systems of readiness. But state and local agencies and private and public organizations have also found their places in these steadily improving processes even though they continue to struggle with the many complexities they face of being ready for all types of conditions. Large and small…
CAN HealthPro (2007). Emergency Management Planning, Health Care. Viewable at http://www.cna.com/vcm_content/CNA/internet/Static%20File%20for%20Download/Risk%20Control/Medical%20Services/EmergencyMgmtPlanning-PrepMakesforSmootherRecovery.pdf .
ERCMExpress (2006). Creating Emergency Management Plans. U.S. Department of Education. Vol. 2, No. 8. Viewable at http://rems.ed.gov/docs/CreatingPlans.pdf .
ESRI (2005). Improving Emergency Planning and Response with Geographic Information Systems. White Paper. Viewable at http://www.esri.com/library/whitepapers/pdfs/emergency-planning-response.pdf .
FEMA (2012). Communications and Information Management. Viewable at http://www.fema.gov/emergency/nims/CommunicationsInfoManagement.shtm .
Policy and Practice
acial disparity in arrests and convictions in Georgia are is a significant and growing social problem. Yet, legislation and policy seems to be lacking in an attempt to solve or even begin to reverse the increasing trend. Georgia has been a special focus of several human rights organizations for some time with regard to the disparity associated with arrests, convictions and sentencing but especially with those having to do with drug laws. In 1996 Human ights Watch (HW)a nonprofit organization that seeks to bring awareness to legal and policy issues that are applied unfairly to minorities determined that Georgia has one of the worst race records in the nation with regard to new drug enforcement laws as well as extremely disproportionately applied mandatory sentencing laws with regard to those laws.
HW determined through careful examination that between 1990 and 1995 3% of whites who qualified for mandatory…
Georgia's Supreme Court Chief Justice's Commission on Indigent Defense, 2002, www.georgiacourts.org/aoc/press/idc/idchearings/idcreport.doc
Human Rights Watch, 1996 Human Rights Violations in Drug Law Enforcement in Georgia. http://ndsn.org/sept96/hrw.html
Human Rights Watch, 2008, Targeting Blacks: Drug Law Enforcement and Race in the United States. http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/us0508_1.pdf
Tonry, Michael. Malign Neglect New York: Oxford University Press. 1996.
etrieved September 28, 2009, doi:10.1080/014428700114008
McClain, P. (1990, Winter 1990). Agenda Setting, Public Policy and Minority Group Influences: An Introduction. Policy Studies eview, 9(2), 263-272. etrieved September 28, 2009, from Academic Source Complete database.
Nakamura, . (1987, August). The Textbook Policy Process and Implementation esearch. Policy Studies eview, 7(1), 142-154. etrieved September 28, 2009, from Academic Source Complete database.
Weimer, D. (2008, November). Theories of and in the Policy Process. Policy Studies Journal, 36(4), 489-495. etrieved September 28, 2009, doi:10.1111/j.1541-0072.2008.00280.x
David Dery. (2000, March). Agenda Setting and Problem Definition. Policy Studies, 21(1), 46. etrieved September 28, 2009, doi:10.1080/014428700114008
obert Nakamura. (1987, August). The Textbook Policy Process and Implementation esearch. Policy Studies eview, 7(1), 146. etrieved September 28, 2009, from Academic Source Complete database.
As cited in Nakamura, the Textbook Policy Process and Implementation esearch, 146.
As cited in David L. Weimer (2008, November). Theories of and in the Policy Process.…
Birkland, T. (2004, March). "The World Changed Today": Agenda-Setting and Policy Change in the Wake of the September 11 Terrorist Attacks. Review of Policy Research, 21(2), 179-200. Retrieved September 28, 2009, doi:10.1111/j.1541-1338.2004.00068.x
Carroll, B., & Carroll, T. (1999, January). Civic Networks, Legitimacy and the Policy
Process. Governance, 12(1), 1. Retrieved September 28, 2009, from Academic Source Complete database.
Dery, D. (2000, March). Agenda Setting and Problem Definition. Policy Studies, 21(1), 37-47. Retrieved September 28, 2009, doi:10.1080/014428700114008
Policy Problem & Proposal
The United States faces a $1.4 trillion national deficit, and partisan debate about how to address it is threatening economic stability on top of the shaky "recovery" from the 2009 financial crisis. Yet American corporations continue to enjoy tax loopholes that reduce their taxes to unprecedented low levels. epublicans argue that corporations must retain their preferred tax status in order to maintain and create jobs. This tax policy has been known by a number of names: supply-side economics, trickle-down theory, and horse and sparrow theory. It has not been without its critics, yet, irrationally, the practice of permitting tax loopholes continues to prevail from time-to-time.
"As for the growth enhancing effects of lower tax rates, just look to the 2000s for the latest persuasive evidence to the contrary. After the Bush tax cuts on the progressive rates paid by the wealthy, GDP between 2001…
Advance Pricing Agreement Quarterly Reports, Internal Revenue Service. Retrieved http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-apa/
Announcement and report concerning advance pricing agreements. (2011, March 29). § 521(b) of Pub. L. 106-170, Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999. Retrieved http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-utl/2010statutoryreport.pdf
Brehm, J., and Gates, S. (1997). Working, Shirking, and Sabotage: Bureaucratic
Response to a Democratic Public. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan
Change in the words of Wong (2007, p.195) "may consist of policy changes, new requirements, reorganizations, new management, budget cuts, or a change in business plans." As the author further points out, these changes could either be systematic or sudden. Changes are largely inevitable. In projects, changes according to Meredith and Mantel (2009, P.167) could be caused by three things; errors in initial assessments, receipt of new info regarding the ongoing project, and project environment changes. In some instances, a manager could encounter some behavioral alterations on the part of team members as they encounter change. The said alterations in this case could be as a result of the different responses people have to change. For instance, as Wong (2007) notes, while there are those who may be curious to learn more or view the possibility of change as an opportunity, others could either be suspicious or skeptical…
Adair, J.E. ed., 2004. The Concise Adair on Team Building and Motivation. London: Thorogood Publishing.
Meredith, J.R. & Mantel, S.J. 2009. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. 7th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons
Tomczyk, C.A. 2010. Project Manager's Spotlight on Planning. Alameda, CA: SYBEX Inc.
Wong, Z. 2007. Human Factors in Project Management: Concepts, Tools, and Techniques for Inspiring Teamwork and Motivation. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
How I Respond to Change
In some instances, change is largely inevitable. Just as we experience change in the various facets of lives, so do organizations. The relevance of effective change management cannot, therefore, be overstated. There are many factors that may bring about organizational change. While some of these factors are internal, others could be external. External factors include, but they are not limited to, technological, social, or even economic stimuli. On the other hand, internal factors include managerial policies, changes in strategy, etc.
It is important to note that different people react differently to change. My reaction to change largely depends on how I perceive the said change -- i.e. whether I perceive it as being positive or negative. Generally, I tend to be appreciative of 'positive' change and hostile to 'negative' change. For clarity's sake, positive change, in my view, is that change whose effects…
US Mental Health Assistance
Mental health problems or mental illnesses are among the major public health issues in the United States given their prevalence. Mental health illnesses affected nearly all populations in the United States including children and adults. However, the prevalence of mental illnesses among adults is high in comparison to other populations. Mental health problems among adults in the U.S. incorporate many different conditions whose degree of severity varies from mild to moderate to severe (National Institute of Mental Health, 2019). One of the major contributing factors to the prevalence of mental illnesses among adults in America is the rapid growth of the aging population. Adults suffering from mental illness don't always understand they are sick and are difficult to help. Our system puts them out on the street or locks them up. There is need for policy changes to address the prevalence of mental health illnesses among…
Beyond Separation of Powers
As high school students we all learned about the Constitutional separation of powers. With each of the three branches of government -- the judicial, executive, and legislative -- having the power to limit the power of the others, no one aspect of government could hold the American people hostage. This was the structure that the Framers put into effect to ensure that Americans would have an efficient, but humane, system of government. It was also, from its inception, an idealistic one. Indeed, perhaps too idealistic, for while it is good for democracy to have power divided among many rather than only a few, it is in human nature to want to concentrate power within oneself.
Thus over the over two-and-a-quarter- centuries of our nation's history, people have devised various extra-Constitutional methods for accumulating power. This paper examines three different ways in which individuals and political and…
deHaven-Smith, L & Van Horn, C. (2005). Subgovernment conflict in public policy. Policy studies journal 12(4): 627-642.
Frank, T. ( 24 June 2009). Obama and 'regulatory capture'.
Jones, M. & Jenkins-Smith, H. (2009). Trans-subsystem dynamics: Policy topography, mass opinion, and policy change. The policy studies journal 37(1).
Anti-Bullying as a Policy Change
Students have been bullied while at school since the beginnings of education. Originally they might have been bullied by the people who taught them, but much of that does not continue into the present say. However, students bullying other students does continue. Every child needs an advocate at their school whose function it is to make sure that they are not being bullied. Many times this happens informally when a school does not have a bullying program, but it can also happen formally. The need for advocacy programs within schools, both primary and secondary, that allow children to feel that they are safe from the time that they leave their homes until they arrive back at home in the afternoon is elemental. Because of the backlash that has happened at some schools due to being bullied, it is more vital than ever. Students…
Aluede, O., Adeleke, F., Omoike, D., & Afen-Akpaida, J. (2008). A review of the extent, nature characteristics and effects of bullying behavior in schools. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 35(2), 151-163.
Buck, L., & Willer, B. (2008). Advocacy for young children. In S. Feeney, A Galper, and C. Seefeldt Eds. Continuing issues in early childhood education (pp. 391-405). Toronto: Pearson Education Canada.
Hirschstein, M.K., Edstrom, L.V.S., Frey, K.S., Snell, J.L., & Mackenzie, E.P. (2007). Walking the talk in bullying prevention: Teacher implementation variables related to initial impact of the steps to respect program. School Psychology Review, 36(1), 3-21.
Jacobsen, K.E., & Bauman, S. (2007). Bullying in schools: School counselors' responses to three types of bullying incidents. Professional School Counseling, 11(1), 1-8.
Policy, Politics and Global Trends in Health Sector
Why the Public Policy Issue Was Chosen?
According to the report released by National Priorities and Goals -- aligning efforts meant to transform America's Health care (NQF, 2009; Partnership, 2008). NPP (National Priorities Partnership) came up with 6 priorities. If the priorities are addressed, it could improve the quality of health care delivered to the U.S. citizens. NPP consists of 48 major U.S. health care organizations, which work with NQF (National Quality Forum). It identifies and advances priorities geared at improving health care in the future (NQF, 2009). NPP has identified palliative care as one of the six priorities that can help improve patient-based utilization outcome. This article provides the background to help identify steps to assist match the medical treatment of the patient and family objectives. It concerns itself with access to quality hospice services and palliative care (Meier, 2011). This…
AHRQ. (2002). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP): Hospitalization in the United States. Retrieved from Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: http://www.ahrq.gov/data/hcup/factbk6/factbk6c.htm
American Hospital Association. (2009). AHA Hospital Statistics. Chicago: American Hospital Association.
ANA. (2008). Organizational Affiliate Criteria. Silver Spring: American Nurses Association.
ANA. (2015, December 10). Palliative and Hospice Nursing Panel. Retrieved from American Nurses Association: http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/Policy-Advocacy/Professional-Issues-Panels/Palliative-and-Hospice-Nursing-Panel
Policy Networks a Prevalent Feature Democratic Governanc
The issue I have selected related to policy networks pertains to utilizing marijuana for medicinal purposes in the state of Florida. At present, the usage of marijuana within this state is illegal -- regardless of the purpose. There are staunch advocates against legalizing marijuana or any other illegal substance which may be used as a recreational drug within this state. The most eminent form of opposition more than likely comes from current Florida governor ick Scott, which not surprising considering that networks frequently involve "local and national governments" (Thatcher, 1998, p. 389). However, the issue of medical marijuana has recently come to the attention of state legislators and government officials due to a form of marijuana known as "Charlotte's web," which is exceedingly low in THC (the active ingredient in the substance that produces euphoric "highs") yet high in cannibidiol, which is known…
Jordan, G. (1990). Sub-governments, policy communities, and networks: refilling the old bottles? Journal of Theoretical Politics. 2(3), 319-338.
Klas, M.E. (2014). Florida house to propose bill to legalize strain of marijuana for seizures. www.miamiherald.com. Retrieved from http://www.miamiherald.com/2014/01/09/3861541/state-house-to-propose-bill-to.html
Thatcher, M. (1998). The development of policy network analyses. Journal of Theoretical Politics. 10(4), 389-416.
Policy Analysis Critique
ationale for the chosen policy
Avian influenza is a virus causing lethal infection in human beings (Sims et al., 2003). It can be transmitted from patients to other human beings. It is a deadly virus with track record of 6 deaths in Hong Kong in 1997. That incident was just the start of this health issue. The virus spread enormously and caused H5N1 infection numerous times in Hong Kong. The dawn of 21st century witnessed multiple instances of H5N1 virus (Ellis et al., 2004).
It was expected that the virus could be found in the poultry animals and was infectious. In order to prove it, there were certain laboratory tests conducted on chickens. These tests helped prove the presence and effects of H5N1 virus (Shortridge et al. 1998). Subsequently, it was proved that the chickens were highly pathogenic (Shortridge et al., 1998). It was also proved that…
Ellis TM, Bousfield RB, Bissett LA, Dyrting KC, Luk GS, Tsim ST, Sturm-Ramirez K, Webster RG, Guan Y, Malik Peiris JS. Investigation of outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in waterfowl and wild birds in Hong Kong in late 2002. Avian Pathol, 2004 Oct; 33(5): 492 -- 505.
Ferguson NM, Fraser C, Donnelly CA, Ghani AC, Anderson RM. Public health risk from the avian H5N1 influenza epidemic. Science 2004; 304:968-9.
Ferguson NM, Galvani AP, Bush RM. Ecological and immunological determinants of influenza evolution. Nature 2003; 422:428-33.
Fielding R, Leung GM, Lam TH, Lam WWT. The use of live animal markets and perception of risk among the Hong Kong population. Department of Community Medicine, the University of Hong Kong, 2004.
A variety of technical and management issues arise during the implementation and operation of any change process. Change management in technology projects is essential to implement and monitor mechanisms to support and control users, business, and technology (Yarberry, 2007). There are different change project modules used at any stage of a project development. These include the change curve, Lewin's change management model, and Beckhard and Harris change model used in the understanding phase. The project-planning phase uses the impact analysis, Burke-Litwin, McKinsey 7s framework, Leavitt's diamond, organization design, and SIPOC diagrams. The implementation stage uses Kotter's 8-step change model, training needs assessment, while the communication change uses stakeholder analysis, stakeholder management, mission statement, and vision statements. In this analysis, the Leavitt's Diamond, the Kotter's 8-step change model, and Leavitt's model for organizational change is concerned with the interdependence of four main factors, including structure, people, technology, and task.…
Aladwani, A.M. (2001). Change Management Strategies for Successful ERP Implementation. Business Process Management Journal 7, 266.
Bruckman, J.C. (2008) Overcoming Resistance to change: Casual Factors, Interventions, and Critical Values. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, Psychology Press 11, 211-219.
Cameron, E. & Green, M. (2012). Making Sense of Change Management: A Complete Guide to the Models Tools and Techniques of Organizational Change. Philadelphia, PA: Kogan Page
Davison, R. (2002) Cultural Complications of ERP. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM 45, 109.
eattle has been a leader in the United tates in trying to eradicate the homeless problems that arise in every city. ince the 1970's, the citizens of the city have agreed to tax increases (more than four times (Farestart, 2009) to address this issue. The following case analysis looks at the city's policy regarding finding shelter for all homeless families and single women.
Major Policy Concepts
Most analysts agree that the primary reason that there is a great degree of homelessness in eattle is the lack of affordable housing in the city (Kerns, 2011). The policy in the case suggests that the homeless be given greater access to affordable housing and shelters. However, there is a problem stated with this part of the policy also. Housing in eattle is not just expensive for the citizens of the city, it is expensive to build for the city government (Tong,…
Shay, S. (2011). Homeless 'One Night Count' numbers decrease. West Seattle Herald. http://www.westseattleherald.com/2011/01/30/news/homeless-one-night-count - numbers-decrease
SKCCH. (2012). Everyone counts. Retrieved from http://homelessinfo.org/one_night_count/
Tong, C. (2011). Seattle homelessness a long-standing problem with no easy solution in sight. The International Examiner. http://seattlepostglobe.org/2011/02/03/seattle - homelessness-a-long-standing-problem-with-no-easy-solution-in-sight/
Policies and Procedures
eliance Healthcare Computer Policies and Procedures
The installation of a new computer system requires many considerations from a managerial standpoint. Computer usage, particularly access to the Internet is controversial, as there is significant room for abuse by staff. The new system will help to streamline processes in the organization, but it will also provide opportunities for non-productive time. The forthcoming policies and procedures are designed to allow employees access to the technology that will make their lives better, but also limit liability and loss due to unauthorized Internet use.
Security is of utmost importance in the new system. The computer system will need to have the highest level of security possible, as it contains personal information about patients. It contains private healthcare information that is protected by the Federal Government. It also contains sensitive company information. The nature of the information makes it necessary to have the…
Reference: CPP 001 2009
Definition: Computer access means use of the computer system as the job description dictates
1. Reliance Healthcare personnel will refrain from utilizing computer systems for personal purposes both during and after working hours. They will refrain from utilizing social networking and other non-work related websites using company computers. Prohibited websites include, but are not limited to, Ebay, Facebook, MySpace, Twitter and other social networking websites that are not work related.
Any infractions of this policy will be reported to their supervisor immediately.
Policy Issues in Education Settings AB
Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities (APLU). (2010). "A-P-L-U-Sloan National Commission on Online Learning"
Retrieved from: http://www.aplu.org/NetCommunity/Page.aspx?pid=311
"The A-P-L-U-Sloan National Commission on Online Learning was formed in May 2007 to engage the A-P-L-U Presidents and Chancellors in a discussion about the utility of online education as a means to achieve broader institutional priorities, such as diversity, retention, internationalization and accountability." This resource specifically examines the policy and infrastructural issues dealt with by four-year colleges and universities experimenting with online learning and/or hybrid courses. The longitudinal study is meant to offer comprehensive data about the specific challenges of integrating online learning into traditional college experiences.
C.J. Bonk, The Perfect E-Storm: Emerging Technologies, Enhanced Pedagogy, Enormous Learner Demand, and Erased Budgets (London: The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2004)
This is a comprehensive publication reviewing the infrastructural challenges, including policy concerns, effecting colleges who integrate e-learning…
The study of public policy gained significant importance in the late fifties and sixties. However, policy science did not come into existence all of a sudden. It started to emerge when social scientists started researches on a wide range of sociopolitical problems. After the World War II, significant developments were made in the areas of operations research, economics and social psychology. These developments proved to be helpful in formulating new ways for more systematic and empirical investigations of policy making. Although, a considerable level of research was done in the areas of sociopolitical studies but the clear concept of a policy science was first introduced in 1951 by Harold Lasswell. "Lasswell's seminal work identified six basic characteristics of an emerging field of study, concerned with explaining policy making and policy executing process. (McCool)
The study of public policy gained momentum in the late 1960s. With the introduction of…
Daniel Mc Cool: The Theoretical Foundation of Policy Studies: Prentice Hall Press
Macrae Duncan: Policy Analysis for public decisions: Rowman and Littlefield Publishing Group Inc., 1985
Clarke E. Cochran: American Public Policy: An Introduction: Wadsworth Pub Co: August 1998
Van Horne, Carle E: Politics and Public Policy: CQ Press.
Data collection tools that will prove especially useful in the research will include online electronic database search features and both online and hardcopy items published as a matter of public record by the City of Richmond. Analysis of the data retrieved will take place on a qualitative basis, with specific policy features correlated to institutional changes based on past evidence as well as ongoing scholarship and hypotheses.
ryamn, A.; ell, E. & Teevan, J. (2009). Social research methods. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cohen, L.; Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education. New York: Routledge.
Yin, R. (2009). Case study research: design and methods.…
Bryamn, A.; Bell, E. & Teevan, J. (2009). Social research methods. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cohen, L.; Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education. New York: Routledge.
Yin, R. (2009). Case study research: design and methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
The negative aspect of the matter however, is the limited breakthroughs made at the practical level, as most discussions end in declarative aims, yet no timeline for an actual implementation of them. On the one hand, the European Union did not present itself as very willing to offer economic incentives and aid to the ailing Russian Federation, and on the other hand, Russian opposition forces who argue against a westernization of the country encourage a limited enthusiasm towards an increased cooperation partnership. In this way, both parties, although are engaged in a partnership, act in such a manner as to discourage any advancements of talks.
The stalemate that has continuously characterized the Partnership was obvious in many instances. One moment that was of great importance for the European Union and to which the Russian Federation more or less opposed was the 2004 enlargement process. In that context, "Russia has transmitted…
Baranovsky, Vladimir. "Russia: A Part of Europe or Apart from Europe?" International Affairs Vol. 76, No. 3, Europe: Where Does it Begin and End?. (Jul., 2000), pp. 443-458.
BBC. "EU-Russia relations 'at low ebb'." BBC News. 20 April 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6574615.stm (accessed 13 December 2007)
Emerson, Michael, and Irina Kobrinskaya. "Russia and the West." Working Paper 2004. European Security Forum. Center for European Policy Studies. International Institute for Strategic Studies.
European Commission. "EU-Russia: Preparations for the Summit on 26 October." European Parliament. Strasbourg, 24 October, 2007. http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/07/653&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (accessed 13 December 2007)
Policy Strategy Innovation
A Policy Strategy of Innovation
Organizational survival and success are predicated on the establishment of a strategic orientation and a set of clear, realistic and relevant policies intended to drive this strategy. From these features, an organization will ultimately derive goals, procedural norms, role designation, organizational culture, leadership orientation and a host of other defining features. It is thus that the Policy Strategy driving a company will ultimately come to define the company itself, with the resultant productivity, reputation and industry position helping to project a certain identity, image or set of consumer expectations. As the discussion hereafter will show, many times the selected policy strategy of an organization can be the long-term difference between success and failure. As a subsequent section of this discussion will show, there is a direct connection between a meaningful policy strategy and the opportunity for long-term viability and success.
Apple. (2007). Steve Jobs: CEO Apple. Apple Press Info.
Boyd, D. (2009). Corporate Innovation Strategy Template. Innovation in Practice.
Crum, R. (2006). As iPod sales slow, Apple looks to next big thing. Bradenton Herald.
Goodell, J. (2003). Steve Jobs: The Rolling Stone Interview. Rolling Stone.
Human esources Management is basically something that encompasses various activities in an office environment, some of them being: what sort of employees does a company need, what are the best methods to recruit as well as train these personnel, making sure that the performance levels of these people is at its optimum best, and also making sure that the rules regarding management issues are followed to the letter by the employees. Some other issues are those of employee compensation, employee benefits, and so on.
The first step in a human resources management policy is that of 'ecruitment' of the company's employees.
In order to prepare an Advertisement for the purpose of recruitment, certain guidelines must be followed. These are: there must be included, in the advertisement, a complete job description. This must state the 'job title' or 'rank' or 'position'. This means that the person who is interested will…
Corrective Action: Professional and Support Staff. March 1, 2002. Retrieved From
http://atyourservice.ucop.edu/employees/policies/staff_policies/spp62.html Accessed on 5 November, 2004
Employee Conduct, Disciplinary Discharge Guidelines. Retrieved From
http://www.rpi.edu/dept/hr/policy/empconductguide.html Accessed on 5 November, 2004
This balkanization is partially driven by the lack of integration between various segments of itself, and this is primarily a technological limitation. Yet the far broader and more difficult challenge in this regard is the segregating of knowledge not just for profit, but for lasting competitive advantage between nations. On the one hand there is the need for competitive differentiation in company's offerings, yet in others including the sharing of primary research in medicine and biomedical fields and stem cell research there is the ethical responsibility to share these insights gained to foster solutions to the world's most pressing medical problems. M. Van Alstyne and E. Brynjolfsson, researchers on the growth patterns and threat of Internet balkanization from MIT, remark in their conference paper from a 1996 conference that the balkanization of science is a significant threat. The two MIT researchers cite the studies they have completed showing how despite…
ESRI (2006). Environmental Systems Research Institute. Retrieved from the Internet on July 14, 2006. (www.esri.com)
Gates Technology Foundation (2005). Interviews and on-site visits with GIS planners and network technicians while donating servers, laptops, and desktop computers for a major PC manufacturer. Onsite interviews in Seattle, Washington. April, 2005.
HHS (2006). Federal Register Data on Poverty Line Statistics by size of household. January 24, 2006. See table 1 of this document.
Pew Center for Internet Research (2006). Key statistics downloaded from the Internet on February 14, 2006. http://people-press.org/
Policy Direction & Politics
Stone captures for me the crux of policy paradox with this statement: "…each type of policy instrument [e.g., inducements, rules rights, for example] is a kind of sports arena, each with its peculiar ground rules, within which political conflicts are continued" (2001, p. 13). Extending the metaphor, arena sports are based on a rational rule-bound game structure that -- as soon as the whistle blows -- is overwhelmed by messy, conflicting and reciprocal interplay. And so it is with policymaking. The calculated, rational market approach to policymaking that was developed to counter the "profound disgust for the ambiguities and paradoxes of politics" does not match what happens in the real world, where political tensions force the hand of those who would create better governance (Stone, 2001, p. xi). We have only to look at the context surrounding the Obama administration to know that this is so…
Frederickson, H.G. (2010). Social equity and public administration: Origins, developments, and applications. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Kingdon, J.W. (1995). Agendas, alternatives, and public policies (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Longman.
Lipsky, M. (1980). Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services. Russell Sage Foundation.
Stone, D. (2001). Policy paradox: The art of political decision-making.(rev.ed). New York, NY: W.W. Norton and Co.
Policy and Politics
Policy and decision-making are complex issues. Even for what might appear to be a simple decision, there many underlying factors that influence the final outcome. Some of these factors are obvious, but some can be elusive and hidden from all of the parties. Policies are not instituted in a flash and the process of policymaking should not be taken lightly. This makes the process of policy making a slow one at best. The many facets of the issue must be discussed and debated for often long periods of time. Policymaking is wrought with many problems for which there is no obvious right or wrong answer. Deborah Stone addresses these paradoxes in The Art of Political Decision-making.
Stone's work stands apart from many authors that focus on the application of their model in only a few specific applications. One example is einhart and einhart (2011) who recently discussed…
Reinhart, C. & Reinhart, V. (2011). Limits of Monetary Policy in Theory and Practice. Cato Journal. 31 (3): 427-441.
Stone, D. (2001). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making, W.W. Norton, third edition.
Thorson, K.(Producer) (2002-2008). The highlights of 100 [Television series episode]. HBO.
Retrieved from http://www.hbo.com/the-wire
Policies and procedures that are used by any hospital are vital to the care of its patients and can help decrease the length of the patients' stay by days or even weeks in some cases, depending on how these procedures and policies are implemented and enforced by the doctors, nurses, and other staff members at the facility. The policy of having wristbands of different colors for Allergies, DN Orders, and Fall isks helps to avoid errors with medications, procedures, and treatments that could otherwise take place due to misreading of charts or miscoding of a patient's condition (Polices, 2007). Those errors can cause significant and sometimes irreparable harm to a patient, and can lead to a much longer stay that could result in significantly more cost to the patient and insurance company, as well as stress, pain, and suffering that could have otherwise been avoided by taking a few simple…
Policies and Procedures (2007). California Hospital Association (CHA). Derived, with permission, from original works copyrighted by the Arizona Hospital and Healthcare Association (AzHHA).
Policy Issues in Education
Over the past few years state legislatures and some agencies dealing with education issues have tried to reform public education by taking a close look at tests (especially standardized tests), at teacher tenure, and at the whole idea of evaluating schools through performance measures. An article in The New York Times points out that a group called StudentsFirst has been pushing for the changes mentioned earlier in this Introduction, and their efforts -- and accomplishments -- will be reviewed in this paper.
Eleven States Get Failing Grades on Public School Policies
Led by former schools chancellor in ashington State, Michelle A. Rhee, StudentsFirst has issued a report earlier in 2013 that ranks states according to how well they have applied important reforms to their educational policies. In addition to teacher tenure, standardized tests and the need for charter schools, StudentsFirst has also graded states on how…
Rich, M. (2013). 11 States Get Failing Grades on Public School Policies From Advocacy Group.
The New York Times. Retrieved October 25, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Ongoing Duty to Inform
The 2008 draft version of Chapter 3: Free and Informed Consent, Article 3.3 under Section A. General Principles adds a comprehensive explanation of the specific duty of researchers to continue the information disclosure element of the duty to inform throughout the participation in the research project. In that regard, the 2008 draft version details the obligation of researchers to bring to participants' attention any information that comes to light subsequent to the initial informed consent acquisition process. That provision further details the obligation to continue providing relevant information even beyond the conclusion of the research study where appropriate or necessary.
The 2008 draft version of Chapter 3: Free and Informed Consent, Article 3.4 under Section A. General Principles adds an Incidental Findings section that is absent from the 2003 draft version. In principle, this provision defines incidental findings as findings that could have potentially…
Halbert T. And Ingulli E. (2007). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati,
Levine C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. Dubuque, Iowa:
The McGraw Hill Companies Inc.
Instead they are being left in family homes, alone while family members work to pay the bills.
One of the problems with government regulations and business is that often times the regulation applies across the board with little regard to the size of the business or the size of the population that the business serves.
To implement a regulation to businesses across an entire geographic area can harm the business in the small town. Why should the same regulation apply to a business in a town of 330 as a business in a town of 1.5 million residents? To comply with certain government regulations businesses in small towns are often left with no choice but to close the doors.
Existing regulations already put a huge burden on the U.S. economy, more than $600 billion per year, according to detailed studies by economist Thomas Hopkins of the ochester Institute of Technology.…
Bass, Gary (1995) Government Regulations are an Essential Part of Life
Blockbuster anti-trust case thrown out. (Law & Regulation).(Brief Article)
Policy Process: Evaluation, Analysis and evision
The National Nursing Shortage eform and Patient Advocacy Act was designed to address the public health workforce shortage that is seen, especially where nurses are concerned. It is no secret that nurses are leaving the profession in record numbers, and as they do that it is becoming more and more difficult to replace them with others who want to do the same type of work (Buerhaus & etchin, 2013; Iglehart, 2013). Because of all the nurses retiring, and so many of them experiencing burnout, the gap between the number of needed nurses and those who are available continues to widen (Negron & Cohen, 2013). The issue here is how that Act becomes a policy, so it can provide more help to a public health workforce that is struggling. In order for the Act to become a policy, it must first be evaluated. The Act…
Buerhaus, P.I., & Retchin, S.M. (2013). The dormant National Health Care Workforce Commission needs congressional funding to fulfill its promise. Health Affairs, 32(11), 2021-2024.
Iglehart, J.K. (2013). Expanding the role of advanced nurse practitioners - risks and rewards. New England Journal of Medicine, 368(20), 1935-1941.
Negron, B., & Cohen, E. (2013). Back to the future: A standardized approach to delivering effective nursing care. Nurse Leader, 11(2), 52-56.
S.739 (2014). Congress.gov. Retrieved from https://beta.congress.gov/bill/113th-congress/senate-bill/739
" (Stevens, 2006) While the pay of education staff has been lowered, tuition fees have been raised and yet public spending."..on higher education in the UK is one of the lowest in the industrialized world." (Stevens, 2006) Currently ritain is stated to spend only 1.1% of its national income on higher education, compared with the EU average of 1.2%." (Stevens, 2006; paraphrased) the U.S. spends 2.6% of its national income on higher education according to Stevens. The Labour and Conservative parties in ritain are conspiring to bring about an increase of private funding for higher education "but only to encourage the social stratification that has taken place." (Stevens, 2006) the proposal is for the establishment of a system in which a "select group of 'world class' universities would be established, with the majority of universities left to compete amongst themselves for ever dwindling public funding." (Stevens, 2006) Oxford and Cambridge…
Smith, Liz (2007) Report reveals UK youth abandoned by education system. WWS News 25 June, 2007. Online available at http://www.wsws.org/articles/2007/jun2007/educ-j25.shtml
Stevens, Robert (2006) Britain: Poorer Student Numbers Fall as Tuition Fees are Hiked Up. 27 Dec 2006. World Socialist Web Site. WEWS.org News and Analysis. Online available at http://www.wsws.org/articles/2006/dec2006/univ-d27.shtml
School Leaving Age to be Raised to 18 (2007) Evening Standard 1 Jan 2007. Online available at http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/article-23381446-details/School+leaving+age+ 'to+be+raised+to+18'/article.do
Capital Support for the Expansion of Successful and Popular Secondary Schools (2007) Teachernet. Online available at http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/resourcesfinanceandbuilding/FSP/successfulandpopular/
Change Initiative: Communicating to Key Stakeholders
Know your audience
Just as a teacher conveys a lesson differently to students of varied ranges of abilities and age groups, a communicator of change must tailor the change message to the audience. What are his or her needs? Parents may be attracted to the idea of children gaining additional enrichment experiences that can help their children advance in life and get into college. Teachers might be excited by the possibility of giving additional input in how lessons are taught. The psychology and needs of the stakeholders will impact how the message will be shaped and which aspects will be emphasized.
Use different media
All too often, school districts merely deploy one means of communication when dealing with the public and employees. Merely having a meeting is not enough, as only the most interested and highly invested stakeholders will attend. Nor is sending out…
McLeod, Scott. (2010). 10 Reasons your educators are resisting your change initiative.
Education Week. Retrieved:
The company was established in 1886 and since its inception the technology developed by Daimler has revolutionized the automotive industry (Daimler AG, 2014). Daimler's initial product line started with a motor carriage and a three wheeled vehicle. The quality, safety and comfort of Daimler's vehicles have impressed their customers, establishing the standards of the industry.
With automotives being a physical product, it is very easy to measure them. Standards of the industry are established and brought to public notice, allowing all customers to understand them and rapport to them. In this industry products are physical received by customers and they enter customers' possession once all contractual and financial aspects have been attained. Product reception takes place under the terms established by the seller and agreed by the buyer.
There are several ways customers can address in order to find out information about the price and characteristics…
1. Tradition (2014). Daimler AG. Retrieved November 20, 2014 from http://www.daimler.com/company/tradition .
2. Product Responsibility (2014). Daimler AG. Retrieved November 20, 2014 from http://www.daimler.com/sustainability/product-responsibility .
3. Lis, B. et al. (2012). Oil and Cars: The Impact of Crude Oil Prices on the Stock Returns of Automotive Companies. International Journal of Economic and Financial Issues. Retrieved November 20, 2014.
4. The Automotive Industry (2014). Business and Economics Research Advisor. Retrieved November 20, 2014 from http://www.loc.gov/rr/business/BERA/issue2/industry.html .
Changing the Status of Women
Status of Women
In order to properly address gender inequality in a country requires knowledge of the sources and the depth of discrimination. Legitimate indicators that capture various aspects of gender inequality are indispensable for informing and directing policy. Existing indicators tend to focus on gender disparities related to access to education, health care, political representation, earnings or income and so forth. The aggregate indices that have received the most attention are the United Nations Development Program's (UNDP) Gender Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM). The UNDP's Human Development eports regularly cover both for individual countries. The GDI is an unweighted average of three indices that measure gender differences in terms of life expectancy at birth, gross enrolment and literacy rates and earned income. The GEM is an unweighted average of three other variables reflecting the importance of women in society. They…
"Innovative approaches to promoting women's economic empowerment." (2008, September 25). United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved February 16, 2013, from http://content.undp.org/go/cms-service/stream/asset/?asset_id=2524504
Jutting, J., & Morrison, C. (2005). Changing social institutions to improve the status of women in developing countries. OECD Development Centre. Policy Brief No.27. Retrieved February 16, 2013, from http://www.oecd.org/dev/poverty/35155725.pdf
Life in the United States in 1868 was though different from what it was a century later because racial discrimination was not as severely crippling as it was immediately after the abolition of slavery, still economic growth of blacks accelerated after the introduction of affirmative action and not exactly after the passage of Civil ights Act of 1964. During this period, numerous political, economic and social changes were witnessed but civil rights for blacks a perpetually contentious issue. The status of women, however, improved significantly during this 100-year period, as they became a major part of American workforce and also gained suffrage rights.
Black men and women in 1868 continued to suffer at the hands of a weak proslavery government of Andrew Johnson and tensions between Democrats and epublicans was making life miserable for the blacks. Civil rights were though granted by the Congress, they were not approved…
Roberta Hughes Wright, The Birth of the Montgomery Bus Boycott (Southfield: Charro Press, 1991) 52-53.
Lori Johnson, Forgotten heroes:
Joseph T. Wilson "The Black Phalanx - A History of the Negro Soldiers of the United States," American Publishing Company, 1890
Yet Arab-Americans are not necessarily hostile to the idea of greater community intervention, provided it is done to enhance community life, and not done to profile all Arab-American residents as terrorists. In fact, in the city of Chicago, there have been calls for greater police intervention in Arab-American communities by parents and local leaders, to reduce the threat of violent crime. Nizar Hasan, president of the Arab-American Police Association, believes Arab-American youth are increasingly falling into negative criminal behaviors. "It's getting worse…Some of these kids first try [drugs], get hooked, want more and look for ways to make money to support their habit, which means criminal activity" (Bohn & Schott 2009). However because Chicago, like many cities, does not track crime rates amongst Arab-Americans they are not labeled as 'minorities' -- "according to the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, persons from the Middle East and North Africa, like those…
Bohn, Lauren E. & Paul Schott. (2009, November 17). Blight of street crime creeping into Arab-
American community. Merrill reports. Northwestern University. Retrieved October 19,
2010 at http://news.medill.northwestern.edu/chicago/news.aspx?id=147319
Elliott, Andrea. (2006, June 13). After 9/11 Arab-Americans fear police, study finds. New York
In this system, in which we must increasingly compete for students and research dollars and create new sources of funding, international university rankings are the utmost importance." (Probert, 2006) it is emphasized in this report that these changes are of great significance toward ensuring "greater strategic capacity within the Faculty." Probert (2006) relates two key changes which have been proposed and states them as follows:
1) the reduction in number of existing departments to ensure increased accountability and improved governance structures, and;
2) the creation of a Faculty Executive based on the Heads of School and key Associate Deans. (Probert, 2006)
There are two benefits from these changes noted and stated specifically is: "Growing Esteem requires us to work collaboratively as a Faculty in new ways (for example, in the management of the A, the improvement of the graduate student experience, development of Graduate Schools, multi-disciplinary teaching and research, as…
2007 BA Curriculum Review: Terms of Reference (2007) Faculty of Arts Renewal Strategy. The University of Melbourne. Online available at http://www.arts.unimelb.edu.au/campus/curriculum-review/index.html
Considine, Mark (2007) Curriculum in the University of Melbourne Bachelor of Arts: Report of the Review Panel. 26 Sept 2007. Online available at http://www.arts.unimelb.edu.au/campus/curriculum-review/D 'AgostinoReport.pdf
Draft for Consultation (2007) the University of Melbourne - Implementing the Melbourne Student Services Model. Proposed Staff Transition Processes. 7 Sept. Online available at http://www.arts.unimelb.edu.au/staff/mssm/MSSM_staff_transition_process_consultation_DRAFT20070907.pdf
Melbourne Student Services Model (Student Services Hub) Implementation Project Reference Group (2007) the University of Melbourne. Online available at http://www.arts.unimelb.edu.au/staff/mssm/reference-group.html
Firstly, all races in my community were represented. Secondly, the group worked to help parents accept interracial schooling in our community. By means of creative speeches and performance, parents of all races allowed their children to go to the same schools, to become friends, and even became friends themselves.
I was once on the committee for responsible earth citizens in my school. My responsibilities included helping people optimize the efficiency of their energy use, recycle, and other strategies to help ensure the future of the earth. This was before the Internet and cell phones were widely available. Today of course my task would be made much easier by networking with global professionals and all who care for the same cause.
I believe that, as citizens of Earth, it is our responsibility to care for our environment and to ensure that our children can live happy, productive lives. Furthermore, I want…
According to Liao (2006), "The companies have entered into significant, long-term agreements that give Lenovo customers preferred access to IBM's world-class customer service organization and global financing offerings. This will enable Lenovo to take advantage of IBM's powerful worldwide distribution and sales network. Lenovo's customers are able to count on the entire IBM team - including sales, services and financing - for access to IBM's legendary end-to-end it solutions" (p. 3). In addition, pursuant to IBM's five-year contractual commitment, it will also provide Lenovo with warranty services and provide Lenovo customers with leasing and financing arrangements. According to Liao, "Through this long-term relationship, customers will receive the best products with the lowest total-cost-of-ownership" (2006 p. 3). Among the company's initiatives in this final phase of the change management process were additional efforts to further support their new dual business model. To this end, Lenovo upgraded its technology to work with…
About Lenovo. 2007. Lenovo: United States. [Online]. Available: http://www.lenovo.com/lenovo/us/en/ .
Bass, Bernard M. 1997. "Does the Transactional -- Transformational Leadership Paradigm Transcend Organizational and National Boundaries?" American Psychologist, 52(2), 130.
De Angelis, a.P. 2006, Spring. Don't 'dis' Chinese science. Issues in Science and Technology, 22(3), 31.
Dessler, Gary. 2006. "Expanding into China? What Foreign Employers Should Know about Human Resource Management in China Today." SAM Advanced Management Journal, 71(4), 11.
Changing Affirmative Action Laws
The Need to Change Affirmative Action Laws
The affirmative action laws have been around since the 1960s, but now there is a need to change them due to the changes that have been seen in society. The laws were designed for a very specific time in history, and at that time they were what was needed in order to make sure people who had been discriminated against were no longer treated unfairly based on traits such as skin color (Should, 2012). Unfortunately, most people do not spend much time thinking about affirmative action unless they are directly affected by it. That can come through getting a job because they are a member of a protected class, or being overlooked for a job because they are not a member of a protected class. In either instance, affirmative action comes into play and affects the people who can…
Crawford, C. (1992) weighing the morality of affirmative action as racial preference. (2013) Retrieved from http://www.debatingracialpreference.org/Morality_of_Affirmative_Action.html
Dontigney, E. (2013) Advantages and disadvantages of affirmative action in the workplace. Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/advantages-disadvantages-affirmative-action-workplace-18141.html
Rosado, C. (1997). Affirmative action: A time for change? Data retrieved from http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/papers/caleb/aff-action.html
Should affirmative action laws be changed (2012) Retrieved from http://www.researchomatic.com/essay/Should-Affirmative-Action-Laws-Be-Changed-94715.aspx
Change management is one of the most important components in the successful operations of a company or business organization. The modern business environment is characterized by numerous changes that are attributable to various factors including technological developments and globalization. In this regard, business organizations or companies increasingly face the need to adopt changes in their operations in order to align their businesses with the industry they operate it. However, the process of instituting organizational change in complex and can hurt a company’s operations if not conducted appropriately. As a result, there are various change management models that have been developed to help the management in instituting and managing organizational change. These models help in management of planned and unplanned change in the organization in order to enhance its efficiency and effectiveness in the industry or market it operates in. Some of these change management models include Kurt Lewin’s Three-Step Change…
In other, more charter-friendly states, there are multiple authorizers -- universities, state boards, even specially created bodies with expertise in charter school creation. The new bill before the state House and Senate will give the Board of Education an advising role on charter school applications prior to going before the local school board.
Patrick Henry School of Science and Arts opened Aug. 11, 2010 making it the 10th charter school to open in the state of Virginia since charter schools were allowed to open in 1998. However, if history repeats itself, Patrick Henry will have a bumpy road ahead. Including Patrick Henry only three charter schools are operating currently in the state of Virginia and Patrick Henry is the only one operating in the city of ichmond. At one time there were nine charter schools in Virginia, but most of them closed due to financial reasons. (citation)
According to the…
Lawrence F. Garrison, & Mitchell Holifield. (2005). ARE CHARTER SCHOOLS EFFECTIVE? Planning and Changing, 36(1/2), 90-103. Retrieved December 17, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 877541691).
CHARTER SCHOOLS: LESSONS in SCHOOL REFORM [review of the Charter Schools: Lessons in School Reform. (2005). Harvard Educational Review, 75(3), 341-343. Retrieved December 17, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 920579091).
Victoria Benning. (1998, October 15). Fairfax Studies Charter School Plan; Measure's Guidelines Allow Only Special-Need Applications: [FINAL Edition]. The Washington Post, p. B05. Retrieved December 17, 2010, from ProQuest National Newspapers Premier. (Document ID: 35117762).
Kraft, M. & Furlong, S. (2007). Public Policy: Politics, Analysis, and Alternatives.
" Change must therefore be accomplished by the institution of a strong leadership of just a single individual (Kotter,1996,p.25) .In this case, the person was Ghosn. Change however requires a special team of leaders as well as managers who have a common goal that is communicated succinctly by the team leader. Ghosn therefore "walked the talk" since his leadership style which was transformational, brought real change to the organization.
It is important to note that for any organization to succeed, a balance must be struck between leadership and the management. This is because there can never be any form of transformation without a true leader. All successful organizational transformations are only achieved via the right mix of leadership and management.
Baggaley, B. 2006. Using strategic performance measurements to accelerate lean performance. Cost Management (January/February): 36-44
Cloud, C (2010). Epilogue: Change leadership and leadership development. New Directions for Community…
Baggaley, B. 2006. Using strategic performance measurements to accelerate lean performance. Cost Management (January/February): 36-44
Cloud, RC (2010). Epilogue: Change leadership and leadership development. New Directions for Community Colleges; Spring2010, Issue 149, p73-79,
Elving, W, JL (2005) "The role of communication in organisational change," Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Vol. 10 Iss: 2, pp.129-13
Kotter, J.P. (1995), "Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail," Harvard Business Review, March-April, 59-67
Policy Brief eview
The author of this report is to find and summarize a policy brief as it appears on the obert Wood Johnson Foundation website. As part of the review process, there will be a summary of several of its main points and objectives. These will include the policies and subjects covered, who the foundation is trying to influence, whether the brief is evidence-based, whether there are gaps in the knowledge base, what the expected outcomes might be, who those outcomes would affect, what the burdens would be, who those burdens would affect, what the benefits would be and who precisely would gain the most. While price transparency may not be seen as a major issue, the Foundation website assert that there is roughly $105 billion in annual waste due to price variations and an overall lack of price transparency.
As explained by the policy brief, the problem…
RWJF. (2015). Home. RWJF. Retrieved 27 July 2015, from http://www.rwjf.org/
RWJF. (2015). PBGH Policy Brief: Price Transparency. RWJF. Retrieved 27 July 2015,
4. Exit interview
As the decision to terminate the employment relationship has been made and even set in motion, the employee is asked to participate in an exit interview. This interview is generally held throughout the last days the employee spends in the organization and it focuses on retrieving feedback related to the reasons as to which the employee has chosen to leave; his feelings and opinions regarding the time he spent in the company; the team, the managerial team, the company policy and so on. "Ultimately, the goal of using EIS is to determine the reasons for company turnover, help to identify training and development needs, create strategic planning goals, and identify those areas in which changes need to be made" (Knouse, Beard, Pollard and Giacalone, 1996).
5. eturn of company property
Aside from the exit interview, there are two more aspects to consider -- the return of company…
Dell'Omo, G.G., 1997, Managerial use of dismissal: organizational-level determinants, Personal Psychology, Vol. 50, No. 4
Glant, T., 2002, Against all odds: Vira B. Whitehouse and Rosika Schwimmer in Switzerland, American Studies International, Vol. 40, No. 1
Knouse, S.B., Beard, J.W., Pollard, H.G., Giacalone, R.A., 1996, Willingness to discuss exit interview topics: the impact of attitudes toward supervisor and authority, Journal of Psychology, Vol. 130, No. 3
McGough, L.S., 2003, Starting over: the heuristic of family relocation decision making, St. John's Law Review, Vol. 77, No. 2
Cons are that SBUs add a layer of management, the SBU executive. This gives rise to organizational complexity at high levels, including potential conflicts with regards to senior management roles and performance recognition.
A line of business structure has the benefit of being very product-focused. This allows decisions to be made at a level much closer to the day-to-day operating environment of each product. This structure, however, encourages duplication of staff functions. Moreover, each business line is removed that much further from the corporate objectives, and corporate executives risk losing touch with individual lines of business, leaving them unable to respond or react to problems quickly.
Matrix structures combine two or more other structures. This encourages cooperation across business and functional units, and refocuses everybody on what is best for the company as a whole, rather than their individual area. This in turn creates a system of balances. However, matrix…
References no author listed) (2008). Five Formal Organization Structures. Family Business Institute. Retrieved May 15, 2008 at http://www.family-business-experts.com/organization-structures.html
Suppliers also exert significant influence in terms of their ability to demand higher prices in scarcity, and can use product quality as a differentiator. From the standpoint of a company relying on suppliers, the use of quality management audits (LaLonde, addatz, 2002) can be an equalizing force in the balance of power in a relationship with a supplier. Given the fact that buyers have significantly greater influence on the continual income stream of a company and the potential of replacing a supplier or discontinuing an unprofitable product, loss of profits from a supplier would be more recoverable from relative to that of a powerful buyer.
Patricia C. La Londe, Janet . addatz. (2002). Tools for improving customer-supplier relationships. The Journal for Quality and Participation, 25(3), 12-18. etrieved March 21, 2008, from ABI/INFOM…
Patricia C. La Londe, Janet R. Raddatz. (2002). Tools for improving customer-supplier relationships. The Journal for Quality and Participation, 25(3), 12-18. Retrieved March 21, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 281227431).
Human beings are by nature change-resistant and particularly within an organizational context there is anxiety about change, given fears of job losses or simply being unable to adapt. It is essential to convince change agents of the need and urgency for change and also of the congruency of the change with the evolving vision for the company.
A "vision statement should have four elements: a customer orientation, employee focus, organizational competencies, and standards of excellence" ("Changing the game," 2015:3). The change should be demonstrated to enhance all of the organization's capacities, not simply improve its bottom line in the short-term. Having an effective vision statement is necessary for effective change. The Lewin Model of organizational change stresses the need for a three-part adaptation process called unfreezing, changing, and refreezing. In other words, the organization must be temporarily destabilized or unfrozen before it returns to a new…
DiMaggio, M. (2009). The top 10 best (and worst) corporate mergers of all time... or, the good, the bad, and the ugly. Rasmussen. Retrieved from:
McClure, B. (2015). Mergers and acquisitions: Why they can fail. Investopedia. Retrieved from:
Changing Environment of Human Resources Management
Describe the business case for having HR report to the CEO/President in large organizations.
The Human Resources (HR) function in many firms, particularly in large firms with functional specialties, has traditionally been perceived as an administrative function that plays a support role in recruiting, training, paying, and retaining (or firing) members of the workforce. HR has also been seen as supporting other managers in providing a safe workplace and dealing with labor-relations issues. Over the past decade, as down-sizing has occurred throughout much of the corporate world, business cases have been made to reduce the size of the overall HR function, to outsource elements of the HR function such as pay or training, and to offload HR duties to other managers. This paper posits that a business case exists for retaining a strategic HR function in organizations, and for having the senior HR person…
Barney, Jay and Patrick Wright. On Becoming A Strategic Partner: The Role of Human Resources In Gaining Competitive Advantage. Human Resource Management, Spring, 1998, Vol. 37, No. 1, pages 31-46.
Beatty, Richard, Jeffrey Ewing and Charles Tharp. HR's Role in Corporate Governance: Present and Prospective. Human Resource Management, Fall, 2003, Vol. 42, No. 3,-page 257-269.
Enns, Harvey and Dean McFarlin. When Executives Influence Peers: Does Function Matter? Human Resource Management, Summer, 2003, Vol. 42, No. 2, pages 125-142.
Fischer, Heinz and Klaus Mittorp. How HR Measures Support Risk Management: The Deutsche Bank Example. Human Resource Management, Winter, 2002, Vol. 41, No. 4, pages 477-490.
As each relationship in the communication network was dependent on several others for efficacy and efficiency, there had to be some sort of codified an d regulated system. Communications individuals at the department level were responsible for coordinating group communication once every week, using conference calling and other technologies as necessary. Communications individuals at each department were also responsible for meeting with the communications officer at their campus one-on-one every week, and these officers held weekly meetings on Monday mornings. This strategy of detailed management served the organization much better given the complexity of the communications networks and needs within the many parts of the Jewish Home Lifecare organization.
Success in Implementation
As noted above, the change in the communications plan at Jewish Home Lifecare did not meet with immediate success due to the lack of a true strategy for implementing this change. Even after the change was more comprehensively…
1.3. Summary of argument, Hypothesis
The role of leadership styles and their applicability to the success or failure of mergers, acquisitions and alliances is the focus of this research. Any leadership study, to be relevant, must also focus on the needs of those served by the organizations studies. That is why in the proposed Change Management Equilibrium Model have customer-driven processes at their center or core. The focus of the research to either validate or refute the model is based on consistency and collaboration as two factors that also serve to create greater levels of integration between the two or more healthcare providers merging or changing their organizational structures to better serve the market. This market orientation is what many public-ally-owned and operated healthcare providers struggle with, as often the source of funding becomes their "customer" or whom they serve (Brinkmann, O'Brien, 2010). Studies by AM esearch for example show…
Abbott, R., Ploubidis, G., Huppert, F., Kuh, D., & Croudace, T.. (2010). An Evaluation of the Precision of Measurement of Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales in a Population Sample. Social Indicators Research, 97(3), 357-373.
Faten Fahad Al-Mailam. (2004). Transactional vs. Transformational Style of Leadership-Employee Perception of Leadership Efficacy in Public and Private Hospitals in Kuwait. Quality Management in Health Care, 13(4), 278-284.
Antonakis, J., & House, R.J. (2002). The full-range leadership theory: The way forward. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. 3 -- 33. Boston: JAI Press.
Avolio, B.J., & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Introduction to, and overview of, transformational and charismatic leadership. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. xvii -- xxiii. Boston: JAI Press.