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My parents are epublicans, so I did not gain many political beliefs from them! My friends and significant other are a mix of parties. I have a lot of epublican friends, but I do have some Democratic friends, too. I think that I have looked at both parties, and I just felt more comfortable with the Democratic Party and its platforms, especially on women's rights, healthcare, and climate change. The Party Web site says, "That commitment is reflected in an agenda that emphasizes the strong economic growth, affordable health care for all Americans, retirement security, open, honest and accountable government, and securing our nation while protecting our civil rights and liberties" (Editors). I agree with that, and it pretty much states my beliefs. I could not align with the epublicans, because I do not agree with the war in Iraq, I support gun control, and I do not like their…
Editors. "What we Stand for." Democratic Party. 2009. 3 March 2009. http://www.democrats.org/a/party/stand.html .
McCarthy, Kevin. "Chairman's Preamble." Republican Party. 2009. 3 March 2009. http://www.gop.com/2008Platform/Preamble.htm.
Until recently, my political awareness was limited to what I read about or heard around me. Young people are impressionable, and I formed my opinions as amalgamations of what my parents believed, and what I overheard my friends parents say too. The news media, and celebrities I admire also had a strong influence on how I would frame my thinking. All these agents of socialization—my family, the media, my teachers, and my friends—shaped my identity and self-concept, and how I viewed the world. As a young adult, I have deconstructed much of what I learned and realized that I need to carve my own path by thinking critically about what I read, not just by avoiding the pitfalls of fake news, but also by avoiding a sheep-like mentality. Instead of regurgitating what other people say, now I feel more confident in my own ability to articulate my political philosophies as…
Socialism is a highly charged issue in any capitalistic culture as a lack of general understanding of the term and the fragmentation of its application over the years has led many to equate it with both despotism and social degeneration through lack of personal control over the means of production. To many capitalist thinkers socialism holds back the progress of any one individual and therefore any culture that accepts it through the seeming lack of upward mobility available to those who practice socialism in a broad way. Socialism, generally defines is:
The general term for the political and economic theory that advocates a system of collective or government ownership and management of the means of production and distribution of goods. Because of the collective nature of socialism, it is to be contrasted to the doctrine of the sanctity of private property that characterizes capitalism. here capitalism stresses competition and profit,…
Brucan, Silviu. "Political Reform in the Socialist System." World Policy Journal 4.3 (1987): 515-526.
"Socialism ." The Columbia Encyclopedia . 6th ed. 2000.
Gray, Alexander. The Socialist Tradition, Moses to Lenin. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1946.
Hardy, Dennis. "J.E.M. Latham. Search for a New Eden. James Pierrepont Greaves (1777-1842): The Sacred Socialist and His Followers." Utopian Studies 14.1 (2003): 227+. Questia. 5 Dec. 2004 .
Putnam (2000) suggests that trust already exists within societies, when clearly there is evidence that it does not exist, and that people are not confident in who is in control (Domhoff, 2005). Putnam (2000) argues that it is important to have a strong and very active and aggressive civil society within the United States to consolidate democracy. Many of the traditions of independent civic engagement have been lost according to Putnam, and are now replaced with passivity among the peoples of the United States; far too often civic engagements rely on the "state" making civil societies as described by Putnam (2000) weak and incapable of developing. Putnam's idea of social capital is the view that social capital is a resource that is ingrained in norms and in social trusts, and it is these norms and trusts that help facilitate collaborative actions and help communities cooperate so they can achieve mutual…
Dahl, Robert Who Governs? 2005. Democracy and Power in an American City, Second edition. Boston: Yale University Press
Domhoff, William G. 2005. Who Rules America? Power, Politics and Social Change.
New York: McGraw Hill: Higher education
Putnam, Robert D. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American
political opinions he or she holds?
What causes an individual to hold the political opinions he or she holds?
Political Attitudes Toward Immigration and acial Stereotypes
Immigration has been a prominent political issue heighted by legislation introduced over the last few decades. People hold various political opinions of immigrants, especially those in the U.S. illegally, which tends to be divided along racial lines. It is interesting that in a country built by immigrants that many people have negative attitudes toward immigrants that are perpetuated by stereotypes and prejudice against racial groups. Stereotypes are widely used to generalize about the characteristics of groups of people through the assignment of simple labels alleged to represent group traits which are frequently based upon perceived wrongs of one group by another (Burns and Gimpal, 2000). Some of the most prominent stereotypes that have been the subject of psychological investigation involve ethnic identity (Burns and…
Burns, P. And Gimpel, J. (2000). "Economic Insecurity, Prejudicial Stereotypes, and Public Opinion on Immigration Policy." Political Science Quarterly, 115, 201-225.
Ferguson, M. And Hassin, R. (2007). On the Automatic Association Between American and Aggression for New Watchers."
Lodge, M. And Tabor, C. (2005). "The Automaticity of Affect for Political Leaders,
Groups, and Issues: An Experimental Test of the Hot Cognition Hypothesis." Political Psychology, 26, 455-482.
Marx further included that finally the biased behavior of the working class will end this dictatorship period, and a class less society will establish. He believed that for the formation of this society people need to launch an organized movement against the dictatorship and only a successful revolution would lead to the formation of society of "Communism" (Skoble, 2007).
When we talk about the political philosophy, we can observe that both John Locke and Karl Marx are in favor of the idea that when there is a need of change then an organized revolution is compulsory. People cannot get their rights until they demand for it because it's natural thing that you need to raise your voice in order to get your right otherwise other will keep it as their own possession.
The point of differ come when we talk about the scenario in which both of them forwarded their…
Riemer, N., & Simon, D. (1997). The New World of Politics: An Introduction to Political Science. San Diego: Collegiate Press.
Skoble. (2007). Political Philosophy: Essential Selections. London: Pearson Education India.
Tully, J. (1993). An Approach to Political Philosophy: Locke in Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Utility of Political Inquiry Models: Scientific vs. Interpretive
Scientific methods of inquiry, also called empirical, positivist, or rational approaches, are used by the vast majority of researchers in the social sciences (deLeon, 1998). The scientific approach has largely relied on a behaviorist approach, which defines human behavior as following the laws of nature and therefore inherently predicable. The logical conclusion from this is that the goal of political research is being able to predict the behavior of humans as they engage in politics. As Douglas Torgerson stated in 1986, "… knowledge would replace politics" (as cited by deLeon, 1998, p. 148).
In contrast, the interpretive school of political inquiry advocates for a more nuanced approach, one that recognizes that human behavior, whether by individuals or groups, is far too complex to render it reducible to quantitative measures (deLeon, 1998). Rather than having a goal of being able to…
Coffield, C. Ditmar. "Welfare Reform in Indiana: The Political Economy of Restricting Access to Education and Training." Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 23.3 (2002): 261-284. Print.
Connolly, William. The Terms of Political Discourse, 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 1993. Print.
deLeon, Peter. "Models of Policy Discourse: Insights vs. Predictions." Policy Studies Journal, 26.1 (1998): 147-161. Print.
Manos, Steven S. "From Welfare to Work and Vice Versa." New York Times 30 June 1994: A22. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.
Discuss how the politics - is - complicated that model is different from symbolic racism in terms of the outcomes these forms of racism produce. Use two examples to substantiate your arguments.
In many democracies, one of the core principals is respecting the rights of everyone. This is in spite of race, income or ethnicity in determining opportunities and how an individual is living their life. On the surface, this is the ideal of all democracies, yet underneath it all there are various challenges. This is because there are a wide variety of political forces that will have an impact on the forms of racism that are produced.
One way to understand these different views are with the politics -- is -- complicated model. This is when someone will base their beliefs about racism and equality on other political factors. The objectives with this kind of philosophy are…
Cashmore, E. (2001). Symbolic Racism. London: Sage.
Cottam, M. (2010). Introduction to Political Philosophy. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Freeman, D. (2000). The Jim Crow Laws and Racism. New York, NY: Enslow Publishers.
Political, Social and Economic Plan
Our country has the potential of becoming one of the most important nations of the world since it has all the resources that few others have been blessed with. We have countless mineral reserves, a rich soil and a supportive climate that makes it ideal for agriculture.
Most of all, we have a young and talented population that is a priceless resource. In order to transform this undoubted potential into a concrete reality, however, we need to adopt the right policies. We are passing through a critical phase of not just our own history but also the history of the entire mankind in which we have the choice of either seizing the moment or missing the opportunity. The 'opportunity' is offered by the unprecedented technological developments in communication technologies and the lowering of trade barriers around the world.
Our failure in the past has been…
Khan, Imran. (1999) "The Case for a Reform Government." Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf Web site. Retrieved on January 14, 2003 at http://www.insaf.org.pk/articles/the_case_reform_govt.htm
Samuelson, Robert J. (2002). "Deflation: The Global Economy's Downside." Washington Post, September 4, 2002. Retrieved on January 14, 2003 at http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/econ/2002/0904deflation.htm
This includes previously mentioned measures such as increased governmental spending, directing funds towards education and health sectors etc.
Referring to Liberalism, we should first of all point out that liberalism does not necessarily limit its perceptions only to economic equality, as is the case with Socialism, but it extends its beliefs to the sector of civil and individual equality. This means that liberalism has always found itself as a promoter of human rights, as a sustainer of political freedom and the right to self - determination.
Going forth from these social and political perceptions, the social equality that liberalism promotes naturally leads to a policy of tolerance at a societal level. Liberal governances are generally know to be tolerant in terms of rights for social or religious minorities.
On the other hand, in terms of economic policies, liberalism promotes equality rather through the laissez-faire philosophy, through the capacity of the…
Conflicts are not regarded as the right way of solving disputes between nations or communities. As such, boundary conflicts have not been governing any chance to exist within the society. These conflicts reiterate the need for the United Nations to explore on the natural boundary existence between various nations (Tucker and Priscilla 152). Though boundary politics results in wars and conflicts, they are potent towards the existence and preservation of sovereignty between nations. Because of the recurrence of political boundary conflicts, many nations have resorted to signing treaties indicating a separation and boundaries relating to political movements.
There are a number of steps, which can be used to end political boundary wars in the world. Politics, being the higher agent of political boundary wars, should be subjected to scrutiny and study. This will help recover rightful ways of separating between politics and boundaries between nations and communities. Nations…
Fleishman, Rachel, Catherine Gerard, and Rosemary O'Leary. Pushing the Boundaries: New
Frontiers in Conflict Resolution and Collaboration. Bingley: JAI Press, 2008. Print.
Harvey, Brian P. An Introduction to Buddhist Ethics: Foundations, Values and Issues.
Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000. Print.
Political & Economic Differences
The author of this paper is asked to answer to five major questions. The first is why there is a difference in terms of political systems from country to country. The second question is how the legal systems of different countries differ. The third question asks the author to explain the economic differences of different countries. The fourth question asks the author to discuss and explain different macro-political and economic changes that occur around the world. Finally, the author is asked to explain how transitioning economies are moving towards market-based systems.
As for why there are different political systems in different countries, the reasons depend on the actual situation at hand. The system in place in the United States fairly closely matches the way things were set up at its inception and a lot of that was based on escape from brutal government rule…
Hill, C.W. (2013). International business: competing in the global marketplace (9 ed.).
New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Tran, M. (2013, April 3). Pakistan needs to recoup more in taxes before any aid boost, say MP's | Global development | theguardian.com . Latest news, world news, sport and comment from the Guardian | theguardian.com | The Guardian .
Retrieved October 4, 2013, from http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2013/apr/04/pakistan-recoup-taxes-aid-mps
There is a definite chance that both parties could resolve the prolonged conflict successfully if they find and act on ways to be in command of their shared lack of trust. On the other hand, if the conflict is seen in terms of a neoliberal point-of-view, Israel's military efficiency and powerfulness is a great threat for Israelis. To cut a long story short, the main goal on which all the main five parties agree is the achievement of peace between Israelis and Palestinians but it is only possible if they give up their most preferred results; Israel giving up its favorite result of unrestricted occupation of Palestinian land and Palestine holding back its preferred outcome of unconditional withdrawal. The conflict could be resolved if both parties could also find some common solutions for complex and convoluted detachable issues including "the degree of sovereignty of a Palestinian state, the distribution of…
Adler, E, ed. Israel in the World: Legitimacy and Exceptionalism. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon.: Routledge, 2013.
Aronoff, M.J. Cross-Currents in Israeli Culture and Politics. New Jersey: Transaction, Inc., 1984.
Asa-El, a. "Israel's Electoral Complex." Azure - Ideas for the Jewish Nation. http://www.azure.org.il/article.php?id=419 (accessed June 9, 2013).
Bard, M.G. & Schwartz, M. One Thousand and One Facts Everyone Should Know About Israel. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005.
The best that they can hope for is to influence a political party to get behind their cause and vote to have it adopted. Political parties on the other hand, have the power and ability to change laws and mandates by their voting clout.
Democratic Party (accessed 5-1-07)
Interest Groups (accessed 5-1-07)
epublican Party (accessed 5-1-07)
Walker, Jack L., Jr., Mobilizing Interest Groups in America (Univ. Of Mich. Press 1991).
Democratic Party (accessed 5-1-07)
Interest Groups (accessed 5-1-07)
However, he steers relatively clear of muscular economic writing in Conscience of a Liberal, preferring the position the book as something of a call to arms for the liberal movement. While this approach allows him to cover a wide range of ground and be fairly convincing in doing so, it also hampers his arguments by removing what should be the key to his credibility. His economic arguments strike more as a recitation of facts and figures rather than the heavy lifting he of which he is obviously capable. As his credibility stems from his work as a prize-winning economist, and this book lacks that to some extent, it seems as though the book is a long-form blog or other such opinion piece.
There is an element of urgency in his work, however, best evidenced in the chapter about health care. Krugman ties the demise of conservatism to universal health care…
Babuna, Aydin. "National Identity, Islam and Politics in Post-Communist Bosnia-Hercegovina." East European Quarterly 39.4 (2005): 405+.
Lischer, Sarah Kenyon. "Military Intervention and the Humanitarian "Force Multiplier." Global Governance 13.1 (2007): 99+.
Mangum, Ronald Scott. "NATO's Attack on Serbia: Anomaly or Emerging Doctrine?." Parameters 30.4 (2000): 40.
Mertus, Julie a. "Legitimizing the Use of Force in Kosovo." Ethics & International Affairs 15.1 (2001): 133+.
Petras, James. "The Meaning of ar: A Heterodox Perspective." Journal of Contemporary Asia 35.4 (2005): 423+.
Piiparinen, Touko. "The Lessons of Darfur for the Future of Humanitarian Intervention." Global Governance 13.3 (2007): 365+.
Shank, Gregory. "Commentary: Not a Just ar, Just a ar - NATO's Humanitarian Bombing Mission." Social Justice 26.1 (1999): 4+.
Sloan, Elinor C. Bosnia and the New Collective Security. estport, CT: Praeger, 1998.
Going back further, the same religious principals also inspired opposition to organ transplants and blood transfusions; before that, the Catholic Church strictly forbade any forensic scientific research, necessitating the need to dissect cadavers for medical education entirely in secret (Levine, 2008).
Just as the news media are partially at fault today for their failure to distinguish legitimate concerns from ludicrous fears in connection with the ongoing political debate over American healthcare, they are equally responsible for allowing unfounded fears of "human cloning" in connection with the beneficial uses of stem cell science. Specifically, the main source of secular opposition to stem cell research is attributable to unnecessary fears of rampant misuse of human cloning technology to clone human beings. While human cloning is hypothetically possible, no responsible scientific researcher would ever misuse current biomedical technology in that fashion. The complexities of cloning entire organisms have been well documented in animal…
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. Boston: Little
Brown & Co.
Friedrich, M. "Researchers Make the Case for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research"
The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 292(7); August 18, 2004:
(Ng, 1994, p. 93)
The philosophy of Confucius was based essentially on that of human relationships expanded to the sphere of the state, and even beyond into the cosmos. ight conduct and proper action among individuals and groups would result in an ordered universe, one that operated according to the proper laws. By cultivating these believes and following these rules one could hope to produce a society that was perfectly ordered and self-perpetuating. The Confucian ideal of leadership has endured today among many, not only in China, but in many parts of East Asia, and has even attracted followers in the West, for it addresses the issue of responsibility as a metaphor for virtue and harmony.
Far less idealistic were the ideas of the enaissance thinker, Niccolo Machiavelli. Machiavelli lived in Italy at a time when its various princes were contending for power. The region was riven by war and…
- these actions are not punished by the law because, while immoral according to many, they do not cause injury to the rights of others.
Adam Smith further emphasizes the centrality of property rights. For Smith, the ownership and acquisition of private property is an essential right that contributes to and maintains individual well-being. Individuals who do not own property are individuals with no real say in their own affairs, and no voice in their government. Smith cites the case of the plebeians in the Roman Empire as an example of a class of people who were purposely kept from ownership of the land as a means of keeping power in the hands of the patricians.
He also makes reference to the slaves of his own day, and to residents of nations where a king may, at his own discretion, dispose of his subjects' property, as examples of conditions under…
Kant, Immanuel. Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals. Trans. Thomas K. Abbott. New York: Liberal Arts Press, 1949.
Locke, John. A Letter concerning Toleration. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Liberal Arts Press, 1955.
Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.
Dahl, Richard. "A Changing Climate of Litigation." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.4 (2007): 204+.
Fromkin, David. "International Law at the Frontiers." orld Policy Journal 15.4 (1998): 59-72.
Koh, Harold Hongju. "Foreword: On American Exceptionalism." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1479+.
Scharf, Michael P. "The ICC's Jurisdiction over the Nationals of Non-Party States: A Critique of the U.S. Position." Law and Contemporary Problems 64.1 (2001): 67.
Stacy, Helen. "Relational Sovereignty." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 2029+.
Tiefer, Charles. Veering Right: How the Bush Administration Subverts the Law for Conservative Causes. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004.
David Fromkin, "International Law at the Frontiers," orld Policy Journal15.4 (1998): 59. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002006259
Mariano-Florentino Cuellar, "The International Criminal Court…
Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.
Dahl, Richard. "A Changing Climate of Litigation." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.4 (2007): 204+.
I have had friends that I've known since I was in grade school. Our initial interaction occurred because of our attraction toward one another. We had so many things in common, such as the same favorite television shows and the same favorite sports. Our proximity to one another also aided in the development of this attraction toward one another. We all lived on the same block and therefore had more opportunities to interact with one another outside of the school setting.
Although physical attractiveness did not necessarily influence our friendship, according to Myers (2012), it is usually the first step in any sort of relationship, even those that are platonic in nature. The theory of physical attractiveness is based on research conducted that tends to suggest that people who are viewed as being more physically attractive are seen as being more approachable (Myers, 2012). My relationship with my friends can…
David, M. (2012). Social psychology. (11 ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4). This idea has since been abandoned. The mythology of the Amazons, a matriarchy of warrior women, has been discounted as no more than a myth, one deriving from the deep-seated fear on the part of males that they might lose their power and authority. In matrilineal societies, men tend still to monopolize the rights of power. Some Chinese anthropologists believe the stories of true matriarchal societies in some regions of China in the past, but this is uncertain. A matriarchy would be presumed to be less warlike and more nurturing as a social order and would not subordinate men in the way men have done to women in the patriarchal society.
The formulation and operation of power in the largely patriarchal social order in the world today divides along other line than gender, with political action influenced most by ideology, religion, divisions of power, and other aspects of group…
Adler, F. (1983). Nations Not Obsessed with Crime. Littleton, Colorado: Fred B. Rotham and Co.
Berry, J.M. (1997). The interest group society. New York: Longman.
Crapo, R.H. (1993). Cultural anthropology. Sluice Dock Guilford, Conn.: Dushkin.
El-Awa, M.S. (1982). Punishment in Islamic Law. Indianapolis, Indiana: American Trust Publications.
Cinema and American Politics
will address the relationship between film and politics in the U.S.
The modern politics of the U.S. has often been reflected in the mainstream Hollywood films of the era yet simultaneously criticized and satirized by auteur and/or independent filmmakers, such as Kubrick with his 1964 Dr. Strangelove or Oliver Stone's JFK. While political science is a field in which the dynamics of political discourse may be examined more directly, an analysis of the cinematic representation of American politics as depicted in film can provide an alternative assessment of the life of U.S. political forces, how they are perceived to operate in popular film, and how popular political beliefs are shaped and communicated to citizens as a result.
For instance, Spielberg's Lincoln and his recent Bridge of Spies are two films that celebrate some aspect of the American political ideal (such as freedom, unity, integrity,…
In this article, Grenier discusses the history of paranoia in political classes, dissecting groups according to ethnicity, political affiliation, and culture. He points to Stone's film on JFK as evidence that the paranoid class has evolved into a force worth reckoning. This article will be helpful to my paper because it highlights one of the ways in which the political establishment views critically the success of Stone's work.
King, Noel. "Reconsidering the film-politics relation." Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, vol. 6, no. 1 (1992): 228-235.
This study focuses on the way in which society is shaped by a film-political discourse, with cinema both reflecting the political ideology and attacking it at alternate intervals. Thus there is a tendency for the political establishment to reach out to and use Hollywood and a tendency for Hollywood to be both receptive to the embrace and resistant to it. The article is helpful to this paper because it shows how there is an uneven relationship between the political field and cinema and how a two-way flow can be perceived.
Nietzsche's "madman" and the Madness of the First orld ar as viewed "In Flanders's Field" and All Quiet on the estern Front
The essence of the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche is a stated view of human existence where all individuals possessing attributes of excellence or superiority are at odds with their complacent, or intellectually slumbering society. Nietzsche's supposed madman of his famous "Parable" voiced a critique and a prophesy of the world, a world that had killed God, for better or for worse. Yet the world, said the madman, temporarily remained willfully ignorant of this fact and thus the madman's truth remained unheard and deliberately misunderstood by the masses as merely the voice of madness, so spoke Nietzsche in the "Parable of the Madman." (Nietzsche, 1882).
In his parable as well, Nietzsche suggested that such willed acts of individual knowledge and by extension, excellence, in the form of 'killing God,'…
Nietzsche, Friedrich. "The Parable of the Madman." 1882. Retrieved on March 28, 2004 at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/nietzsche-madman.html
McCrae, John. "In Flanders Field." Retrieved on March 28, 2004 at http://www.yankeedoodles.net/inflandersfield.htm
political representation of African-Americans in the southern United States. The author explores many different theories as well as the ideas of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King to explore the under presentation of Blacks politically. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
African-Americans have come a long way since the nation's inception. From the days of slavery, to the present time many bridges have been crossed and many battles have been won. Gone are the days that Blacks were required to sit at the back of the bus.
No longer can Blacks be told they must eat at a certain restaurant. Black and white children go to school together daily, they grow up on the same streets and they marry into each other's race with increasing frequency. It is becoming the America that the founding fathers envisioned at the time the nation was created. One of the reasons…
Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man
Cornell, Stephen. The Return of the Native: American Indian Political Resurgence
Oxford University Press; Reprint edition (October 1990)
Swain, Carol. Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African-Americans in Congress
The political ideology I align with the most is libertarianism. A lot of Americans pay lip service to liberty, but I am not one of them. The libertarian political ideology is based on the fundamental principle of human liberty: that the government should not interfere in the lives of individuals unless their actions infringe on the rights of others. I believe that the founding fathers of the United States intended for a libertarian government, which evolved out of Enlightenment values and philosophies and made their way into the writings of luminaries like Thomas Jefferson, John Locke, David Hume, and Adam Smith (Boaz, 1999). While I am not surprised to recognize libertarianism as my own political ideology, I do not believe that the current Libertarian Party of the United States has sufficient support to replace either the Democratic Party or the Republican Party in terms of popularity or influence.
he Power Elite (1956) describes the relationship between political, military, and economic elite (people at the pinnacles of these three institutions), noting that these people share a common world view: 1) the "military metaphysic"- a military definition of reality, possess 2) "class identity"- recognizing themselves separate and superior to the rest of society, have 3) interchangeability: the move within and between the three institutional structures and hold interlocking directorates 4) cooptation/socialization: of prospective new members is done based on how well they "clone" themselves socially after such elite.
he United States represents the ideal place for the developing of the elite power. he way to understand the power of the American elite lies neither solely in recognizing the historic scale of events nor in accepting the personal awareness reported by men of apparent decision. Behind such men and behind the events of history, linking the two, are the major institutions…
The Power Elite (1956) describes the relationship between political, military, and economic elite (people at the pinnacles of these three institutions), noting that these people share a common world view: 1) the "military metaphysic"- a military definition of reality, possess 2) "class identity"- recognizing themselves separate and superior to the rest of society, have 3) interchangeability: the move within and between the three institutional structures and hold interlocking directorates 4) cooptation/socialization: of prospective new members is done based on how well they "clone" themselves socially after such elite.
The United States represents the ideal place for the developing of the elite power. The way to understand the power of the American elite lies neither solely in recognizing the historic scale of events nor in accepting the personal awareness reported by men of apparent decision. Behind such men and behind the events of history, linking the two, are the major institutions of modern society. Within American society, major national power now resides in the economic, the political, and the military domains.
The Marxist power is a philosophical, social theory and a political practice based on the works of Karl Marx. Together with Friedrich Engels, he developed one of his famous works Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. One of the main theories of Marxism is inspirited by Hegel's philosophy proposed a form of idealism in which the progress of freedom is the guiding theme of human history. Another theory is that of the labour. Marx proposed a systematic correlation between labour-values and money prices. He claimed that the source of profits under capitalism is value added by workers not paid out in wages. This mechanism operated through the distinction between "labour power,"
political contexts, both Presidents Bush and Clinton entered contentious budget negotiations with a Congress controlled by the opposition party in 1990 and 1995 respectively; however, each president experienced a different outcome. In Bush's case, he had to deal with both the Savings and Loan Crisis and a $2.8b debt -- the largest in the nation's history. Further, Bush entered negations hamstrung by a campaign pledge not to raise taxes on the American people. After a brief government shut-down, President Bush and Congress reached an agreement found in the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990, an act where not only government spending was cut, but also where Bush had to violate his campaign pledge and raise taxes. In President Clinton's case, he had to deal with the first full Republican Congress in forty years -- a congress which would demand a balanced budget where Clinton's budget projected a nearly $190b deficit…
conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement
Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the greatest impact on the effects of the movement - uckley and Rusher. These individuals, their beliefs, their principles were extremely influential in better understanding the origins, history, and leaders of American conservatism.
Momentous events shape the psyche of an individual as the person matures. A child grows up in poverty vows to never be like his parents, and keeps this inner vow to become a millionaire. A young woman experiences sexual trauma as a teen, and chooses a career that…
George Nash, The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945 http://www.nationalreview.com/22dec97/mcginnis122297.html . National review online The Origins of Conservatism George Mc Ginnis
Volume Library #2, p. 2146
Schneider, Cadres for Conservatism
McGinnis, National Review Online
The Variant Paths of Post-Communist Russia, Poland, and Hungary
The past ten years have seen great changes in the formerly Communist countries of Eastern Europe. Bound together for years under the Soviet yoke, these nations have now embarked upon their own individual paths as sovereign states. Representative of these emerging one-time Eastern Bloc nations are Russia, Poland, and Hungary. All three once shared a common form of government and a single social system. In each of these cases, Communism overlay a pre-existing civilization and set of traditions. This relatively brief interlude of Marxism, Leninism, and Stalinism was thus, a veneer, a covering over, if you will, of far older patterns of behavior and ways of thinking. It was these underlying cultural and historical characteristics that, combined with the shared history of Soviet rule, produced the countries we know today. Three distinct nations were put together into the crucible of…
Allison, Graham. "Deepening Russian democracy: progress and pitfalls in Putin's Government." Harvard International Review 24.2 (2002): 62+. Questia. 2 May 2003
internment camps for the Japanese that were set up and implemented by president Franklin D. oosevelt. The writer explores the history leading up to the decision and the decision itself. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor the American public was outraged and stunned. American citizens had lived with a false sense of security for many years that the soil of the United States was off limits. The Civil War and the American evolution were long in the past and residents believed that the world at large would be to afraid to attack a nation as strong and powerful as the United States. The attack came without warning, killing thousands who were within its grasp. When the smoke had cleared and the bombs had stopped, the nation turned a fearful eye to the white house for guidance. At the time the president was…
Japanese camps http://history1900s.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jainternment.org
EXECUTIVE ORDER 9066 http://history1900s.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pbs.org%2Fchildofcamp%2Fhistory%2Feo9066.html
Early Implementation of the Mass Removal http://www.densho.org/learning/spice/default.asp http://www.imdiversity.com/Article_Detail.asp?Article_ID=3228
Public opinion it can only exist in the context of a democratic society?
In a democratic society, it is presumed that information flows freely and that all citizens have equal access to information. On the contrary, it is also presumed that in undemocratic societies, the press is restricted. Citizens do not have access to information and therefore, the ability of people to form opinions is limited. Freedom of press is generally restricted in undemocratic societies and at least legally supported in democratic ones. However, democracy is not a prerequisite for public opinion. Public opinion can most certainly exist outside of the context of a democratic society. Moreover, public opinion in the context of a democratic society is often restricted due to issues like media conglomeration and poor educational systems.
A democratic society's political culture depends directly on public opinion, whereas an undemocratic society is structured so that public opinion has…
Reagan era economics and uses the economic era as a foundational support for the economic boom of the 1990's. The writer explores various published works regarding the Reagan Economic era including discussions about the trickle down theory and voodoo economics to lay the building blocks to explain the boom of the 1990's.
The economic boom of the 1990's brought America to heights it had not seen in many years. People were able to purchase what they wanted, when they wanted and in the quantity they wanted. The housing market soared and the quality standard of life seemed to improve more many Americans. It was a decade of self-discovery, and a decade of exciting stock, housing, auto and other economic avenues to explode. It lasted long enough for residents of this nation to become comfortable spending and that comfort drove the spending up. This in turn drove the economy forward and…
ASK SOMEONE ABOUT THE REAGAN YEARS AND YOU'RE LIABLE TO HEAR A VARIETY OF ANSWERS... (Accessed 10-10-2002). http://members.tripod.com/~BluEyedMan/
Author not available, Reagan economics didn't work in U.S. - or here., The Toronto Star, (1999): May.
Author not available, REAGAN TAX CUTS WERE FAIR TO EVERYONE., The Record (Bergen County, NJ),(1994): February. pp b04.
Author not available, The rising tide. The Washington Times (1999): July. pp B2.
e are consuming too many of our natural resources and our use of fossil fuels threaten the survival of our planet. The developing world seems to placing further strains upon the earth, with no signs of abatement in population growth or industrialization. e are torn apart by nationalism rather than united as a species, in the Middle East, in Africa, and Eastern Europe. e have more material goods, but less spiritual satisfaction.
In answer to all of these questions, we must look to the persona of Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi, first and foremost, grappled with issues afflicting the region, and the cultures and faiths that are most troubling to the geopolitical crisis of today, namely the tensions between the Muslim and Hindu populations of East Asia. He also provided many solutions to all peoples, not just his own. His philosophy of nonviolence inspired Martin Luther King Jr. He also embraced people…
Hughes, Langston. "Harlem." Langston Hughes. 12 Mar 2008. http://members.aol.com/olatou/hughes.htm
Owen, Wilfred. "Dulce et Decorum Est." Emory University. 12 Mar 2008. http://www.english.emory.edu/LostPoets/Dulce.html
Compromise and Politics
Public choice should be at the forefront of any politician's minds when compromising. However, many people working in politics recognize they are motivated by self-interests and personal ideologies as much as anyone else; however, compromise may not always occur in an atmosphere where political leaders place personal ethical beliefs over the need to govern through compromise.
Politics is supposedly the "art of compromise" (Boudreaux & Lee, 1997) where elected officials are expected to put voter's needs and wants ahead of personal agendas. Glaser (2006) notes that often the needs of the majority can become the wants and desire of the minority if a savvy politician has the ability to redirect attitudes and frame ideologies in a beneficial manner. However, in today's heated political arena, often "compromise" entails putting one's personal ideologies in place instead of the needs and wants of voters. To need to implement…
Bourdreaux, Donald & Lee, Dwight R. 1997 Winter. Politics as the art of confined compromise.
Cato Journal, 16(3). Cato Institute. Retrieved: http://www.cato.org/pubs/journal/cj16n3-6.html
Bovard, J. 1991. The fair trade fraud. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Glaser, J.M. (2006). Public support for political compromise on a volatile racial issue: insight from the survey experiment. Political Psychology, 27(3).
Political Legitimacy and the Nature of Authority Throughout History
From the origins of civilization to the middle of the seventeenth century, the nature of authority does change -- but it typically changes according to the demands of the individual society. In ancient times, authority is based on a number of factors, such as military might (in ome, Greece, Persia); but religious beliefs also play a part (the Greeks were very devoted to the gods and goddesses, for instance); and so too does the political process (in ome, they refused to have kings for a time) and in Athens, political authority lay in the democratic process (Haaren, Poland, 2000). In the medieval age, authority is based on the combination of reason and faith and the assent of kings to the oman Pontiff to allow the Church to have a say in the governance of Christendom, after Constantine allowed Christianity to come…
Elliott, J. H. (2009). Spain, Europe and the Wider World: 1500-1800. Yale University
Haaren, J., Poland, A.B. (2000). Famous Men of Greece C. Shearer, R. Shearer [Ed.].
Lebanon, TN: Greenleaf Press.
Justin Trudeau's election as Canadian Prime Minister represented a generational change in the country's politics. While there was a general belief that he was not ready to be Prime Minister, Trudeau used political skill and craftsmanship during the long election campaigns to defeat experience politicians. His election not only represents a generational change in Canadian politics but also has significant impacts on governance. In a recent phone call, he has indicated that he wants to re-establish the country with a new political system. This is influenced by the talks he has had regarding different kinds of political systems i.e. oligarchy, democracy, and the middle class. For Prime Minister Trudeau to choose the best system to rebuild the Canadian political system, an understanding of each of these systems is important.
One of the people who made significant contributions regarding oligarchy, democracy, and the middle constitution is Aristotle, a Greek…
Also, it can cause Americans to turn a blind eye to the abuses of industry. If every American's lot is improved by success, then why, for example, should the laborers in the steel mills see their lives as poorer rather than better because of the success of their capitalist employers?
McElroy's analysis is convincing in light of the fact that unions are far less powerful in America than they are in Europe, and how even today, after America adopted some programs to help the indigent, so many successful American corporations like Wal-Mart are still able to avoid unionization, and celebrate the company's success as a gift to society and its employees, as well as the corporation's founders. It also explains the assumption that achievement as the main determinant of social rank in America, rather than birth. This belief is the result of the American creation of a more socially mobile…
The dependency interactions were sustained by the cooperation of ranks and elites in the periphery who benefited from their economic associations with the core states.
On the other hand, the problem of underdevelopment was basically diagnosed on the basis of weaknesses of domestic ranks in poor countries. While these diagnoses recognized the exploitative global interactions between rich and poor states, they were conducted on the basis that poor countries failed to play a historic role in overhauling conventional elites and practices as well as leading political and economic development.
While the concepts developed by dependency theories were adopted by several developing countries, they were condemned for being too deterministic through an overemphasis on the role of global forces on nations in the South. This criticism included the fact that dependency theories were efficient in explaining why countries didn't develop as compared to their explanations on how some nations really developed.…
Dyck, R. (n.d.). The Politics of Development and Underdevelopment. In Studying Politics: An
Introduction to Political Science (pp. 372-400).
Dyck, R. (n.d.). WORLD POLITICS: Global Anarchy, Global Governance. In Studying Politics:
An Introduction to Political Science (pp. 434-452).
Bible Influence Political Thought and Action in Our Culture?
The Bible is a unique book that is different from others because it contains sacred text that has continued to influence societies from generation to generation. Generally, the impact of this sacred book is worldwide since it has affected every department of human activity. The influence of the Bible on society is derived from the fact that it contains various themes that are used to shape the moral progress of the world. In addition, the influence of this book is not restricted to Christians and Jews because it impacts more than 50% of the world population. One of the major ways that the Bible has influenced society is through its effects on politics, especially political thought and action. In most cases, the Bible is used as the basis for formation of laws and rules that govern society.
The Bible and Politics:…
Abramson, P.R. (2011). Politics in the Bible. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers, Rutgers.
"Biblical Principles of Politics." (n.d.). Developing a Worldview. Retrieved February 18, 2014,
Palmquist, S. (n.d.). The Bible's Political Vision. Retrieved February 18, 2014, from http://staffweb.hkbu.edu.hk/ppp/bth/bth3.html
Judicial Philosophy of the Supreme Court
Judicial philosophy is a concept that refers to the way judges understand and interpret the law in relation to the specific cases they are handling. This concept emerges from the fact that while laws are universal and broad, they need to be applied to specific cases based on the judge's understanding and interpretation of the law as well as the unique circumstances surrounding the case. The two most common judicial philosophies of the Supreme Court are judicial activism and judicial restraint, which have influenced various cases including Gore vs. Bush (2000) and Obergefell vs. Hodges (2015). Judicial activism refers to a philosophy in which judges depart from conventional precedents to adopt new, progressive social policies whereas judicial restraint is a philosophy in which judges limit the exercise of their own authority (Bendor, 2011).
Judicial activism of the Supreme Court influenced cases like Gore vs.…
Other factors include those as follows:
1) Differences in social background characteristics - this accounted for half of the turnout gap between the youngest two cohorts in the study of lais, Gidengil, Nadeau, & Nevittet (2002) which is attributed to a "weaker sense of voting duty."
2) The voters conceived there was little or no actual competition in the political race. (lais, Gidengil, Nadeau, & Nevittet, 2002)
3) Low level of interest and information of those born after 1970. (lais, Gidengil, Nadeau, & Nevittet, 2002)
The authors, lais, Gidengil, Nadeau, & Nevittet (2002) conclude their work by stating that: "The decline in turnout since the 1988 election does not bode well for the country's democratic health." (Ibid) The work of Dietlind Stolle and Marc Hooghe (nd) hold that each civic generation which is replaced by cohorts of a younger age causes the social capital stock of American communities to slowly…
Catt, Dr. Helena (2005) Now or Never -Children as Young People as Citizens; Participation, Provision and Protection. 6th Child and Family Policy Conference. Paper presented at the symposium 'Citizenship: Learning by Doing." Online available at http://www.elections.org.nz/now-or-never-lit-review.html
Stolle, D. And Hooghe, M. (nd) Inaccurate, Exceptional, One-Sided or Irrelevant? The Debate about the Alleged Decline of Social Capital and Civic Engagement in Western Societies. Online available at: Cambridge Journals Online.
Keller, Douglas (nd) Habermas, the Public Sphere, and Democracy: A Critical Intervention Douglas Kellner
Politicians and politics are terms that usually elicit fascination in nearly every conversation and discussion. Actually, it seems like people have some fascination with evaluation of political leaders resulting in the fact that biographies of current political figures become best sellers. In addition, the tragedies and triumphs of political leaders attract huge public attention as they become newspaper headlines. One of the major reasons for the increased fascination is because of curiosity about the personal characteristics, individual preferences, decision making processes, and the beliefs and work of these leaders. However, most of the analysis and learning about the personalities and leadership styles of these leaders is always carried out in a cursory manner. People have been forced to rely on analysis of what political leaders say as a means of learning their individual characteristics and leadership styles (Hermann, 2002). Nonetheless, it's still important to examine and understand the…
Hermann, M.G. (2002, November 13). Assessing Leadership Style: A Trait Analysis. Retrieved November 28, 2013, from http://socialscience.net/docs/lta.pdf
Mascuilli, J., Molchanov, M.A. & Knight, W.A. (n.d.). Political Leadership in Context.
Retrieved November 28, 2013, from http://www.ashgate.com/pdf/SamplePages/Ashgate_Research_Companion_to_Political_Leadership_Intro.pdf
McKeown, L. (2012, October 23). 3 Lousy Leadership Traits from the Campaign Trail.
International Political Economy and Globalization
1- Exercise your reasoning skills by using clear points and illustrations from Global Trade and Economy Industries, give two or more reasons which justify the definitions of Globalization. Use a reasonable meaning regardless of its rigidity and typical nature.
Globalization refers to the growing international dependency of worldwide nations and organizations as a result of cross-border trading of amenities, cultures, technological concepts as well as information. (Mingst and Arreguin 2011. 161)
Furthermore, the basic principle of globalization originates from the comparative advantage model. This model is of the notion that nations that are renowned globally to produce certain commodities are at an advantage of exporting those commodities to nations that are not capable of generating such goods. On the other hand, the less capable nation is also able to trade what it is best able to produce to the former nations. This results in trade…
Collaborative Learning Community on Issues elated to HIV / AIDS
Culture refers to a complex set of material, intellectual, spiritual and emotional characteristics that define a social group or a society. It comprises of fundamental rights, ways of life, traditional beliefs, and value systems in society. Some cultural beliefs, practices, and norms related to sexuality contribute to the spread and increased risk of HIV acquisition. Cultural beliefs such as negative attitudes towards the use of protective mechanisms such as condoms as well discussing its use among societies is one among the contributing factors. For example, men in some communities do not prefer using condoms because they consider flesh-flesh sex with masculinity and promotion of health.
Practices such as the male circumcision influence the risk of HIV disease. Studies show that the social practice significantly reduces the risks of HIV disease among them male during penile vaginal sex. Social practices embedded…
Hall, J.C., Hall, B.J., & Cockerell, C.J. (2011). HIV / AIDS in the post-HAART era: Manifestations, treatment, and epidemiology. Shelton, CT: People's Medical Pub. House- USA.
Jenkins, C.L. & Robalino, D.A. (2003). HIV / AIDS in the Middle East and North Africa: The costs of inaction. Washington, DC: World Bank
Stolley, K.S., & Glass, J.E. (2009). HIV / AIDS. Santa Barbara, Calif: Greenwood Press
World Bank (2001). HIV / AIDS in the Caribbean: Issues and options. Washington, DC: World Bank
Heidegger and Hitler
Proponents of Heidegger's metaphysical viewpoint are reluctant to identify a relationship between it and the opprobrious Nazi regime which Heidegger supported from 1933 to 1945. Critics of Heidegger, however, view the relationship between his metaphysics and his politics as significant. One might well ask, therefore, whether the relationship is real or only apparent -- whether the tenets of National Socialism are found in Heidegger's philosophy, or whether the fact that the two came from one man is merely a coincidence that ultimately means little.
Yet, by the formula of his own analysis (set forth in Contributions to Philosophy: Of the Event), one can see that Heidegger's metaphysics cannot be separated from his politics anymore than he himself can be separated from the environment and context in which he came to maturity. But while some scholars view Heidegger's political views as having an impact on his metaphysical views,…
Farias, Victor. Heidegger and Nazism. PA: Temple University Press, 1987. Print.
Gillespie, Michael Allen. Hegel, Heidegger, and the Ground of History. IL: University
of Chicago Press, 1984. Print.
Heidegger, Martin. Contributions to Philosophy: Of the Event. IN: Indiana University
According to Freud, human societies require people to give up many of their most natural instincts and to replace their natural desires with the need to satisfy the "false standards of measurement" such as the "power, success and wealth [that they seek] for themselves and admire & #8230; in others, and that [as a result,] they underestimate what is of true value in life." Fred suggested that the need to live up to the standards and expectations set by society causes "too many pains, disappointments and impossible tasks" and that "to bear it we cannot dispense with palliative measures." By that, Freud meant that all of the psychological mechanisms, substitutions, and escapes that cause psychological problems and that often prevent human happiness. These ideas introduced by Freud about the psychological price paid by people living in society would later be part of the views of several other 20th century sociological…
Plato and Aristotle's political theories
The most capacious account of Plato's established philosophical views has been published in "The epublic" as a comprehensive handling of the most basic values for the behavior of human life. As it deals with a large number of matters, The epublic can be interpreted in a lot of diverse manner: as a discourse on political conjecture and observation, as an academic manual, or the manner in which to protect moral behavior for instance. (Plato: The State and the Soul) Politics written by Aristotle gives a substantial assessment of the beginning and configuration of the nation. (Theme Analysis: The Politics) A significant matter to keep in mind while taking into account the opinion and involvement of Aristotle in Philosophy is the fact that he was there 2000 years back. One of the early foundations done by him was Lykeion that was involved solely with pure sciences,…
Boeding, Ron. Ideals of Aristotle and Hayek: A Synthesis. Retrieved from http://nb.vse.cz/kfil/elogos/history/boeding.htm Accessed on 8 November, 2004
Conceptions of Equality/Plato, Aristotle and additions. Retrieved from http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~stanlick/equality1.html Accessed on 8 November, 2004
Irbe, George. Aristotle's Spurned Legacy. 23 October, 2000. Retrieved from http://www.interlog.com/~girbe/Aristotle's%20legacy.html Accessed on 8 November, 2004
Kemerling, Garth. Aristotle: Politics and Art. 27 October 2001. Retrieved from http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/2t.htm Accessed on 8 November, 2004
.....controversy of establishing a court system at the creation of the U.S. Constitution centered on the power struggle between states and the creation of a federal, central government with its own court and ability to overrule state court decisions. The Constitution pitted Federalists against Anti-Federalists. The former wanted a central government that acted as the top force over all the states; the latter wanted no central government -- because, after all, the Revolutionaries had just fought a war against a king -- why should they turn around and elect a new one? The idea of sovereign states was such that each state was its own master and local citizens could have more say in their government at a localized, grassroots level. The passing of the Constitution essentially tipped the scales towards the centralized federal government having power over all the states (Brutus No. 1, 1787).
UNIT 1 DISCUSSION (2)
eligion played an important role in the lives of many of the Northern colonists as well, but by the time of the evolution it was not nearly so prevalent in the politics of the day as it had been during the earlier times of the Puritan and Pilgrim settlements. This was, in fact, one of the main societal -- and ultimately political -- differences between the Northern colonies and the rest of the British colonies. The quiet reserve and stoicism that was a strong part of the Puritan tradition persist even to this day, however, and was if anything stronger then than it is now. In certain ways, then, religion did play an important role in shaping New England society. Though its direct effects were muted by the time that the evolutionary action was beginning, the puritan streak influenced the personality of the culture and many of its individuals.
Bonomi, Patricia U. "Hippocrates' Twins': Religion and Politics in the American Revolution." The History Teacher, 29 (2), pp. 137-44.
Bushnell, Amy Turner. "Review: Another's Country: Archaeological and Historical Perspectives on Cultural Interactions in the Southern Colonies," J.W. Joseph and Martha Zierden, eds. The Journal of Southern History, 2002. Pp. 889-91.
Kierner, Cynthia A. "Hospitality, Sociability, and Gender in the Southern Colonies." The Journal of Southern History, 62 (3) pp. 449-480
Pagliassotti, Druann Lynn. "Apparel and attribute: The social construction of status in New England colonies and the United States." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southern California, United States -- California.
There are two constant irritations in U.S. pharma companies' relationships internationally:
Some developing nations, such as India, razil and South Africa, are chipping away at the patent situation, trying to shorten the time until the drugs can be brought out in generic form.
The U.S. has supported high prices as the cost for innovation. Since other countries are not playing along, this means that their citizens are benefiting from the innovation paid by Americans.
ig Pharma is at a crossroads today. The previous "great" chronic diseases, like diabetes, heart disease, infectious disease (viral and bacterial) have now been tackled by "blockbuster" drugs.
The high regulatory pressures, price pressures and lack of future such blockbuster markets dictates that pharma companies will have to innovate a lot more in niches -- more products, smaller markets. The large pharma companies which grew up in a time of plenty will therefore have to…
Bureau, U.S. Census. (2001). An Aging World. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
Economist. (2007, October 25). The Pharmaceutical Industry: Beyond the Pill. Economist, p. n.p.
Economist. (2007). World Atlas. London: Economist.
Herper, M. (2007, October 29). Drug Drought. Forbes, p. n.p.
history political philosophy sources political stability instability Machiavelli? Source: The Prince (Machiavelli), cited work the Prince My thesis Statement:The Prince, written 1513, intended a guide gave advice effective ruler stay power.
Niccolo Machiavelli's 1513 political treatise "The Prince" deals with a series of matters concerning political stability and the means available to make it possible. Considering that the writer lived in a period dominated by political instability, it is not surprising that some of the methods he proposed in order to restore order were somewhat unorthodox. From his perspective, moral acts were in certain situations pointless, as people actually needed to be controlled with the help of manipulating techniques. Machiavelli was basically interested in promoting the concept of evil, even with the fact that he attempted to mask this by posing in a person deeply concerned about his nation. He considered that in order to be able to control a…
Machiavelli, Niccolo. "The Prince," Plain Label Books, 1952.
Nederman, Cary, "Niccolo Machiavelli," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2009 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)
There are many interesting political actors in the world today, some who challenge conventional thinking and others who reiterate the status quo. Though former Prime Minister Tony Blair is not always thought of as the most popular of public figures, in large part due to his involvement of the UK in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq he is a formidable political activist, for change. Tony Blair is clearly one of the most influential political leaders of the modern era. He demonstrates significant and sound reasoning in areas where many politicians and others seek to either look the other way or follow the popular reasoning of others. Blair became a political activist in the Labour party at a relatively young age and much that he went through within his early life molded his later opinions and strategies for change, especially with regard to environmental change and sustainable living and…
Blair, T. 2010, A journey: My political life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf
Radice, G. 2010, Trio: Inside the Blair, Brown, Mandelson project. London: I.B. Tauris.
The Office of Tony Blair, 2012 Website: http://www.tonyblairoffice.org/pages/biography/
.....dreamed of becoming successful the field of social work or another career that involves helping people, I was told that I could not succeed in college because of my learning disability. The situation occurred when I was applying to join college to advance my professional development and skills. Throughout high school, I was in an individualized education program (IEP) because of the learning disability. I obtained decent grades in high school and also held several leadership and volunteer positions because of my passion to help others. However, when applying for college, I was told that I may not succeed because the learning disability was affecting my academic performance. The school administration told me that the course I was applying for was very demanding and a learning disability would affect my chances of success.
The situation was influenced by some external social, political and cultural factors, which made the school administration…
Values and Beliefs:
Transformation and Change
Perhaps one of the most interesting aspects of the human psyche is how one's personal values and beliefs can transform and change. Whereas, one previously might have imagined that one's value systems and beliefs were "set in stone," events, circumstances, relationships, and changing community membership can either slowly or suddenly work to change one's central beliefs quite unexpectedly. Although many individuals can experience a real sense of personal internal resistance or struggle to changing beliefs and values (perhaps akin to the stereotypical "midlife crisis"), some respond to value change quite readily and without emotional crisis. However, regardless of how one responds, belief and value change is a normal and typically inevitable for those who function in a wide variety of relationships, communities, and situations.
Relationships and Communities:
Their Central Function
Cultural anthropologists have long known the important role that community, and the relationships within…
The line of legitimacy, separating socially approvable use of force from violence, cannot be effectively drawn without an agreement on what constitutes the optimum amount of force necessary to maintain social order and to protect human rights against encroachment. A society subscribing to infinite morality which condemns all use of force as immoral is doomed no less than a society accepting the absolute pragmatism of tyrants. "
As Oleg Zinam proposes, these two extreme social attitudes to morality are equally unprofitable to the societies that adopt them. The attitude of absolute pragmatism can easily lead to the acceptance of political assassinations, as long as such acts may help the final political purpose. An example of absolute pragmatism can be the regime initiated by Hitler, who ordered the extermination of all Jews in an attempt to "purify" the human race by excluding anyone who did not fill in the Arian ideal.…
Ben-Yehuda, Nachman. 1997. Political Assassination Events as a Cross- Cultural form of Alternative Justice.
International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol.38: 25-30.
Feliks, Gross. 1974. The Revolutionary Party. Essays in the Sociology of Politics. Westport: Greenwood
Marion Barry on Political Perceptions in D.C.
This paper examines the political life of Marion Barry, former mayor of Washington D.C. And current member of Washington's city council. Barry was arrested and convicted of possession of crack. He has also been linked to a number of other political and personal scandals. This paper attempts to determine: the impact Barry's contemporaries believed his actions would have on his political career; the impact that his actions have had on his political career; how Barry remains politically relevant after a criminal conviction; the role that race plays in Barry's continued political viability; and what Barry's continued political viability say about the current state of racial relations in the United States.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Framing the Problem
Chapter 3. Study Questions
Chapter 4. Data Collection, Composition, and eporting
Chapter 5. Discussion
Chapter 6. Conclusion
Chapter 1: Introduction…
A&E. (2013). Marion S. Barry, Jr. Retrieved April 9, 2013 from Biography website:
Ashley, J. (1990, January 21). The Barry years: Triumphs and troubles. Retrieved April 9,
2013 from The Washington Post website: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/local/longterm/library/dc/barry/timeline.htm
" (IST, 1)
Nonetheless, India holds that Pakistan has both a significant motive to see attacks on Indian soil carried out without proper retribution and that its commitment to eroding the forces of terrorism generated by its own people may be regarded as nominal at best. Quite indeed, the political pressure imposed by the United States may be matched or even overshadowed by the political pressures instigated by its own populace. One may deduce in fact that there are substantial sectors of the population which if not supportive of extremism or participating and funding in any such activities, may nonetheless find some sympathy for the idea that political and economic causes are the primary impetuses for acts of 'terrorism.'
Nonetheless, Pakistan's opportunity for growth and improvement does hinge on these efforts, at least according to the United States. Even under new leadership, the U.S. has continued to make its Pakistan…
Associated Press of Pakistan (APP). (2009). Pakistan Dealing With Challenges Courageously: Governor Sindh. Associated Press of Pakistan Corporation. Online at Dawn Media Group (DMG). (2009). 'U.S. Forces Not to Be Allowed to Operate Inside Pakistan. Dawn.com.
Hitti, P. (1943). History of the Arab People. Princeton University Press.
IST. (2009). Pakistan wants Unconditional Talks With India. The Times of India. Online at http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/news/india/Pakistan-wants-unconditional-talks-with-India-Qureshi/articleshow/5022368.cms
Kronstadt, K. Alan. (Jan. 2005). Pakistan-U.S. Relations. CRS Issue Brief for Congress. Online at < http://www.fas.org/man/crs/IB94041.pdf >
Personal to Politics
Impacts of Racial Discrimination on American Society
The difference between white and black is centuries old. There were times when Nigers were considered as slaves, then there were times when they were declared free but I still believe that deep down the white culture lies the black foundation. Being a racist on the basis of skin color is nothing new in American culture. I was once a strong believer of discriminating on the basis of skin color but time proved me wrong and showed me how wrong I was and how humanity is above everything, every culture, every color, every race.
I had a friend with the name Dean, black guy from Nigeria. His parents shifted in New york long time but used to visit their home town very often. We spent almost our whole childhood together. Those were the good days when we were completely innocent…
The new rebuilt and equipped factories were net superior to those of America or other victorious states.
Demographic factor more recent internal factor that tends to influence Japan's economy is of demographic nature. However still increasing, the population of Japan is increasing at a lower rate than that of a decade ago. Not only the reduced birth rate contributes to the demographic decrease, but also the more and more obvious market liberalization and individuals' migration towards better paid jobs in other countries.
This means that the country is left with less young workers and more retired people with no other income that their pension. In the times to come, the larger number of pensioners than that of the working population will turn out to be a bourdon upon the shoulders of Japan.
Also, another demographic factor of great importance is the recent migration from the country side to the city.…
Wikipedia, The Free Online Encyclopedia, November 9, 2006, Economic History of Japan, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_history_of_Japan,last accessed on November 26,
Valignano, Alessandro, 1584, Historia del Principo y Progresso de la Compania de Jesus en las Indias Orientales
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