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Political Risk Essays (Examples)

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Risks in Export Market There Is Need
Words: 2999 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15394285
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isks in Export Market

There is need for companies to develop a professional approach before venturing into the exporting business. The management of the company is supposed to be committed extremely as well as devoting time and money in commencing the campaigns of export. A company is supposed to be ready to face greater competition as well as more stringent rules and regulations concerning products and packaging due to the variance in rules to which or across which the company will be exporting.

In the process of exportation, there are a number of risks that the company will face. These elements of risks are encountered in every commercial transactions as well as the complexity of the environments that exporters operate in. The content of this paper will analyze risks that a company can face while entering the field of exporting as well as discussing the roles of intermediaries in the…

References

Aaby, N. & S. Slater. (1989). Management Influences on Export Performance: A Review of the Empirical Literature1978-88. International Marketing Review, 6: 7-26.

Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen & Stephen J. Redding & Peter K. Schott, (2007). "Firms in International Trade," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(3), pages 105-130, Summer.

Barney, J. (1991). Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage. Journal of Management, 17: 99-120.1997. Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage. Reading, MA: Addison.

Cornelius Bothma (2012). Managing your export risk. EXPORTHELP. Retrieved April 13, 2012 from  http://www.exporthelp.co.za/modules/10_risk/intro.html

Political the Amount of Political Influence Varies
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88957690
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Political

The amount of political influence varies depending on the type of company. In the case of an industry needing a great deal of capital invested, they may be more susceptible to political risk. In the case of strapak the investment is moderate and does not require heavy foreign direct investment strategies. Though there is a need to export plastic products outside the country of South frica, the amount of required for manufacturing companies is far less than say for example an energy product industry. The amount of risk rises when the government makes changes based on politically correct moves to garner favor with global strategies such as environmental issues (Bothma, 2011). The regulations that the government can impose on a company can quickly affect its bottom line. The highest level of political risk comes from civil issues between domestic people groups. nother is war that can affect the ability…

At Astrapak there is only the competition to become better than the previous year. The focus is on quality improvement and an ever higher level of service. Instead of divisions competing against each other, they are poised to continuously improve. In fact the level of improvement in manufacturing due to numerous adjustments to techniques has put the firm at the front of the industry. So much so that foreign competitors are not outsourcing their packaging to Astrapak's affiliated companies rather than compete (Astrapak, 2004).

The BCG product life cycle puts products in four basic categories within the company portfolio. The first is the star or high growth product with the largest portion of the market. This is where the most revenue is invested and the highest return is expected.

The second is the cash cow that is equal to low growth due to stability in the market. This product is well-known and received it is a standard in the industry and

Risk Tolerance and the Prisoner's
Words: 3024 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 42745036
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. Research Design Rationale

1. Question format: In order to allow the research study to become embedded in the field of economics, the research question will use an applied question format. The purpose of the study is to develop a predictive method regarding player choices in the Prisoner's dilemma. It will explore the association of risk and cooperation or defection in the Prisoner's

Dilemma.

2. Research design: The research will use a deductive approach where the theory will be presented and tested through the methodology. The research will use quantitative research methods, which are suited for research where the information can be reduced to a numerical format. This is the case in the proposed study as both risk tolerance and the decisions made in the Prisoner's Dilemma can be reduced to numerical data and standard statistical methods applied.

III. Data/Information from Previous research

A. Literature Review

The literature review for…

Bibliography (Preliminary)

Agarwal, J. & Feils, D. (2007). Political Risk and the Internationalization of Firms: an Empirical

Study of Canadian-based Export and Fdi Firms. Canadian Journal of Administrative

Sciences. 24 (3): 165+. Questia Database.

Ansell, C. & Gash, a. (2008). Collaborative Governance in Theory and Practice. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 18 (4): 543+. Questia Database.

Risks of Trading and Investing Involving a
Words: 2591 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 48831559
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isks of Trading and Investing:

Involving a Developing Country with a Developed Country's Business

Description of XYZ Corporation

It will be the assumption within this paper that the multinational corporation depicted resides within the United States, a developed country, while it is trying to generate business with Ecuador, a developing country. A multinational corporation is a corporation that operates by supervising or transports products or services to more than one country. XYZ Corporation is a competitive multinational corporation deeply interested in expanding its business to countries in which they have not already established business in. The company currently focuses on the manufacturing and the wholesale of products in the oil and petroleum industries. Most of XYZ Corporation's foreign entities are located in the Middle East. ecently, a member of the XYZ team has given vital information to corporate executives explaining that Ecuador has enormous oil and petroleum potential that could…

References

Carroll, A.B. (1991). The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: towards the moral management of organizational stakeholders-balancing economic, legal, and social responsibilities. Retrieved January 14, 2011 from  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1038/is_n4_v34/ai_11000639/pg_2/ 

Ecuador.us. (2009, December 21). Ecuador economy, Ecuador exports, Ecuador business.

Retrieved January 15, 2010 from http://www.ecuador.us/business.htm

EconomyPoint.org. (2006). Rate of exchange regime. Retrieved January 13, 2011 from http://www.economypoint.org/r/rate-of-exchange-regime.html

Risks and Challenges in Doing
Words: 1968 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13252953
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As a means to gain access to several million people who live a estern lifestyle, South Africa can be a good country to enter, but as a growth story it is much less exciting. Only when the GDP per capita of black and mixed-race South Africans begins to grow rapidly will the country be a truly attractive one for most companies. Arguably, the Human Development Index is a better measure, because it can reflect the overall potential of a nation like South Africa, where the development of one segment of the population is more critical to the market's potential than GDP, which is driven by another segment of the population.

A fourth reason why average per-capita income is not always the best indicator of an emerging market's potential lies in the Gulf States. Many Gulf States have very high average GDP per capita figures, driven by oil revenues. The lifestyle…

Works Cited:

Gibson, K. (2002). A case for the family-owned conglomerate. McKinsey Quarterly. Retrieved October 18, 2012 from  http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/A_case_for_the_family-owned_conglomerate_1238 

Rajwani, S. (2011). How should firms deal with political risk? Cranfield University. Retrieved October 18, 2012 from  http://www.som.cranfield.ac.uk/som/p16495/Think-Cranfield/2011/May-2011/How-Should-Firms-Deal-with-Political-Risk 

Sargeant, N. (2006). What risks do organizations face when engaging in international finance activities? Investopedia. Retrieved October 18, 2012 from  http://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/06/internationalfinancerisks.asp#axzz29f2QIadw 

Tata.com (2012). Heritage. Tata Group. Retrieved October 18, 2012 from  http://www.tata.com/htm/heritage/HeritageOption1.html

Risk That One Needs to Be Concerned
Words: 2127 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43954874
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risk that one needs to be concerned with when selling a franchise (and this is a general case, not only the case of Germany) is that the franchiser (that is, the person who buys the franchise) may not fulfill all his contractual obligations. These include a certain quality standard and a brand image of the mother company (the franchisor). This obviously may lead to the fact that the customers will associate with the mother company a certain level of quality that is less than that agreed upon and less that the one the company actually has in the country of origin. This can cause serious prejudice to the brand image. If we think of a classical case of franchising, McDonald's, a level of quality may include a certain degree of organization, in order to avoid long lines, a certain quality of the products (for example, the franchise contract foresees that…

Analyzing the Risk Management
Words: 3962 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64888014
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isk Management Plan for Exxon Mobil

A risk management process is a systematic application of management policies for the purpose of identifying, analyzing, evaluating and mitigating any possible risks within an organization. The following paper focuses on formulation of risk management plan for Exxon Mobil, one of the world's most renowned oil and gas companies. The risks would be identified and selected applicable to this firm and after their evaluation, a risk treatment plan would be advised.

Establish the isk Context

Identifying the Context for isk Assessment

eviewing current organizational processes

Being in the gas and power marketing department of the company, there are certain risks applicable within my area of operation. In order to clearly determine those risks, first, a comprehensive look at Exxon Mobil's organizational processes along with a SWOT analysis is presented. The firm is dedicated to create and maintain an environmental policy that would protect the…

References

Bastian, B.L. & Tucci, C. (2010). An empirical investigation on the effects of political risk on technology strategies of firms, presented at Summer Conference 2010, London, 2010. London: Imperial College London Business School. Retrieved from http://www2.druid.dk/conferences/viewpaper.php?id=501908&cf=43

Exxon Mobil. (n.d.). About us: How we operate. Retrieved from  http://lubes.ExxonMobil.com/Lubes/about_how.aspx 

Green Peace. (2011). Risks and potential impacts of oil exploration in the Arctic. Retrieved from  http://www.greenpeace.org/international/Global/international/publications/climate/2011  / FinalArcticBriefing2011.pdf

Hirsch, A. (2011, June 17). Exxon Mobil accused of 'fraud' in Jacksonville gas spill trail. The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved from  http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/maryland/baltimore - county/bs-md-co-exxon-trial-closing-20110617-story.html

Risk of Legalizing Marijuana on
Words: 1757 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40921826
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Fact 9:

Europe's more liberal drug policies are not the right model for America.

Fact 10:

Most non-violent drug users get treatment, not jail time. (Legalization, 2010).

Conclusion

There are no benefits for society in the legalization of marijuana. The money from the taxing of the marijuana will end up being use to regulate and enforce the dispensaries. The money to treat the addiction will be another source of lost revenues from the taxation.

Increased usage by underage teens will be the same as cigarettes and alcohol and will increase as the price drops as it did in the Dutch experiment. Kids will be introduced onto the drug culture that leads to the use of the harder narcotics as a result of the increased access to the marijuana. The benefits will be just moved from one area to other areas of criminalization.

eferences

DEA website. 2010. etrieved on May 10,…

References

DEA website. 2010. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from  http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/jan-june01/drugs_marijuanaharm.html 

"Feature: Hundreds of Los Angeles Medical Marijuana Dispensaries Face Closure Under New Rules Passed by Council" 2010. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from  http://stopthedrugwar.org/chronicle/618/los_angeles_medical_marijuana_dispensary_ordinance_approved 

Joffe, a. & Yancy, W. "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth." 2004. PEDIATRICS Vol. 113 No. 6 June 2004, pp. e632-e638. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from  http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/113/6/e632 

"Legalization- Arguments Pro and Con." 2010 Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from  http://www.libraryindex.com/pages/2395/Legalization-ARGUMENTS-PRO-CON.html

Risk and Insurance Management Risk Is Believed
Words: 3537 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 19934087
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isk and Insurance Management

isk is believed to be a newly coined word of assurance (for example, Ewald, 1991: 198). One of the broadly shared suppositions regarding insurance is that it spins around an instrumental concept of risk. Possibility and the amount of influence make up a technical concept of hazard/risk and hazard administration is chiefly worried about reviewing these possibilities and influences (for an overview see Gratt, 1987). For instance, external profits of financial or political occurrences lay down thresholds for the availability of associated risk guesstimates or reckonings (Huber, 2002).

So, the range of the risk groups cannot be clarified by risk judgment single-handedly; peripheral circumstances that could be political, financial or inclusive of image, arts and manners, are also required to be taken into account. Therefore, if risks are not be present, per se, but are deliberately selected, we can go a step ahead and presume them…

References

Douglas, M. And Wildavsky, A. (1982) Risk and Culture. An Essay on the Selection of Technical and Environmental Dangers. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Evers, A. And Nowotny, H. (1987) Uber den Umgang mit Unsicherheit. Die Entdeckung der Gestaltbarkeit von Gesellschaft. Frankfurt / Main: Suhrkamp.

Ewald, F. (1991) 'Insurance and Risk' in Burchell, G., Gordon, C. And Miller, P. (eds.) The Foucault Effect: studies in governmentality . London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Gratt, L.B. (1987) 'Risk Analysis or Risk Assessment: a proposal for consistent definitions' in Covello, V. And Lave, L. (eds.) Uncertainty in Risk Assessment, Risk Management and Decision Making, Advances in Risk Analysis (4). New York: Plenum Press.

Risks of International Expansion Given
Words: 456 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76498431
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Administrative and political distance risk is most seen from the standpoint
of legal and financial institutions, the monetary systems and political
associations and the role of foreign governments in defining the barriers
to entry for foreign businesses. Geographic distance risks have more to do
with the physical distance and varying climates. The geographic distance
set of risks also capture the lack of potential infrastructure due to
remoteness. The economic distance risk assessments include the different
information or knowledge process workflows throughout a culture and the
blind-spots this causes for many companies in creating the strategies to
move into another company. There are many risks also present in the
economic distance of given foreign nation, emanating from the differences
in consumer incomes and wide variations in costs and quality of natural,
financial, and human resources.
In assessing the risks of global expansion, it is critical to consider the
use of analytical…

References:
Ghemawat (2001) - Distance Still Matters: The Hard Reality of Global
Expansion. Harvard Business Review. Pankaj Ghemawat. Harvard Business
School Press. Cambridge, MA September, 2001.

Risk Management in Family Owned Businesses
Words: 4161 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78895817
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isk Management in Family Owned Businesses

A family business can be simply described as "any business in which a majority of the ownership or control lies within a family, and in which two or more family members are directly involved" (Bowman-Upton, 1991). In other words, it is a multifaceted, twofold structure consisting of the family and the business meaning that the involved members are both the part of a job system and of a family system (Bowman-Upton, 1991).

Most families seek stability, intimacy, a sense of community, and belonging through the family business (Hess, 2006). On the other hand, whenever family and business are mentioned together, a majority of people think of continuous conflict, competition and contention (Crenshaw, 2005). However, "successful family businesses do not let the family destroy the business or the business destroy the family" (Hess, 2006).

The family-owned businesses are the backbone of the world financial system.…

References

Barrese, J., & Scordis, N. (2003). Corporate Risk Management. Review of Business, 24 (3), Retrieved August 17, 2012 from  http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-111508707/corporate-risk-management 

Bodine, S.W., Anthony, P., & Walker, P.L. (2001). A Road Map to Risk Management: CPAs Can Help Companies Manage Risk to Create Value. (Consulting). Journal of Accountancy, 192 (6), Retrieved August 17, 2012 from  http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-80750205/a-road-map-to-risk-management-cpas-can-help-companies 

Bowman-Upton, N. (1991). Transferring Management in the Family-Owned Business. Retrieved August 14, 2012 from http://archive.sba.gov/idc/groups/public/documents/sba_homepage/serv_sbp_exit.pdf

Caspar, C., Dias, A.K., & Elstrodt, H. (2010, January).The Five Attributes of Enduring Family Businesses. Retrieved August 15, 2012 from http://www.businessfamily.ca/cert_register_files/Web Downloads/McKinsey Quarterly - Jan 2010.pdf

Risk Resulting From International Business
Words: 543 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 85104750
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Risks From International Business

What are some risks of international business that may not exist for local business?

There are many risks inherent in competing on a global or internal level compared to being a local business. As the chapter suggests, there is a much greater level of economic and socio-political pressure on governments to work together for the common good of the global economy. Despite these best intentions, global macroeconomic factors often cause nations to restrict or unnecessarily increase the cost of transactions and trade based on fear over the trading partner's economies. Such is the case for American companies attempting to gain sales within China, whose government holds nearly $1.1 trillion in U.S.-based debt. China and the United States are two of the more powerful economic forces in the global economy, and as their economies go, so goes the world. What this means for international businesses is that…

Political and Economic Differences Consider Effects of
Words: 1430 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70791231
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Political and Economic Differences

Consider

Effects of the financial crisis on the developing world vs. The developed world

The 2008 financial crisis began in the American banking sector but its impact was soon felt around the world. Both the developed and the developing world were affected. However, not all nations were crippled by the drying-up of credit and consumer demand to an equal degree. Some nations were derailed in their attempts to progress economically and politically; other nations, particularly in the Far East, emerged relatively unscathed.

The populations affected in different areas of the world economy also varied from nation to nation. For example, in many regions of the developing world, women often have the status of 'second class citizens' for cultural and political reasons. But the crisis in the U.S. was often called a 'male' recession, because the hardest-hit sectors were traditionally male-dominated fields, in the form of the…

References

Bernanke, Ben. (2009). Asia and the global financial crisis. Federal Reserve.

 http://www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/speech/bernanke20091019a.htm 

Chia, Siow Yue. (2010). Singapore weathers the crisis and prepares for a better year. East Asia

Forum. Retrieved September 8, 2011 at  http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2010/01/12/singapore-weathers-the-crisis-and-prepares-for-a-stronger-year/

Risk-Free Government Bonds Are Called Risk-Free Because
Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57895281
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Risk-Free

Government bonds are called risk-free because they will be paid back. he underlying assumption is that the U.S. reasury can always print more money in order to finance the payback of these bonds. hat does not by any means make the bonds truly risk-free, but they are guaranteed to return face value. here are actually a few different ways in which government bonds are risky.

A recent change to the more orthodox view of government bond risk is that U.S. government bonds were downgraded in 2011, something that had never happened previously. his has not changed the market view of U.S. government paper, but it does imply that, according to one rating agency at least, the bonds of some other governments are less risky than the bonds of the U.S. government. hat said, the risk conditions of U.S. bonds have not changed. hey are still considered risk free because…

The risk of default in U.S. government bonds, aside from political shenanigans like the debt ceiling debacle in the summer of 2011, lies largely with the federal budget. This is known as sovereign risk. The sovereign risk of the United States, and several other developed nations, is very low. With other countries, however, there are genuine budget issues that make default a possibility. In the Eurozone, for example, nations like Greece are struggling to meet their debt payments. With Greece, there is no ability for the government to print more money in order to cover its obligations, and that increases the sovereign risk. Nations that have their own currencies do not have this type of risk, but still have sovereign risk to the extent that they could find themselves one day without enough cash to pay their obligations.

It should be noted that part of the reason that government bonds give a return is not related as much to risk as it is to providing the incentive to invest. Governments issue debt because they need to raise funds. If there was no return given on that debt, nobody would invest. Therefore, there must be some sort of return offered, in order to entice investors. The rate is typically set in regard to the opportunity cost of capital, and the market yield will reflect the market's views about the sovereign risk associated with debt.

Thus, risk free securities are not truly risk free. There is the risk of default, although this risk is very minor. There is the risk as well that the value of the investment will not be much. In the event of hyperinflation, for example, the value of the money might be very low. However, the value will always be paid out because the Treasury can print that money. The interest rate reflects, in addition to an enticement to invest, the combined risk of default and the risk associated with expected future interest rate moves.

Political and Economic Imlications of
Words: 1677 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6928414
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The newly independent states were generally rated according to high level of political, economic or social risk (not entirely untrue), which meant that the levels of interest were generally extremely high. Even more, the sums paid for interest would generally surpass the actual funds that had been received. This meant that, instead of focusing the country's resources on development and internal projects, most of it had to be spent paying off debts which were not even viable and extremely costly.

On the other hand, from an international perspective, international debt is something fundamentally essential to the financial markets. Money is made to circulate and move around, which means that entities need to be connected to the financial markets, borrow on the open markets and use that money to create added value and generate more cash flow. The fact that, in many cases in the developing world, this mechanism was in…

Bibliography

1. Perkins, John (2004). Confessions of an Economic Hitman. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

2. Herz, Noreena. The Debt Threat: How Debt is Destroying the Developing World. Democracy Now! January 2005.

3. Strange, S. (1986) Casino Capitalism, Oxford, OUP

4. Block, F. (1997). The Origins of International Economic Disorder.

Political Backgrounder Nova Scotia
Words: 607 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19021537
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Political Backgrounder: Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia, Canada -- Political Background in the context of environmentalism

Darrell Dexter is Nova Scotia's incumbent premier and the 27th Premier of the province since the Confederation. Dexter was elected leader of the Nova Scotia New Democratic Party in 2001 and was sworn in as Prime Minster on June 18, 2009. Both he and the Nova Scotia New Democratic Party have strict views with regard to environmentalism, as the province is actively involved in becoming a global leader in green energy before 2020. As Dexter puts it, "This is about making the right decisions for our economy and our environment. e are putting our energy future where it belongs, back in Nova Scotians' hands." (New Plan To Create Jobs, Stable Electricity Prices, Cleaner Environment)

Darrel thinks about green energy as being more than a means to guarantee a safer future for people when concerning matters…

Works cited:

"New Plan To Create Jobs, Stable Electricity Prices, Cleaner Environment," Retrieved July 23, 2013, from the Nova Scotia Website:  http://novascotia.ca/news/smr/2010-04-23-wind.asp 

"Renewable Electricity Plan," retrieved July 23, 2013, from the Nova Scotia Website:  http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/renewable/renewable-electricity-plan.pdf 

"Sable Island National Park Reserve," Retrieved July 23, 2013, from the Megan Leslie New Democratic Party Website:  http://meganleslie.ndp.ca/

Political Scientific and Social Views
Words: 1243 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 81904963
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Certainly, one could tell from your presentation that your political past and present has not yet left you, but the valid ideas remain. My discourse is structured less on what we should do, but rather on how water is both a commodity and a public good.

Moderator: Excellent, but please make sure you don't get into a fight with Paul's rigorous political approach!

Karen akker: Right, will do. We can all understand why water is a public good: because the public drinks it, washes with it and uses it for water balloons. On the other hand, there are companies who see that water can also be a commodity and, as such, they stock the water in water balloons and them sell them, either to the state, in public-private partnerships, or directly to the population. France is a good example in this sense, but then, it was also them who had…

Bibliography

1. Muldoon, Paul, and Theresa McClenaghan. 2007. "A tangled web: Reworking Canada's water laws." In Eau Canada: The future of Canada's water, ed. Karen Bakker, 245-261. Vancouver: UBC Press

2. Barlow, Maude. 2007. Blue Covenant: The Global Water Crisis and the Coming Battle for the Right Water.

3. Boyd, David. 2003. Unnatural Law: Rethinking Canadian Environmental Law and Policy. Vancouver UBC Press.

4. Bakker, Karen. 2003. Liquid Assets. Alternatives Journal. 29 (2). P. 17-21

Political Ideas in Conflict One
Words: 1371 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19320204
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In his book, Government and Politics: A Documentary History of Kong, Steve Tsang (1995), discussed the pre-transitional government and history of that government in Hong Kong. For all intents and purposes, the government in China's influence over Hong Kong was virtually non-existent since the UK's presence on the island (271). In fact, the political environment in Hong Kong was one that made it safe for the island to receive political refuges (Ash et al. 199). There was concern that those individuals would be very much at risk in a post hand over environment.

In a study conducted by Lee-In Chen Chiu, Ding Yi, Si Joong Kim, on Bae Kim, Reginald Yin-ang Kwok, Hong Yung Lee, Karen Eggleston Lee, Li uwei, Shelley M. Mark, Manuel F. Montes, Richard Pomfret, Alvin Y. So, Shi Min, Sung Shou ei, Yibo Xu, Zhang Zhongli, Lishui Zhu, Sumner J. La Croix, Michael Plummer, Keun Lee;…

Works Cited

 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98000082 

Ash, Robert, Peter Ferdinand, Brian Hook, and Robin Porter, eds. Hong Kong in Transition: The Handover Years. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2000. Questia. 11 Dec. 2007  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98000084 .

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=91896558

Chiu, Lee-In Chen, et al. Emerging Patterns of East Asian Investment in China: From Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Ed. Sumner J. La Croix, Michael Plummer, and Keun Lee. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1995. Questia. 11 Dec. 2007  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=91896560 .

Political Science Politics of Food
Words: 1706 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 50976700
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There is some hope within some countries but maybe no hope between countries. As long as there are disparities within the economic balances of different countries there will always be food being used as a political weapon. Those countries that do have adequate supplies of food though, have a hope to balance their food politics out within themselves. There is the possibility of providing more food for the poor within countries in order to better balance the accessibility across the nation.

eferences

Food Security and Political Stability in the Asia-Pacific. (n.d.). etrieved July 29, 2010, from Web site: http://www.apcss.org/Publications/eport_Food_Security_98.html

Kassem, Yara. (2005). Food: A Political or Nutritional Tool? etrieved July 29, 2010, from Panorama Web site:

http://www.tigweb.org/express/panorama/article.html?ContentID=5697

Political Economy of Food. (2010). etrieved July 29, 2010, from Answers Web site:

http://www.answers.com/topic/political-economy-of-food

Smyth, Paul. (2009). Michael Pollan Makes Food Political. etrieved July 29, 2010, from City

Beat Web site: http://www.citybeat.com/cincinnati/article-18861-michael-pollan-makes-food-political.html

Williams,…

References

Food Security and Political Stability in the Asia-Pacific. (n.d.). Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Web site:  http://www.apcss.org/Publications/Report_Food_Security_98.html 

Kassem, Yara. (2005). Food: A Political or Nutritional Tool? Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Panorama Web site:

 http://www.tigweb.org/express/panorama/article.html?ContentID=5697 

Political Economy of Food. (2010). Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Answers Web site:

Political Influence Over Stem Cell
Words: 2905 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 14376102
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Going back further, the same religious principals also inspired opposition to organ transplants and blood transfusions; before that, the Catholic Church strictly forbade any forensic scientific research, necessitating the need to dissect cadavers for medical education entirely in secret (Levine, 2008).

Just as the news media are partially at fault today for their failure to distinguish legitimate concerns from ludicrous fears in connection with the ongoing political debate over American healthcare, they are equally responsible for allowing unfounded fears of "human cloning" in connection with the beneficial uses of stem cell science. Specifically, the main source of secular opposition to stem cell research is attributable to unnecessary fears of rampant misuse of human cloning technology to clone human beings. While human cloning is hypothetically possible, no responsible scientific researcher would ever misuse current biomedical technology in that fashion. The complexities of cloning entire organisms have been well documented in animal…

References

Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. Boston: Little

Brown & Co.

Friedrich, M. "Researchers Make the Case for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research"

The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 292(7); August 18, 2004:

Risk Management Strategy for Terrorism in the UK
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isk Management of Terrorism in the UK

The issue of designing a risk management strategy for terrorism in the UK is dependent upon understanding and identifying the commensurate risks attendant with the various extremists groups that are perceived as threats to the UK's safety and infrastructural stability. Challenges include adopting an intelligence and surveillance system, educating the public regarding attendant trouble spots (such as retaliatory violence and discrimination as well as purpose of surveillance) and adopting a position in the global network that facilitates the overall mitigation of threats. The benefits are evident in control and prevention results and good practice recommendations are provided in the conclusion. This study gives a contextual assessment of the risks facing the UK, analyzes the components of risk management that can be utilized to alleviate these risks, defines the term "terror," examines the historical challenges that coincide with these components, and discusses the benefits…

References

Ciftci, S. (2012). Islamophobia and threat perceptions: Explaining anti-Muslim

sentiment in the West. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 32(3): 292-309.

Forst, B., Greene, J., Lynch, J. (2011). Criminologists on Terrorism and Homeland

Security. UK: Cambridge University Press.

Political Science the Supreme Court
Words: 448 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33744867
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he appellate court applied the precedent of Saucier v. Katz (2001), which states the application of the qualified immunity test. According to Saucier, an officer can be stripped of qualified immunity protection only if their conduct violates a constitutional right and every reasonable law enforcement officer would have known that, at the time of the incident, their actions were in violation of the law. Because the road Harris was traveling down was empty, the court found the Scott's action unreasonable and thus outside his immunity.

On appeal to the Supreme Court, the Court reversed, finding that Scott had acted reasonably in accordance with the Fourth Amendment. he Court stated, "A police officer's attempt to terminate a dangerous high-speed car chase that threatens the lives of innocent bystanders does not violate the Fourth Amendment, even when it places the fleeing motorist at risk of serious injury or death."

Clearly this case…

The U.S. District Court ruled in favor of Harris, finding that Scott had violated Harris' Fourth Amendment Rights. This decision was upheld on appeal. The appellate court applied the precedent of Saucier v. Katz (2001), which states the application of the qualified immunity test. According to Saucier, an officer can be stripped of qualified immunity protection only if their conduct violates a constitutional right and every reasonable law enforcement officer would have known that, at the time of the incident, their actions were in violation of the law. Because the road Harris was traveling down was empty, the court found the Scott's action unreasonable and thus outside his immunity.

On appeal to the Supreme Court, the Court reversed, finding that Scott had acted reasonably in accordance with the Fourth Amendment. The Court stated, "A police officer's attempt to terminate a dangerous high-speed car chase that threatens the lives of innocent bystanders does not violate the Fourth Amendment, even when it places the fleeing motorist at risk of serious injury or death."

Clearly this case will affect future situations in that it gives police greater power to use force to stop potentially dangerous situations, even if the perpetrator's safety is put at risk. However, I agree with the Supreme Court's decision because a police officer is a trained professional and such actions as that taken by Scott are done not out of malice but out of a concern for the general safety of the public.

Derivatives in Risk Management One of the
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Derivatives in Risk Management

One of the uses for derivative products is in risk management. Organizations have recognized that derivatives can be used to manage risk by offering guaranteed outcomes for a set up-front cost. For firms that face risk due to fluctuations in asset prices -- typically commodities or currencies -- beyond their control, derivatives represent a means of achieving cash flow certainty, if not profit certainty. This paper will explore the different forms that derivatives take, and the different ways in which they are used as a risk management tool. Some recommendation will be given with respect to the use of derivatives in risk management in order to optimize results.

Derivatives and Risk Management

In finance, a derivative instrument is one that has a price that is based on the price of a real underlying asset -- agricultural commodities, metals, sources of energy, currencies, stocks and bonds (Chance…

Works Cited:

Bodnar, G., Marston, R. & Hayt, G. (1998). 1998 Survey of financial risk management by U.S. non-financial firms. Wharton School of Business/CIBC World Markets. Retrieved March 12, 2013 from  http://finance.wharton.upenn.edu/~bodnarg/courses/readings/survey98.pdf 

Bouchard, J. & Potters, M. (2003). Theory of financial risk and derivative pricing. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved March 12, 2013 from  http://catdir.loc.gov/catdir/samples/cam041/2003044037.pdf 

Chance, D. & Brooks, R. (2008). An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management. Thompson South-Western.

Rivers, M. (2012). Should airlines hedge their bets on fuel? Flight Global Retrieved March 12, 2013 from  http://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/analysis-should-airlines-hedge-their-bets-on-fuel-374733/

Effective Risk-Management for a Business
Words: 1153 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85140975
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World-Wide Concepts and isks Posed by the International Environment

World-Wide Concepts deals with a wide variety of products which are profitable but which pose a number of potential legal risks in the form of biotech instruments and drugs. It also has a number of different operations spanning various nations from its manufacturing facilities in China, assembly facilities in Mexico, biotech partners in Israel, and software design partners in ussia and India. All of these countries have very different systems of justice and standards of ethics than the United States in terms of their way of conceptualizing the fair and free way to do business (Meiners, ingleb, & Edwards 2012, p. 5). For example, India has had a notorious reputation for corruption, which is not atypical of developing world nations which have undergone rapid industrialization. "Socially-acceptable practices" often conceal what would be illegal in other nations and the "inherent opacity of…

References

Braun, K. (2012). The political risks of doing business overseas. RM Magazine. Retrieved from:

 http://www.rmmagazine.com/2012/05/30/the-political-risks-of-doing-business-overseas/ 

Hinze, C. (204). Doing business in and with China: Battling a corruption culture by building a compliance culture. Antifraud Network. Retrieved from:

 http://antifraudnetwork.com/2014/02/doing-business-in-and-with-china-battling-a-corruption-culture-by-building-a-compliance-culture/

Global Political Economy Globalization
Words: 1464 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61989089
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Economics

There is a concerted effort to bring developing nations into the global trade system. There are certainly success stories of nations that have been able to enjoy advantages from joining this system -- China in particular comes to mind -- but there is room for debate as to whether or not the neoliberal trade system is actually desirable for developing nations. There are a lot of issues at play, starting with the basic economics.

In general, the theory of comparative advantage argues that nations should open up trade, so that they can produce the goods in which they have a comparative advantage and sell them to buy the goods in which they do not. There are some fairly significant real world limitations to this theory, however. One is that trade is usually governed by absolute competitive advantage, not comparative advantage. If a company wants a good at a low…

References

Masnick, M. (2016). Countries sign the TPP ... whatever happened to the debate we were promised before signing? TechDirt. Retrieved April 20, 2016 from  https://www.techdirt.com/articles/20160203/15151133510/countries-sign-tpp-whatever-happened-to-debate-we-were-promised-before-signing.shtml 

Nguyen, J. (2016). 5 economic effects of country liberalization. Investopedia. Retrieved April 20, 2016 from  http://www.investopedia.com/articles/economics/11/economic-benefits-country-liberalization.asp

Risk Melathion I Have Been
Words: 825 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45509417
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Mosquitoes cause immediate hazards to human beings. For the pesticide, it is required only that human beings not be exposed to the application process. The substance degrades to harmless soon after application. It could furthermore reduce the mosquito population by 90%, which also means a like reduction in WNV hazards to local inhabitants and tourists.

c. Exposure

As mentioned above, the effects of exposure are immediate. Exposure to either mosquito carriers of WNV and the pesticide during and immediately after application should be entirely avoided. Education regarding pesticide exposure is easier to control than mosquito exposure.

d. Risk Characterization

Another concern voiced by opponents to the pesticide option is that an information program may not reach all inhabitants. Some of the poorer community may for example not have televisions, radios, or the Internet so that such vital information can reach them. This is however easily mitigated by door-to-door visits, as…

Risk-Free Because an Experiment Exposes Its Participants
Words: 1487 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19242120
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risk-free because an experiment exposes its participants to a number of variables that can impact psychological or physical well-being. To determine if a given study is worth performing, scientists frequently conduct analyses to determine the risk/benefit ratio of a given area of research. Potential risks of research include exposure of the subjects to harmful substances or dangerous situations. For example, when testing a new drug, pharmaceutical researchers will be subjecting their test subjects to chemicals with potential side effects. In extreme cases, the detrimental effects of the chemical may be fatal, such as when a subject has unknown allergies to a given substance. Such issues will be taken into account when making a risk/benefit assessment. In other cases, the participants may be at risk for psychological harm from being exposed to highly stressful situations. For example, in a study on nightmares or on anger, the participants may experience high levels…

Risk Management in a Project From Your
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risk management in a project from your experience or reading. What tools can be used to assist in risk management?

Enterprise risk management (ERM) essentially deals with recognizing possible risks within the operation of the enterprise, controlling these risks, preventing others, and safeguarding security of these risks.

it is the investigation of possible organizational risks that may occur, investigating possible magnitude of these possible risks, setting weights in place to control occurrence of these risk, a and evaluating to make sure that these risks, if they do occur, are dealt with in as efficacious a way as possible. Risks, too, are prioritized so that the organization can determine which risks to deal with first and which are most damaging to their organization.

Risks can be both internal and external. Examples of internal risks are the possibility of fraud or of data being hijacked. Examples of external risks, on the other…

Sources

Alexander, Carol and Sheedy, Elizabeth (2005). The Professional Risk Managers' Handbook: A Comprehensive Guide to Current Theory and Best Practices. PRMIA Publications

Mind Tools Risk Analysis

 http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMC_07.htm

Risk Implications
Words: 671 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98032394
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Domestic Partners

isk/Implications

The cost and value of offering domestic partner benefits:

A letter to the Board of Directors

The Children's Hospital of Dallas is committed to hiring the most qualified applicants, regardless of their sexual orientation. High-quality care is one of the hallmarks of our institution, and particularly given the shortage of many critical healthcare professionals such as nurses, we cannot afford to exclude any group from consideration. Furthermore, the hospital wishes to be EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) compliant. Nondiscrimination is a cornerstone value of all civil rights legislation.

Given this commitment to equality, a nondiscrimination policy regarding the extension of benefits to domestic partners seems logical. How can the Children's Hospital say to staff members that they are welcome to practice medicine here or to serve our community in an administrative capacity but that their partners are not regarded as equally valid as the heterosexual partners of…

References

Benefit basics. (2012). Children's Hospital of Dallas. Retrieved:

http://www.mylifeatchildrens.com/BenefitBasics/BenefitEligibility.aspx

Political Social and Civil Rights as They
Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78895698
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political, social, and civil rights as they are, the notion of possible futures haunts nearly everyone. Potential political realities in the present and not-so-distant future are examined in Margaret Atwood's Handmaid's Tale and Marge Piercy's Woman on the Edge of Time. These novels have become modern classics precisely because of their poignant relevance to real-world social and political affairs. Although both Atwood's and Piercy's novels are at least in part set in future times, both tales are devoid of any significant characteristics that distinguish them from the present day reality. Thus, both The Handmaid's Tale and Woman on the Edge of Time eerily depict life in modern-day America even as they bridge gaps in time. In particular, issues related to gender and to political power are salient in both books. Through the core elements of their narratives, The Handmaid's Tale and Woman on the Edge of Time reveal that male-dominated…

Risk Management and Mitigation Strategies at Rana Plaza
Words: 3177 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85483251
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Audit Management DQ

Consider the governance of the company owning ana Plaza and describe the regional expectations as well as best practice in this area and the benefits that adoption brings. Evaluate the governance of ana Plaza during and after the collapse of the building against these and explain how this helped or hindered ana Plaza.

The management of ana Plaza failed to ensure employee safety. In such a case, workers and suppliers equate the weakest points in relation to conditions of order and input dependency, footloose sourcing practices, and hand-to-mouth contracting. One of the incidents that happened in 2013 at Sadia Garments Ltd. saw new unionized workers facing aggressive campaigns on factory management (Ayres, 2014). Workers faced threats of violence while lead organizers were sent death threats. Later, one factory supervisor attacked the Union General Secretary for Sadia Garments with a pair of scissors while demanding for the resignation…

References

Ahmed S. & Lakhani, L. (2013). Bangladesh Building Collapse: An End to Recovery Efforts, a Promise of a New Start. CNN. Retrieved November 10, 2014 from  http://www.cnn.com/2013/05/14/world/asia/bangladesh-building-collapse-aftermath/index.html?iref=allsearch 

Ayres, A. (2014). A Guide to the Rana Plaza Tragedy, And Its Implications, In Bangladesh. Forbes. Retrieved November 10, 2014 from  http://www.forbes.com/sites/alyssaayres/2014/04/24/a-guide-to-the-rana-plaza-tragedy-and-its-implications-in-bangladesh/ 

BBC Bengali Service (2013). Bangladesh factory collapse toll passes 1,000. BBC Bengali Service. Retrieved November 10, 2014 from  http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-22476774 

Benettongroup.com (2014). Benetton Group Backs an Initiative In Support Of the Victims of Rana Plaza and Their Families. Benettongroup.com. Retrieved November 10, 2014 from  http://www.benettongroup.com/archive/press-release/benetton-group-backs-initiative-support-victims-rana-plaza-and-their-families

Political Economy of Africa
Words: 1067 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42981254
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Famines and famine situations have been and presently are cruel realities in Africa. People like Alex de Waal or Dennis C. Galvan have attempted to (1) find the causes of famines and poor economic developments in Africa and (2) suggest intermediate ways of action, both in terms of prevention and acting against famines. On the way, tough realities have appeared, many with political consequences, including the fact that many NGOs, claiming to help people in Africa in times of need, are actually directing money and dedication elsewhere.

In his book, "Famine Crimes Politics & The Disaster Relief Industry in Africa," Alex de Waal points out towards the amplification of African problems because of the international humanitarian help the regions is often receiving. Of course, this is not necessarily a general evaluation. Waal himself never denies the help some of the NGOs are providing, but a misunderstanding of African realities often…

Bibliography

1. de Waal, Alex. Famine Crimes: Politics and Disaster Relief Industry in Africa. Oxford. 1997.

2. Galvan, C. Dennis. The State Must Be Our Master of Fire. June 2004.

Political Status of PR
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 49840707
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Puerto ico became a possession of the United States after the Spanish-American War in 1898, but has never been fully incorporated into the Union (Pantojas-Garcia, 2013). It later became a Commonwealth in 1952, a status it maintains to this day. The subject of the status of Puerto ico has, since that time, been controversial. There have been multiple referendums on the subject, the latest in 2012, but as yet there has not been a change in the status of Puerto ico. The 2012 referendum indicated a majority of Puerto icans want the status of their territory changed, with most preferring full statehood. Yet this number is not sufficient to break what is essentially a stalemate, and there are other options as yet on the table. This paper will look at the issue of the stalemate, its causes, and will explore the ideas of solutions.

Analysis of History

Puerto icans are…

References

Davilla, A. (1997). Sponsored Identities: Cultural Politics in Puerto Rico. Temple University Press: Philadelphia.

Garrett, R. (2011). Political status of Puerto Rico: Options for Congress. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved November 18, 2014 from  http://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL32933.pdf 

Pantojas-Garcia, E. (2013). The Puerto Rico status question: Can the stalemate be broken? Caribbean Journal of International Relations & Diplomacy. Vol. 1 (2) 41-52.

Political Economy Calculations Between Costs and Benefits
Words: 863 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8772463
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grades were determined on a curve, I would work very hard to try to be in the top 5% of the class. However, my view of that grading system might be colored by how widely distributed the grades in the class were. If the distribution was narrow, then the curve system would appear to be an arbitrary reflection of the professor's desire to have a certain grade distribution, rather than a reflection of student knowledge. If POL S. 270 was the only class in Political Science that graded on a curve, then all but the strongest performers would avoid the class, which would deflate the grades of those who are traditionally the strongest performers because they would be subject to the curve. If all of the courses in the university were graded on a curve, then the university would experience more drop-outs because of forced-fails. This type of curve system,…

Political Expression in Today's World
Words: 2167 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66608264
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1. Why is the state considered a central institution in comparative politics? What does state power look like, and where does it come from? Towards what ends do states use their power? Give detailed examples from three country-cases. 
The state is the central institution in comparative politics because it represents the group of institutions and agencies that exercise authority over the people subordinate to it. The state mediates disputes and serves to unite the individual will and the collective will under one umbrella. The state is recognized as the legitimate authority by the people and thus they comply with the state’s rules without needing to be coerced. To understand comparative politics, one has to understand the central role of the state.
State power can take numerous forms. In America it takes the forms of the courts, the Congress, and the police—for starters. The government has three branches of government—the executive,…

Political Context of Educational Theory
Words: 1123 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40202889
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educational theories in the light of political context. Hence the paper provides a springboard for insight into some essential interconnections between educational approaches and movements, motivational goals of the researchers and the varied opinions of the educationists and experts, through presenting alternative arguments. The orks Cited three sources in MLA format.

The Political Context of Educational Theory: Alternative Arguments

here all believe in the significance of education for the development of personality and for the welfare of the nation, many support the various important and blatant theories and educational movements. However, there is still a decent number that presents alternative arguments in their effort to prove that educational research (and related public funding) world-over is being used not only as a tool to inculcate sense of discipline and responsibility but also to gain political ends.

Following passages of the research paper will present arguments from various educationists and researchers thereby…

Works Cited

Stone J.E. Comment on "An Open Letter to Reid Lyon." Volume 30, October 2001. Pages: 31-32. Available at  http://aera.net/pubs/er/index.html  (October 20, 2002)

Strauss S.L. "Methodology, Medical Metaphors and Mental Health: A Reply to J.E.

Stone." Volume 30, October 2001. Pages: 32-33. Available at

isk Communication and Its Importance for the Security Manager

Identify what risk communication is and explain its importance for the security manager

Communication is a significant factor in all aspects and sectors of life. The social, political or economic features of are transmitted exclusively through communication. Communication is the act of conveying information and messages from an individual to another or a group. It serves to, teach, educate, learn, entertain and to warn among other purposes. Thus, in any organization or area of a corporate or personal life, it is imperative to have effective and efficient communication. The safety of a person, corporate organization or a nation can always be assured. Communication is, therefore, needed in ensuring this safety.

What is risk communication?

If you are told that, in the path, you are about to take, there is a gargantuan poisonous snake lying by the side of the path; you…

References

Roeser, S., Hillerbrand, R., Sandin, P., & Peterson, M. (2012). Handbook of Risk Theory:

Epistemology, Decision Theory, Ethics, and Social Implications of Risk. Dordrecht:

Springer Netherlands.

Hayes, R. (2007). Retail security and loss prevention. Basingstoke [u.a.: Palgrave Macmillan

Social Cultural and Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery
Words: 4282 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 16620351
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Social, Cultural, And Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery

Social, cultural, and political inequalities are detrimental to the health and healthcare system of the U.S. This is because the U.S. is one of the most multicultural, overpopulated, diverse and undergoing rapid economic growth. The federal government has embarked on efforts geared at addressing unsustainable costs of health care in the U.S. With the leadership of the current president, Barrack Obama, initiatives of containing health care costs will evaluate and explore strategies to contain the growing costs of health care based on a system-wide while enhancing the value and quality of health care (Ubokudom, 2012). The apparent system of health care is rife with opportunities of minimizing waste, delivering coordinated, effective care, and improving well-being and health of all Americans. The government in collaboration with care providers must prioritize cost effective containment strategies with the greatest possibility for political success and non-partisan…

References

Albrecht, G.L., Fitzpatrick, R., & Scrimshaw, S. (2013). Handbook of social studies in health and medicine. London: Sage Publications.

Armstrong, E.G. (2011). The health care dilemma: A comparison of health care systems in three European countries and the U.S. Singapore: World Scientific.

Bale, J.R., Stoll, B.J., & Lucas, A.O. (2013). Improving birth outcomes: Meeting the challenge in the developing world. Washington, DC: National academies press.

Buseh, A.G. (2008). Empowering resilience: Improving health care delivery in war-impacted African countries: a case study of Liberia. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.

Women Political Candidates Social Media Differently Men
Words: 1797 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79704291
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women political candidates social media differently men? Does social media ultimately empower hurt women politics? Cite "Digital Divas" Essay 2: We 200 million girls world don't attend school.

Gender issues

How do women political candidates use social media differently than men?

The number of women on social networks far outnumber men. Statistics also show that women use social media as their preferred modes of communication compared to men. Generally, politics is thought to be a male dominated field. On social media, it is believed that outsiders and newcomers to politics are favored. This makes social networks to be an asset to women political candidates. This is because in the male dominated field, they are often the minority or newcomers and receive preferential treatment on social media Gelber, 2011()

Gender and communication experts suggest that social media is a better form of communication for women since they are better at writing…

References

Gelber, A. (2011). Digital Divas: Women, Politics and the Social Network. Shorenstein Center Goldsmith Fellow, Spring 2011.

United States Department of State Bureau of International Information Programs. (2012). Global women's issues: Women in the World today. Washington DC: United States Department of State Bureau of International Information Programs.

Analyzing the Role of Youth in the Political Changes in Egypt in 2011
Words: 2849 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 46781117
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Egyptians of all classes and ages took part in the protests, united in demands and ambitions such as improved wages, improved conditions of working, and political freedom. However, it was the surprising figures of young individuals who took part in the demonstrations that provided drive to the revolt. The young individuals were also key to maintaining the uprising given that numerous meet in Tahrir (Liberation) Square in Cairo as well as other cities across the nation. Egyptian youth are actually the faces behind this leaderless uprising; the revolution was generally impelled by their skill in utilizing social media to gain attention (oudi-Fahimi, El Feki & Tsai, 2011). The new youth backed, and at times, instigated by women is now an aware global citizen, refusing to bear the inability of its rulers to be with the times and provide means of development and rapidly changing economic and social paradigms.

Apart from…

References

Aday, S., Farrell, H., Lynch, M., Sides, J., & Freelon, D. (2012). Blogs and bullet II-New media and conflict after the Arab spring (No. 80). Peaceworks. United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved May 31, 2013.

Al-Natour, M. (2012). The role of women in the Egyptian 25th January revolution. Journal of International Women's Studies, 13(5), 59.

Auer, M. R. (2011). The policy sciences of social media. Policy Studies Journal, 39(4), 709-736.

Frederiksen, M. (2011). The key role of women in the Egyptian revolution. Retrieved March 01, 2016, from http://www.marxist.com/key-role-of-women-in-egyptian-revolution.htm

International Legal and Political Forces
Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66817771
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Judges are in charge of prosecution and criminal investigation, which permits greater independence. The Spanish prosecution structure allows for successive appeals to a higher Court of Justice. The European Court of Justice can hear the final appeal (Dimireva, 2009).

Contractual disputes that occur between American companies and Spanish entities are normally handled fittingly. There is no U.S.-Spain agreement on the mutual recognition of judgments, so U.S. citizens seeking to execute American court judgments in Spain must follow Spanish law, in this instance a complicated procedure known as the exequatur process. In light of the Embassy's past experience in attempting to assist American citizen claimants with the process, the Embassy recommends that Americans who conclude contracts with Spanish entities specifying the U.S. As the venue for adjudicating disputes also come to an agreement regarding how a possible U.S. judgment will be executed in Spain (Dimireva, 2009).

Both on the mainland and…

References

Dimireva, Ina. (2009). Spain Investment Climate 2009. Retrieved August 22, 2010, from EUbusiness Web site:  http://www.eubusiness.com/europe/spain/invest 

Doing Business in Spain. (2007). Retrieved August 22, 2010, from Communicaid Web site:

 http://www.communicaid.com/cross-cultural-training/culture-for-business-and-management/doing-business-in/Spanish-business-and-social-culture.php 

Spain. (2009). Retrieved August 22, 2010, from Infoplease Web site:

Foreign Exchange Risk Management in
Words: 5032 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86866079
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In addition, a series of joint ventures in which West German steel firms joined with East German firms and Krupp, Klockner, and Thyssen of Germany was pursuing other developmental initiatives in eastern Europe as well. Likewise, Arbed of Luxemburg was involved in steelmaking facilities in the former East Germany. According to Mangum et al., "The rising market for improved galvanizing for automobiles, appliances, canning, and other uses is producing a rash of joint ventures throughout the world. Some of these are internal to various countries and others involve international partners" (p. 74).

As a result, nearly 30% of the world's steel supply is now produced by plants belonging to companies that did not exist just 3 decades ago (Ahlberg, Pitkanen & Storsch 1999). As these authors point out, "Such upstarts have entered a global market that since 1980 has grown by less than 1% a year -- an average combining…

References

Ahlberg, J., A. Pitkanen and L.L. Schorsch. 1999. "Forging a New Era for Steel." The McKinsey

Quarterly 83.

Altunisik, M.B. And O. Tur. 2004. Turkey: Challenges of Continuity and Change. New York:

Routledge.

Australia Risk Assessment Political Legal
Words: 368 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92371032
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Taxation and double taxation risks

Australia imposes taxes on resident economic entities and the Australian-sourced income of non-residents. However, "Australia's capacity to tax non-residents may be limited where the non-resident is resident in a country with which Australia has concluded a double taxation agreement (DTA)," including the United States (Ellison 2009, p.8). DTAs allocate taxing rights to the country of residence of the taxpayer (Ellison 2009, p.8).

Market risks (four Ps)

Demand and overall economic growth has remained strong in Australia (product), although high inflation (price) is of a concern for many residents. Growth tends to be centered in urban areas (place/distribution), while rural areas are often underserved in terms of goods and services. The greater diversity of Australia's growing Asian and European allow for potential new sources of economic growth (promotion and marketing).

eferences

Australia economic analysis. (2010). Economy watch. etrieved February 22, 2010 at http://www.economywatch.com/economic-analysis/australia.html

Ellison, Minter. (2009).…

References

Australia economic analysis. (2010). Economy watch. Retrieved February 22, 2010 at  http://www.economywatch.com/economic-analysis/australia.html 

Ellison, Minter. (2009). Doing business in Australia. Retrieved February 22, 2010 at  http://www.minterellison.com/public/connect/resources/file/ebe2744c07a0264/RG-DoingBusInAus2009.pdf 

Foreign exchange: Expatriates. Managing Forex. Retrieved February 22, 2010 at  http://www.exfin.com/foreign-exchange-expatriates

Country Entry Risk Assessment Alba
Words: 1735 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31680896
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They have been committed to the development of what they deem to be Consciousness Cosmetics for more than a decade. Entry into the Portuguese market offers certain benefits, such as the Portuguese people's commitment to high moral standards, which would be conducive to cruelty-free, environmentally responsible products such as Alba Organics. However, there are risks as well that need to be taken into consideration.

The Portuguese market is small and growing at only a nominal rate, in comparison to other EU countries. The population is still primarily located in rural areas. Although the euro is quite stable currently, that could change, affecting Alba's profitability. and, there are three primary, well-established competitors that control the majority of the market share currently, with large financial backing that could out compete Alba.

eferences

About us. (2005). etrieved July 11, 2005, at http://www.avalonorganics.com/?title=About+Us.

Alba: FAQs. (2005). etrieved July 11, 2005, at http://www.albaorganics.com/index.php?title=FAQ%27s.

Carioca, M.,…

References

About us. (2005). Retrieved July 11, 2005, at  http://www.avalonorganics.com/?title=About+Us .

Alba: FAQs. (2005). Retrieved July 11, 2005, at http://www.albaorganics.com/index.php?title=FAQ%27s.

Carioca, M., Diniz, R., Pietracci, B. (2004). Making Portugal competitive. McKinsey Quarterly, (3). Retrieved July 11, 2005, from Business Source Premier database.

Consciousness in cosmetics. (2005). Retrieved July 11, 2005, at  http://www.avalonorganics.com/index.php?title=Consciousness+in+Cosmetics .

Finance Managing Exchange Rate Risk Can Be
Words: 1166 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48275278
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Finance

Managing exchange rate risk can be a daunting task for many international firms attempting to expand overseas, acquire new companies, or simply manage its cash flows. Globalization has created a dynamic environment in which competition can arise to disrupt entire industries. Aspects such as technology, pharmaceuticals, banking, and automobiles have all experienced rapid change as a result of globalization and the competitive forces that underline it. As a result, companies, particularly smaller firms, have a higher propensity to experience volatile earnings overtime. Aspects that impact one sector of the globe can have a residual impact on other areas of the individual firm or industry. Managing exchange rates is therefore a viable option for firms to reduce volatility in earnings while subsequently managing its cash flows from operations. Below, is a 5 step program which could be implemented by a firm attempting to manage its exchange rate risk after an…

References

1. Jorion, Philippe (2009). Financial Risk Manager Handbook (5 ed.). John Wiley and Sons. p. 287. ISBN 978-0-470-47961-2.

2. Bartram, Sohnke M. (2006). "The Use of Options in Corporate Risk Management." Managerial Finance 32 (2): 160 -- 181

Project Risk Management
Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20498941
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Project Risk Management risk is defined as an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, will affect one's project objectives, targets, or goals. A risk may have a positive or a negative effect: it may help or hinder one's project. However, since there are usually far more things that are likely to go wrong with a project than are likely to go right, risk management deals with negative aspects. Risk management largely is the art of trying to prevent things going wrong with projects.

One must analyze the project objectives to determine what is, or is not, a risk. Every project is defined by its objectives - which is just another way of saying that every project is defined by what it is trying to achieve. Most projects have four key objectives. The objectives are as follows: (1) Functionality -- the characteristics or performance of the project deliverables; (2)…

Bibliography

Davion Systems, (2003). Project Risk Management - An Overview. Accessed on September 11, 2003, at  http://www.davion.com/index.html#top .

Moral Legal Political and Practical
Words: 9721 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27501741
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The line of legitimacy, separating socially approvable use of force from violence, cannot be effectively drawn without an agreement on what constitutes the optimum amount of force necessary to maintain social order and to protect human rights against encroachment. A society subscribing to infinite morality which condemns all use of force as immoral is doomed no less than a society accepting the absolute pragmatism of tyrants. "

As Oleg Zinam proposes, these two extreme social attitudes to morality are equally unprofitable to the societies that adopt them. The attitude of absolute pragmatism can easily lead to the acceptance of political assassinations, as long as such acts may help the final political purpose. An example of absolute pragmatism can be the regime initiated by Hitler, who ordered the extermination of all Jews in an attempt to "purify" the human race by excluding anyone who did not fill in the Arian ideal.…

Works Cited

Ben-Yehuda, Nachman. 1997. Political Assassination Events as a Cross- Cultural form of Alternative Justice.

International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol.38: 25-30.

Feliks, Gross. 1974. The Revolutionary Party. Essays in the Sociology of Politics. Westport: Greenwood

Press.

Legal Risk Arising From Wrongful Discharge What
Words: 1135 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36839483
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legal risk arising from wrongful discharge.

What liability and rights do NewCorp and Pat have in this situation? What legal principles -- such as statutory or case law -- support those liabilities and rights?

When it comes to the first scenario, it is clear that NewCorp fired Pat based upon the views that he expressed at a public gathering. While this cannot be directly proven, various pieces of circumstantial evidence are illustrating how this is the case. As, he was not given any kind of notification for: unsatisfactory behavior at work. This is important, because it means that the company does have a potential legal liability (based upon these actions).

Rule

The statutory rule that company is violating is the provisions of: intentional discrimination (under the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964). This states that it is illegal for employers, to fire someone based upon: actions that…

Bibliography

Cheeseman, H. (2010). Employment, Worker Protection and Immigration Laws. Business Law. (pp. 486-498). New York, NY: Pearson Education.

Cheeseman, H. (2010). Equal Opportunity in Employment. Business Law. (pp. 511 -- 527). New York, NY: Pearson Education.

Cheeseman, H. (2010). Labor Law and Collective Bargaining. Business Law. (pp. 499-510). New York, NY: Pearson Education.

Modern Political Thought
Words: 4396 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54047318
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Politics

Modern Political Thought

The transition from a feudal serf economy to a capitalist market economy was one of the fundamental shifts which have produced modernity as we know it. This essay aims to understand how the authors of The Prince and Leviathan, Niccolo Machiavelli and Thomas Hobbes would think about the transition and how these two great minds would relate to the issue of capitalism. Capitalism is a funny game that continually creates a series of boom and bust cycles throughout our modern history. Take the 1926 real estate craze that occurred in Florida. The United States economy was cooking along on all cylinders and good times were everywhere. No one was thinking about the Great Depression that would occur just a few years later. The rich and happy of 1926 figured that all was well as often is the case in Capitalism. Prosperity and growth were infinite --…

Works Cited, continued

Solomon, Jay. (2009). "U.S., India Expand Counterterrorism Cooperation." Wall Street Journal Online. (2009). Retrieved on November 25, 2009 from online.wsj at  http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125907299030362349.htmlWallerstein , Immanuel. (1983): "Historical Capitalism." Thetford Press, Limited: Norfolk.

White, Michael (2007). "Machiavelli, A Man Misunderstood." Abacus.

Egypt When Analyzing the Political
Words: 1523 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 365836
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Egypt is one of the most powerful African nations and has proved to be a reliable partner of the West, which invested massively in the development of the country. The fact that Egypt is a democracy through its constitution has contributed greatly to gaining the support of the West. The path chosen by Egypt can be an example to other African nations and democracy can be spread with the support of Egypt. Democracy and free elections in Egypt can have a great impact on neighboring countries, as they might be persuaded by this example. esides, a high level of democratization will increase the support offered to Egypt by more developed nations and it will grant even more power to the country in the international scene.

ibliography

Consolatore, D., Living with democracy in Egypt, available at http://www.thehumanist.org/humanist/articles/Consolatore.Egypt.pdf;

Ibrahim, a., 2006. "Universal Values and Muslim Democracy." Journal of Democracy Vol. 17, No.…

Bibliography

Consolatore, D., Living with democracy in Egypt, available at  http://www.thehumanist.org/humanist/articles/Consolatore.Egypt.pdf ;

Ibrahim, a., 2006. "Universal Values and Muslim Democracy." Journal of Democracy Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 5-12;

Kjeilen, T., Egypt: Political situation, available at http://www.lexicorient.com/e.o/egypt_1.htm;

Lipset, S.M., 2004 [1960]. "Economic Development and Democracy," in Patrick O'Neil and Ronald Rogowski (eds.) Essential Readings in Comparative Politics. New York: W.W. Norton, pp. 287-301.

Psychological and Socio-Cultural Theories of Risk
Words: 4457 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67940104
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Psychological and Socio-Cultural Theories of isk

Definition of isk

The term "risk" is often defined differently depending on the particular paradigm. For example, risk is economics is typically defined in terms of differences in possible monetary outcomes and individuals/corporations involved in risk -- seeking behavior are typically seeking higher monetary payoffs (Markowitz 1952). When clinical psychologists, sociologists, law enforcement officials, and lay individuals identify "risky behaviors" they are referring to a broader meaning of the term "risk." In this context behaviors and involve risk are typically defined as behaviors that can be of potential harm to the person performing them or to other people (Steinberg 2008). In this sense the term "risk" is typically viewed in terms of possible negative outcomes as opposed to some other positive outcome such as the potential monetary gain.

This particular paper will assume that the definition of risky behavior includes some type of a…

References

Aristotle .1998. Aristotle: The Nicomachean ethics. In Ackrill J. et al. eds. Oxford World' s

Classics. York: Oxford, pp. 229-301.

Beck, U. 1992. Risk society: Towards a new modernity. New Delhi: Sage.

Boholm, A. 1996. Risk perception and social anthropology: Critique of cultural Theory. Ethnos 61, pp. 64-84.

Crisis Risk and Security All Play a
Words: 2355 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90690783
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crisis, risk, and security all play a role and are linked within an organizational context. It is also important to examine the role gaming and simulation play within this phenomena. In the past, risk was established as an idea that generated academic interest not just in social sciences but in pure sciences. It also has become subject to overzealous social and political controversy. isk management has then become the main source of debate as well as theory development (Borodzicz, 2005) As risk can appear within anything from public safety, to transportation, and health, businesses must learn an effective way to manage it. Security management however, has less developed theories and debates but still plays a vital role is lessening risk and increase proper risk management. It is then crucial to understand how both play roles in the stability and safety of any organization.

In John Adam's isk at the beginning…

References

Adams, J. (1995). Risk (1st ed.). London [England]: UCL Press.

Borodzicz, E. (2005). Risk, crisis and security management (1st ed.). West Sussex, England: J. Wiley & Sons.

Button, M. (2008). Doing security (1st ed.). Basingstoke [England]: Palgrave Macmillan.

Cavanagh, T., & Whiting, M. (2003). Corporate security management (1st ed.). New York: Conference Board.

LNG Process Risk Safety Modeling
Words: 5099 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 33540708
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The main hazards related to LNG include:

upture due to Corrosion

upture while excavation

upture while excavation

upture during an earthquake

upture due to mechanical failure

upture at compressor

upture at inspection stations

Uncontrolled detonation of explosives

Blow-out of gas at head and subsequent fire

Gas leak from infrastructure

Fire involving combustible

Construction damage

LPG or Diesel

Diesel pump fire involving equipment brittle fracture valve Leaks

Welding failure welding casting failure

Mechanical overstressing of equipment Vibration

pump Corrosion

joint Erosion

Failure due to external loading or impact

Internal Explosion

Underground pipe rupture of transmission pipeline

Pipe rupture at main line valve sites.

upture of adjacent gas pipeline

Uncontrolled detonation of explosives

Gas leak from pipeline infrastructure

Drop of pipe from pipe lifts

Accommodation fire involving combustible construction LPG or Diesel

Diesel fire involving mobile fuel tanker

Uncontrolled release of LNG

Uncontrolled release of refrigerant gas

Uncontrolled release of by- product…

References

Acutech Consulting (2009). The HAZOP (Hazard and Operability) Method

http://www.acusafe.com/Hazard_Analysis/HAZOP_Technique.pdf

American Petroleum Institute (August 2009). Analysis of U.S. Oil Spillage. p26

http://www.api.org/Newsroom/safetyresponse/upload/Analysis_us_oil_spillage.pdf.

Protect at Risk Children From
Words: 1273 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 89852719
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In order to formulate effective early childhood development interventions, though, it is important to determine what risk factors are involved and what coping skills young children possess. In this regard, Pati and her associates add that, "Identifying critical risk and resilience factors is the first step in developing interventions to promote early school success" (p. 5). These recommendations, though, will not magically produce the resources needed to eradicate poverty, but they do emphasize the need to determine what specific factors must be addressed in order to develop effective interventions to address them. These recommendations also make it clear that all children and their families are unique and some may require more assistance than others in certain areas. This recommendation is congruent with Pati et al.'s observations that, "From a treatment perspective, separating patients into different service intensity levels is also commonplace in clinical practice" (p. 13).

No matter what other…

References

Aber, L. (2007, December). Changing the climate on early childhood: The science of early childhood development is as persuasive as the science of global climate change. The American Prospect, 18(12), 4-5.

Barnett, W.S. & Belfield, C.R. (2006). Early childhood development and social mobility. The Future of Children, 16(2), 73-74.

Bornstein, M.H., Davidson, L., Keyes, C.L. & Moore, K.A. (2003). Well-being: Positive development across the life course. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Brooks-Gunn, J. & Duncan, G.J. (1997). The effects of poverty on children. The Future of Children, 7(2), 55-71. [Online]. Available:  http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.memphis.edu  / stable/1602387?cookieSet=1.

History Political Philosophy Sources Political Stability Instability
Words: 955 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 78818587
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history political philosophy sources political stability instability Machiavelli? Source: The Prince (Machiavelli), cited work the Prince My thesis Statement:The Prince, written 1513, intended a guide gave advice effective ruler stay power.

Niccolo Machiavelli's 1513 political treatise "The Prince" deals with a series of matters concerning political stability and the means available to make it possible. Considering that the writer lived in a period dominated by political instability, it is not surprising that some of the methods he proposed in order to restore order were somewhat unorthodox. From his perspective, moral acts were in certain situations pointless, as people actually needed to be controlled with the help of manipulating techniques. Machiavelli was basically interested in promoting the concept of evil, even with the fact that he attempted to mask this by posing in a person deeply concerned about his nation. He considered that in order to be able to control a…

Works cited:

Machiavelli, Niccolo. "The Prince," Plain Label Books, 1952.

Nederman, Cary, "Niccolo Machiavelli," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2009 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)

International Risk
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International Risk Management

No profit was ever made without taking some financial risk. However, economists such as John Eatwell and Lance Taylor have argued in their text Global Finance at Risk: The Case for International Regulation that international financial markets are intrinsically and particularly apt to pose the threat of risk to potential investors on an individual and a corporate level. Investors in finance base their decisions on guesses, not only about how other investors within a nation will behave, but also about national stability, which affects the stability of the currency. As markets have grown more global in scope, industrialized countries often have pursued a more cautious monetary policy regarding other nations. However, too much caution can be risky too, Ultimately hesitancy in investment results not only in lost opportunities, but a climate of fear that can at its extremes generates international deflation, a depression in economic growth, and…

Works Cited

Eatwell, John & Lance Taylor. (2000) Global Finance at Risk: The Case for International Regulation. New York: New Press.

Kelly, Michael P. (June/July 2001.)"Foreign Currency Risk: Minimizing Transaction Exposure." International Law.  http://www.vsb.org/publications/valawyer/june_july01/kelley.pdf 

Schnaue, Frank. (2004). "U.S. trade gap widens as production rises." UPI. http://app.quotemedia.com/data/newsItem.htm?storyId=1533543