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The citizens exercise their political rights and they have the right to make amendments on specific clauses within the laws that govern them. The suggested amendments are forwarded to the parliament or the right body for debates and approved before being enacted into law for the benefit of the citizens. The democratic political systems advocate for good governance and transparent policies in which the services are devolved to the people which eliminates the bureaucracies involved in the service delivery. The devolved system of government ensures an equal distribution of resources and a reasonable collaboration between the government and the private sector partners which attracts more investments.
Democratic political systems empower the citizens and they become vocal on issues that affect the society and their concerns are addressed. The existence of the community-based organizations and the civil society organizations advocate for the rights of the citizens and push the government among…
Australian Trade Commission, (2012). Democratic and Politically Stable. Retrieved May 17,
2012 from http://www.austrade.gov.au/invest/why-australia/democratic-and-politically-stable/default.aspx
Democracy-Building.Info, (2004). Switzerland Political System .Direct Democracy. Retrieved May 17, 2012 from http://www.democracy-building.info/switzerlands-political-system.html
Jason Chavis, (1999). Different Economic & Political Systems When Doing Business. Retrieved May 17, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/about_5335760_different-political-systems-doing-business.html
Political Systems in China and India
Political system in China
The political culture in China has been shaped by geographical features and the many eras of the country's history that include the dynastic rule, the previous control by imperialist nations and its aftermath the communist rule. Geographical features in China have greatly influenced and shaped Chinas political development. The political culture inherited from dynastic rules that existed from centuries centered on Confucian values like order, harmony and the strong sense of hierarchy.
The fundamental political system in China is the people's congress system. The constitution of the PC gives providence for the state power belongs to the people. The NPC and local people's congress at all levels are the basic organs that are a representation of the people in the exercising of state power. The NPC is the highest organ of the state power, it has the right to elect…
Competitive Master, (2012). Indian Political System. Retrieved November 24, 2012 from http://www.competitionmaster.com/ArticleDetail.aspx?ID=0d45c6ef-a89c-4f46-b715-024d895818de
Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the Republic of Albania. (2008). China's Political System. Retrieved November 24, 2012 from http://al.China-embassy.org/eng/zggk/t514665.htm
Although they are not the proponents of social assistance and of a welfare state, the Republicans do believe in helping those in need by tax reduction and improvement of the legislative sector (the hite House, 2008). However, given this desire to increase the security abroad and to promote democracy worldwide, lives of American soldiers were lost in Afghanistan and Iraq. Aside from this negative result of the U.S. Republican Administration, the place of the American culture in the world has decreased in the sense that in many parts of the globe this prone to war attitude of the Republicans is interpreted by the Muslim countries in particular as a violent attitude.
A positive element of the Republican Party is their intention to give back to the U.S. The traditional image of the promoters of democracy. This is an important element because it ensures that the image of the leader of…
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
Montgomery County Republican Party. About the Republican Party. History. 2008. 23 June 2008. http://www.mcgop.net/History.htm
Nalle, Dave. "John McCain and Republican Values." Blog Critics Magazine. 2008. 23 June 2008. http://blogcritics.org/archives/2008/02/04/101701.php
The White House. State of the Union Address. 2008. 23 June 2008. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/01/20030128-19.html
political systems of the United States of America and the Arab Republic of Egypt.
The United States of America it a constitution-based federal republic with a strong democratic tradition (United pp). Under the constitution the government operates through three branches of government, the executive branch, legislative, branch and the judicial branch (United pp). The Executive branch consists of the president who serves as both the chief of state and the head of government (United pp). The president and vice president, who serve a four-year term, not to exceed two terms, are elected on the same ticket by a college of representatives who are elected directly from each of the fifty states (United pp). A cabinet of advisors are appointed by the president with Senate approval (United pp).
The legislative branch is made up of a bicameral Congress which consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives (United pp). The…
The United States Government.
Portrait of the United States
However, only two parties, republicans and democrats have dominated politics in America for many decades (Vile). Although there are "Independents" and various parties that have emerged, the two dominant parties remain the epublicans and the Democrats (ubin). The evolution of these two parties as the dominant forces in American politics has often had a polarizing impact on the nation (ubin). Such was the case with the aforementioned election of Abraham Lincoln and such is the current case.
The purpose of this discussion was to examine the development of the American political system as it evolved from the early colonial period through the middle of the 19th century. The research found that the colonists played an instrumental role on the development of the American political system.
The discussion also found that that the founding father established the Bill of ights and the Constitution which have shaped American government and the…
Andrews, Charles M. The Colonial Background of the American Revolution. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1931.
Rubin, Barry R. A Citizen's Guide to Politics in America: How the System Works & How to Work the System. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1997.
The Bill of Rights." U.S. Department of State. 31 March 2007 http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/funddocs/billeng.htm
The Constitution of the United States of America." U.S. Department of State. 31 March 2007 http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/funddocs/consteng.htm
The economic boom that ran until 2011 has officially ended in Argentina. hile the rapid growth is largely thought to have been the result of Chinese purchase of grain exports, the Argentine government saw it as a vindication of their expansionary policies and welfare state ambitions. The country's GDP growth rate is expected to slow down to 2.2% in 2012, from the 8.9% last year (Oppenheimer, 2012). Chinese grain purchases remain high and commodity prices are high as well, leaving the political situation as the main culprit for the growth problem and the high (25%) inflation rate. Public spending continues to increase -- sometimes financed by the central bank and even from the Social Security System (Ibid).
Argentina's major industries remain in agriculture and manufacturing. Brazil is the major export market, and its economy is tied to Chinese demand, so a lot of Argentina's potential is tied to…
Bloomberg. (2012) Interactive chart for Buenos Aires Stock Exchange MERVAL index. Bloomberg. Retrieved November 15, 2012 from http://www.bloomberg.com/quote/MERVAL:IND/chart/
Bronstein, H. (2012). Argentine leader's image falls as inflation soars. Reuters. Retrieved November 15, 2012 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/08/26/us-argentina-fernandez-poll-idUSBRE87P07620120826
CIA World Factbook (2012) Argentina. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved November 15, 2012 fromhttps://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html
Gilbert, J. (2012). Cristina Kirchner using Falkland Islands as a smokescreen to hide failing economy. The Telegraph. Retrieved November 15, 2012 from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/southamerica/argentina/9592424/Cristina-Kirchner-using-Falkland-Islands-as-a-smokescreen-to-hide-failing-economy.html
More precisely, especially in old towns and villages, the members of the community which are the citizens of that small society are also the ones who are directly deciding on issues which affect their community. Thus, town hall meetings usually are the places where everything is discussed and decided upon.
One of the important benefits of direct democracy is the degree of implication of the citizens. Better said, in the moment in which the citizens have the right to decide on an issue which affects them directly, such as the prices of corn in the region and on the market, the citizens also become more interested on the situations in their communities and are more involved in the problems and solutions affecting them. This automatically draws a much more implicated society, where issues are discussed openly and with a much more implicated attitude.
One potential downsize of the direct democracy…
Defining Terrorism: A Principled Approach. (n.d) Accessed 28 August 2010, from http://lawofwar.org/defining_terrorism.htm
Quillen, Chris. (n.d.) State sponsored terrorism. A growing threat? The Terrorist Research Center. Available at www.ciaonet.com
The Council of Foreign Relations. (2006) Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (Sri Lanka, separatists Accessed 28 August 2010, from http://www.cfr.org/publication/9242/liberation_tigers_of_tamil_eelam_sri_lanka_separatists.html
The State Department. (2000) Overview of State-Sponsored Terrorism Patterns of Global Terrorism Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism. Accessed 9 August 2007, from http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/crt/2000/2441.htm
Therefore, one state could register a higher turnout at primary elections, while at local ones, a smaller figure could appear. Thus, it can be said that the issue of voter turnout does not rely necessarily on the technical aspects of the law in application, but rather on the political implication of the citizens and their interest in influencing the outcome of the elections by casting their vote.
In 2002 another initiative to facilitate the voting procedure was introduced through the Help America Vote Act passed by the Congress. According to its provisions, this act would help state and local authorities with the electoral process by providing technical assistance and financial support in organizing the vote. More precisely, "the federal government offered payments to states and localities to replace outdated punch-card and lever voting machines. Second, it established an Election Assistance Commission to provide technical assistance to local election administration officials…
Abramson, Paul, John Aldrich. "The Decline of Electoral Participation in America." The American Political Science Review, Vol. 76, No. 3. (Sep., 1982), pp. 502-521.
Banks, Manley Elliott II. "A Changing Electorate in a Majority Black City: The Emergence of a Neo-Conservative Black Urban Regime in Contemporary Atlanta." Journal of Urban Affairs Vol. 22 Issue 3. 2000.
Boyd, Richard W. "The Effects of Primaries and Statewide Races on Voter Turnout." The Journal of Politics, Vol. 51, No. 3. (Aug., 1989), pp. 730-739
Cincinnati. Ohio. 2000. 31 October 2007. http://www.city-data.com/city/Cincinnati-Ohio.html
Authoritarianism is a type of political system in which the population lacks any control over the ruling authorities (Taylor, 2002). It is characterized by indefinite tenure of leaders who cannot be removed from office or positions of authority by any political process or by the collective will of the people. Generally, authoritarian systems are only maintained by the use of force or by the implied threat of the use of force by the ruling authorities through their command of military organizations and national police forces. Another typical characteristic of authoritarian rulers is the corruption of the political and electoral processes, whereby elections (if they are permitted in the first place) are rigged or otherwise manipulated fraudulently. Similarly, authoritarian societies typically feature the complete dominance of law enforcement and administrative authorities as well (Taylor, 2002).
ule by Force
Authoritarianism is one of the most primitive forms of political systems and is,…
Edwards, G., Wattenberg, M., and Lineberry, R. (2007). Government in America: People,
Politics, and Policy. New York, NY: Longman.
Taylor, R. (2002). Freedom, Anarchy, and the Law: An Introduction to Political
Philosophy. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus.
The Feldstein (2017) article summarizes ten factors that contribute to the United States outperforming other large nations – principally in this article those of Europe – on economic terms. The author points to factors that are structural (the form of the banking system, leading universities) to cultural (the culture of entrepreneurship). Governmental factors include a favorable regulatory environment and a smaller size of government than the European countries against which Feldstein compares the US.
Gehl and Porter (2017) examine the nature of political competition in the US. They use existing competitive frameworks for their analysis, discussing the American political duopoly in terms of its industry structure, target markets, regulatory environment and other factors. Their findings outline the different areas where the political system is failing the average American.
At the intersection of these articles is an underpinning about what the role of government should be. Feldstein sees, for example, a…
Feldstein, M.(2017). Why the US is still richer than every other large country. Harvard Business Review.
Gehl, K. & Porter, M. (2017) Why competition in the politics industry is failing America. Harvard Business Review
The United Kingdom and Ireland have both enjoyed geographic separation from the continent of Europe, enabling both to develop unique political cultures and institutions. Ireland has been even more removed from the fray, having never been part of the Roman Empire, and systematically resistant to the same invasions that affected England throughout much of their respective histories. However, the proximity between Ireland and England—and later the United Kingdom—has caused the two countries to be “intertwined politically, economically, and culturally for over 800 years,” (The Republic and Politics of the Republic of Ireland 5). British hegemony has generally meant that Irish identity has been largely oppositional in nature. Divergent trends have emerged in the political cultures and institutions of the United Kingdom and Ireland, especially with regards to the relatively power of the Church. Ireland’s political structures, institutions, and cultures have been inevitably influenced by the British system, but the Catholic…
Justin Trudeau's election as Canadian Prime Minister represented a generational change in the country's politics. While there was a general belief that he was not ready to be Prime Minister, Trudeau used political skill and craftsmanship during the long election campaigns to defeat experience politicians. His election not only represents a generational change in Canadian politics but also has significant impacts on governance. In a recent phone call, he has indicated that he wants to re-establish the country with a new political system. This is influenced by the talks he has had regarding different kinds of political systems i.e. oligarchy, democracy, and the middle class. For Prime Minister Trudeau to choose the best system to rebuild the Canadian political system, an understanding of each of these systems is important.
One of the people who made significant contributions regarding oligarchy, democracy, and the middle constitution is Aristotle, a Greek…
Political & Economic Differences
The author of this paper is asked to answer to five major questions. The first is why there is a difference in terms of political systems from country to country. The second question is how the legal systems of different countries differ. The third question asks the author to explain the economic differences of different countries. The fourth question asks the author to discuss and explain different macro-political and economic changes that occur around the world. Finally, the author is asked to explain how transitioning economies are moving towards market-based systems.
As for why there are different political systems in different countries, the reasons depend on the actual situation at hand. The system in place in the United States fairly closely matches the way things were set up at its inception and a lot of that was based on escape from brutal government rule…
Hill, C.W. (2013). International business: competing in the global marketplace (9 ed.).
New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Tran, M. (2013, April 3). Pakistan needs to recoup more in taxes before any aid boost, say MP's | Global development | theguardian.com . Latest news, world news, sport and comment from the Guardian | theguardian.com | The Guardian .
Retrieved October 4, 2013, from http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2013/apr/04/pakistan-recoup-taxes-aid-mps
Political and Economic Differences
Effects of the financial crisis on the developing world vs. The developed world
The 2008 financial crisis began in the American banking sector but its impact was soon felt around the world. Both the developed and the developing world were affected. However, not all nations were crippled by the drying-up of credit and consumer demand to an equal degree. Some nations were derailed in their attempts to progress economically and politically; other nations, particularly in the Far East, emerged relatively unscathed.
The populations affected in different areas of the world economy also varied from nation to nation. For example, in many regions of the developing world, women often have the status of 'second class citizens' for cultural and political reasons. But the crisis in the U.S. was often called a 'male' recession, because the hardest-hit sectors were traditionally male-dominated fields, in the form of the…
Bernanke, Ben. (2009). Asia and the global financial crisis. Federal Reserve.
Chia, Siow Yue. (2010). Singapore weathers the crisis and prepares for a better year. East Asia
Forum. Retrieved September 8, 2011 at http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2010/01/12/singapore-weathers-the-crisis-and-prepares-for-a-stronger-year/
Political, Social and Economic Plan
Our country has the potential of becoming one of the most important nations of the world since it has all the resources that few others have been blessed with. We have countless mineral reserves, a rich soil and a supportive climate that makes it ideal for agriculture.
Most of all, we have a young and talented population that is a priceless resource. In order to transform this undoubted potential into a concrete reality, however, we need to adopt the right policies. We are passing through a critical phase of not just our own history but also the history of the entire mankind in which we have the choice of either seizing the moment or missing the opportunity. The 'opportunity' is offered by the unprecedented technological developments in communication technologies and the lowering of trade barriers around the world.
Our failure in the past has been…
Khan, Imran. (1999) "The Case for a Reform Government." Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf Web site. Retrieved on January 14, 2003 at http://www.insaf.org.pk/articles/the_case_reform_govt.htm
Samuelson, Robert J. (2002). "Deflation: The Global Economy's Downside." Washington Post, September 4, 2002. Retrieved on January 14, 2003 at http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/econ/2002/0904deflation.htm
In most occasions however, the consent of the Congress is rather difficult to acquire and this often leads to frictions in the relations between the two parties. So tense are these relationships that the President perceives his meeting with the Congress as the most demanding and largest milestone in his path. "The President often sees Congress as an obstacle to be overcome, and always has to calculate how his proposals will play out with Congress. He cannot dictate to Congress what he wants, and faces a huge task in communicating with Congress because of its size and diversity" (Hamilton, 2004).
The frictions which occur between Congress and President have had a historical positive side in the meaning that they forced Presidents to forward flawless action plans, based on real facts, resource estimations and expected outcomes. Today however, the general perception is that these tensions are a means of stalling and…
Hamilton, L., 2004, Congress and the President, Center on Congress, http://www.centeroncongress.org/radio_commentaries/congress_president.php last accessed on August 12, 2009
2009, United States Government, MSN Encarta, http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500781_3/united_states_government.html last accessed on August 10, 2009
The Constitution of the United States of America, Cornell University Law School, http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.overview.html last accessed on August 10, 2009
There is a definite chance that both parties could resolve the prolonged conflict successfully if they find and act on ways to be in command of their shared lack of trust. On the other hand, if the conflict is seen in terms of a neoliberal point-of-view, Israel's military efficiency and powerfulness is a great threat for Israelis. To cut a long story short, the main goal on which all the main five parties agree is the achievement of peace between Israelis and Palestinians but it is only possible if they give up their most preferred results; Israel giving up its favorite result of unrestricted occupation of Palestinian land and Palestine holding back its preferred outcome of unconditional withdrawal. The conflict could be resolved if both parties could also find some common solutions for complex and convoluted detachable issues including "the degree of sovereignty of a Palestinian state, the distribution of…
Adler, E, ed. Israel in the World: Legitimacy and Exceptionalism. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon.: Routledge, 2013.
Aronoff, M.J. Cross-Currents in Israeli Culture and Politics. New Jersey: Transaction, Inc., 1984.
Asa-El, a. "Israel's Electoral Complex." Azure - Ideas for the Jewish Nation. http://www.azure.org.il/article.php?id=419 (accessed June 9, 2013).
Bard, M.G. & Schwartz, M. One Thousand and One Facts Everyone Should Know About Israel. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005.
Putnam (2000) suggests that trust already exists within societies, when clearly there is evidence that it does not exist, and that people are not confident in who is in control (Domhoff, 2005). Putnam (2000) argues that it is important to have a strong and very active and aggressive civil society within the United States to consolidate democracy. Many of the traditions of independent civic engagement have been lost according to Putnam, and are now replaced with passivity among the peoples of the United States; far too often civic engagements rely on the "state" making civil societies as described by Putnam (2000) weak and incapable of developing. Putnam's idea of social capital is the view that social capital is a resource that is ingrained in norms and in social trusts, and it is these norms and trusts that help facilitate collaborative actions and help communities cooperate so they can achieve mutual…
Dahl, Robert Who Governs? 2005. Democracy and Power in an American City, Second edition. Boston: Yale University Press
Domhoff, William G. 2005. Who Rules America? Power, Politics and Social Change.
New York: McGraw Hill: Higher education
Putnam, Robert D. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American
The best that they can hope for is to influence a political party to get behind their cause and vote to have it adopted. Political parties on the other hand, have the power and ability to change laws and mandates by their voting clout.
Democratic Party (accessed 5-1-07)
Interest Groups (accessed 5-1-07)
epublican Party (accessed 5-1-07)
Walker, Jack L., Jr., Mobilizing Interest Groups in America (Univ. Of Mich. Press 1991).
Democratic Party (accessed 5-1-07)
Interest Groups (accessed 5-1-07)
" The bill then goes on a calendar, so it can be debated, discussed, or amended. The bill then goes to the floor of the house where it is read, discussed, and voted on. If it passes by a two-thirds margin, it goes on to the Senate, where it goes through the same process. If it makes it this far, it is "enrolled," signed by the Speaker of the House and the Vice-President, and then it goes to the president for signature ("Ben's Guide"). Both legislative branches seem to have similar means of passing bills, Canada's follows about the same procedure in a different order.
In Canada, Canadians elect a Parliament, and the most the members can sit on Parliament is five years. The Parliament is made up of the House of Commons and the Senate. The leaders of the two bodies are the Speaker of the House and the…
Andres, Gary J. "Left, Right Left; Liberals, Lobbyists and Laws in Lock Step." The Washington Times 2 Feb. 2006: A19.
Editors. "Ben's Guide to Government." Ben'sGuide.gpo.gov. 2007. 21 Sept. 2007. http://bensguide.gpo.gov/9-12/index.html
Editors. "Canadians and Their Government." CanadianHeritage.gc.ca. 2007. 21 Sept. 2007. http://www.canadianheritage.gc.ca/special/gouv-gov/section2/infobox2_e.cfm
Editors. "Office of the Registrar of Lobbyists." ORL-BDL.gc.ca. 2007. 21 Sept. 2007. http://www.orl-bdl.gc.ca/epic/site/lobbyist-lobbyiste.nsf/en/h_nx00162e.html
In the older forms, people could live and work in relative independence if they disengaged from politics. Under a modern totalitarian government, people are completely and utterly dependent on, and submissive to, the rule and whims of a political party and its leaders. Older forms of such a government ruled by divine right, while the modern totalitarian state is ruled and run by a dictator who controls a political party. Examples of totalitarian governments are Germany under Adolph Hitler, the U.S.S.R. particularly under Joseph Stalin, the People's Republic of China under Mao Tse Tung, Italy under enito Mussolini and Iraq under Saddan Hussein. The ruling party is the elite and the whole society is subjugated to a hierarchical order wherein an individual becomes responsible to another of a higher position of authority. All social groupings are either destroyed or subjected to the purposes of the ruling party and the state.…
1. Labor Law Talk. Parliamentary System. Labor Law Talk Forum: Jelsoft Enterprises, Ltd., 2006
2. Lee, Dwight R. Liberty and Individual Responsibility. The Freeman: Foundation for Economic Educatin, 2005. http://www.fee.org/publications/the-freeman/articles.asp?aid=2124&print_view=true
3. MNS Encarta. Totalitarianism. Microsoft Corporation, 2006. http://encarta.msn.com/text_761574819_0/Totalitianism_html
4. Mikuriya H.N. Authoritarianism: a Social Disease. SOHOComp, 2006. http://www.mikuriya.com/sp_authority.html
political representation of African-Americans in the southern United States. The author explores many different theories as well as the ideas of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King to explore the under presentation of Blacks politically. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
African-Americans have come a long way since the nation's inception. From the days of slavery, to the present time many bridges have been crossed and many battles have been won. Gone are the days that Blacks were required to sit at the back of the bus.
No longer can Blacks be told they must eat at a certain restaurant. Black and white children go to school together daily, they grow up on the same streets and they marry into each other's race with increasing frequency. It is becoming the America that the founding fathers envisioned at the time the nation was created. One of the reasons…
Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man
Cornell, Stephen. The Return of the Native: American Indian Political Resurgence
Oxford University Press; Reprint edition (October 1990)
Swain, Carol. Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African-Americans in Congress
United States Congress, and the lens used in this case study analysis includes political theories. Viewed through this lens, the organization will be analyzed in terms of who has what power in the organization, who has access to agendas and control over information, what power coalitions or alliances exist, and how the unit attempts to influence other units and create upward influence in the organization. As Morgan (2006) points out, all organizations can be perceived as political systems concerned with and dependent on political activity. The United States Congress happens to take that concept of political systems a step further because the precise and overt purpose of the organization is political activity. To achieve its goals, Congress does exhibit the universal political traits of organizations that hinge on the relations among "interests, conflict, and power," (Morgan, 2006, p. 152). It is how the stakeholders in the organization pursue their interests,…
Donges, P.& Jarren, O. (2014). Mediatization of political organizations. Chapter 10 in Mediatization of Politics. Esser & Stromback (Eds.): 181-199.
Hirsch, A.V. (2016). Experimentation and persuasion in political organizations. American Political Science Review 110(01): 68-84.
Merchant, P. (n.d.). 5 sources of power in organizations. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved online: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/5-sources-power-organizations-14467.html
Morgan, G. (2006). Images of Organization. Sage.
political, social, and civil rights as they are, the notion of possible futures haunts nearly everyone. Potential political realities in the present and not-so-distant future are examined in Margaret Atwood's Handmaid's Tale and Marge Piercy's Woman on the Edge of Time. These novels have become modern classics precisely because of their poignant relevance to real-world social and political affairs. Although both Atwood's and Piercy's novels are at least in part set in future times, both tales are devoid of any significant characteristics that distinguish them from the present day reality. Thus, both The Handmaid's Tale and Woman on the Edge of Time eerily depict life in modern-day America even as they bridge gaps in time. In particular, issues related to gender and to political power are salient in both books. Through the core elements of their narratives, The Handmaid's Tale and Woman on the Edge of Time reveal that male-dominated…
conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement
Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the greatest impact on the effects of the movement - uckley and Rusher. These individuals, their beliefs, their principles were extremely influential in better understanding the origins, history, and leaders of American conservatism.
Momentous events shape the psyche of an individual as the person matures. A child grows up in poverty vows to never be like his parents, and keeps this inner vow to become a millionaire. A young woman experiences sexual trauma as a teen, and chooses a career that…
George Nash, The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945 http://www.nationalreview.com/22dec97/mcginnis122297.html . National review online The Origins of Conservatism George Mc Ginnis
Volume Library #2, p. 2146
Schneider, Cadres for Conservatism
McGinnis, National Review Online
Jean Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx are famous political philosophers, whose ideas in many ways had influenced the development of social formation in modern times, and what is most interesting is that ideas of both were realized in certain ways on practice. Jean Jacques Rousseau prophesied modern democratic institutions that laid into the fundamental of many modern nations; his ideas of "social contract" are the main principles of modern democracy, parliamentary political systems and relations between nation and state. On the other hand the ideas of Karl Marx, who explained an "unavoidable crash" of society with capitalist relations, into a new formation governed by the "dictatorship of proletariat" or a state with no private property, failed to be effective instrument of political and social regulation and did not meet the expectations, probably because the societies where those ideas were tested were not ready at all for radical changes. As both…
1. Why is the state considered a central institution in comparative politics? What does state power look like, and where does it come from? Towards what ends do states use their power? Give detailed examples from three country-cases.
The state is the central institution in comparative politics because it represents the group of institutions and agencies that exercise authority over the people subordinate to it. The state mediates disputes and serves to unite the individual will and the collective will under one umbrella. The state is recognized as the legitimate authority by the people and thus they comply with the state’s rules without needing to be coerced. To understand comparative politics, one has to understand the central role of the state.
State power can take numerous forms. In America it takes the forms of the courts, the Congress, and the police—for starters. The government has three branches of government—the executive,…
Unfortunately, the support gained by these two divisions were not based on the opinion, instead immoral activities including bribes were offered in exchange for the support of individuals, irrespective of their class and affiliation. The failure of the Gracchus brothers highlighted the failure of the constitution, the people and class emerged which was involved in such immoral activities, and lauded corruption for the political gain including influence Senate. The removal of the Tarquins was responsible for the social and political unrest, and after the election of the Tiberius Gracchus by the assembly as the tribunes, different policies with reference to the land allocation and ownership were restricted to 640 acres, and therefore the rich had to compromise, and lost their part of the wealth through different imposition and restriction. The rich compromised over their wealth and the state and poor were considered to be the beneficiary, therefore previously where the…
The Variant Paths of Post-Communist Russia, Poland, and Hungary
The past ten years have seen great changes in the formerly Communist countries of Eastern Europe. Bound together for years under the Soviet yoke, these nations have now embarked upon their own individual paths as sovereign states. Representative of these emerging one-time Eastern Bloc nations are Russia, Poland, and Hungary. All three once shared a common form of government and a single social system. In each of these cases, Communism overlay a pre-existing civilization and set of traditions. This relatively brief interlude of Marxism, Leninism, and Stalinism was thus, a veneer, a covering over, if you will, of far older patterns of behavior and ways of thinking. It was these underlying cultural and historical characteristics that, combined with the shared history of Soviet rule, produced the countries we know today. Three distinct nations were put together into the crucible of…
Allison, Graham. "Deepening Russian democracy: progress and pitfalls in Putin's Government." Harvard International Review 24.2 (2002): 62+. Questia. 2 May 2003 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000089175
Aslund, Anders. "RUSSIA." Foreign Policy July 2001. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000689067
Dougherty, Carter. "Warsaw near goal of bid to join EU." The Washington Times 26 Jan. 2002. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000091568
ExxonMobil Chemical: Analyzing Three Spheres / Political, Economic and Civil Spheres in ExxonMobil Chemical
What company says about itself
What Stakeholders said
ExxonMobil Chemical, XOM, leads the world in the petrochemical sector, applying cutting-edge, patented technology for developing products that enrich the lives of people across the globe (ExxonMobil, 2015).
The company concentrates on developing its supplier capabilities and human resource, alongside their strategic local community investments. Emphasis is primarily placed on the training and education of local personnel; skills and capacity enhancement of local suppliers who can deliver the company requisite services and material; and, improvement in community members' livelihoods by means of strategic community-centered investments. ExxonMobil customizes local content to every location's specific requirements. The company formulates plans at the local level on the basis of factors, like development priorities of the government, regulatory environment, infrastructure present (and…
ExxonMobil. (2014a). Local economic growth and development. Exxon Mobil Corporation. Retrieved on 7th October, 2015 from http://corporate.ExxonMobil.com/en/community/local-economic-development/local-economic-growth-and-development/local-economic-growth-and-development
ExxonMobil. (2014b). Political contributions and lobbying. Exxon Mobil Corporation. Retrieved on 7th October, 2015 from http://corporate.ExxonMobil.com/en/current-issues/accountability/political-involvement/political-contributions-and-lobbying?parentId=c1fc85cd-d7a3-489d-9fc3-e42223e8cafc
ExxonMobil. (2014c). Contributing to progress. Exxon Mobil Corporation. Retrieved on 7th October, 2015 from http://corporate.ExxonMobil.com/en/community/corporate-citizenship-report/stakeholders/contributing-to-progress?parentId=899e10b1-f995-42f6-b88a-cbe22cf98353
ExxoMobil. (2015). Company Profile. Exxon Mobil Corporation. Retrieved on 7th October, 2015 from http://www.ExxonMobilchemical.com/Chem-English/about/company-profile.aspx
Reagan era economics and uses the economic era as a foundational support for the economic boom of the 1990's. The writer explores various published works regarding the Reagan Economic era including discussions about the trickle down theory and voodoo economics to lay the building blocks to explain the boom of the 1990's.
The economic boom of the 1990's brought America to heights it had not seen in many years. People were able to purchase what they wanted, when they wanted and in the quantity they wanted. The housing market soared and the quality standard of life seemed to improve more many Americans. It was a decade of self-discovery, and a decade of exciting stock, housing, auto and other economic avenues to explode. It lasted long enough for residents of this nation to become comfortable spending and that comfort drove the spending up. This in turn drove the economy forward and…
ASK SOMEONE ABOUT THE REAGAN YEARS AND YOU'RE LIABLE TO HEAR A VARIETY OF ANSWERS... (Accessed 10-10-2002). http://members.tripod.com/~BluEyedMan/
Author not available, Reagan economics didn't work in U.S. - or here., The Toronto Star, (1999): May.
Author not available, REAGAN TAX CUTS WERE FAIR TO EVERYONE., The Record (Bergen County, NJ),(1994): February. pp b04.
Author not available, The rising tide. The Washington Times (1999): July. pp B2.
Thus, weak institutions, frequent military takeovers, and corruption in government ranks, both civilian and military has resulted in present state of affairs of Pakistan. Syria: Syria's history has been one that was dominated by family rule, foreign interventions, and inability to successfully run the affairs of the country by the ruling elite. The Assad family has held the power in Syrian since last four decades and this has caused significant deterioration in institutional and other forms of governance (Zisser 2003, 15-19).With independence from the French forces in 1946, Syria remained internally polarized and externally vulnerable to the tensions of Middle East. Her confrontation with Israel and support for Hezbollah has considerable historical background. Thus, the issues today being faced by Syria are a continuation of its acts of historical omissions and commission by ruling elites.
Influence of leadership: Influence of leadership on both Syria and Pakistan has been largely negative…
Berger, Mark T. 2004. "After the Third World? History, destiny and the fate of Third Worldism." Third World Quarterly 25: 9-39. Accessed July 11, 2013. doi: 10.1080/0143659042000185318
Judah, Ben. Assessing stability in Syria. International Relations and Security Network ISN. Aug, 2008. Retrieved from: [ http://www.isn.ethz.ch/DigitalLibrary/Articles/Detail/?lng=en&id=88666 ]
Nasrallah, Jana. 2011. "The impact of external intervention on power sharing agreements. (c2011)." Masters Diss., Lebanese American University. Accessed July 11. [https://ecommons.lau.edu.lb:8443/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10725/337/Jana_Nasrallah_Thesis.pdf?sequence=1]
Rosenlund, Stephen. 2013. "A Bright Light on Syria's Horizons." Center for International Private Enterprise. CIPE Development Blog, March 4. [ http://www.cipe.org/blog/2013/03/04/a-bright-light-on-syrias-horizons/#.Ud5fcztHK_p ]
Complete Solutions plc (CS) is a successful organization specializing in IT consultancy business with annual turnover of £40 millions. The company is located at North of England with branches in the U.S. And France. Established in 1980, the company was taken over by a larger company, and the take-over bid led to the rapid expansion of the company. Complete Solution has several sections with approximately 400 users in the UK divisions. The company internal services are based in Manchester with the Training Solutions (TS) consultancy section, Sales, and Marketing section. The overall services of Complete Solution consists of the IT consultancy service as well as selling of hardware and software, training and recruitment, software development and, outsourced services. The other services provided by the Complete Solution are consultancy services. With rapid expansion that the company is enjoying, the Complete Solution is planning to go public by…
CO3601 System Concepts (nd).Soft Systems Methodology Case Study: Complete Solutions
Checkland, P.(1985). Achieving 'Desirable and Feasible' Change: An Application of Soft Systems Methodology ST. The Journal of the Operational Research Society. 36(9): 821-831.
Gasson, S. (1995). The Role of Methodologies in IT-Related Organizational changes. Proceedings of BCS Specialist Group on IS Methodologies, 3rd Annual Conference.
Simonsen, J. (1994).Soft Systems Methodology. Computer Science/Roskilde University.
Political Scandals in Canada
A Political Scandal Involving Fraud
During the federal election in Canada in 2011 there was an electoral fraud issue that became known as the "Robocalls Scandal." This fraudulent activity took place in Ontario, in a town called Guelph.
Robocalls are previously recorded and automated phone calls to people from a computer that is programmed to call all phone numbers in a given area; usually robocalls carry a political message asking voters to behave a certain way.
In this case in Canada, the fraud took place because the robocalls were not from the organization they claimed to be from. People receiving the phone calls believed the calls were from the official group, "Elections Canada" but they were not from Elections Canada. The robocalls told voters their polling location had changed, and urged them to go to another place to vote that turned out to be a fraud.…
Daly, Brian. (2012). Bribery scandal rocks Canada Revenue. News Canada. Retrieve August
12, 2012, from http://www.saultstar.com .
MPR News. (2009). Why should the public care about a politician's private life? Retrieved
August 12, 2012, from http://minnesota.publicradio.org .
This includes previously mentioned measures such as increased governmental spending, directing funds towards education and health sectors etc.
Referring to Liberalism, we should first of all point out that liberalism does not necessarily limit its perceptions only to economic equality, as is the case with Socialism, but it extends its beliefs to the sector of civil and individual equality. This means that liberalism has always found itself as a promoter of human rights, as a sustainer of political freedom and the right to self - determination.
Going forth from these social and political perceptions, the social equality that liberalism promotes naturally leads to a policy of tolerance at a societal level. Liberal governances are generally know to be tolerant in terms of rights for social or religious minorities.
On the other hand, in terms of economic policies, liberalism promotes equality rather through the laissez-faire philosophy, through the capacity of the…
Marx further included that finally the biased behavior of the working class will end this dictatorship period, and a class less society will establish. He believed that for the formation of this society people need to launch an organized movement against the dictatorship and only a successful revolution would lead to the formation of society of "Communism" (Skoble, 2007).
When we talk about the political philosophy, we can observe that both John Locke and Karl Marx are in favor of the idea that when there is a need of change then an organized revolution is compulsory. People cannot get their rights until they demand for it because it's natural thing that you need to raise your voice in order to get your right otherwise other will keep it as their own possession.
The point of differ come when we talk about the scenario in which both of them forwarded their…
Riemer, N., & Simon, D. (1997). The New World of Politics: An Introduction to Political Science. San Diego: Collegiate Press.
Skoble. (2007). Political Philosophy: Essential Selections. London: Pearson Education India.
Tully, J. (1993). An Approach to Political Philosophy: Locke in Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Systems of Power and Inequality
In early March of 2012, a 28-minute video on the plight of African children received more than 21 million YouTube views. The video vividly depicts how the guerilla warlord Joseph Kony, leader of the Lords esistance Army (LA), reportedly abducted over 60,000 children who were subsequently forced to become child soldiers or sex slaves over the course of the civil war. Captured children who did not cooperate as said to have been mutilated and murdered. Production and dissemination of the video was a result of the efforts of an American charity called Invisible Children. In interviews with the press following the viral reception of the video, Invisible Children campaigner Jason ussell stressed the importance of the video as an example of how social media allows people all over the world to actually see other people -- see, as in the struggles, challenges, plights, and victories…
Anderson, M.L. And Hill Collins, P. (2009). Race, Class & Gender: An Anthology (7th ed.). Wadsworth Publishing.
Christie, D.J., Wagner, R.V., and Winter, D.D. (2001). Peace, conflict, and violence: Peace psychology for the 21st century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Thorton, B. (2006). Critical consciousness and liberal education, In Watson, B. (2006) Civic Education and Culture.
Wilkerson, M. (2012, March 8). Kony 2012 campaign: Oprah and bracelets won't solve problem. The Guardian.
Political Machines: Politics as a Tammany Vocation
hen Max eber made a speech on politics as a vocation he defined the political machine as a creation of the modern, pluralistic democratic state. A political machine, unlike a purely charismatic individual leader, was a functional bureaucracy attempted, however imperfectly to serve the popular interest through the use of an institutional framework. A quick-voiced opponent of political corruption might protest the use of the political machine as a contemporary model for American democracy, as it has often been associated with corruption, specifically pork barrel politics in America's urban past. Yet, before the creation of political machines, the national apparatus of the state used physical force to ensure compliance with its actions, rather than bestowing any kind of favors to ensure popular compliance.
For example in eber's Europe, the result of this use of aristocratic force was a form of political tyranny over…
Judd. Dennis & Todd Swanstrom, City Politics: Private Power and Public Policy. New York: Pearson Longman, 2002.
Judd. Dennis & Todd Swanstrom, The Politics of Urban America: A Reader. New York: Pearson Longman, 2002.
Riordan, William L. Plunkitt of Tammany Hall / Edited with an Introduction by Terrence J. McDonald. New York: Bedsford St. Martins. Originally Published in 1905.
Weber, Max. "Politics as a Vocation." From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. Translated and edited by H.H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills. Pp. 77-128, New York: Oxford University Press, 1946.
a) Are we in the midst of a political realignment in America?
Political realignment is an aspect, which is in evitable in America. It is evident that the political scenes in America today are changing from one state to the other. It is clear across the nation that realignment is not only bringing significant changes in the political scenes, but the changes are evident and are affecting the social and economic circles too. The big picture in political circles in America is that of minority parties rising up to become the most influential across the board. On the other hand, people in the majority parties have to stir up their confidence to catch up with the completion. In this context, political realignment is one of the major features in America (Winograd & Hais, 2009).
b) What role will social capital play in fostering / hindering the realignment?…
Miller, A.H. (February 9. 2012). Jews, Party Identification, and Political Realignment.Daily Digest. http://pjmedia.com/blog/jews-party-identification-and-political-realignment/
Putnam, R.D. (2000) Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster (Touchstone).
Wattenberg, M.P. (2008) Is voting for young people? New York, NY: Pearson Longman. (ISBN 10: 0-205-51807-9, ISBN 13: 978-0-205-51807-4)
Winograd, M. & Hais, M.D. (2009) Millennial makeover: MySpace, YouTube and the future of American politics: New Jersey: Rutgers Press
The Four Phases of Political Advertising
The four phases of political advertising as described by Edwin Diamond and Stephen Bates can be described thus: first) the candidate introduces himself; second) the candidate's ads state an argument; third) the candidate attacks and belittles his opponent; fourth) the candidate promotes himself as a "visionary…a leader…one who has a vision of moving the country forward" (Module 7). The purposes of the four phase system of political advertising is to 1) showcase the candidate's abilities, 2) question the opponent's, and 3) respond to the opponent's questioning of him. This paper will look at four political ads and show how each represents a phase political advertising and fulfills at least one of the three purposes of a campaign ad.
Barack Obama's Superbowl Ad is an example of the first phase of political advertising. In this ad, Obama introduces himself through a series of…
Module 7: Assignment.
Barack Obama Superbowl Ad.
Barack Obama Ad -- What If?
Political Activity of Women
The impact of women on our society has been more and more strongly felt since the women's revolution in the 1960's in the United States. However, there are some women that history cannot pass by, that must be remembered for their intelligence and political or economic prowess. Such a woman is found in our current secretary of state: Hillary Clinton. Mrs. Clinton has been at the forefront of American politics for decades now, and this paper will discuss the beginnings of her career, as well as the hurdles and accomplishments of this remarkable woman, in the context of the political activity of women in the United States.
The history of women in American society is very complex, and this gender's history in the political arena is even more so. It is a widely known fact that for most of history, women have had fewer…
Every year more than million local population migrate towards the urban areas.
Gender Discrimination: The regional religious clerics and their influence over the governments have created broad problems for women, and thereby restricting their integration and involvement into society and profession. Although the females have secured permission to vote, and fight elections, but they are subjected to difficult terms and conditions. The employment of females in MENA has improved, however it is still 15% lower than East Asian countries.
Growing pressures on young men and women in the Middle East and North Africa to immigrate to Europe and the U.S. To find jobs and economic opportunities -- a process that inevitably creates new tensions and adjustment problems' (Strategic Insights: Globalization has eluded the Middle East).
egional trade of lower magnitude:. All the countries of the region have so far failed to progress over economic and trade agreements. The countries have…
S. Mujahid, WTO, Globalization and Pakistan: Dreaming for Global Living Standards Pakistan and Gulf Economist, May 20, 2002.
Cf. Jeffrey Sachs, Globalization and Patterns of Economic Development
A. Sen, If It's Fair It's Good: 10 Truths About Globalization," International Herald Tribune, July 14, 2001
A.T. Kearney Corp, Measuring Globalization, Foreign Policy
Political Backgrounder: Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia, Canada -- Political Background in the context of environmentalism
Darrell Dexter is Nova Scotia's incumbent premier and the 27th Premier of the province since the Confederation. Dexter was elected leader of the Nova Scotia New Democratic Party in 2001 and was sworn in as Prime Minster on June 18, 2009. Both he and the Nova Scotia New Democratic Party have strict views with regard to environmentalism, as the province is actively involved in becoming a global leader in green energy before 2020. As Dexter puts it, "This is about making the right decisions for our economy and our environment. e are putting our energy future where it belongs, back in Nova Scotians' hands." (New Plan To Create Jobs, Stable Electricity Prices, Cleaner Environment)
Darrel thinks about green energy as being more than a means to guarantee a safer future for people when concerning matters…
"New Plan To Create Jobs, Stable Electricity Prices, Cleaner Environment," Retrieved July 23, 2013, from the Nova Scotia Website: http://novascotia.ca/news/smr/2010-04-23-wind.asp
"Renewable Electricity Plan," retrieved July 23, 2013, from the Nova Scotia Website: http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/renewable/renewable-electricity-plan.pdf
"Sable Island National Park Reserve," Retrieved July 23, 2013, from the Megan Leslie New Democratic Party Website: http://meganleslie.ndp.ca/
The religious organization has other-worldly goals, but must adapt to the demands of this world in order to survive. There are generally two kinds of responses to this problem -- the church response and the sect response. The church response is to adapt at the expense of the goals and the sect response is value-rational-to maximize goal commitment at the expense of adaptation (Satow, 1975).
EXAMPLE NATUAL -- Management NEED in Business OGANIZATION
Theories and research concerned with individual performance, employee satisfaction, and reduction of tension between individual and organizational goals deal only with internal aspects of events, relationships, and structures that make up the total organizational system. However, if an organization is seen as an open-energy system, it is apparent that it is dependent for survival and growth upon a variety of energy transfers within the organization and also between the organization and its external environment. It is sure,…
Barnard, C. (1938). The Functions of the Executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Friedlander, F., and Pickle, H. (1968). Components of Effectiveness in Small Organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly13(2), 289-304
Kanigel, Robert (1997). The One Best Way: Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency. New York: http://www.leaonline.com/entityImage/?code=200B
Kloos, B., McCoy, J., Stewart, E., Thomas R.E., Wiley, a., Good,- T.L., Hunt G.D., Moore, T. And Rappaport, J. (1997) Bridging the Gap: A Community-Based, Open Systems Approach to School and Neighborhood Consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation 8(2), 175-196
System of castas/Latin American History
Among many contributions of Mexico to the present American culture few are considered more significant than the concept of Mestizaje referring to the racial and cultural and synthesis. Mexico came out to be a fusion of the old and new world, particularly after the Spanish invasion during 16th century. Ever since the inception of the conquest the interracial sexual unions among Indians, Europeans, Africans and Asians appeared common, however, interracial marriage was allowed only during the later half of the 17th century. The frightened white elite treatened of the growing tide of Castas -- many racially mixed people- during 18th century formulated a caste system in order to institute status distinctions between the sub-groups so as to divide them and strengthen the Spaniards' sense of their own exclusivity. (An Unsettling acial Score Card)
The commissioned paintings of many groups of castas have remained to be…
Early Latin America. Retrieved from http://occawlonline.pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/stearns_awl/chapter25/objectives/deluxe-content.html Accessed 7 November, 2005
Fulopp, Tomas J. Latin America and the Concept of Social Race. Retrieved from http://www.vacilando.org/index.php?x=810 Accessed 7 November, 2005
Montalvo, Frank. Danzon and Mexico's Caste System. Retrieved from http://www.webcom.com/~intvoice/montalvo3.html Accessed 7 November, 2005
Poverty alleviation program for minority communities in Latin America: Communities of African Ancestry in Latin America history, Population, Contributions and social attitudes social and economic conditions. Retrieved from http://enet.iadb.org/idbdocswebservices/idbdocsInternet/IADBPublicDoc.aspx?docnum=479869 Accessed 7 November, 2005
System Issues & Chikfila
Systems thinking is a way of synthesizing the issues surrounding any organization in both a macro and micro manner. This allows more shared values through teamwork, mental paradigms, the ability to think in the future, and look at projects in a way that are best for the organization as a holistic entity. Thus, when the process of inquiry is moved from the individual and rote (only knowledge) to an organization that moves through different, more analytical modes of thinking, the individual involved are more active participants and there is a shared vision alone with a personal and team mastery of the question in point. This evolution engenders personal buy-in, a feeling of empowerment, and clearly a new way of processing disparate information (Senge, 2006).
Chick-Fil -- A is an American fast food restaurant chain specializing in Chicken Sandwiches. Their headquarters are in Atlanta, Georgia, and have…
Works Cited and Consulted
Chick Fil -- a Controversy. (2013). The Huffington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/news/chick-fil-a-controversy
Chick-Fil-a. (2013). Press Releases. Retrieved from: http://www.chick-fil-a.com /Pressroom/Press-Releases#?release=LGBT-statement
Chick-Fil-a. (2010). Corporate Message. Retrieved from:
The urpose of a olitical Court
In the view of Henry J. Abraham (Abraham 1998, 55), "theoretically," just about any qualified law school graduate with ambitions for an important judicial appointment would appear to have a fair chance at being nominated to the U.S. Supreme Court. That is providing, of course, the candidate is politically "available" and is, in Abraham's words, "acceptable to the executive, legislative, and private forces that, in the order enumerated, constitute the powers-that-be underlying the paths of selection, nomination, and appointment in the judicial process." key phrase in Abraham's criteria is "acceptable to the...legislative" body; as has been witnessed in the past few days and weeks, some of the conservative judicial nominees - not for the High Court but put forward by resident George W. Bush for federal appeals courts slots - have not been "acceptable" to a sufficient number of U.S.…
Peter W. Sperlich. "...And then there were six: the decline of the American Jury," in Judicial Politics: Readings from Judicature, ed. Elliot E. Slotnick (Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1992), 244.
Michael C. Munger, "Comment on Ferejohn's 'Judicializing Politics, Politicizing Law'," Law and Contemporary Problems 65 (Summer 2002): 87.
Jonathan Harr, A Civil Action (New York: Random House, 1995), 488.
The amount of political influence varies depending on the type of company. In the case of an industry needing a great deal of capital invested, they may be more susceptible to political risk. In the case of strapak the investment is moderate and does not require heavy foreign direct investment strategies. Though there is a need to export plastic products outside the country of South frica, the amount of required for manufacturing companies is far less than say for example an energy product industry. The amount of risk rises when the government makes changes based on politically correct moves to garner favor with global strategies such as environmental issues (Bothma, 2011). The regulations that the government can impose on a company can quickly affect its bottom line. The highest level of political risk comes from civil issues between domestic people groups. nother is war that can affect the ability…
At Astrapak there is only the competition to become better than the previous year. The focus is on quality improvement and an ever higher level of service. Instead of divisions competing against each other, they are poised to continuously improve. In fact the level of improvement in manufacturing due to numerous adjustments to techniques has put the firm at the front of the industry. So much so that foreign competitors are not outsourcing their packaging to Astrapak's affiliated companies rather than compete (Astrapak, 2004).
The BCG product life cycle puts products in four basic categories within the company portfolio. The first is the star or high growth product with the largest portion of the market. This is where the most revenue is invested and the highest return is expected.
The second is the cash cow that is equal to low growth due to stability in the market. This product is well-known and received it is a standard in the industry and
Political thinkers throughout the ages have considered the meaning of citizenship and the relationship that does and/or should exist between the citizen and the state. The meaning of citizenship has been addressed in different ways by various schools of thought, beginning with the Greeks. Citizenship means the state of belonging to a collective, a state, and an important element that emerges from Greek, Roman, and early Christian thinkers is that citizenship both confers rights and requires the fulfillment of responsibilities for an individual to be considered a good citizen. Definitions of being a good citizen include clarifying the relationship between the individual and his or her society, as can be seen in the political writings of Plato and the philosophical and ethical writings of Confucius. Plato identifies the good man with the good citizen, and what makes the individual good also makes the individual a good citizen. Confucius would agree…
Step 3 particularly lacks the depth of analysis required by the LAMP method. It requires an in-depth study of the views of each actor regarding the issue. While Mr. Gadd does discuss each issue at some length, he does not do this from the viewpoint of the countries he mentions. In fact, his study reads like a history from the viewpoint of an American author. Mr. Gadd only briefly addresses the issues as seen by the countries themselves. In this, he also focuses only on the similarities in the views of these countries, with the main point being that Iraq, Iran and Israel see themselves as isolated from their neighboring countries, and as being surrounded by enemies.
A better approach to this might have been demonstrating in greater depth the complexity of each country's views. I would for example have focused on both the similarities and differences of the countries…
There is some hope within some countries but maybe no hope between countries. As long as there are disparities within the economic balances of different countries there will always be food being used as a political weapon. Those countries that do have adequate supplies of food though, have a hope to balance their food politics out within themselves. There is the possibility of providing more food for the poor within countries in order to better balance the accessibility across the nation.
Food Security and Political Stability in the Asia-Pacific. (n.d.). etrieved July 29, 2010, from Web site: http://www.apcss.org/Publications/eport_Food_Security_98.html
Kassem, Yara. (2005). Food: A Political or Nutritional Tool? etrieved July 29, 2010, from Panorama Web site:
Political Economy of Food. (2010). etrieved July 29, 2010, from Answers Web site:
Smyth, Paul. (2009). Michael Pollan Makes Food Political. etrieved July 29, 2010, from City
Beat Web site: http://www.citybeat.com/cincinnati/article-18861-michael-pollan-makes-food-political.html
Food Security and Political Stability in the Asia-Pacific. (n.d.). Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Web site: http://www.apcss.org/Publications/Report_Food_Security_98.html
Kassem, Yara. (2005). Food: A Political or Nutritional Tool? Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Panorama Web site:
Political Economy of Food. (2010). Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Answers Web site:
Going back further, the same religious principals also inspired opposition to organ transplants and blood transfusions; before that, the Catholic Church strictly forbade any forensic scientific research, necessitating the need to dissect cadavers for medical education entirely in secret (Levine, 2008).
Just as the news media are partially at fault today for their failure to distinguish legitimate concerns from ludicrous fears in connection with the ongoing political debate over American healthcare, they are equally responsible for allowing unfounded fears of "human cloning" in connection with the beneficial uses of stem cell science. Specifically, the main source of secular opposition to stem cell research is attributable to unnecessary fears of rampant misuse of human cloning technology to clone human beings. While human cloning is hypothetically possible, no responsible scientific researcher would ever misuse current biomedical technology in that fashion. The complexities of cloning entire organisms have been well documented in animal…
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. Boston: Little
Brown & Co.
Friedrich, M. "Researchers Make the Case for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research"
The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 292(7); August 18, 2004:
This new law became part of California's Education Code in August, just before the beginning of the 1998-99 academic years. Since this time there has been no empirical evidence indicating there has been any benefit to language minority students from passage of Proposition 227 (Mora, 2002).
The political battle over bilingual education has only served to confuse the academic issues that are involved in educating language minority children. In California 25% of the total student population is made up of students classified as limited English proficient, or English language learners (ELL). A full 37% of the state's K-12 students speak a language other than English as their native language. Only 8% of the teaching force holds a bilingual (BCLAD) credential, however. Not all teachers that are teaching in classrooms with language minority students have the proper credentials. "In fact, 30% of teachers of limited English proficient students are not credentialed…
Mora, Jill K. (2002). Proposition 227's Second Anniversary: Triumph or Travesty? Retrieved
April 29, 2009, from Web site:
Proposition 227:English Language in Public Schools. (1998). Retrieved April 29, 2009, from Smart Voter Web site: http://www.smartvoter.org/1998jun/ca/state/prop/227/
There was once a time when Greeks, for example, prided themselves over their national identity which was obviously based on the piece of land that Greeks occupied. However with the passage of time, this piece of land is losing its significance. Land is still important for other reasons but it is no longer the factor that sets one group of people apart from another. This is an interesting development and one that explains why geography is gradually becoming history.
Everywhere nation-states are dying and this death has contributed to rapid decline in the significance of geographical demarcations. We can blame the information age as well as globalization for this change. But according to civilization theories postulated by Huntington, this change is grounded in religious and cultural differences/similarities. West is now better known for its identity as westerns rather than as North Americans or Europeans. This is due to the fact…
Samuel Huntington: Clash of Civilizations. Retrieved online 6th June 2006 at http://www.alamut.com/subj/economics/misc/clash.html
Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.
Dahl, Richard. "A Changing Climate of Litigation." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.4 (2007): 204+.
Fromkin, David. "International Law at the Frontiers." orld Policy Journal 15.4 (1998): 59-72.
Koh, Harold Hongju. "Foreword: On American Exceptionalism." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1479+.
Scharf, Michael P. "The ICC's Jurisdiction over the Nationals of Non-Party States: A Critique of the U.S. Position." Law and Contemporary Problems 64.1 (2001): 67.
Stacy, Helen. "Relational Sovereignty." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 2029+.
Tiefer, Charles. Veering Right: How the Bush Administration Subverts the Law for Conservative Causes. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004.
David Fromkin, "International Law at the Frontiers," orld Policy Journal15.4 (1998): 59. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002006259
Mariano-Florentino Cuellar, "The International Criminal Court…
Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.
Dahl, Richard. "A Changing Climate of Litigation." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.4 (2007): 204+.
Economists can demonstrate how, in the aggregate, consumers and industry benefit from free trade. In the process of creative destruction, however, some industries and workers are displaced by the changes wrought by free trade.
The measurement of benefit in the case of Volkswagen continues to reverberate today, after over 25 years. When VW entered the Chinese market, it did so over the objections of its local labour unions and politicians. Part of the objection came because the State of Lower Saxony controlled 20% of the shares, and the government was concerned about the loss of jobs in its domestic sector. The managers of VW saw it differently: by creating a successful and growing subsidiary in China, the reasoning went, the company could increase its generated cash and derive strategic benefits from finding a lower-cost supplier of parts.
There were, however, forces to overcome:
Unions threatened to strike in Germany unless…
Chase, S. (1947). A Generation of Industrial Peace: Thirty Years of Labor Relations at Standard Oil Company. New York: Standard Oil Company.
Chunli, L. a. (2003). The Chinese Automobile Industry and the Strategic Alliances of China, Japan, the U.S.'s Firms. Cambridge: MIT International Motor Vehicle Program.
Dubois, C.P.-D. (2007). Thrombin-initiated platelet activation in vivo is vWF independent during thrombus formation in a laser injury model. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 953-960.
Economist. (2007). 2008 World Almanac. London: Economist.
There is little or no public bidding on contracts, and contract arrangements are poorly spelled out, or not described at all. Furthermore, additional cost overruns are caused by the reliance on interagency contracts that actually demand an additional fee on the part of the Department of Defense. (GAO, 2007, p.9)
There is little difference in performance either before or after the awarding of contracts. Companies that were not checked into prior to contracting are barely supervised once they begin to perform the required work. Officials at the Department of Defense, and also those at the Department of the Interior acting for DOD, issue task orders that go "beyond the scope of underlying contracts;" commonly failing to justify non-compliance with regular procedures that ensure best value for the government. (GAO, 2007, p.10) it is as if Department of Defense officials see outside contractors as but members of the usual military command…
United States Government Accountability Office (GAO). (17 January 2007). DOD Needs to Exert Management and Oversight to Better Control Acquisition of Services (Defense Acquisitions GAO-07-359T). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Accountability Office.
The Homeland Security Appropriations Act supplies a total of four billion for state and local assistance agendas. State-based formula grants are financed at one and half billion, including four hundred million for law enforcement, with necessities directing the utilization of the per capita formula. The all hazards Emergency Management Performance Grant program is financed at one hundred and eighty million. Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grants are also made available. The bill provides a total of three hundred and fifteen million in transportation security grants. Firefighter assistance grants are financed at seven hundred and fifteen million, including sixty five million for hiring (Fact Sheet: Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2005, 2004). All of these regulations have placed increased burden on both state and local governments to carry out the tasks that have been placed on them by the approval of these acts.
Fact Sheet: Department of Homeland…
Fact Sheet: Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2005. (2004). Retrieved
Homeland Security and Law Enforcement. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.policeemployment.com/resources/articles/homeland-security-law
Moss, Mitchell, Schellhamer, Charles and Berman, David A. (2009). The Stafford Act and Priorities for Reform. Retrieved from http://www.nyu.edu/ccpr/pubs/Moss_03.09.09.pdf
Portfolio on Various Economic and Political Concepts
The Industrial Revolution
What was Changed by the Industrial Revolution
How the Revolution Changed the Economy
Examples from Past and Present (1900's & today)
The Industrial Revolution, a multi-decade event that took place in the 19th century (1820-approx. 1870), completely transformed the way goods were produced across two continents. Prior to its start, which took place in the UK, and its continuation, especially focused in Germany and the U.., most goods were produced by hand, at home.
The revolution, however, mechanized production processes and introduced machines and factories that, inevitably, improved and increased production. Yet this could not have been achieved without various inventions, such as the cotton gin and other weaving machines, or water powered machines (i.e. trains), many of which propelled countries, and especially the American economy, forward in a unique and successful way.
Prior to the Industrial Revolution, American…
Sources of Power
Egypt is one of the most powerful African nations and has proved to be a reliable partner of the West, which invested massively in the development of the country. The fact that Egypt is a democracy through its constitution has contributed greatly to gaining the support of the West. The path chosen by Egypt can be an example to other African nations and democracy can be spread with the support of Egypt. Democracy and free elections in Egypt can have a great impact on neighboring countries, as they might be persuaded by this example. esides, a high level of democratization will increase the support offered to Egypt by more developed nations and it will grant even more power to the country in the international scene.
Consolatore, D., Living with democracy in Egypt, available at http://www.thehumanist.org/humanist/articles/Consolatore.Egypt.pdf;
Ibrahim, a., 2006. "Universal Values and Muslim Democracy." Journal of Democracy Vol. 17, No.…
Consolatore, D., Living with democracy in Egypt, available at http://www.thehumanist.org/humanist/articles/Consolatore.Egypt.pdf ;
Ibrahim, a., 2006. "Universal Values and Muslim Democracy." Journal of Democracy Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 5-12;
Kjeilen, T., Egypt: Political situation, available at http://www.lexicorient.com/e.o/egypt_1.htm;
Lipset, S.M., 2004 . "Economic Development and Democracy," in Patrick O'Neil and Ronald Rogowski (eds.) Essential Readings in Comparative Politics. New York: W.W. Norton, pp. 287-301.