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Popular Cultures and Humanities
Popular Cultures and the Humanities
Modern trends keep changing and their length of time within the society depends on a lot of factors. Of most significance here is how these trends turn from oblivion into being trends. The contemporary society has a lot of idol worship. This comes in the form of people identifying a figure that they identify with and try to do things like them, this then pushes the emergence of trends. The same applies to known fashion designers or famous producers of some goods or items. Advertisements also create trends which can be largely followed within a society fro some time. Trends can also emanate from new innovations that cut across a wide population.
Therefore, modern trends and myths are closely tied and are used to represent ideas about people, the world they live in, and their beliefs. Myths are used to help…
Curcio, J. (2011). What is a modern myth? Retrieved June 21, 2012 from http://www.modernmythology.net/p/what-is-modern-myth.html
Koven, M.J. (2003). Folklore Studies and Popular Film and Television: a Necessary Critical
Survey. Journal of American Folklore, 116(460), 176-195.
Matira, L. (2008). Children's Oral Literature and Modern Mass Media. Indian Folklore Research
One of the most recent technological developments which has precipitated a greater democratization of the Internet is the proliferation of networking sites that have become prominent recently. These sites attract millions of users and viewers or users and viewers and have become a source for the proliferation of popular culture.
There is also a view from scholars that the link between popular cultures and the Internet is synergistic. In other words, the increase in popular culture is a motivating force for the increase in Internet usage and at the same time the new online technologies that are being developed are providing the platform for increased popular culture activity. In a paper by Hakan Selg, entitled Popular Culture as a Driver of Internet Use, the author stresses how developments in popular culture have become associated with increases in Internet usage. (Selg)
There is little doubt that the future of popular…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107383706
Bell, David, Brian D. Loader, Nicholas Pleace, and Douglas Schuler. Cyberculture: The Key Concepts. New York: Routledge, 2004. Questia. 4 Apr. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107383708 .
Bell, David. An Introduction to Cybercultures. London: Routledge, 2001. Questia. 4 Apr. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102726866 .
What does Anne Cranny-Francis mean when she defines popular culture as "a way of operating" and why does she find it a useful definition?
Borrowing from Morris' definition of popular culture, Francis speaks of popular culture as a way of operating. Therefore, whether or not a work of art is considered popular culture is based on how the art is produced and how it is consumed. Something is popular culture because of how it is used within the culture and how it is incorporated into people's lives. Popular culture becomes a way of understanding the society in which one lives.
Curry finds Morris' definition of popular culture as a way of operating useful because it places the emphasis on the relationship between the viewer and the work of art. Francis believes that popular culture is about formulating questions about both the society that exists and the society that…
Popular Culture in the 18th Century
A number of different factors would conspire to make popular culture into a new and different thing in eighteenth-century Britain. There had been popular culture before the eighteenth century, of course: Shakespeare's plays in their original context being staged at the Globe amid bear-baiting, orange-selling, and prostitution definitely counted as authentically popular culture. And the remarkable efflorescence of religious and political tracts during the English Civil ar in the seventeenth century -- as outlined in Christopher Hill's seminal monograph on the topic, The orld Turned Upside-Down -- seems to define a culture not only popular but populist. But I would like to identify three factors -- the rise of mass literacy, the decline in religious values, and the increase in colonialism -- which marked out eighteenth century popular culture as uniquely different from what had come before.
The rise of mass literacy in the…
Cleland, John. Fanny Hill, or Memoirs of a woman of pleasure. New York: Penguin, 1986.
Defoe, Daniel. "The Shortest-Way with the Dissenters." In English Essays: Sidney to Macaulay. Cambridge: Belknap (Harvard Classics), 1914.
Davidson, Jenny. Breeding: A Partial History of the Eighteenth Century. Irvington: Columbia University Press, 2008.
Fielding, Henry. Joseph Andrews and Shamela. New York: Penguin, 1999.
Popular culture has a pervasive impact upon children's lives today, particularly during the adolescent stage. According to the University of Tampere's Department of Translation Studies, pop culture is defined as "the differing forms and expressions which are characteristic of a particular society (whether local, regional, national, racial, or ethnic, to mention only a few of the different definitions of 'society' itself)."
It is a recent modern phenomenon that encompasses all aspects of cultural expression, which include but are not limited to, movies, music, television shows, literature, fashion, food, and sports. Everything deemed popular is considered to be the latest style or trend; items in pop culture are often meant to be superficial and short-lived, ready to be replaced by the "next big thing." Pop culture is sustained by continuous feedback from its consumers to its industries over determining what is to considered popular.
Pop culture has a dynamic influence on…
Ferguson, Mitch, Eyzenga, Christina. "Music Influences." 25, March 2005
King, Samantha, McConnell, Jim, et.al, "Effects of rap and heavy metal music lyrics on Adolescent behaviors." (2002) Westchester University. 25, March 2005
It is not a popular notion in today's culture that little girls are supposed to love dolls and little boys are supposed to love trucks and other masculine toys (itt) However, if the toy is packaged in a new way it seems that it may be all right. The My Twinn may at first seem one of extreme socialization and not a desirable place to shop for a young lady, but on further examination at least that part of the equation is not disturbing. The purchaser is buying a friend for the girl that looks as close to her own self as a doll can. However, once socialization is taken out of the picture, it is disturbing in other ways. Modern culture gurus bemoan the commercialization of everything in this free market culture that has developed in the United States and seems to be taking over the world.…
Class Dismissed: How TV Frames the Working Class. Dir. Loretta Alper. Prod. Sut Jhally. Media Education Foundation. 2006. Film.
Fiske, John. Understanding Popular Culture. London: Routledge, 1990. Print.
Jhally, Sut. "Image-Based Culture: Advertising and Popular Culture." The World and I, 1990. Article.
Kornreich, Jennifer L., Kimberly D. Hearn, Giovanna Rodriguez, and Lucia F. O'Sullivan. "Sibling Influence, Gender Roles, and the Sexual Socialization of Urban Early Adolescent Girls." The Journal of Sex Research 40.1 (2003): 101- 113. Print.
Popular Culture and Gender Identification
In the United States and throughout the world the popular culture has both reflected and created the identity of the individual and that larger population. One of the most important aspects of a person's identity is their gender. This is a socially constructed label that is applied to someone, most often based upon their physical sex. However, there are many cases wherein a person's gender identification is different than their physical sex which makes them "other" in the community and makes them the easy target of emotional and sometimes physical abuse. Popular culture is an important part of the structure of identity and this can include gender identification. In such television programs as How I Met Your Mother and South Park the ways in which characters illustrate their own gender identification and the value that they have in society based upon the strength of that…
Lloyd, Stephen. (2008). "The Goat." How I Met Your Mother. CBS.
Messner, Michael A. "Barbie Girls vs. Sea Monsters: Children Constructing Gender." 384-
Parker, Trey. (2007). "The List." South Park. Comedy Central.
Regarding the movie as a meta text we understand that the man incarnates the creator par excellence.
The fact that man's creation rebels against him and destroys him is a very intriguing social and political statement. On the one hand we could interpret this metaphor as man's fundamental incapacity of creating something really important. The researcher not only did not improve his machine, but lost his life in the process. His goal was beyond common sense, romantic and idealistic and the denouement of the story demonstrates that whenever man abandons reason he is most likely to have a tragic ending. Naturally, the woman, who has a passive role, is in a certain way responsible for the dramatic denouement. This is a patriarchal perspective upon society and the meaning of the individual in the social web (constructed in strict relation to his or her gender). Man fails to be a true…
Wells, H.G. The island of Doctor Moreau, NY: Bartleby, 2000
The fly (directed by David Cronenberg), 1986
The youth in these countries has become more than just obsessed with the physical appearances as plastic surgery is also becoming quite common. China probably has the greatest plastic surgery industry where they work at everything from increasing heights to improving complexions to match those that of the white Caucasian race. As in Singapore, which is "a global city" we find it being "at the forefront of consumerism of popular and "pop" culture products. Indeed over the last few years "pop" culture influences have come from East Asia-Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan (J-culture), and most recently, Korean "pop" culture.(Donegan, 2003)
The popular culture has led the youth into becoming increasingly dependent on labels and brands in order to develop an identity of their own that's akin to that of the youth world over so that they can be accepted in the privileged world reigned by pop culture. This has not…
Greg Weiss Donegan. (2003). The Internationalization of Retailing in Asia. Routledge (UK).
Lorelei Narvaja. (2002) Teen rebellion through counterculture punk music -- A Brief Look at the 1990's. EM magazine. Volume: 2. Issue: 12.
Angela Nelson. (2005) Rap Music and the Stagolee Mythoform. The Journal of American Popular Culture (1900-present). Volume: 4. Issue:1
Steven Best and Douglas Kellner. (1999) Rap, Black Rage, and Racial Difference. Enculturation. Volume: 2.No: 2, 1999
In fact, it is interesting to note that violent television and video games become more likely to lead to aggression in children as they get older (Krcmar, 1998, p. 251). Factors that cause this include the fact that from new-born to the age of eight, children pay an increasing amount of visual attention to television. This increase levels off at the age of eight. Moreover, as they get older, children appear to grow increasingly likely to identify with television characters. This may be because they become more cognitively sophisticated, and thus can better understand what they are watching. Krcmar (1998, p. 251) notes that these changes may partly explain the fact that as children grow older, the likelihood that viewing violent television will result in increased aggressive behaviours becomes higher. They also become increasingly desensitized to media violence as they age. There seems to be little doubt that exposure to…
Behrman, Richard E., Culross, Patti L., & Reich, Kathleen. (2002). "Children, youth, and gun violence: Analysis and recommendations," the future of children, 12(2)( 5.
Grazion, David. Mix it Up: Popular Culture, Mass Media and Society. New York W.W.
Kim, Hyeok, & McDonald, Daniel G. (2001). When I die, I feel small: electronic game characters and the social self. Journal of broadcasting & electronic media, 45(2), 241.
Pop Art on Society
During the fifties, America experienced tremendous growth in many aspects of society. As a result, technological advancements led to sophisticated aspects of American life. Media and advertising became mass media and the invention of the television paved the way to a new generation of communication. This was also an era of exploration among generations. Traditional forms of art began to experience growth and "culture" expanded into many sub-cultures.
Some of the trends that surfaced were New York City turning into an "international center for painting and architecture" (Davidson 1147), mass circulation of paperback books, network television suddenly becoming the world's most powerful form of mass communication, and rock and roll becoming the language of youth (Davidson 1147).
The explosion of such artistic expression was greeted with optimism, but mostly with pessimism, "warning against moral decadence and spiritual decline" (1147). On one had, the "highbrow intellectuals" argued…
Davidson, Gienapp, Heyman, Lytle, and Stoff. Nation of Nations. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1990. 17 December 2002.
Metrailler, Edouard. High in Saccharine, Low in (Moral) Fiber. The Harvard Salient. 7 October 1996. http://www.digitas.harvard.edu/~salient/issues/961007/mediocrity.html17 December 2002.
Morse, Margaret. Pop Art. Biddingtons. 17 December 2002. http://www.biddingtons.com/content/pedigreepop.html17 December 2002.
Myers, Ken. What Distinguishes "popular" Cultures From Other Varieties of Culture? Modern Reformation. http://www.modernreformation.org/mr97/janteb/mr9/01distinguishes.html17 December 2002.
"Clicking to like," and "friending" are part of common vernacular, due to Facebook. The social media Website has unmistakably transformed the way people use the Internet. Facebook members read about daily current events in their "news feed" rather than from visiting the Websites of The New York Times. Users read articles posted by friends, who re-posted them from other friends. Facebook has even made regular email seem almost obsolete when it comes to socializing. Although it has not gone by the way of snail mail, traditional email is now much less important compared with Facebook messaging. Communication and the development of friendships take place within the virtual playground of Facebook. Facebook has in fact changed the ways people view the state and practice of friendship. A "friend" is not necessarily someone who we see in real life anymore; it is a person who "likes" our posts and photos…
Dery, Mark. "Culture Jamming: Hacking, Slashing and Sniping in the Empire of Signs." Retrieved online: http://project.cyberpunk.ru/idb/culture_jamming.html
"Facebook Statistics, Stats, and Facts for 2011," (2011). Retrieved online: http://www.digitalbuzzblog.com/facebook-statistics-stats-facts-2011/
Gross, Larry. "Gideon Who Will be 25 in the Year 2012: Growing Up Gay Today." International Journal of Communication 1(2007): 121-138
Henig, Robin Maranitz. "What is it about 20-Somethings?"The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/22/magazine/22Adulthood-t.html?_r=2&src=me&ref=homepage& ;
The cultural practices are evolved and based on the financial, social and moral understanding and capabilities of the local population, and it has been observed that Americans, Asians and Africans share extremely different perspectives and understanding on these issues, therefore the cultural adoption has been intense in countries where the technological revolution has been of the same intensity as in North America (Zelli, 1993). In some of the cases, the Americans companies has attempted to nullify the concerns and shortcomings of the American culture, by incorporating the cultural values of the local region, and has therefore evolve a different taste for the customers to avail, this has further delighted and fascinated the local population of different regions towards the American culture, for example the American culture has major differences with the Islamic culture adopted in Arab countries, therefore to compensate for such difference the American companies introduced the concept of…
David W. Noble. Death of a Nation: American Culture and the End of Exceptional-ism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 2002
Tafarodi R., Swann W. Individualism-collectivism and global self-esteem: Evidence for a cultural trade-off. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 1996
Trubisky P, Ting Toomey S, Lin S. The influence of individualism collectivism and self-monitoring on conflict styles. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. 1991
Huesmann, Zelli, Fraczek, Upmeyer. Normative attitudes about aggression in American, German and Polish college students. Presented at Third European Congress of Psychology. Tampere, Finland. 1993
Popular culture defines what is desired by any given sociological group based on pressure by peers. Every moment of the day, we are saturated by culture. hen we turn on the television, not only are we watching the programs but we are inundated by advertisers trying to convince the viewer that there is some new product that needs to be purchased or a new movie that needs to be seen or a new service that is essential to the happiness of the consumer. On the Internet, each inquiry provides banner headlines where we are also bombarded with advertisements and attitudes. Similarly, there are billboards and ads on cars and radio commercials while we drive to and from work. It is characteristic of a capitalistic society that so much of our culture has to do with the consumption of goods and services (Yar, Lecture 2, slide 2). Everywhere someone or something…
Yar, Majid. "Sociology of Popular Culture: Lecture 2: Popular Culture, Ideology, and Capitalism: Critique of the 'Culture Industry'"
Yar, Majid. "Sociology of Popular Culture: Lecture 3: Reading the Popular: Culture as a System
Yar, Majid. "Sociology of Popular Culture: Lecture 5: Popular Culture and Gender Identities"
Levine centers on popular culture and how it is an adequate mechanism in comprehending Depression America. The writer attempts to get away from austere adjective labels as often as possible. He notes that while culture may not be seamless, it is integrated or connected. The piece asks for the reader to re-evaluate a long history of preconcevied notions and images that prevent the serious study of popular culture. The image of the strictly docile, non-aggressive mass audience and the endless amount of consumption defines pop culture in the eyes of academics. Popular culture is percevied as purely formulaic.
The idea that popular culture was and still is "escapist" and the concept that popular culture is not considered to be cutting edge on knowledge or style creates the belief it is not an art form or does not represent art. ut what is popular culture? Popular culture is in its simplest…
1 Brookover, Sophie, and Elizabeth Burns. Pop Goes the Library: Using Pop Culture to Connect with Your Whole Community. Medford, N.J.: Information Today, Inc., 2008.
2 Danesi, Marcel. Popular Culture: Introductory Perspectives. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008.
3 De Groot, Jerome. Consuming History: Historians and Heritage in Contemporary Popular Culture. London: Routledge, 2009.
4 Foster, George M. "What is Folk Culture?." In American Anthropologist, 159-173. 1953.
Sociology of Popular Culture
A popular culture is a complex term defined by a number of already existing definitions which explore the different spectrums associated with the term. The initial understanding of this culture was based on the lifestyle adopted by the masses; the subordinate, lower class, which made them separate from the elite class. However, today, it is considered to be a lifestyle which includes different cultural practices, artifacts and other cultural commodities, that is widely accepted by the population. Therefore, in order to study a popular culture, it is important to focus on the varying aspects such as identity, representation, regulation, production and consumption where the latter two have an interdependent relationship. For this reason, this paper would look into the underlying fact of the contemporary popular culture where the producers are also the consumers.
The theorists of the cultural studies started studying popular culture when…
Bielby D, 2001, Popular culture: production and consumption, Wiley-Blackwell, United States.
Douglas, S, 1994, Where the girls are: Growing up female with the mass media. New York: Random House
Kellner, D, 1995, Media culture: Cultural studies, identity, and politics between the modern and the postmodern. New York: Routledge
Leadbeater, 1996, Urban Girls: Resisting Stereotypes, Creating Identities. New York: New York University Press
ports and popular culture (NFL/NBA)
Popular culture entails all forms of mass communication such as:
Books and Cartoons and comics
It is somewhat different compared to higher forms of cultural art such as:
In terms of mass communication, popular culture means messages which are intellectually and artistically limited primarily designed to entertain and humor the viewers (Hollander, 2014). Following the industrial revolution, the people had a lot of time to spare which led to a huge demand for entertainment and amusement and gave height to media. The increasing supply of goods also made it necessary for the advertisers to attract the consumers and mass media could reach a large number of audiences at the same time (Hollander, 2014).
The physical activities have always been in the life of human beings in the form of different leisure…
Sports have played a huge role in the American society on the whole as they have become a necessary part of the popular culture. American football is quite a popular game which brings NFL (National Football League) in limelight. NFL is same to same as other sports have an off season too when they are on a season break. Leagues such as NBA (National Basketball Association), MLB (Major League Baseball) and NHL (National Hockey League) follow the same pattern which builds the hype for them (Lee, 2012). It enables the public to forget all about sports for a while until it swings back in action again. The off season usually consists of training sessions, gym, trading players, NFL Combine and NFL Draft. These activities are heavily kept watch of by loyal fans followed by intense discussions (House, 2012).
Super Bowl is intensely popular in United States. Even the non-followers are somehow influenced by it as they hear news about it or by viewing it. The news channels mention regularly and social media is definitely on fire with news and updates. A famous band plays during halftime while a draw exists for watching the advertisements during the game and halftime (Lee, 2012). Companies are compelled to dish out loads of cash to display advertise themselves as the Super Bowl progresses. These ads are usually creative and funny and sometimes mixed. People for the sake of fun choose a particular team and cheer it till the end or otherwise friends pick a team and contend that it will win the title. It's sort of a public gathering event where food is enjoyed and drinks are taken in huge quantities. Tostitos and Doritos are chips found mostly at super Bowl parties while in case of drinks Coke, Pepsi and Budweiser. For the sports fans, it's their day off as they spend the entire day in front of a TV or mocking the opponent's team for fun. TV shows often give reference to Super Bowl just as Christmas and Halloween. Betting on a high level is also involved for the winning team, people are cut some slack from office, schools and colleges as it's the biggest event of the year (Hollander, 2014).
In 'Popular culture and the rituals of American Football' by Mark Axelrod, several cultural practices in America regarding football are mentioned. Before the ports went global, there were a lot of rituals and myths
First, evil in Sleepy Hollow is more equating with a satirical view that, in this case, evil is a more benign humor, bumbling, caustic in disrupting the town, and, as it was in Ancient Greek and oman drama, simply more of an irritant than planned destruction. Focusing again on the time period, our first introduction to this theme is one of Dutch New York against Urban New England. The Dutch community is sylvan, nostalgically conceived, changeless, and an Eden for its inhabitants. Ichabod arrives as a Yankee whose spoiling of this Eden simply cannot be tolerated -- and even more, by marrying the daughter of a wealthy and high-ranking community member, becoming part of Eden himself. This simply could not happen to a community that is so "European in nature."
Sleepy Hollow, as a town is clearly Dutch, with Dutch values, culture, and mores, or for riving, "population, manners, and…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Albert, H. (2009). Life and Letters of Edgar Allen Poe, Volume 2. Biblio-Bazaar.
Burstein, A. (2007). The Original Knickerbocker: The Life of Washington Irving.
New York: Basic Books.
Irving. W. (1820). The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. Forgotten Books. Cited in:
Mass Culture and Popular Culture and Studying Bestsellers Books
This paper takes into account the differences in the best sellers written in the 1980's and in the 1990's. It also focuses on the themes of the best sellers from the two decades and what makes them appealing to the society.
Mass culture and popular culture and studying bestsellers books
In this day and age, books are being written with a motive to inculcate motives, teaching the readers a lesson every time they open the book.
Good books always serve as a constructive way to provoke idle thoughts. Women started writing as a profession back in the early 1800's. They started off writing articles for magazines, containing information on fashion, science, household tips, and covering other domestic issues. These magazines trained every woman with the proper code of etiquette, style and manner of dressing nicely even motivated women from the lower…
Barbara Ehrenreich, Nickel and Dimed
Dave Pelzer, A Child Called it
Eric Schlosser, Fast Food Nation
However, the media continues to take women with those features and portray them as less educated than their white counterparts, and now even less educated than their "white" looking Black sisters.
In the ad below one can see that the model is Black but her nose, eyes and lips do not feature typically Black characteristics. She looks like a European woman who has Black skin. This is the media's answer to the demand to provide a more fair portrayal of Black southern women in the media.
The image below at first glance might prompt one to applaud the media for finally recognizing the beauty in the Black female population but when one takes a closer look the same thing can be noted as in the previous ad. This woman is beautiful by standards attributed to white women.
The media has done the Black Southern woman another injustice with the attempt…
New Piece to the Puzzle: Examining Effects of Television Portrayals of African-Americans.(Abstract)
From: Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media | Date: September 22, 2000 | Author: Rada, James A. | More results for: portrayal of African-Americans media
The nightly news blues. (portrayal of African-Americans) (Column)
From: Essence | Date: January 1, 1993 | Author: Walker, Kenneth | More results for: portrayal of African-Americans media
The level of access that a blind person can hope to achieve from these otherwise important pop culture resources will be somewhat lessened when contrasted to the experience of sighted individuals. As a result of this reality, there "is growing concern about a 'digital divide'. This divide [...] refers to the space between those who access, and therefore use, new technologies and those who do not" (Blair, 2006).
Of course, significant strides are being made to harness the technical wonders of modern pop culture in order to help blind people better navigate this new world. For instance, the ubiquitous cell phone has been appropriated to create the "smallest text-to-speech reading device ever built, a device especially useful for people with impaired vision" (Greenfieldboyce, 2008). This technology allows blind people to snap pictures of objects with their phones, which are then analyzed by the phone software to interpret to the text…
Blair, J. (2006, November). A computer and Internet future: enabling inclusion? Learning Disability Practice, 9(9), pp. 32-37.
Greenfieldboyce, N. (2008, January 29). Cell phone reads to the blind. NPR. Retrieved July 24, 2008, at http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=18504117
Rudman, G. (2006, April 3). The techno-flux effect. Brandweek, 47(14), pp. 22-23.
Apple Computers Influence on Popular Culture
Apple Computer, Inc. is recognized worldwide for creating powerful solutions that are based on user-friendly personal computers, servers, peripherals, software, personal digital assistants and Internet content (Apply Pp). Headquartered in Cupertino, California, Apple is an innovator in the information industry and a leader in multimedia technologies (Apple Pp). It develops, manufactures, licenses and markets solutions, products, technologies and services for business, education, consumer entertainment, scientific and engineering and government customers in roughly one hundred and fifty countries (Apple Pp). Apple has had a profound influence on popular culture. Macintosh users are not just users, they are devotees, who use the computer to express their beliefs on the relationship between technology and society, for they believe the Mac is not simply an object by which to think, it is a spiritual path to a future where technology and humans co-exist in harmony (Lam Pp).
Piller, Charles. "Macintosh Mystique." Macworld. February 1, 1994; Pp.
Apple Advertising Takes Top Honors in Major Industry Awards." PR Newswire.
July 31, 1996; Pp.
Lam, Pui-Yan. "May the Force of the Operating System be with You: Macintosh
Camera angles that focus on wretched faces, of young boys in red coated uniforms begging for mercy, and of the arrogance of the British officer corps, not just towards Americans, but towards their own enlisted men, are shown with filming skill. As might be expected for this type of film, John Williams' score was masterful and very much in line with the generation of epics from the 1950s and 1960s -- painting a realistic picture of the film without dialog. Similarly, the audience is set up between the idyllic farm and hard work of a widower in the opening scene to the juxtaposition and hoped for return to normalcy in the final moments -- however, knowing that things will never be as they were (See: http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title.jsp?stid=336714&contentTypeId=130&category=trailer). The scene, however, that most stays with the audience is not one of the grander battles, but a one-on-one battle between Benjamin and Tavington,…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Bittarello, M.B. (2008). "Re-Crafting the Past: The Complex Relationship
Between Myth and Ritual." Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies. 10(2): 214.
TRAILERS and PREVIEWS
Brown, Todd. (2007). "Footage from Taras Bulba." Twitch. Cited in:
Yellowface: Orientals in Popular Culture
The history of the Asian presence in America presents evidence of racism and classism. As a result, the Oriental stereotype was developed in American culture that has negatively impacted the immigration and rights of naturalization, citizenship opportunities, economic rights, and social involvement of Asian-Americans. The cultural designation of the color yellow to identify Orientals is a classic example of race identification, and the categorical ideology that accompanies racial opposition to whiteness. In his article, "Yellowface," Robert G. Lee cites evidence of Oriental racism in American Popular Culture and discusses how it has affected the perception of Orientals as true Americans. The "alien" condition of Orientals assimilated into American culture has stereotypically prevented their full characterization as Americans.
The cultural stereotype rooting Orientals to misconceptions over loyalty to homeland and their identification as a racial presence is the basis of Lee's discussion. Through historical examination of…
In her interview, she is obliquely asked to lose weight. Her body, as we will see shortly, is ever the object of external appraisal. To work on-air, she must look a certain way. Her bosses imply that she needs to tighten up. This tightening is contested later by the expansion of pregnancy. When she goes out with her sister to celebrate the new job, they are let into the club before others based on looks. Inside the club, they worry about whether or not men are thinking about "fucking them." They also refer to other women as "skanky bitches." All of this evidences a certain emphasis on looks, an emphasis that transcends civility. A woman's commerce in the move is based on use for others.
It is at the same club that the woman character meets Ben. They meet and eventually return to Alison's sister's place where the have drunken…
slang term for psychoanalysis in popular culture is 'talk therapy.' This is because the first forms of psychoanalytic discourse, as developed by Sigmund Freud, relied upon a release of verbal free associations on the part of the patient to enable the analyst to better understand the patient's mind. However, various other forms of psychological counseling have developed and evolved since psychoanalysis was conceived in Vienna, Austria. It has become acknowledged that human beings are not simply minds attached to bodies, but that the treatment of the body affects the mind and vice versa. Perhaps the most famous examples of Freud's determination that the mind was an isolated entity was his insistence that women alleging sexual abuse at the hands of male relatives were merely expressing female fantasies of sexual involvement with their attackers rather than recounting actual episodes. Now, the difficulty of healing the body and the mind that have…
Brown, Molly Young. The Unfolding Self: Psychosynthesis and Counseling. New York:
Psychosynthesis Press, 1984.
Levy, Fran J. Dance Movement Therapy: A Healing Art. New York: American Alliance
for Health, 1992.
Culture and Marketing Strategy
About the print ad from http://theinspirationroom.com/daily/2013/johnnie-walker-from-the-future/
The print ad is about a certain brand of alcoholic drink that is endorsed by a professional athlete. The athlete takes a sip from a glass of whisky and begins walking. This in a way appears to suggest that consumers of this particular brand of whisky can cover long distances after taking this whiskey. Information pertaining to alcoholic content and how the brand is matured are not clearly visible on the ad. The only visible thing is the image of the person who has endorsed the brand making some strides.
Assumptions made by the authors of the ad
The authors of the ad try to make the ad to be more appealing to the motives and desires of the consumers. They give form to people's deep-lying desires. They assume that they will best arrest the consumer's attention by tugging consumer's…
Altstiel, T & Grow, J. (2006). Advertising Strategy: Creative Tactics From the Outside/In. CA:
Petracca, M. & Sorapure, M. (1998). Common Culture: Reading and Writing about American
Popular Culture. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
merican popular culture has also infected our dietary choices although in my case, it has encouraged me to think much more critically about what I put into my body. Ironically, the poor suffer the worst in that regard because fast food restaurants are concentrated in their neighborhoods (
Kasser, 2003). Meanwhile, fast food is much more expensive than quality food and it only perpetuates obesity and diabetes. I have sworn off all merican fast food, largely because of my continual exposure to its effects on those who eat it regularly. I cringe to think that people still eat McDonald's, especially knowing how much fat, sodium, and artificial flavorings are in their imitation of real food. The mass consumption of meat is also destroying the environment. Knowing what I do about fast food has turned me off to it completely and the fact that merican popular culture pushes it so hard…
American popular culture has also infected our dietary choices although in my case, it has encouraged me to think much more critically about what I put into my body. Ironically, the poor suffer the worst in that regard because fast food restaurants are concentrated in their neighborhoods (
Kasser, 2003). Meanwhile, fast food is much more expensive than quality food and it only perpetuates obesity and diabetes. I have sworn off all American fast food, largely because of my continual exposure to its effects on those who eat it regularly. I cringe to think that people still eat McDonald's, especially knowing how much fat, sodium, and artificial flavorings are in their imitation of real food. The mass consumption of meat is also destroying the environment. Knowing what I do about fast food has turned me off to it completely and the fact that American popular culture pushes it so hard has influenced that decision on my part. It is the exact opposite of the way that corporate marketing departments want me to react. Rather than sell me on the latest bun-free chicken burger that uses slabs of pre-fabricated and reconstituted chicken, KFC has only ensured that I will never patronize any of their "restaurants" ever again. American popular dietary culture has actually driven me to make healthy dietary choices. I now make sure to cook my own food and take it with me so that I am never so hungry that I am tempted to set foot into a McDonald's or KFC for any reason.
American retail culture has also turned me off to shopping entirely in much the same way that American fast food culture has influenced my decision-making
A widely quoted and interesting functioning definition has been provided by Geert Hofstede who suggests that culture should be considered as software of a person's mind. He is reported to have said that each individual possesses certain patterns and forms of contemplation, emotions and possible acting that they have probably acquired during their life (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005).
Most of these patterns have been obtained through their early childhood experiences as those are the time when an individual is most likely to acquire learning and build on it. Just the way a computer regards its "thought processes" and functioning as its software, the patterns or formations of thinking, experiencing and carrying out psychological processes in an individual can be referred to as the software program of the mind (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005).
However, this does not imply, most definitely that individuals are supposed to function or behave as a computer…
Valentine, V. (1995). Opening up the Black Box: Switching the Paradigm of Qualitative Research. ESOMAR Seminar, Paris, 6-8th December, 25-47. Corbu, N. (2010). Cultural Identity as a System: Toward the Crystallization of a European Cultural Identity. Romanian Journal of Communication and Public Relations. 12(1), 121-132.
Waterman, a.S. (1999). Identity, the identity statuses, and identity status development: A contemporary statement. Developmental Review, 19, 591 -- 621. Taken from SETH, J.H., et al. (2010). The Relationships of Personal and Cultural Identity to Adaptive and Maladaptive Psychosocial Functioning in Emerging Adults. The Journal of Social Psychology, 150(1), 1 -- 33
Williams, R. (1976), Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, Fontana, London. Corbu, N. (2010). Cultural Identity as a System: Toward the Crystallization of a European Cultural Identity. Romanian Journal of Communication and Public Relations. 12(1), 121-132.
American pop culture has been cultivated and molded by mass media. The recent iteration of mass media, electronic media, has a profound and significant influence on the daily lives, thoughts, perceptions and desires of every single person in the United States, whether people are aware of this influence, or not. The potential for media to influence people has been the subject of much debate since the earliest forms of mass media; newspaper, radio, and television have all contributed to our individual and collective psyche in America. This paper will discuss the roles that music, radio, television, and the motion pictures have played in the development of American popular culture as well as discuss some of the trends propagated by the electronic media and will provide a personal perspective on the relationship between media representations and consumerism, the human body and justice, law, and order.
Bagdikian (2000, pg. 185) notes that…
Bagdikian, B. (2000) The Media Monopoly, Sixth Edition. Beacon Press.
Bhattacharya, P. (July, 2003) Back to the future: Urbanization, globalization and consumerism. Boloji.com. Retrieved from http://www.boloji.com/opinion/0051i.htm
Zoubkov, P., Johnson, S., Young, N., Fletcher, H. & Thomas, B. (2004) Global Bits: Corporate influence in the media. Global Education Center, 3, 87-93 Retrieved from http://www.globaled.org.nz
spanned Old Highway 31, Broadway, State Route 119, High Street, and even the Champs-Elysees. They have elicited feelings of mouth-watering salvation from children in the backseat of cars for generations and tugged on the deeply imprinted visions of the American Dream from the adults in the front; having visited them already, adolescents on the streets of American cities clutch the greasy paper bags on the way home from school, gabbing with their friends and sharing their French fries; in downtown New York, they grace Wall Street with a top-hatted, white-gloved greeter at the front door. The Golden Arches permeate American culture, all walks of life, classes, ethnicities, social stratii, and geographies in a way that no other commercial space has. McDonald's, a leader in the worldwide fast food industry, has capitalized on its commercial ingenuity, successful marketing, globalization, and place in the American imagination by careful recognition of the cultural…
Other commodities are consumed to derive pleasure or entertainment which explains why one goes for a certain television brand or a type of car. The choice of cars among the youths and the purpose of owning the cars among other gadgets have something to do with what their peers will think of them not the utility part (Scott Atkins, 1995).
Baudrillard, (2012) another individual who studied material culture called it the sociology of consumption. He studied the objects and not the consumer; he asserted that consumption should be taken seriously as an important institution where social class status and prestige are displayed. Certain objects depict a certain class in the society and when one possesses those prestigious objects then there is a message to the society in terms of the social status. The objects therefore have symbolic value as he mentions the objects of the modern consumer, it is implied…
Baudrillard, (2012). The Consumer Society. Retrieved May 31, 2012 from http://www.the-philosophy.com/baudrillard-consumer-society
Geoff Stahl, (1999). Still 'Wining Space?': Updating Subcultural Theory. Retrieved May 31, 2012 from http://www.rochester.edu/in_visible_culture/issue2/stahl.htm
Kyle Grayson, Matt Davies & Simon Philpott, (2009).Pop goes IR? Researching the Popular Culture-World political Continuum. Retrieved may 31, 2012 from http://184.108.40.206/www.gesellschaftswissenschaften.uni-frankfurt.de/uploads/images/1495/Grayson_et_al._2009.pdf
Philip Smith, (2000). Culture and Charisma: Outline of a Theory. Retrieved May 31, 2012 from http://prisme.u-strasbg.fr/sites/10/File/7a_smith_charisma.pdf
Culturally Biased Intelligence Assessment
Intelligence assessments have existed since the early twentieth century and have continued to be a topic of debate. We all know full well that intelligence assessment is critical to the type if academic success that we achieve in life. One of the primary tools used to assess intelligence is the IQ test. However, the intelligence quotient test has been under scrutiny for decades because it is believed to harbor culturally biased precepts.
The purpose of this discussion is to explore the cultural bias' that exist in intelligence quotient testing. We will begin with a literary review which will start by explaining the definition of cultural bias in testing and the historical implications. We will explain the origins of the IQ test and the reasons why the cultural bias exist. Our discussion will then focus on how cultural bias in intelligence assessment has produced historical implications.
Educators Should Require Evidence. (1999). Phi Delta Kappan, 81(2), 132.
Enriching the Focus on ethnicity and race. (1998). APA Monitor. VOLUME 29, NUMBER 3 - March 1998 www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=95784671
Alexander, K.L. (1997). Public Schools and the Public Good. Social Forces, 76(1), 1-30.
Folk culture refers to the collection of "songs, tales, proverbs, jokes" that reflect a specific segment of society -- and can often refer to the expressions of marginalized groups like African-Americans. Popular culture is more mainstream, and is fabricated and consumed by the dominant culture. It would include newspapers, magazines, and books propagated throughout a country, as opposed to folk culture, which would be localized (either geographically or, if the group is geographically spread out, culturally). According to Levine, popular culture is "seen as the antithesis of folk culture."[footnoteef:1] There is also an impression that popular culture lacks the authenticity of folk culture in capturing the spirit of the people. As Levine puts it, popular culture does not emanate from the community but is created artificially for consumption by the community and usually with financial motives. For historians and other researchers, popular culture, "if it has to be…
Alverman, Donna E., Moon, Jennifer S. And Hagood, Margaret C. "Popular Culture in the Classroom: Teaching and Researching Critical Media Literacy. Literacy Studies Series." International Reading Association, 1999.
Bennett, A. Popular Music and Youth Culture: Music, Identity, and Place. CAB, 2000.
Davis, Natalie Zemon. "Toward Mixtures and Margins." AHR Forum.
Haque, Sabir. "Folk Culture, Mass Culture, Convergence Culture." Idea Minefield. Retrieved online: http://www.ideaminefield.com/2008/07/folk-culture-mass-culture-convergence.html
Culture & Marketing in Turkey
Turkey & Culture
Author's note with contact information and more details on collegiate affiliation, etc.
Culture & Marketing in Turkey
Culture is a critical aspect of successful marketing strategies. Marketing firms must perform diligent and thorough research on their prospective consumers for several reasons. Culture is a key factor in determining tastes, aesthetic preferences, behavior, values, and perspectives on other cultures, among other things. As such, it is the responsibility of any marketing department to know the culture to which they intend to market products for consumption. This holds true in any location, though the focus of this paper will be upon the country of Turkey. Turkey is a country that is part of both Europe and Asia, and this trait alone can provide some insight as to the complexity and richness of the culture. This paper will examine the impact of culture on multinational…
Cavusgil, S Tamer, Civi, E., Tutek, H.H., Dalgic, T. (2003) "Doing Business in Turkey." Thunderbird International Business Review, 45(4), 467 -- 479.
Hollis, N. (2009) "Culture Clash: Globalization Does Not Imply Homogenization." Millard Brown: POV, 1 -- 4.
Little Women, Louisa May Alcott's defining work, which brought her much fame in her time, is a biographical account of her family. In the book, her father Amos ronson is Mr. March and her mother Abigail May is Marmee, while her older sister Anna is Meg and younger sisters Lizzie and May are eth and Amy, respectively. And Louisa May is the lead character, Josephine or Jo March, the second daughter. The novel, published in 1868-1869, made Alcott a major author of her era.
The March family is poor all throughout, and the women are always doing routine housework, which bores and frustrates them. Mr. March serves as a Union chaplain in the Civil War, which then rages, and he writes his family to inspire them to be more tolerant of their poverty and hardships. The girls wake up on Christmas morning to find copies of books under their pillows,…
Alcott, Louisa May. Little Women. SparkNotes.com. (accessed 12:03:03)
Microsoft Encarta ® Online Encyclopedia 2003. (accessed 12:03:03). http://encarta.msn.Microsoft Corporation 2003
Schafer, Nancy Imelda. Life and Works of Louisa May Alcott. Camden County Free Library. (accessed 12:03:03). http://www.rsf.k12.ca.us/~dwebber/LouisaMayAlcott.htm
Watcing TV Makes You Smarter.
On May 9t 1961, Newton N. Minow, cairman of te Federal Communications Commission blasted te television industry and called muc of it's programming "a vast wasteland." (O'Connor 1986) Twenty-five years later, in 1986, a television writer for te New York Times mirrored tis criticism wen e said tat it was still "surprisingly valid." (O'Connor 1986) Tis criticism of te television industry as, in te past, been a valid criticism as trougout most of television istory, te programming as been a two dimensional representation of te realities of life. Wile many in te media still like to criticize television, tere as been some major improvements in terms of complexity of plot as well as introducing te intricacies of real-life into te storylines of television programming. Today's television programming, wile still containing a lot of "fluff," as, troug te use of different tecniques, increased te…
O'Connor, John. "TV View; The 'Vast Wasteland,' 25 Years Later" New York Times, May 4, 1986, accessed May 6, 2011.
Culture's Impact On Healthcare
Culture: Midwestern, (White Female)
The following are the top 5 characteristics of my culture:
Conservative political values. May cause a closed mine and limit the imagination. Political lines are dogmatic and prevent free thinking.
Family orientated. This bias may cause the individual to be too loyal on one's family. It is very difficult to see our families for who they truly are.
Open minded: Too much open-mindedness may lead to foolish mistakes and jumping on any bandwagon that may come along.
Love of the outdoors and social activities. Too much of this behavior, may lead to not refining the indoor skills that are important in life.
Trusting to new experiences. Too many new experiences may lead to becoming ungrounded.
The Midwestern culture is very conservative and many within the culture base their decisions on popular notions and ideas. Health care to Midwestern culture…
Arterberry, K. (nd). Cultural Competence. Provided by customer.
Hearnden, M. (2008). Coping with differences in culture and communication in health care. Nursing Standard, 23, 11, 49-57.
The major concern is the effect of violence, due once again, to studies that show a connection between watching violence and participating in it. For example, Bushman and Anderson (2002) conducted as study in which they determined that playing violent video games can "engender hostile expectations, leading one to expect that others will respond aggressively" (p. 1679).
The Grand Theft Auto series of video games has undoubtedly been a major instigator in the backlash against the gaming industry. Not surprisingly, most parents are not too thrilled about the idea of their children taking on the persona of a character who commits crimes to earn rewards, and runs over prostitutes so he doesn't have to pay them. There was also a major parental backlash against the PS2 game Bully before it was released, because parents assumed that it would glorify bullying. The frenzy turned out to be unfounded as the game…
Bushman, B.J., & Anderson, C.A. (2002). Violent video games and hostile expectations: A test of the general aggression model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1679 -- 1686.
Gunter, B., Harrison, J. & Wykes, M. (2003) Violence on television: Distribution, form, context, and themes, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Rekulak, J. & Spangler, B. (2006) Let's Paint the '90s, Quirk Books
In rare cases, mothers taught their daughters reading and writing. At 15, girls were expected to marry men their fathers chose for them. Interestingly, this was only the fate of wealthier girls. Peasant girls chose their own husbands when working in the fields (Fisher and Harlan).
According to Tomoko Shimoda, the traditional Japanese family is regarded as very important, also with specific roles for women, men and children. Although Western influence has standardized education and emancipated women, they are still generally regarded as mostly active and highly important in the household. Women maintain the family finances and care for the children, while the role of men is to be engaged in work, which mostly constituted the family business. Both girls and boys are educated, although boys are steered towards taking over the family business while girls are taught housekeeping and accounting skills. In the past, marriages were generally arranged,…
Crystal, Ellie. Ancient Greek Education. http://www.crystalinks.com/greekeducation.html
Fisher, Grant and Harlan, Cheri Beth. The Roles of Men, Women and Children in Ancient Greece. http://chalk.richmond.edu/education/projects/webunits/greecerome/Greeceroles1.html
Shimoda, Tomoko. Representations of Parenting and Gender Roles in the Shoshika Era: Comparisons of Japanese and English-Language Parenting Magazines. Electronic Journal of Contemporary Japanese Studies. 14 Jan 2008. http://www.japanesestudies.org.uk/articles/2008/Shimoda.html
Similarly, women today feel the need to appear beautiful and perfect all the time in order to be a part of a class in society. According to what Kilbourne suggests, women use their bodies as masks or objects that need to be taken care of all the time and kept in perfect shape and condition. The media and the advertisements program their minds to think that their appearance is not perfect and they need to change themselves in a particular manner (Kilbourne, 2002).
One of the main roles that media has played in this subject is to make an individual perceive themselves from the eyes of others and to take it as a responsibility to be appealing to the eyes of the audience instead of what they themselves want to do. Advertisements today sell the bodies of women, not in the literal sense but metaphorically speaking, all advertisements have women…
Dahlberg, J. (2008). Sexual Objectification of Women in Advertising. Journal of Advertising Research .
Galician, M. (2004). Sex, Love and Romance in the Media: Analysis and criticism of the unrealistic portrayal of women in mass media. Lawrence Elbaum Associates.
Gammel, I. (1999). Confessional politics: Women's self representations in life writing and popular media. Southern Illinios University Press.
Hall, a.C. (1998). Delights, Desires and Dilemmas: Essays on Women and the Media. Praeger Publications.
Popular American Culture
The analogy of the tail-wagging-the-dog has never been more prevalent than in the expression of contemporary angst, vision and dreams popularly embraced by American film and music. Where both mediums were once the looking glass through which society could admire its best qualities and endeavor to rise above its worst ones, the passage of time and the resultant re-invention of personal values have transformed them into templates for destructive behaviors predicated on greed, loss of identity and desperation.
What ever happened to commitment and fidelity? The themes of early movies and songs revolved around the premise that for every woman there was just the right man, a romantic journey of discovery that was as happily anticipatory as the final destination itself was secure and ever-lasting. One needs only to look at America's dismal, 50% divorce rate to question the validity of those early promises, a disenchantment…
Popular ideologies like Social Darwinism both reflected and created the reality of England, Germany and the United States in the 1890's. During that time, all three nations were economic and social powerhouses, potentially poised on the edge of greatness (or teetering on the brink of destruction, given the benefit of hindsight). Social Darwinism was likely one of the most powerful ideologies of the time, and it both contributed to the reality of the great nations, and influenced the reality of the times.
During the 1890's, America, England and Germany were all economic powerhouses, as well as great centers of culture and education. All three great nations had not yet felt the effects of the Great ar, which crippled the German economy and likely ultimately strengthened both British and American societies.
In the 1890's, all three nations were gripped, to some extent, by the sheer possibilities the Industrial Revolution and earlier…
European Imperialism in the 19th Century. 12 October 2003. http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/westn/imperialism.html
Note Access.com. Art Education in the Twentieth Century: A History of Ideas. Social Darwinism and the Quest for Beauty. 12 October 2003. http://www.noteaccess.com/APPROACHES/ArtEd/History/Efland/51890FirstWW.htm
Social Darwinism. 12 October 2003. www.ioa.com/~shermis/socjus/socdar.html
St. Marys. RACISM AND SOCIAL DARWINISM. 13 October 2003. http://husky1.stmarys.ca/~wmills/course203/8Racism.html
The political implications of this article are enormous, including international relations to come up with worldwide emissions agreements, economic reform in regards to the businesses that continue to use carbon-emitting practices, and legislation that will limit the abilities of businesses. This article is written from the point-of-view, therefore, of someone who has been monitoring this situation for quite some time, and who is concerned about global warming's impact on earth. In addition, this person writes from the political point-of-view, having a great deal of knowledge about how the problem can be solved politically. The scientific conclusion that global warming is a time-sensitive problem is unique, but not valid, while the idea of 350 is based on a new study, so its accurateness cannot be confirmed. McKibben, however, does not suggest this. Instead, he relies on the number, 350, as solid fact, without admitting that it may not be correct. Thus,…
Allen, Laura. (2008, December 19). The Other Big Meltdown. Retrieved December 20, 2008 at http://www.popsci.com/environment/article/2008-12/other-big-meltdown
Cyr, Christine. (2008, December 11). Flying High on Biofuels. Retrieved December, 20
2008, at http://www.popsci.com/military-aviation-amp-space/article/2008-12/flying-high-biofuels
McKIbben, Bill. (2008, November/December). The Most Important Number on Earth.
Culture and media cannot be separated and hence advertising has a strong impact on culture and vice versa. It is interesting to see how media influence behavior and at the same times, accepts cultural changes and reflects the impact through advertising. One major example of this is the use of wireless communication. With increase in use of all wireless devices like ipods, iPhones and cell phones, the advertising has also taken on a new meaning ad method. Mobile advertising is now a common phenomenon where people get offers and deals even simple advertising messages through their wireless devices.
This shows how cultural changes impact advertising and how advertising in turn affects cultural trends. Advertising serves a very important purpose whether we admit it or not. It allows us to choose from a wide variety of alternatives. But what happens when advertising becomes a little too invasive. There is a good…
1. Marguerite Reardon. "Advertising seeps into the cell phone" CNET News.com Published: September 14, 2006. Retrieved online http://news.com.com/Advertising+seeps+into+the+cell+phone/2100-1039_3-6115617.html
2. Matt Richtel, Marketers Interested in Small Screen, January 16, 2006. New York Times.
3. Sarah Lacy. Cell Phones Ring for Marketers. December 23, 2004. Retrieved online http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/dec2004/tc20041223_4480_tc119.htm
4. "Cell Phone Advertising has Promise" Sept 15, 2005. Retrieved online http://www.mobiledia.com/news/36373.html
When one thinks about Freud's theory one has to presume Freud's conscious thoughts or his theory regarding an Oedipus complex represents not his real thoughts but his defensive condensations, displacements, reversals, omissions, and distortions of his real thoughts. If one wishes to look inside his real thoughts regarding an Oedipus complex, one has to analyze and interpret the manifest content of his thought with these defenses in mind. According to Freud, a person must use this method of analysis to overcome such defenses and resistances. The first rule of Freud's technique was to reject the manifest content or the apparent meaning of the dream, symptom, or activity as merely a distorted substitute for one's real thoughts (Freud's Theory Analyzed -- a eport on esearch n.d).
Freud thought that one's conscious thoughts would be unconsciously determined and distorted by what one had censored. One's conscious thoughts condensed, displaced, reversed, omitted, covertly…
A Brief Outline of Psychoanalytic Theory, n.d., Available at:
Bridle, S. And Edelstein, a., 2009, Was ist "das Ich"?, Available at:
These assumptions encapsulate the notion of consumer sovereignty in neoclassical economics of consumption' (Jonathan Scheckter (2006). A Holistic Approach to Consumption Analysis in the Popular Music Market). While the concept is often criticized at an empirical level, or at an intuitive level, the origins of consumer sovereignty are seldom explored with reference to popular music.
The most important advancement of neoclassical economics arose as a sophisticated defense of this assumption of constant preferences. The argument asserts from the outset that, 'tastes neither change capriciously nor differ importantly between people'. (Becker and Stigler, 1977: 76) the starting point is the utilization of a reformulation of consumer theory, first expressed by Becker and Michael (1974). This new theory "transforms the family [consumer] from a passive maximizer of the utility from market purchases to an active maximizer also engaged in extensive production and investment activities," (Becker and Stigler, 1977).
The theory explained various…
Adorno, Theodor (1976). "Mediation." In Introduction to the Sociology of Music. New York: Seabury.
Berland, Jody. (1990). "Radio Space and Industrial Time: Music Formats, Local Narratives and Technological Mediation." Popular Music 9(2): 179-192.
Frith, Simon. (1981). "Making Records." In Sound Effects: Youth, Leisure, and the Politics of Rock 'n' Roll. New York: Pantheon, 89-129.
Hall, Stuart. (1973). "Coding and Encoding in Television Discourse." In Culture, Media, Language. Edited by Stuart Hall et al. London: Hutchinson.
The phrase that was popular in 1965, when Johnson got his legislation passed, was "Cultural deprivation"; that phrase, and the culture of poverty became what Stein calls "central constructs" around a policy that hopefully would help children that were "shackled by the chains of disadvantage which bind them to a life of hopelessness and misery" (Stein, 2004, xiv).
Schools were a "promising site for government intervention" because the field of education could "…interrupt the otherwise intractable poverty culture," Stein continued, reviewing the federal government's attempt to end poverty. By funding programs to help low income students, the government set out to "…impart middle-class norms, and break the chains of poverty and disadvantage," for poor students, blacks, Latinos, immigrants and others who were seen as "victims of cultural deprivation," Stein continues on page xv. But the problem with the government's intervention was that the "very characterizations of 'disadvantaged youth'…functioned in ways…
Cuthrell, Kristen, Stapleton, Joy, and Ledford, Carolyn. "Examining the Culture of Poverty:
Promising Practices." Preventing School Failure. 54.2 (104-110).
Harrison, Brigid Callahan. Power and Society: An Introduction to the Social Sciences. Florence,
KY: Cengage Learning, 2010.
Membership in an exclusive, elite privileged club of those who own "the best" -- something that not just anyone can have. To wear Nike Air Jordans was to reify a sacred experience. It was a vehicle to feeling as if one were the hero figure, Michael Jordan" (Aaker & Biel, 1993, p.105). This excerpt demonstrates the extreme length of effectiveness of the complex and truly multi-faceted marketing campaign launched by Nike.
In conclusion, professional athletes have long exerted a strong influence over men's fashion and sports apparel. However, the case of Air Jordans represents a shoe where a celebrity endorsement truly revolutionized the product, the celebrity and the entire athletic shoe industry. Nike took a highly calculated and highly strategic risk when they started courting Michael Jordan and when they used such a tremendous bulk of their advertising budget on this particular campaign. However, their strategy paid off: they successfully…
Aaker, D., & Biel, a. (1993). Brand Equity & Advertising: Advertising's Role in Building Strong Brands. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Andrews, D. (2001). Michael Jordan, Inc.: Corporate Sport, Media Culture, and Late Modern America. Albany: SUNY Albany.
Johnston, J. (2001). The American Body in Context: An Anthology. Willmington: Scholarly Press.
Kathleen Morgan Drowne, P.H. (2004). The 1920's. Westport: Greenwood Publishing.
Consumption, Society and Culture
There are two social processes which are linked with each other and provide the basis of popular culture in modern capitalist societies. These two processes are related with production and consumption of cultural goods. In the first step, the commodities are produced in the light of customers' desirable features and packaged in culturally acceptable methods. In the second step, the products are used by their respective target markets as status symbols to satisfy self-esteem needs. The identification of the target market as a considerable portion of society is largely based on its presentation in fine arts particularly TV programs, music shows and films (Benjamin, 1968).
Social system is a comprehensive study, whose knowledge is mandatory to understand the popular culture. Artifacts represent the cultural symbols, yet these artifacts are strongly influenced by the taste and choice of professionals and cultural elites. There are many…
Adorno, Theodor W., "Art, Autonomy and Mass Culture," in Art in Modern Culture: An Anthology of Critical Texts, ed. By Francis Frascina and Jonathan Harris (New York: Icon Editions, 1992), 74-79.
Adorno, Theodor W., Critical Models; Interventions and Catchwords, trans. By Henry W. Pickford (New York: Colombia University Press, 1998).
Adorno, Theodor W., "The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture, " (London: Routledge, 2001).
Adorno, Theodor W. et al., The Authoritarian Personality (New York: Harper & Row Publications, 1950).
Popular Culture in the Classroom
From the wide range of materials teachers can use in the classroom, popular culture is one of the best sources. They appear to public attention as the indication of the rapid growth of the society. Many of the pop culture icons are mostly well-known, regionally and internationally. Students enjoy working with pop culture that they are familiar with. Some of them think that such materials are less intimidating than heavy textbooks. With appropriate use and organized application, the pop icons can be remarkable teaching tools in the classroom. eading sources and mass produced resources are widely available in all seasons, giving teachers plentiful options.
Despite the 'pop' reputation, the community does not need to worry that these materials would wreck the traditional schooling rules. Modern people are quite erudite to recognize popular culture items more than just as second-class articles. In fact, the culture symbols…
Amster, S. (2000). Shakespeare vs. Teletubbies: Is There a Role for Pop Culture in the Classroom? Adams 5th Publication July/August 2000. Retrieved Mar. 25, 2003 from Harvard Education Letter Research Online. Web site: http://www.adams5th.com/journalism.htm
Brooks, E. (1994). Japanese Popular Culture in the Classroom. Retrieved Mar. 25, 2003 from National Clearinghouse for U.S.-Japan Studies Indiana University. Web site: http://www.indiana.edu/~japan/digest3.html
Burghes, D. And Galbraith, P. 2000. Teaching Mathematics Through National Lotteries. International Journal for Mathematics Teaching and Learning. Retrieved Mar. 25, 2003 from Centre for Innovation in Mathematics Teaching University of Exeter. Web site: http://www.ex.ac.uk/cimt/ijmtl/ijnatlot.pdf
Curry, D.L. (2003) Taking Trips to Museums Online. In The Digital Classroom Questions and Answers. Retrieved Mar. 25, 2003 from Creative Classroom Online. Web site: http://www.creativeclassroom.org/ma03tech/qanda.html
Film and Culture
The Grimm brothers began collecting folktales around 1807 and began a legacy that has been ingrained in popular culture. Although the tales that they collected were representative of the culture at the time, the brothers worked to canonize some of the archetypes that were present in their day. Instead of seeing them as just random works of literature, the brothers were able to identify various themes which served as the main focuses on their fairy and folk tale. These themes seemed to be generally available in the stories that the two individuals documented just as they are also present today. These archetypical characters which formed can make one wonder whether it is the culture that shapes the story or whether it is the stories that shape the culture.
Very few Grimm's Fairy Tales deviate from the stereotypes of the hero, villain, and damsel in distress…
The U.S. is particularly interested in the technology, particularly as oil prices continue to climb in an increasingly volatile market. hereas Japan once looked to the United States for knowledge and aid in modernizing the country, the Japanese are now able to set the standard for the U.S. And the rest of the world with respect to high-speed rail.
The advent of high-speed rail furthers what cultural theorist Michel de Certeau calls the "insidiousness" of consumption. "It insinuates itself everywhere, silently and almost invisibly, because it does not manifest itself through its own products, but rather through its ways of using the products imposed by a dominant economic order" (de Certeau 1984 qtd. In Storey 140). People were able to travel through Japan, obviously, before the existence of the bullet train, but once introduced it gradually became a central feature in the country. Once people got used to traveling at…
"Shinkansen: Japanese Bullet Train." Japan-Guide. 2011. Web. 6 March 2011. <
Siebert, Loren. "Shinkansen: From Bullet Train to Symbol of Modern Japan." (book review).
Pacific Affairs 1 Mar. 2007: 112-114.
And perhaps worst of all are books like Chicken Soup for the Soul, which are usually given as graduation gifts or gifts given to a person undergoing a difficult emotional crisis, again more like one would give a greeting card than a book full of information.
But Twitchell's other point, that the publishing industry must maintain a clear sense of high culture and guide rather than respond to America's tastes, is more controversial than his suggestion that the book world should re-focus its attention on reading rather than simply selling printed matter. Although some of the best sellers Twitchell despises, like works by Danielle Steel or Steven King, may be without merit one might ask -- has he ever read the cultural critiques found within the pages of a Calvin and Hobbes comic? Why speak of the quality of Salmon Rushdie in the same breath as Steel and King --…
Japan Pop! Popular Idol Analysis
Japanese and Western popular idols vary greatly in their approach to entertainment and popularity. Whereas western popular idols focus on their ability to express their unique and individual personas, Japanese popular idols typically aspire to relate to community members and build a sense of rapport and camaraderie with fellow community members. In Western societies, typically fame within the pop culture is attributed to and individuals ability to stand out in a crowd. In Japan however, the phrase "the nail that sticks out gets hammered down" refers to the disdain that popular idols and other performers receive for standing out in a crowd. Japanese popular idols are in fact, encouraged to blend into the crowd rather than stand out from it.
In Japan performers are encouraged to in fact, blend in with the crowd; those that emphasize the needs and well being of community members are…
Aoyagi, Hiroshi. "Pop Idols and the Asian Identity." From, Japan Pop! Inside the world of Japanese Popular Culture.
Craig, Timothy J. "Japan Pop! Inside the world of Japanese popular culture." M.E. Sharpe, Inc. 2000.
Brazil's culture is a fascinating blend of European, African and Amerindian influences. Portuguese settlers brought with them strong influences in religion, later Europeans such as Italians and Germans arrived bringing 20th century ideas about government, Africans brought drums and dance, and Amerindian influences can be found in a number of spheres. Over the course of the past five hundred years, these influences have been shaped by the vast and varied landscape, the climate and political events. Even though different parts of the country developed almost in isolation from one another due to geographic distance, some elements of culture bind all Brazilians. Carnival is one of those. The combination in dance, music, costume and religion into a single event is one of the defining elements of Brazilian culture. At once, it takes deep roots and social significance, while maintaining a lighter popular side that pays only superficial homage to…
Lewis, C. (1996). Woman, body, space: Rio Carnival and the politics of performance. Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography. Vol. 3 (1) 23-42.
Contemporary Feminist Advocacy
Although there is not absolute consensus, popular writings about feminism suggest that there have been three waves of feminism: (1) The first wave of feminism is said to have occurred in the 18th through the 20th centuries and was characterized by a focus on suffrage; (2) The decades spanning 1960 to 1990 are said to encompass the second wave of feminism, to which a concern with cultural and legal gender inequality is attributed; and (3) The third wave of feminism began in the early 1990s partly in response to the conservative backlash the second wave engendered, and partly in recognition of the unrealized goals of the second wave of feminism up to that time ("NOW," 2009). This third wave of feminism made salient a more subjective voice that pointed at the intersection of race and gender with greater resolve than would have been possible when…
Coffey, L.T. (2011, October 11). Girl Project' reveals what teens are really thinking. Today People. Retrieved http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/44846267/ns/today-today_people/t/girl-project-reveals-what-teens-are-really-thinking/
Dow, B.J. (2003). Feminism, Miss America, and media mythology. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 6 (1), 127 -- 150.
Faludi, Susan, Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women (Three Rivers Press, 2006)
Feminist Majority Foundation, Choices Campus Leadership Program. (2011). Retrieved http://feministcampus.org/default.asp
Popular Film Cultures Have Propelled Civil and Social Rights
Culture is referred as shared interaction, patterns, cognitive constructs, behaviors as well as effective understanding learned through socialization and transferred from one generation to the other. In the United States and outside the United States, films have become a powerful tool to transmit cultures. In 2009, there were more than 6.8 billion films released compared to the world population that was roughly the same number. Moreover, films have produced revenue of more than $30 billion annually, and its impact on films on people's behaviors is staggering. For example, many people across the world are imitating American culture by watching their movies. Moreover, films have become a powerful tool for propelling civil and social rights.[footnoteRef:1] The social civil rights are the class of rights and freedoms people demand from the government, private individuals or social organizations. Civil rights movements protect people from…
Abnormal Psychology:pop Culture
Abnormal Psychology: Pop Culture
Abnormal Psychology: Pop Culture
In asking the question of what abnormal psychology is really supposed to be, it makes sense that we must first quickly think about the very definition of our word "abnormal . By all rights, is a remarkably puzzling word that is very dependent on what is called "normality . Both terms may justifiably change fundamentally from one era to another and one culture to a different one. How then do we choose upon what is abnormal and what is normal? Of course, this is much more of a philosophical issue than a psychological one. For logical reasons of practicability, it is essential to generate an approximately uniform definition of abnormal psychology that we can more or less decide upon as a cluster of caregivers. This general definition would obviously be typical in its nature, but…
OW, M.G.T., KENARDY, J.A., JOHNSTON, D.W., NEWMAN, M.G., TAYLOR, C.B., & THOMSON, A. (2007). Prognostic indices with brief and standard CBT for panic disorder: I. predictors of outcome. Psychological Medicine, 37(10), 1493-9. doi:10.1017/S0033291707000670
King, S., Waschbusch, D.A., Pelham Jr., W.,E., Frankland, B.W., Andrade, B.F., Jacques, S., & Corkum, P.V. (2009). Social information processing in elementary-school aged children with ADHD: Medication effects and comparisons with typical children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37(4), 579-89. doi:10.1007/s10802-008-9294-9
Mandel, H.P., & Hampson, W. (2000). Abnormal psychology perspectives. Canadian Psychology, 41(4), 282-284.
Medved, M.L. (2008). Essentials of abnormal psychology, first Canadian edition. Canadian Psychology, 49(1), 73-74.
Notwithstanding its roots in African dance, in actuality, it was a fighting style designed by African slaves as a means of protecting themselves from government agents searching for them after their escape from enslavement. Likewise, Levine focuses heavily on the connection between the slave culture that was evident in the American South, while much of it may actually have been shaped by the need to conceal it from white society.
The mere fact that Christianity, and more specifically, Southern Baptism, became the predominant religion of the millions of descendants of the Africans enslaved in America would seem to provide the most support for Rock's position. It is difficult to know how many of the slaves who eventually (and ironically) adopted the very religious traditions of those who enslaved them and held them captive for generations. Certainly, there are elements of contemporary black religious culture that can be traced back to…