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This occurrence is primarily due to the fact that one of the central tenets of feminism involves analyzing the exploitation of power in terms of its effect upon women. For the most part, a study about terrorism and intelligence relating to this fact has little to do with gender. However, "feminist research also embraces many of the tenets of postmodern critiques as a challenge to current society" (Author, date, p. 25-26). Those critiques, of course, revolve around relationships of power and the marginalization of people due to these relationships. In that respect, feminism possesses a finite amount of validity for its application to intelligence measures for counterterrorism protection efforts, in a similar capacity as postmodernism. However, the principle circumscription of the feminist perspective pertains to its innate preoccupation with gender.
In many ways, the validity of employing critical theory to the study of intelligence, counterterrorism and protection is limited for…
I CAN't DO THIS WITHOUT the NAME and AUTHOR of THIS BOOK
Discovering Postmodernism in Advertising
For the sake of this task, an advertisement from a company called Patagonia will be used. Patagonia is a company that provides an array of sporting and outdoor equipment, along with a huge variety of sports and active apparel. Patagonia is an American company that has been in business for more than three decades. This is a company that began as a very small company that provided supplies for rock climbers that branched into a franchise that supplies equipment and apparel for many sports and outdoor activities. In addition to providing equipment and apparel, Patagonia is a company that supports environmentalism and "going green" before it was the trend that it is today. Patagonia is committed to environmental awareness, protection, and support in every stage of production, including after the consumer has purchased a product from their company.
Postmodernism is a term that came into…
Lyotard, Jean-Francois. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Translated by Geoff Bennington and Brian Massumi. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984.
Morris, Martin. "Interpretability and social power, or, why postmodern advertising works." Media, Culture, & Society, 27(2005): 697 -- 718.
Stern, Barbara, B. "Textual Analysis in Advertising Research: Construction and Deconstruction of Meanings." Journal of Advertising, 25(1996): 61-74
Postmodernism is a nebulous and often poorly defined term. There is nothing genuinely concrete that separates the cultural icons that are labeled as postmodern from those that are not. Satire, cynicism, sarcasm, and other common features of postmodern sensibility are nothing new. The best way to understand the essence of postmodernism is to distinguish it from modernism, which was particularly enamored with science. Postmodernism is "largely a reaction to the assumed certainty of scientific, or objective, efforts to explain reality," (PBS). Postmodernism embraces concepts such as social construction and other contructivist theories that suggest that there may be no absolute objective reality. Eastern philosophy has championed constructivism for thousands of years, making postmodernism seem derivative. Postmodernism has the potential to seem nihilistic, which is why Frederick Nietzsche is credited as being one of the forerunners of postmodern theory (Aylesworth). There is no absolute truth, religious path, or ethic, according to…
Aylesworth, G. "Postmodernism." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2005. Retrieved online: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/postmodernism/
Keep, Christopher, McLaughlin, Tim, and Parmar, Robin. "Defining Postmodernism." Retrieved online: http://www2.iath.virginia.edu/elab/hfl0242.html
PBS. "Postmodernism." Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/faithandreason/gengloss/postm-body.html
Salberg, Daniel, Stewart, Robert, Wesley, Karla, and Weiss, Shannon. "Postmodernism and its Critics." University of Alabama Department of Anthropology. Retrieved online: http://anthropology.ua.edu/cultures/cultures.php?culture=Postmodernism%20and%20Its%20Critics
In the third section of the book Babette is cheating on Jack, hoping to gain access to a drug (Dylar) that treats people who fear dying. Clearly DeLillo is playing off of society's fear of death. Eventually Jack kills the man Babette was having liaisons with.
hite Noise was published in 1985, which makes DeLillo something of a clairvoyant because the author reflects on "…the way the mediations of television map the realm of desire in the space of the supermarket and the shopping mall" -- and today's Home Shopping Network offers exactly "…the intertwined spheres of desire that DeLillo's novel so suggestively connects" (Duvall, 2003, 188). Beyond those links, Duvall references critic Paul Cantor who believes hite Noise is in a very real way "…concerned with showing parallels between German fascism and contemporary American culture" (188).
Critic Mark Conroy believes that Jack Gladney's life is coming apart -- and…
Best, Steven, and Kellner, Douglas. The Postmodern Adventure: Science, Technology, and Cultural Studies at the third Millennium. New York: Guilford Press.
Caton, Lou F. "Romanticism and the Postmodern Novel: Three Scenes from Don DeLillo's
White Noise." Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Jeffrey W. Hunter. Vol. 143, Detroit:
Gale Group (2001): Retrieved from Literature Resource Center.
The scene is interrupted by the laughter of a woman, Willy's mistress, which only Willy could hear. When Willy approaches his mistress, he engages in another daydream. This is how discontinuity is illustrated in the Death of a Salesman. In this manner of storytelling, many questions arise as to how the story really goes. This renders some confusion to a reader since the plot jumps around. This manner of storytelling is different from the traditional way of storytelling wherein the story is told in a fluid, continuous manner. Arthur Miller ignored the standard rule of form when it comes to telling a story. This manner of storytelling is also characteristic of postmodern literature where confusion and incoherence is celebrated.
Another element of Death of a Salesman that adheres to the postmodern movement is its focus on Willy Loman's story. By focusing on Willy Loman alone, Death of a Salesman disregards…
Miller, Arthur. Death of a Salesman: Certain Private Conversations in Two Acts and a Requiem. New York: Penguin Books, 1976.
His never-ending desire for Judy Green represents the feeling of sorrow, incompleteness, and pessimism that is often a major staple of later modernist writers in American literature. In this, Fitzgerald shows how not even success in achieving the American Dream can guarantee a happy ending, and in the end suffering is always present even in all rings of American society.
Postmodernism was born out of this complex environment. James Baldwin's
"Sonny's Blues" embodies this more postmodern style and tone. Postmodernism really highlight the struggles within contemporary society, especially being faced by minority groups that constantly have to deal with the oppression of the white majority. Yet, it is this sense of suffering that is often a crucial element to building a stronger character with much deeper insight and successes. Throughout the story, Sonny deals with immense suffering. He has been in jail given up on by his family, and lived…
Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Web. http://www.scribd.com/doc/7086554/Sonnys-Blues-by-James-Baldwin
Post Modernism and Individualism and Responsibility
Introduction and Postmodern Definition
Understanding the postmodern paradigm is a little like looking in to a bowl of spaghetti, and without using any utensils, trying to determine how many individual pieces of spaghetti are present, and what is their average length. The postmodern thought process which now dominates our culture is inter-twining, complex philosophy which is the combination of failed modern thought, along with the new demands of individuals who seek to find personal meaning in an increasingly high speed, individualized, yet meaningless and impersonal digital world.
The term postmodernism has its original understanding in architecture, and art. The postmodern artist grew tired of the traditional means which were accepted as means to produce and express art. The artist evolved to the view that all values and boundaries are baseless, that nothing is knowable or can be communicated beyond the experience of life…
Adler PA, Adler P. 1999. Transience and the postmodern self: the geographic mobility of resort workers. Sociol. Q. 40:31-58
Baumeister RF. 1998. The self. See Gilbert et al. 1998, pp. 680-740
Callero, Peter. 2003. The Sociology of the Self. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 29.
Foucault M. 1994. Two lectures. In Culture, Power, History: A Reader in Contemporary Social Theory, ed. NB Dirks, G Eley, SB Ortner, pp. 200-21. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press Gergen KJ. 1999. An Invitation to Social Construction. London: Sage
Postmodernism is a philosophy and an aesthetic that has become increasingly popular in both mass culture and academia alike. It is characterized in its style by pastiche, self-referential humor, and often parodies the art form it is attempting to create. Writers in the postmodern genre are hyper-conscious about the fact that they are creating something, and deliberately 'show the seams' of their work, forcing the reader to question what is fiction and what is real. This highlights the constructed nature of the written word. But while postmodernism may be fairly obvious in art, to understand what postmodernism 'is,' philosophically speaking, the definition of modernism must be clarified, given that it was this philosophical movement to which postmodernism was reacting against.
First and foremost, modernism advocated the idea that there was the "existence of stable, coherent 'self', independent of culture and society" (Drake 2012). This self might feel alienated or unhappy,…
Aylesworth, Gary. (2012). Postmodernism. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Retrieved at: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2012/entries/postmodernism
Drake, Tom. (2012). Modernism vs. postmodernism. The University of Idaho. Retrieved at:
In order to understand the current themes in philosophy of postmodernism and post structuralism, it is important that we understand the structuralists themes, which dominated the philosophical thinking in the twentieth century and influenced many postmodernists and post-structuralists. In the early and mid 20th century there were a number of structural theories develop to explain human existence. In his study of language, the structural linguist Ferdinand aussaaure (1857-1913) proposed that "meaning" was to be found within the structure of a whole language and the system of language rather than in the analysis of individual words. He suggested that by studying language we will be able to understand how the human beings create meaning and how this process is connected to practice. For the Marxist, the truth of human existence could be understood by an analysis of economic structures. While the Psychoanalyst attempted to describe the structure of the psyche…
Derrida, Jacques. Of Grammatology. Translated by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974.
Powell, Jim. Derrida for Beginners. New York: Writers and Readers Publishing, 1997.
Klages, Mary. Structuralism/Poststructuralism, 2001 at http://www.colorado.edu/English/ENGL2012Klages/1997derridaA.html
Foucault, Michel, Discipline and Punish, Trans. By Alan Sheridan, New York: Pantheon, 1977.
Starting with the names of the characters and continuing with many of the events in the novel, he is ironically picturing a consumer society that needs to rely on certainties in order to secure its present and avoid alienation, which is why the entire conspiracy theory is developed: to provide explanations.
The manner in which the novel is written provides a surrealistic picture which alludes to realities of the 1960s and, from this perspective, the book is very well-anchored in the present. Just a few examples are worth mentioning here. One of these is the allusion to the eatles, one of the anchor elements of the 1960s culture. One of the songs in the novel is called "I want to Kiss Your Feet," a play on the famous eatles song "I want to Hold Your Hand." Other references to the eatles are much more subtle: the Volkswagens remind of the…
1. Grant, J. Kerry. A Companion to the Crying of Lot 49 (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1994)
2. Merrill, Robert, Scholl Peter a.. Vonnegut's Slaughterhouse-Five: The Requirements of Chaos. Studies in American Fiction, Vol. 6, No. 1, Spring, 1978
3. Pynchon, Thomas R. The Crying of Lot 49. Harper and Row, 1986.
4. Vonnegut, Kurt. Slaughterhouse Five. Miniature Bookshelf. 1969
Violence should best be seen in the context of an individual alienation caused, most likely, both by the apparent lack of moral norms and, at the same time, by the continuous development of the individual, in a constant quest for the absolute (and this can be the absolute feeling, the absolute perception, the absolute manifestations and sensations etc.).
ith the underlying belief that everything is permitted, the modern or the postmodern individual is willing to go along with all types of experiments that are likely to help in his quest for continuous development. The sexual fetish presented here is clearly abnormal, especially since it is not a remote sexual practice, but the individual permissiveness allows for this to happen. At the same time, it almost becomes a new normality for the group, a normality which is accepted as such (or rather not discussed) by the group. This new normality accepts…
With the underlying belief that everything is permitted, the modern or the postmodern individual is willing to go along with all types of experiments that are likely to help in his quest for continuous development. The sexual fetish presented here is clearly abnormal, especially since it is not a remote sexual practice, but the individual permissiveness allows for this to happen. At the same time, it almost becomes a new normality for the group, a normality which is accepted as such (or rather not discussed) by the group. This new normality accepts all things that are seen as abnormalities by the other members of society. This could be a thesis that Ballard supports throughout the novel: the relativism of normality, the incapacity of accepting a basic set of clearly valid and generally accepted moral norms.
Further more, the novel seems to imply that the postmodern individual will eventually resume his existence to a single important objective during his lifetime: feeling good. In order to reach this objective, the postmodern man will resort to any type of instruments that will help him reach that particular stage of development. However, a society where the only primary objective of its members is to physically 'feel good' in any conditions and without any other values is definitely a corrupt and reduced society.
One word on the subject of celebrities in Ballard's book. Once more the author becomes a visionary, because the obsession with celebrity has increased exponentially from 1973 to the present day. In the book, the main character has an obsession with Elizabeth Taylor, dreaming of a crash into her car. The attempt fails at the end of the book, as he plunges over a bus instead. What is with this fascination with celebrities? It is born out of the consumer society that promotes such values, but also from the subconscious need of individuals to have some static coordinates around which one's life can rotate. The postmodern world is a consumer society, one in which celebrities can offer such false coordinates.
It would be an exaggeration to say that ours is a hostile relationship; I live, let myself go on living, so that Borges may contrive his literature, and this literature justifies me. It is no effort for me to confess that he has achieved some valid pages, but those pages cannot save me, perhaps because what is good belongs to no one, not even to him, but rather to the language and to tradition. (Borges 1)
This is very obviously an example of Borges stressing a universal emotional challenge to self, how so often the individual gets lost in the public image and fails to integrate the internal thoughts to public expectations. The work is in many ways an oral commentary on self-actualization.
hile "The Lottery in Babylon" is a commentary on civics and tradition, the self is lost in the evolution of how as individuals in a culture tend…
Borges, Jorge L. "The Lottery in Babylon" http://frot.org/borges/lottery.html
Borges, Jorge L. "Borges and I http://spdbv.vital-it.ch/TheMolecularLevel/WelRed/Borges01.pdf
Calvino, Italo, "If on a winter's night a traveler." New York: Harvest. 1982.
However, these themes were conveyed through non-traditional forms or structures, like Whitman and Dickinson's poetry. Apart from these two poets of the postmodernist tradition, other poets who have created works in the postmodernist form are DH Lawrence, Dylan Thomas, Robert Lowell, and WH Auden.
Looking into the poetry of DH Lawrence, particularly the poem "Intimates," readers witnessed the poet's contemplation of a seemingly mundane issue, yet a vital one in addressing the nature of humanity at present: self-centeredness and -indulgence. In it, Lawrence answered the age-old question to human problems, wherein the solution does not depend on another person, but actually must come from the person experiencing the problem. That is, humanity's problems were actually self-imposed ones, and they can only be resolved by the individual himself/herself. Lawrence's style is characteristic of postmodernism because there was no attempt to remain neither ambiguous nor mysterious in the poem; he only expressed…
Auden, W.H. E-text of "Who's Who." Available at http://www.poemhunter.com/p/m/poem.asp?poet=8272&poem=69853 .
Jacoby, P. (1999). "Postmodernist Poetry: a Movement or an Indulgence?" Available at http://home.san.rr.com/prjacoby/bishop_plath_sexton.html.
Lawrence, DH E-text of "Intimates." Available at http://www.cswnet.com/~erin/dhlpoem.htm.
Lowell, R. E-text of "To Speak of Woe That Is In Marriage." Available at http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/15282 .
Postmodernism is many things to many people, yet no single product or outcome of the postmodern era is representative of the entirety of the idea. Postmodernism was more than simply a collection of items, but rather an entire way of life shaped by the generational and worldwide shifts occurring in the world at the time. Postmodernism represents a period of time, with undefined borders, but certainly the height of Postmodernism began during the late 1960s and ended in popularity by the 1990s, with a new wave of intellectual thinking taking the center stage. (Essortment, 1) To define it roughly, postmodernism is about self-expression and creativity, the ability to take risks, as well as to break convention with the past. The mental constraints placed on the world due to the existential fear of nuclear destruction, as well as the impending doom of constant war due to the American troubles in Vietnam…
"Civil Rights Movement." - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum. Web. 09 Mar. 2012. .
"DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MODERN ART AND POSTMODERN ART." Difference between Modern Art and Postmodern Art by Francis Berry. Web. 09 Mar. 2012. .
Dorsten, Van. "Postmodernist Music." Fast 'n' Bulbous: Reviews, Rants & Lists Up The Wazoo. Web. 09 Mar. 2012. .
"Edutainment Andy Warhol - 1928-1987." Andy Warhol Biography. Web. 09 Mar. 2012. .
Postmodernism, either with or without the hyphen, has become a one of the most talked about concepts in the last decades. Postmodern is one of the most utilized terms these days, so defining it could prove useful: In a literal sense it means that which comes after the modern, and this is how the term is generally used. One of the most important issues is to correctly evaluate the diversity of postmodernism.
This problem revolves actually around the significance of the term 'modern', since it has very different meanings in art, literature, architecture and philosophy. The postmodern change has been identified as early as the late fifties to as late as the early seventies, but it was the changes in the 1960s that made cultural critics appreciate that we have entered a new historical period. The postmodernist shift has been associated with the full assault of consumer capitalism. Frederick Jameson…
1. Zuckert, Catherine "The postmodern problem." Perspectives on Political Science; Spring95, Vol. 24 Issue 2, p87
2. Wikipedia -- Article on Postmodernism
3. Weiss, Shannon, Wesley Karla, "Postmodernism and its Critics," Department of Anthropology College of Arts and Sciences The University of Alabama, http://www.as.ua.edu/ant/Faculty/murphy/436/pomo.htm
In terms of sexuality, the film explores the different avenues by which teenagers are exposed to sexual content, which includes musical lyrics as demonstrated through the recitation of lyrics to "Papa Don't Preach" by Madonna, a pop culture music icon who has continuously infused her music with sexual themes. The film also makes reference to "The Gift of the Magi," a short story by O. Henry, which throws a major obstacle into the cheerleaders' heist plans, which serves to demonstrate that the cheerleaders are not planning a heist out of greed, but because they believe that it will serve a greater purpose, to help provide for an unborn child and help them realize their educational, political, and philanthropic goals in the future.
Postmodernism attempts to bring together different schools of cinema and erase the boundaries that separate them. hile Beyond the Black Rainbow attempts to redefine science fiction horror films,…
Beyond the Black Rainbow. Directed by Panos Cosmatos. Canada: Magnet Releasing, 2010.
Netflix Streaming. 5 May 2013.
Ford, Hamish. "The Return of 1960s Modernist Cinema." Studies in Australaisan Cinema. Vol.
5, No. 2., pp. 155-170. Web. 5 May 2013.
Both beliefs of the terrorists and counter-terrorists are validated by the critical theory. It can be said, then, that even in the 21st century, specific principles of the critical theory still holds true and are still reflected in the current political events and movements in the world.
Even the school of thought that sprung after the modernist period, postmodernism, is considered valid when discussing the study and issue of counter-terrorism. Postmodernism does not look at the world as black and white or a dichotomy of oppressor and the oppressed. Instead, it posits that there exists different versions of the truth, and this ideology actually shies away from identifying a 'universal truth' that will determine all realities of the world. Postmodernism embraces the principle of pluralism because of its acceptance of different truths based on different groups of people and their lived experiences. Thus, in studying counter-terrorism using the postmodernist perspective,…
Language - Postmodernism and Truth
In Postmodernism and Truth, readers immediately understand Dennett's stark analogies to make his points valid. He strongly believes in the entity of he refers to as "the gulf." In a nutshell, "the gulf" is the lull or gap sometimes overlooked and/or ignored by one person in a two person conversation. Dennett uses instances to explain the reality of this gap between people, especially in the world of philosophy. According to Dennett, people, including both onlookers and participants, don't see this gulf, or actively denies its existence and therein lies the problem." (p.2)
"Postmodernism," as indicated in the title, is not easy to define. The term is used in philosophy, literature, social sciences and architecture. Different post-modern thinkers may have different opinions, (as Dennett points out against his friend and colleague Richard Rorty) and people from different fields may have somewhat different definitions of "postmodernism." Dennett…
Dennett, Daniel. What is Intelligence? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Dennett, Daniel. "Postmodernism and Truth." Butterflies and Wheels. 1994. 05 May 2003 www.butterfliesandwheels.com/articleprint.php?num=13
Lyotard, Jean-Francois. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge Volume 10. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press. 1985.
Allen / Mamet / Postmodernism
It is strange that the postmodern tendency in critical thought has not been applied in the most obvious way to cinema -- as a way of invalidating the auteur theory. Cinema is, after all, the modernist art form par excellence; and to a certain extent it is the burden of postmodern critique to undo the totalizing artistic concerns of modernism. As De Mul, paraphrasing Lyotard, writes of postmodernism:
We could agree with Lyotard…that postmodernism was implicit in modernism from its inception…. [O]ne could regard postmodernism as a critical reflection upon the starting points of modern existence that was made possible by modernism itself: post-modernism forms, in a manner of speaking, the guilty conscience of modernism, following, like a shadow, the modern aspiration toward an all-embracing meaning. (De Mul, 19)
De Mul's insight here is amply borne out in cinema: almost any film could be understood…
Within organization frameworks, postmodernism tends to look at an organization more in light of contemporary views on diversity, job satiscation, teamwork, managers as leaders, and coordination of efforts. Hierarchies exist, but are not the primary form of organizational behavior -- teams are more of a flat design. This view holds that the success or failure of a contemporary business or organization is quite dependent upon the management of diversity. Public and private sector organizations, both are involved in numerous federally mandated programs that are designed to reduce cultural and communication barriers within the workplace. Multiculturalism is no longer a "nice-to," with the era of globalization upon us, and rapidly growing, diversity training and maximization of multicultural understanding, combined with management and leadership commitment to provide a diverse workplace, is now the norm. The same is true in accepting and managing a diverse workforce -- those over 55 perhaps vs.…
Carey, M., et.al. (2009). The Absent But Implicit: A May to Support Therapeutic
Enquiry. Family Process. 48 (3): 319-32.
Ungar, M. (2004). Surviving as a Postmodern Social Worker: Two P's and Three
R's of Direct Practice. Social Work. 49 (3): 488-97.
Postmodernism in arsan Shire's Poetry
Born in Kenya, Somali-origin writer arsan Shire pens poems that are an uncompromising depiction of an African outlook. This London-based poet's work emphasizes the continent's culture, challenges, armed conflict, societal beliefs, and other negative issues impacting its people. The majority of Shire's works are a reflection of self-experience, steady testimonies and prayer. She attempts to portray the society, from kids', females', lovers' and migrants' standpoints. Thus, a majority of her poems reflect postmodernism. She aims at presenting a systematic personal outlook using her superior knowledge on societal aspects and values. In this paper, the following three poems composed by Shire -- 'Home', 'Ugly', and 'The letter my mum would have written had she known English' -- will be analyzed for postmodernism and for Shire's representation of Africans.
This is an unusual piece of poetry wherein Shire reveals her fears being a woman in the…
Wars an Shire, 'The letter my mother would have written had she known English." Online. 2012
WarsanShire, Home. Online. Flipped eye London. 2013 https://www.umcnic.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Home-Poem-by-Warsan-Shire.pdf
Warsan Shire, Ugly. Online. Flipped eye. London. 2011 retrieved from http://www.poetryinternationalweb.net/pi/site/poem/item/22839/auto/0/0/Warsan-Shire/UGLY
That the post modernists rejected the psychotherapy of the modernist era is by no means suggestive that the artists of the era have escaped psychological analysis. Because of the extreme nature of the pop culture, it has presented a psychological windfall for study in excessiveness. It is represented by an excess of economic affluence, drugs, sex, and expressions of behavior. The excessiveness is found not just in the music industry, but also in literature, film, and paintings and photography. It is all encompassing of all art expressions.
One important definition of the post-modern, as a radically sceptical and questioning attitude of mind, is that provided by the philosopher Jean-Francois Lyotard (1984), who wrote of it in terms of 'the death of grand narratives', with Marxism and Freudianism particularly in mind. Lyotard would see as futile attempts to consider the modern and post-modern in terms of historical periodisation. For him,…
Buchanan, Iain, Michael Dunn, Elizabeth Eastmond, and Frances Hodgkins. Frances Hodgkins: Paintings and Drawings. Auckland, N.Z.: Auckland University Press, 1994. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=76905182.Internet . Accessed 24 August 2008. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=21033116
Cantor, Norman F. Modernism to Deconstruction. New York: Peter Lang, 1988. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=21033116.Internet . Accessed 24 August 2008.
Del Loewenthal, and Robert Snell. Post-Modernism for Psychotherapists: A Critical Reader. Hove, England: Brunner-Routledge, 2003. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107976699.Internet . Accessed 24 August 2008. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99670131
Consumer Culture Theory & Post Modernist Article eview
The first article of focus in this summary is "Consumer Culture Theory (CCT): Twenty Years of esearch," written in 2005. The research the authors review spans the period from 1985 -- 2005, in which significant developments occurred regarding consumption, advertising, technology, and culture. This article aims to describe the nature and philosophy of Consumer Culture Theory. The authors contend that Consumer Culture Theory varies from other homogenous theories and concepts of culture. They describe consumer culture as a social arrangement between individuals and society. For the authors, Consumer Culture Theory concentrates upon and describes the world as multitudinous. In the world of Consumer Culture Theory, there are many meanings and groups in the global capitalist market. Consumer Culture Theory recognizes the links among everyday experience, material resources, social resources, and the mediation of resources through economic markets. The thesis of the…
Arnould, E.J., & Thompson, C.J. (2005) Consumer Culture Theory (CCT): Twenty Years of Research. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(4), 868 -- 882.
Firat, A.F., & Venkatesh, A. (1995) Liberatory Postmodernism and the Reenchantment of Consumption. Journal of Consumer Research, 22(3), 239 -- 267.
Postmodernism and Post-Positivism
Challenges and Strengths
Post-positivism vs. postmodernism
Two of the dominant paradigms within the modern epistemological discourse are that of post-positivism and postmodernism. They are often used relatively loosely and postmodernism in particular is deployed in a very flexible manner, to denote a form of art based upon pastiche and humor with a kind of ironic, self-referential quality. The difficulty of defining postmodernism is due to the fact that the philosophy denies the idea of modern 'progress' or the ability to arrive at a secure definition of reality. Instead, "postmodernists deny both the possibility and the desirability of an integral postmodernist philosophy," and postmodern philosophers often seem to share little other than a sense of opposition to modernism (Nekrasas 2011). The idea that there are no truths, only subjective beliefs, might seem antithetical to the sciences, including the health sciences, and there are some postmodernists who deny the…
Hutton, Erica. (2009). An examination of post-positivism. Erica Hutton, PhDc.
Retrieved May 6, 2011 at http://www.ericahutton.blogspot.com/2009/03/examination-of-postpositivism.html
Nekrasas, Evaldas. (2011). Positivism, post-positivism, and postmodernism.
Retrieved May 6, 2011 at http://www.crvp.org/book/Series04/IVA-26/chapter_viii.htm
Capitalism entered a new 'postmodern' phase in the 1970s and 1980s in which small-scale and entrepreneurial enterprises revived, and became the most dynamic sector of the economy in the West. This revival coincided with the reemergence of free market conservatism under Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher at the same time, along with a culture that became more aggressively competitive, egotistic and individualistic. During the same period, economists and sociologists rediscovered "sweatshops and…informal activities of all kinds" as the older Fordist mass production industries declined and shifted labor to low-wage regions in Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. Labor, production and capital markets all become more "flexible" and mobile (arvey, 10990, p. 190). All of these trends had already existed for decades, to be sure, but the new computer and communications technologies accelerated them greatly. Postmodern political-economy is "a fantastic world of booming paper wealth and assets," prone to severe…
Harvey characterized modernism as it existed from the 19th Century to the 1960s as based on Fordist mass production and consumption (at least in the Western world and Japan), bureaucracy, collectivism, labor unions and the welfare state. Its culture was materialistic, authoritarian; paranoid and alienated, symbolized by the anonymity of the big city and the large organization. Postmodernism is more laissez faire and free market, individualistic, entrepreneurial and decentralized, based finances, services and virtual money rather than production. Its workforce was more white-collar than blue-collar, and its culture was schizophrenic, chaotic, pluralist and eclectic. Politically, postmodernism favored celebrities and charismatic, transformational leaders rather than faceless managers and bureaucrats (Harvey, p. 340). Some philosophers who were hailed as postmodernists like Martin Heidegger and Paul de Man were better characterized as anti-modernists with fascist sympathies, but postmodern culture and political-economy should not be dismissed as synonymous with fascism. Indeed, it is more neoliberal, chaotic and disorganized than totalitarian, and seems to have no center. Its ideologies are more ephemeral than concrete or totalizing. Unlike classical Marxism, postmodernist politics emphasizes culture, gender, race and religion -- identity politics -- rather than unified metanarratives and ideologies centered on social class. Postmodern technology has caused a sense of shrinking, compressed time and space in which a constant stream of disconnected and incoherent images seem more real (or hyper-real) than concrete reality itself. New Left politics of the 1960s and 1970s were harbingers of postmodernity, although their emphasis on gender, race, sexuality and the counterculture "connected better with anarchism and libertarianism than with traditional Marxism, and set the New Left against traditional working-class attitudes and institutions" (Harvey, p. 357). One of the great ironies of the postern era is how the politics of the New Left and New Right interested in this peculiar way that undermined organized labor and the welfare state, and unleashed a revival of free market capitalism. Although the New Left radicals and hippies of the 1960s could hardly have intended this, in the end the fact that their movements coexisted in the same time and space as the New Right or Barry Goldwater and Ronald Reagan turned out to be anything but coincidental.
Harvey, D. (1990). The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change. Blackwell Publishing, Ltd.
Hey-I know this looks long, but it's about 1200 words without the two long quotations from the book.
So it's actually the right length according to the assignment, but you might want to mention that to the instructor.
A selection from Mark Leyner's 1995 work Tooth Imprints on a Corn Dog is included by the editors of the Norton Anthology Postmodern American Fiction, although Leyner himself claims in a note in the anthology that his "work isn't animated by a desire to be experimental or post-modernist or aesthetically subversive or even 'innovative' -- it is animated by a desire to craft a kind of writing that is at every single moment exhilarating for the reader, where each phrase, each sentence is an event." (Geyh, Leebron, & Levy 242). As a result the entirety of Tooth Imprints on a Corn Dog holds up as a kind of aesthetic whole…
This comes to only point out the fact that the role of postmodernism is essential because it offers a different perspective through which humans can understand the events taking place around them and can interpret them to provide meanings that would be useful in their own development and in the development of the social being.
One of the important aspects of postmodernism is that unlike other theories that have been advocated throughout the decades, this approach takes into account the human perception of things. The development of this trend was essential because the human individual needed a framework through which it could accept, acknowledge and deal with the changes taking place around it. More precisely, at the end of the 19th century, the issue of industrialization together with the huge developments that were taking place at the level of the political changes, economic burst, and cultural revolutions set the human…
Chorney, Harold. City of Dreams: Social Theory and the Urban Experience. . Scarborough: Nelson Canada International Thompson ltd., 1990.
Greenpeace International. The Founders of Greenpeace. 2008. 26 Oct 2012 .
Hutcheon, Linda. The Politics of Postmodernism . New York: Routledge, 2002.
-- . "The Politics of Postmodernism: Parody and History." Cultural Critique. Modernity and Modernism, Postmodernity and Postmodernism (1986-7): p179-207.
ontological position of postmodernism exhibits scepticism towards knowledge. This paradigmatic view recognizes that the world is constantly changing and subsequently, no one position or perspective of the world should be privileged over any other (Jennings, 2004). While positivism has favored a single mode of knowledge, postmodern perspectives regard different approaches to knowledge as alternative social constructions (Arbib & Hesse, 1986). Postmodern thinkers are bothered by the implication of modern ontology that since there is one world out there, and observation is not problematic, then there is only one reasonable interpretation of the world. The postmodern philosopher counters that while there may in fact be only one 'true' world out there, "there are many reasonable, but distinct interpretations (or understandings) of that world" (Moore, 2001, pg. 4).
Postmodernism rejects the pictorial metaphor of knowledge in favor of a constructivist metaphor (Lyotard, 1984). As such, postmodernism provides new, unconstrained ways to move…
Arbib, M.A., & Hesse, M.B. (1986). The construction of reality. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Becvar, D., & Becvar, S. (2000). Family therapy: A systemic integration. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Fruggeri, L. (1992). Therapeutic process as the social construction of change. In K. Gergen & S. McNamee (Eds.), Therapy as a social construction (pp. 40-53). London: Sage.
Gergen, K. (1991). The saturated self: Dilemmas of identity in contemporary life. New York: Basic Books.
Defining Post positivism:
definitional exercise in identity politics, in expanding cultural and semiotic discourse, and reinterpreting the continuing the literary effort of the 20th and 21st century to deconstruct human life and society
Postmodernism, the literary buzzword of the past century, is often considered to be a 'liberal' form of hermeneutics, in the sense that rather than attempting to define what makes the canon great, it attempts to expand the notion of what is a literary canon, what is great literature in general. However, many liberal political activists have accused the deconstructionit movement and the postmodern aesthetic for its tendency towards reductionism and relativism. In other words, by stressing that everything, including identity, is a construction, there is little ground for feminist and Marxist critics to stand on, politically, speaking, to make a material critique of oppressive structures within a society. If all definitions are contextually based, how…
Moya, Paula. Learning from Experience: Minority Identities, Multicultural Struggles. University of California Press, 2002.
women artists," feminists have reflexively responded by trying to find great women artists from the past who were undiscovered or to emphasize little-regarded female artists from past artistic movements dominated by men. However, this can create the impression of feminists being 'desperate' to find examples of female greatness and over-inflating the reputation of relatively minor artists. Other feminist art historians have criticized the notion of what constitutes 'greatness' as overly masculine in quality and tried to create a new, specifically female-centric notions of artistic greatness. Feminist critic Linda Nochlin sees this as problematic given that there is no clear feminine principle uniting women artists through the ages: in fact, women artists and writers are more apt to resemble males of their respective periods than they are of all women throughout the ages.
Instead, Nochlin asserts that the absence of great female artists is similar to the reason why there are…
Hoffman, Lewis. "Premodernism, modernism, and postmodernism." Postmodern Psychology.
2008. 24 May 2014. http://www.postmodernpsychology.com/Philosophical_Systems/Overview.htm
"Postmodernist art." Art Encyclopedia. 24 May 2014.
Post Modernism: A Forced Impact
The objective of this work is to describe a philosophy or philosophies that the writer of this work ascribes to and to explain why specifically incorporating values and beliefs held by the writer. As well, discussed will be the personal philosophy of the writer as it relates to the purpose of education, the student's role and the role of the school in society, locally, nationally, and internationally as well as the role of students and parents as well as teachers and administrators. Also addressed in this study is where ideals are derived from and examined will be development of curriculum and instruction, classroom management issues, school management and administration issues as well as diversity of education and how education can best cope with change. Finally, this work will examine education as an integral part of lifelong learning and who should be in receipt of an…
Aronowitz, S., & Giroux, H. (1991). Postmodern education: Politics, culture and social criticism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Elkind, D. (1997). Schooling and family in the postmodern world. In A. Hargreaves (Ed.), Rethinking educational change with heart and mind (pp. 27-42). ASCD Yearbook.
Giroux, & McLaren, (1992). Media hegemony: Towards a critical pedagogy of Representation." In Schwoch, White and Reily: xv-xxxiv.
Giroux, H. (1996). Living dangerously: Multiculturalism and the politics of difference. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.
The term 'Post modernism' has emerged as a real area of academic study only from the middle of the 1980's onwards. It is a complicated and a complex term, quite difficult to define exactly, and the reason for this is the fact that the term post modernism appears not only in art but also in various other forms of functioning like for example, in architecture, sociology, in literature, in the sciences, and in fashions, and in technology as well. It can even be stated that it is not very clear when exactly post modernism begins. Some researchers opine that the best way to start thinking about post modernism is by starting with modernism, and this is the movement from which the subsequent post modernism movement has stemmed. Modernism has two important facets, both of which must be understood clearly before beginning the attempt to understand post modernism. (Postmodernism)
Art History, postmodernism. Retrieved From
http://wwar.com/masters/movements/postmodernism.html Accessed 25 October, 2005
Art: 21-Laylah Ali. Retrieved From
http://www.pbs.org/art21/slideshow/?artist=79 Accessed 26 October, 2005
Matrix, lade Runner, And Metropolis
Science-Fiction films have evolved through the decades as technology as progressed, allowing for greater Special Effects and visual demonstrations of worlds overrun by machines.
Three such films - The Matrix, lade Runner, and Metropolis have manifested their stories not only through their scenery and futuristic landscapes, but also through society and the forces governing them.
In their essays, Stan rakhage and Giuliana runo examine these influences within film and how they demonstrate the relevance of history in a social context; postmodernist influences; and the perceptions of vision as they appear on film.
In runo's essay Ramble City: Postmodernism and lade Runner, runo examines the film lade Runner, as it relates to postmodernism and the ideals surrounding the architecture, and social infrastructure of the world where people lack a 'real' history, and therefore, philosophically, a 'real' existence.
The city of lade Runner is not the ultramodern,…
Blade Runner Dir. Ridley Scott.
1982. Based on Philip K. Dick's Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?
Metropolis Dir. Fritz Lang
1927. Based on Thea Von Harbou's novel.
When a "camera" was mentioned, I thought that perhaps this was a photographic image, but it is not. The art form has to be better defined.
What the writer of this essay did so well, however, is to make me very interested in learning more about chalk art and Beever. I could definitely feel how much the writer enjoyed Beever's work. As soon as I read the article, I googled Beever's name and looked at his work. The writer said a link could not be included, but he/she could have just written the address (http/ / etc.), so it could be copied and pasted into the address box.
As I said above, reading this essay made me want to know more about chalk art, which I really never knew anything about. I went to Beever's website, and it was as fascinating as the writer said. I am glad that I…
Every aspect of sociology is somehow affected by sexual politics and this can be seen in every postmodern representation of sexuality. Media is particularly dependant on sexual politics as a thematic representation and as a guiding force for human emotion. This is particularly true with regard to dramatic representations in film. The two films discussed above can be seen as examples of this thesis and illuminate both postmodernism and sexual politics in the modern world.
Cohen, Eric S. "To onder Again." First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life May 2000: 23.
Films That Go Thud; Some Actors Can Survive Bomb or Two." The ashington Times 5 Aug. 2003: B05.
Green, J. Ronald. "Always Already: Affinities between Art and Film." Afterimage 25.5 (1998): 8.
Hausladen, Gary J., and Paul F. Starrs. "L.A. Noir." Journal of Cultural Geography 23.1 (2005): 43.
Kipnis, Laura. Bound and Gagged: Pornography…
Cohen, Eric S. "To Wonder Again." First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life May 2000: 23.
Films That Go Thud; Some Actors Can Survive Bomb or Two." The Washington Times 5 Aug. 2003: B05.
Green, J. Ronald. "Always Already: Affinities between Art and Film." Afterimage 25.5 (1998): 8.
Hausladen, Gary J., and Paul F. Starrs. "L.A. Noir." Journal of Cultural Geography 23.1 (2005): 43.
Take as an example McDonald's venture to extend its business operations in countries within the Asian region. Through globalization, the company has learned to adapt to the culture of the country it invests in. Examples of such adjustments are the introduction of rice in most of the meal offerings of McDonald's in the Philippines, inclusion of spicy foods in McDonald's menus in India, and the establishment of large McDonald's buildings in China in order to accommodate the large number of consumers that patronize the fast food chain. These are examples of companies' conscious effort to recognize globalization and its principles.
Consensus." Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consensus.
Feminist Utopia." Available at http://www.amazoncastle.com/feminism/ecocult.shtml.
Introduction to globalization." Available at http://www.globalization.com/intro.cfm?page_id=1321.
Positivism." Available at http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/help/mach1.htm.
Postmodernism and its critics." Available at http://www.as.ua.edu/ant/Faculty/murphy/436/pomo.htm.
Socialization." Available at http://anthro.palomar.edu/social/soc_1.htm.
Consensus." Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consensus .
Feminist Utopia." Available at http://www.amazoncastle.com/feminism/ecocult.shtml .
Introduction to globalization." Available at http://www.globalization.com/intro.cfm?page_id=1321 .
Positivism." Available at http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/help/mach1.htm .
The idea of superrealism, or showing even more attention to detail than even some photographs themselves, or using the artist's talent to take mental images and make them into a pseudo-photograph, almost like trick photography, seems to be a way of destabilizing our notions of what is real. But this idea and how it relates to postmodernism does not really emerge from the essay. Would trick photography to show an image in the artist's mind have the same effect and meaning? However, the essay provokes many questions about Estes' intention, stated or implied.
Human emotions and values are detached and unreal in this work, as well. Pynchon paints vivid pictures of the characters, but they are all flawed, somehow. Oedipa is married to a disc jockey junkie, Dr. Hilarius is a psycho afraid of Nazi retribution, the Paranoids really are paranoid, Metzger disappears, and Pierce Inverarity is a dead jokester who may be having the last laugh on Oedipa. The characters, like society, are flawed, and Pynchon portrays them with warped emotions and values as a caustic commentary on modern society in general. In addition, their values and emotions are questionable, as well. Many are detached even from themselves, and others, like Oedipa; seem to read far too much into many situations.
In conclusion, these works are the epitome of postmodernist literature. Convoluted, contrary, inner conscious and full of imagery and social commentary, they are funny and a bit depressing at the same…
Barthes, Roland. "The Death of the Author." North Carolina State University. 2007. 5 March 2007. http://social.chass.ncsu.edu/wyrick/debclass/whatis.htm
Pynchon, Thomas. The Crying of Lot 49. New York: Perennial Classics, 1999.
Karel Reisz' 1981 motion picture The French Lieutenant's Woman is based on the novel and the director also seems to be appreciative in regard to postmodernism and existentialism when considering the elements that he introduces in the film. Reisz created his film by designing a story within a story as he presents viewers with an account involving the actors playing Victorian characters. The director is not apparently concerned about criticizing a Victorian society, as he apparently wants audiences to think about how dilemmas present in the nineteenth century could also emerge in the 1980s. Reisz was well aware that he needed to address existentialism in his film, and he knew that he needed to do so by combining concepts contemporary to him and elements originating in Victorian England.
While Fowles used the narrator's voice with the purpose of intervening at different moments in the novel, Reisz has characters in the…
Lynn Dodson, Mary, "The French Lieutenant's Woman: Pinter and Reisz's Adaptation of JohnFowles's Adaptation," Literature/Film Quarterly 26.4 (1998)
Mahmoud, Fowles, " Mary Lynn Dodson, "The French Lieutenant's Woman," Random House, 2010.
Salami, Mahmoud, "John Fowles's fiction and the poetics of postmodernism," Associated University Presse, 1992
Dir. Reisz, Karel, The French Lieutenant's Woman. United Artists, 1981.
Theoretical Foundations of Nursing:
Nursing can be described as a science and practice that enlarges adaptive capabilities and improves the transformation of an individual and the environment. This profession focuses on promoting health, improving the quality of life, and facilitating dying with dignity. The nursing profession has certain theoretical foundations that govern the nurses in promoting adaptation for individuals and groups. These theoretical foundations include theories, theory integration, reflection, research and practice, and assimilation.
Grand Nursing Theory:
There are several grand nursing theories that were developed by various theorists including the Science of Unitary Human Beings by Martha ogers, Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model, and Systems Model by Betty Neuman. Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model is based on the consideration of the human being as an open system. She argues that the system reacts to environmental stimuli via cognator and regulator coping techniques for individuals. On the other hand, the…
American Sentinel (2012). 5 Steps for Nurses to Stay Updated with Health Care Changes.
Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.nursetogether.com/5-steps-for-nurses-to-stay-updated-with-health-care-changes
Andershed, B. & Olsson, K. (2009). Review of Research Related to Kristen Swanson's Middle-range Theory of Caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23, 598-610.
"Application of Theory in Nursing Process." (2012, January 28). Nursing Theories: A
Bandura, A. (1999). Moral Disengagement in the Perpetration of Inhumanities. Personality and ocial Psychology Review, 3(3), 193-209.
Discusses the moral agency embedded in socio-cognitive theory and other self-regulatory mechanisms responsible for restraining immoral personal behavior. Focuses primarily on specific factors that lead to moral disengagement, in which individual root justification for immoral behavior. Author sheds light on the importance of having a moral agency and dangers of not have one. He maintains that in the absence of such an agency, immoral conduct becomes rampant and destroys the moral fabric of the society. The thesis revolves around the idea that "Given the many mechanisms for disengaging moral control, civilized life requires, in addition to humane personal standards, safeguards built into social systems that uphold compassionate behavior and renounce cruelty." I found the article valuable because the author backs his arguments with findings from previous studies. However a moral detailed discussion on…
Social work text exploring a wide range of sociological principles with an emphasis on critical analysis of each school of thought; objective consideration of the efficacy and utilitarianism of each social work paradigm.
Harrison, L.E., & Huntington, S.P. (Eds.). (2000). Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress (1st ed.). New York: Basic Books.
Specifically addresses the relationship between cultural values and societal development. Concludes that changes in societal values result in subsequent shaping of the developmental process of social structures. The
Their primary aim was to destabilize existing orders and this is what they accomplished with arts forms such as butoh. "Liminal entities are neither here nor there; they are betwixt and between the positions assigned and arrayed by law, custom, convention, and ceremonial" (Turner 1969, 94).
Hijikata, the man responsible for creating Butoh, also upheld Artaudian views on life and humanity. Keeping in view the traditional Japanese thinking of a connection between nature and man, Hijikata incorporated it in butoh movements. However he focused more on nature's darker side believing that, "the dirty is beautiful and the beautiful is dirty, and [life] cycles between them forever" (Kurihara 1997, 38). Hijikata, just like Artaud, forced the viewers to pay closer attention to the side of life that they had usually ignored. He believed that it is due to a break between man and the darker side of life that we suffered…
Artaud, a. "To Have Done with the Judgment of God, a radio play (1947)." In (S. Sontag, ed.) Antonin Artaud: selected writings. Berkeley etc.: University of California Press, 1988: 570-1.
Artaud, a. (1964) Le Theater et son Double. Paris: Gallimard.
Artaud, a. (1996) Oeuvres Completes XII 218. Quoted in Virmaux, a. & O., Antonin Artaud, Qui tes-vous? Lyon: La Manufacture.
Artaud, a. (1996) Oeuvres Completes XV 341. Quoted in Virmaux, a. & O., Antonin Artaud, Qui tes-vous? Lyon: La Manufacture.
grrrl -- here me roar! We've come a long way since the bra-burning days of yore. Feminists in the 1960s and 1970s helped break down significant barriers for grrrls, and helped us to reclaim that fun-filled word. However, that "second wave" of feminism is long gone. We're back to struttin' our stuff, high heels, lipstick, and all. Now 20-somethings don't have to demand to be called a "woman" to assert feminine strength; grrrl is just fine. In fact, the term reeks of fun and frolic, of grrrl power. As Angela Mcobbie states in her book Postmodernism and Popular Culture, "far from having to relinquish their femininity to achieve 'equality, these girls have demanded their right to hold onto it intact, even excessively," (166). Welcome to the Third Wave of Feminism, grrrls!
Ironically, it took hairy legs and armpits to achieve this linguistic transformation and ride this third wave. We had…
Garrison, Ednie Kaeh. "U.S. Feminism-Grrrl-Style!" Feminist Studies. Spring 2000. Find Articles. 24 Apr. 2003. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0300/1_26/63295343/p1/article.jhtml?term=%22third+wave+feminism%22 .
McRobbie, Angela. Postmodernism and Popular Culture. London: Routledge, 1994.
Straus, Tamara. "A Manifesto for Third Wave Feminism." Alternet. 24 Oct. 2000. Independent Media Institute. 24 Apr. 2003. http://www.alternet.org/story.html?StoryID=9986 .
Putnam (2000) suggests that trust already exists within societies, when clearly there is evidence that it does not exist, and that people are not confident in who is in control (Domhoff, 2005). Putnam (2000) argues that it is important to have a strong and very active and aggressive civil society within the United States to consolidate democracy. Many of the traditions of independent civic engagement have been lost according to Putnam, and are now replaced with passivity among the peoples of the United States; far too often civic engagements rely on the "state" making civil societies as described by Putnam (2000) weak and incapable of developing. Putnam's idea of social capital is the view that social capital is a resource that is ingrained in norms and in social trusts, and it is these norms and trusts that help facilitate collaborative actions and help communities cooperate so they can achieve mutual…
Dahl, Robert Who Governs? 2005. Democracy and Power in an American City, Second edition. Boston: Yale University Press
Domhoff, William G. 2005. Who Rules America? Power, Politics and Social Change.
New York: McGraw Hill: Higher education
Putnam, Robert D. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American
Music Videos Promotional Devices or Products in Themselves
Music Videos: Promotional Device or Separate Product?
Music videos are constructed in many different ways, but many of them involve the artist and others singing and dancing to specific songs. Some also tell stories or provide other background dealings that make the music video much like a television program. An example of this would be Michael Jackson's 'Thriller,' which was a very long video that involved much storytelling and other information as opposed to just the song. Some of these story type videos are still done today but this seems to be more popular in country music that it does in rock-and-roll.
No matter what genre is dealt with, however, the debate as to whether music videos are promotional devices or a separate product in and of themselves has been continuing for many years. In 1981 music television first began broadcasting music…
Jean-Francois Lyotard (the Postmodern condition: A Knowledge eport 1979) describes postmodernism in the context of nature of social bond. He argues that due to the advent of the technology and with the invention of computer, information has been more restricted in the form of procedures and program. According to him some one must have access to all the information to check whether the decisions are madder correctly. He discuss in this paper about the language games which are gaining importance day by day as the communication is becoming so prominent and efficient. We can see the connecting point between Lyotard and Kuhn as well as Popper which also agree that truth is language dependent and textual interpretation vary from person to person so whole truth of knowledge is not absolutely conveyed.
PESONAL EACTION and CITIQUE:
Postmodernism seems to be overwhelmingly push everything into vagueness. The only thing according to postmodernism…
1-Dr. Dave Teague: Introduction to postmodern philosophy: Postmodern preaching
2-Geoff Haselhurst (May, 2005): Philosophy Karl Popper: Discussion Popper's Problem of Induction. http://www.spaceandmotion.com/Philosophy-Karl-Popper.htm
3- Gary Aylesworth First published Fri 30 Sep, 2005: Postmodernism:Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Yarbrough quotes Ihab Hassan, who describes postmodernism as the "literature of silence" in that it "communicates only with itself," a reference that initially astounds the rational mind. Then, reading further in Yarbrough, Hassan is quoted as saying the term postmodernism applies to "a world caught between fragments and wholes, terror and totalitarianism of every kind."
In Vonnegut's novel, characters reflect the deconstruction of American society in the 1950s, during the period of paranoia dominated by U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy's fascist-like search for "communist sympathizers," which created terror and loathing and reflected how morally shallow yet potent the hammer of temporary totalitarian authority can be.
On page 96, Chapter 44, it is revealed that Horlick Minton had once been fired by the State Department for allegedly being "soft on communism" - but the only "real evidence" used to justify his dismissal, his wife announced, was a letter she wrote to the…
Artson, Bradley Shavit. Synagogues as Centers for Social Justice, University of Judaism. Available at http://judaism.uj.edu/content/contentunit/asp?CID=1526&u=5403&t=0.
Bellow, Saul. 1964. Herzog, The Viking Press, New York.
Ellison, Ralph. 1952. Invisible Man, Random House, New York
James, Fredrick. 1991. Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism, Duke
Counseling Theory: Postmodern Approaches
Counseling orientation has experienced paradigm shifts over the decades from traditional pioneering theories such as cognitive theory, psychoanalysis, and humanism to the postmodernist theory. The rationale for the progression to postmodernism has been the evolving notion of a multiplicity of reality, a shift from modernist empiricism to constructivism (Shurts, 2015). The traditional counseling theorist considered counseling as a true mapping of the psychic phenomena depicting an accurate depiction of human psychological processes (Hansen, 2015). Contrasting with the modernistic approach that assumes a knowable reality, postmodernism assumes that observers create realities. Hansen (2015) notes postmodernism is grounded on the premise of anti-essentialism where observers always infuse phenomena with meaning as opposed to the true knowledge of phenomena being revealed by through objective observation. Postmodern therapy is anchored on the principle of collaborative and consultative stance between the patient and therapist as opposed to the unidirectional and authoritative…
Many critics consider the name Godot to be a hidden name for God. Godot in the end is a paradox. The dramatist described in his play the person at the end of the World War II. It is a person who can be characterized as master and victim of will. The characters have a will but their wishes destroy them. The characters are waiting for someone or something to save them.
From the aesthetic point-of-view the postmodernism movement pleads for an anti-narrative structure of the work. Tarantino's film, "Pulp Fiction," doesn't have a classic plot. Two stories that seem unrelated come together in a "non linear plot." The first story is about two thieves, Honey unny and Pumpkin who decide to rob a restaurant, and the second story of two hit men working for mob, named Vincent and Jules.
The novel "Finnegan's Wake" by James Joyce is constructed using strange…
Klages, M. 2003 "Postmodernism." University of colorado. http://www.colorado.edu/English/courses/ENGL2012Klages/pomo.html
Wikipedia The Free encyclopedia, "Posmodernism" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Postmodernism
Wikipedia The Free encyclopedia "Waiting for Godot" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waiting_for_Godot
Wickipedia The Free encyclopedia "Finnegan's Wake http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finnegans_Wake
A Vonnegut theme, however, is often hard to miss; especially since part of Vonnegut's style placed the author in a position where many readers could palpably feel him throughout the novel. Vonnegut seems to read alongside the reader and assist him; he seems to teach and guide -- gently -- as well as write. As such, Vonnegut helped re-define what high art, and the novel specifically, could be:
Irving, who went on to write "The World According to Garp" and "The Cider House Rules," remembered Vonnegut as a self-effacing presence who "didn't have an agenda about what 'the novel' should be." Vonnegut also appreciated that you didn't have to be in the classroom to get your work done (MSNC, 2007).
South Park postmodernism seems to be endemic to recent generations, and, if so, the ideological roots of those generations must be traced back to Vonnegut and his contemporaries.
1. Vonnegut, Kurt.
a. Slaughterhouse Five. New York: Random House, 1969. Print
b. Glapagos. New York: Random House, 1985. Print.
c. Cat's Cradle. New York: Random House, 1963. Print.
" James a.S. McPeek
further blames Jonson for this corruption: "No one can read this dainty song to Celia without feeling that Jonson is indecorous in putting it in the mouth of such a thoroughgoing scoundrel as Volpone."
asserts that the usual view of Jonson's use of the Catullan poem is distorted by an insufficient understanding of Catullus' carmina, which comes from critics' willingness to adhere to a conventional -- yet incorrect and incomplete -- reading of the love poem. hen Jonson created his adaptation of carmina 5, there was only one other complete translation in English of a poem by Catullus. That translation is believed to have been Sir Philip Sidney's rendering of poem 70 in Certain Sonnets, however, it was not published until 1598.
This means that Jonson's knowledge of the poem must have come from the Latin text printed in C. Val. Catulli, Albii, Tibulli, Sex.…
Alghieri, Dante Inferno. 1982. Trans. Allen Mandelbaum. New York: Bantam Dell, 2004.
Allen, Graham. Intertextuality. Routledge; First Edition, 2000. Print.
Baker, Christopher. & Harp, Richard. "Jonson' Volpone and Dante." Comparative
Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty
Major Schools of Thought and Actors
In Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty, Elaine L. Graham addresses Traditional, Postmodern, Empirical, Liberation and Feminist perspectives on Theology and ultimately on Pastoral Theology. In order to address these perspectives, Graham traces the historical development of each, current theological realities, and prospective "horizons." The result is an extensive review of the Pastoral Theolog (y)(ies) of the Church and its faith communit (y)(ies), viewed very strongly through the feminist pastoral perspective.
As presented by Graham, the Traditional perspective is built on Scripture that is rife with patriarchy and an overarching patriarchal hierarchy. hile providing conventionally binding values and norms, the Traditional perspective is decidedly male-centered: traditionally-based pastoral theology tended to focus on the traits of a good male pastor and was essentially restricted to the pastoral ministry of ordained males.…
Graham, Elaine L. Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty. London: Mowbray, 1996.
Even though the movement has experienced having more success in the better developed parts of the globe, it is also present in third-world countries in domains such as art and philosophy.
The modern era lasted until approximately the end of the first half of the twentieth century, as the 1940s still had people subjecting themselves to the typical behavior of the time. ith the new movement into place, people learnt that they had the chance to change their lives without anyone prohibiting them to do so.
Even though technology has begun to flourish decades before, the technology brought by Postmodernism was completely different from what it had been until the time.
Considering a team of Archeologists that would excavate a site where technology flourished during the beginning or the twenty first century and a site where it prospered during the 1940s, the findings that they would make is that the…
1. Hodder, Ian. (1995). "Interpreting archaeology: finding meaning in the past." Routledge.
2. McKenzie, Janet. (2001). "Changing education: a sociology of education since 1944." Pearson Education.
Hodder, Ian. (1995). "Interpreting archaeology: finding meaning in the past." Routledge.
McKenzie, Janet. (2001). "Changing education: a sociology of education since 1944." Pearson Education.
Industrial Revolution and Beyond
It is difficult for anyone now alive to appreciate the radical changes that the Industrial Revolution brought to humanity. e imagine that we know what it was like before this shift in economics, in culture, in society: e think of farmers tilling fields and of their children piling hay into stacks for winter forage, or of trappers setting their snares for the soft-pelted animals of the forests, or of fishers casting their hand-woven and hand-knotted nets into the seas from the hand-sewn decks of ships. e imagine the hard physical work that nearly every person in society once had to do in the era before machines substituted their labor for ours -- and this exchange of human (and animal) labor for machine-driven labor is indeed one of the key elements of the Industrial Revolution. But it is only one of the key elements. For with the…
Atkins, Robert. Artspeak. New York: Abbeville Press, 1990.
Atkins, Robert. Artspoke. New York: Abbeville Press, 1993.
Banham, P. Reyner. Theory and Design in the First Machine Age. Cambridge: MIT, 1980.
Benjamin, Walter. Illuminations. New York: Schocken, 1969.
In a world that is marked by homogeneity, capitalism has favorable conditions to grow. However with changes in thinking and urban theory, instead of describing this concept in terms of production, it is now consumption that defines our times. We are living in a consumer society or a consumerist culture because consumption drives production instead of it being the other way around. People have now become more liberal in the way they live their lives. There are no specific rules to follow and changing lifestyles mean everyone would want something different. This results in increased variety and expanded range of goods and services at people's disposal. Combine this with more disposable income and you have consumerism on hands. People are no longer afraid to live their dream lives and this often means fewer savings. Interestingly, consumers are not worried about that. It appears as if the fears that drove people…
Arnold, J. (2001) 'Why consumer confidence matters', BBC Online, 25 September 2001, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/business/newsid_1561000/1561162.stm
Baudrillard, J (1998a) the Consumer Society: Myths and Structures, Sage, London.
Baudrillard, J. (1995b) 'The virtual illusion: or the automatic writing of the world', Theory, Culture and Society, 12, 97-107.
Bauman, Z. (1983) 'Industrialism, consumerism and power', Theory, Culture and Society, 1(3), 32-43.
Disillusionment and the Harlem enaissance and Post-Modernism
Distortion of the American Dream
The American dream has been as old as the American constitution. From the text, there is a highlight of the American dream and its distortion over years. It is presented as an old dream, which is as old as the Constitution of the United States of America. According to the text, those who framed the American dream were engaged the country in a state where everyone will gain the good as from working hard. Through working hard, people will be able to make it possible to attain different levels of their fulfillments. Nonetheless, today many things have changed with the changes in time (Hemingway, 2013). With the aspects of capitalism and materialism taking root in every society, the dream has been distorted. The possible supports for a statement that many of the people live within their required states…
Hemingway, E. (2013). Hills Like White Elephants: Short Story. Toronto: HarperCollins Canada.
Wicks, R. (2003). Modern French Philosophy: From Existentialism to Postmodernism. Oxford: One world Publications.
Louis and Smith (1991) identify such congruence as an indicator of the quality of work life influencing levels of teacher engagement with their work."
An appreciation by teachers of a significant gap between their current practices and those implied by the changes being proposed within their schools." perception, on the part of teachers, that participating in the school's change initiative is a significant but achievable challenge. Shedd and Bacharach (1991) argue that teaching provides intrinsic motivation under those restructuring initiatives which conceptualize teaching as a highly complex act and help teachers significantly expand their technical repertoires and their capacities to apply them reflectively and constructively. Contributing to the perception of a goal's achievability are opportunities to learn more about how the goal can be accomplished." perception by teachers that they know, specifically and concretely, what they will need to do (or that such specificity can be developed) eventually to implement…
dialectic of the Enlightenment in terms of the values of truth, progress and liberation. We will tangentially see how these concepts are linked to modernity and post modernity. Also, we will see what the two alternatives to dealing with the demise of the Enlightenment as Ferraris and Taraboletti Segre argue. The author will also refer to Lyotard and Habermas's stance on the issue. We will answer the question of why one can not separate the concerns of modernity and postmodernity from each other. We will see how the two discourses inform each other in terms of above subjects.
The dialectic of the Enlightenment has almost always been known in terms of the values of truth, progress and liberation. ather than having to look upon it as having died Ferraris and Taraboletti Segre argue that by becoming a philosophical issue, it is now beyond being localized to one discipline. The modern…
Fairfield, P.. (1994). Habermas, Lyotard and Political Discours. Available:
http://www.*****/pdf/19/rp_19_5.pdf. Last accessed 20 Feb 2012.
" (Gibbs 226) Alvardo de Campos is a naval engineer by profession and while his earlier writings are positive, his work develops characteristics of existential angst. Furthermore, what is intriguing is that all of these fictive authors created by Pessoa interact with one another and even translate each other's works. (Gibbs 226)
One critic notes that "Fernando Pessoa invented at least 72 fictive identities. "His jostling aliases...expressed his belief that the individual subject -- the core of European thought -- is an illusion." (Gray 52) This view goes to the heart of the matter, as will be discussed in the following sections of this paper; namely that the creation of these fictive identities emphasizes and highlights the modern crisis of identity and the existential and postmodern view that the self as a coherent and continuous entity is an illusion. The following extract emphasizes this central point and also allows for…
Cravens, Gwyneth. "Past Present." The Nation 13 Nov. 1989: 574+. Questia. Web. 22 July 2012.
Cullenberg, Stephen, Jack Amariglio, and David F. Ruccio. Postmodernism, Economics and Knowledge. London: Routledge, 2001.
Gabriel, Markus. "The Art of Skepticism and the Skepticism of Art." Philosophy Today 53.1 (2009): 58+. Questia. Web. 22 July 2012.
Gibbs, Raymond W. Intentions in the Experience of Meaning. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Postmodern Bereavement Theory
Bereavement is a universal observable fact as every human being experiences the loss of a loved one at some point in his/her life. However, every individual experiences it in a unique way. It is, without a doubt, an undeniable truth that to be human is to grieve. The passing away of a loved one can be difficult, irresistible and dreadful for any normal individual. When people are faced with such overwhelming situations, a majority of them especially the older adults get into the habit of enduring their loss with time. On the other hand, to forget and live without a loved one is not as easy for some individuals. It becomes difficult for these people to cope up with the grief-stricken situations as they experience a grief of greater concentration or time (Hansson & Stroebe, 2007). There are a number of theorists who have put forwarded their…
Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L.M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test o f a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(2), 226-244. Retrieved from http://www.sfu.ca/psyc/faculty/bartholomew/attachmentpub_files/bh1991.pdf
Bonanno, G.A., Keltner, D., Holen, A., & Horowitz, M.J. (1995). When avoiding unpleasant emotions might not be such a bad thing: Verbal-autonomic response dissociation and midlife conjugal bereavement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Dent, A. (2005). Supporting the Bereaved: Theory and Practice. Counselling at Work, 22-23. Retrieved May 28, 2012 from http://www.bacpworkplace.org.uk/journal_pdf/acw_autumn05_ann.pdf