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Challenges and Strengths

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 11743570

Postmodernism and Post-Positivism

Challenges and Strengths

Post-positivism vs. postmodernism

Two of the dominant paradigms within the modern epistemological discourse are that of post-positivism and postmodernism. They are often used relatively loosely and postmodernism in particular is deployed in a very flexible manner, to denote a form of art based upon pastiche and humor with a kind of ironic, self-referential quality. The difficulty of defining postmodernism is due to the fact that the philosophy denies the idea of modern 'progress' or the ability to arrive at a secure definition of reality. Instead, "postmodernists deny both the possibility and the desirability of an integral postmodernist philosophy," and postmodern philosophers often seem to share little other than a sense of opposition to modernism (Nekrasas 2011). The idea that there are no truths, only subjective beliefs, might seem antithetical to the sciences, including the health sciences, and there are some postmodernists who deny the…… [Read More]


Hutton, Erica. (2009). An examination of post-positivism. Erica Hutton, PhDc.

Retrieved May 6, 2011 at 

Nekrasas, Evaldas. (2011). Positivism, post-positivism, and postmodernism.

Retrieved May 6, 2011 at
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Summary of 2-3 Central Themes of Harvey's the Condition of Postmodernity

Words: 599 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79813817


Capitalism entered a new 'postmodern' phase in the 1970s and 1980s in which small-scale and entrepreneurial enterprises revived, and became the most dynamic sector of the economy in the West. This revival coincided with the reemergence of free market conservatism under Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher at the same time, along with a culture that became more aggressively competitive, egotistic and individualistic. During the same period, economists and sociologists rediscovered "sweatshops and…informal activities of all kinds" as the older Fordist mass production industries declined and shifted labor to low-wage regions in Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. Labor, production and capital markets all become more "flexible" and mobile (arvey, 10990, p. 190). All of these trends had already existed for decades, to be sure, but the new computer and communications technologies accelerated them greatly. Postmodern political-economy is "a fantastic world of booming paper wealth and assets," prone to severe…… [Read More]

Harvey characterized modernism as it existed from the 19th Century to the 1960s as based on Fordist mass production and consumption (at least in the Western world and Japan), bureaucracy, collectivism, labor unions and the welfare state. Its culture was materialistic, authoritarian; paranoid and alienated, symbolized by the anonymity of the big city and the large organization. Postmodernism is more laissez faire and free market, individualistic, entrepreneurial and decentralized, based finances, services and virtual money rather than production. Its workforce was more white-collar than blue-collar, and its culture was schizophrenic, chaotic, pluralist and eclectic. Politically, postmodernism favored celebrities and charismatic, transformational leaders rather than faceless managers and bureaucrats (Harvey, p. 340). Some philosophers who were hailed as postmodernists like Martin Heidegger and Paul de Man were better characterized as anti-modernists with fascist sympathies, but postmodern culture and political-economy should not be dismissed as synonymous with fascism. Indeed, it is more neoliberal, chaotic and disorganized than totalitarian, and seems to have no center. Its ideologies are more ephemeral than concrete or totalizing. Unlike classical Marxism, postmodernist politics emphasizes culture, gender, race and religion -- identity politics -- rather than unified metanarratives and ideologies centered on social class. Postmodern technology has caused a sense of shrinking, compressed time and space in which a constant stream of disconnected and incoherent images seem more real (or hyper-real) than concrete reality itself. New Left politics of the 1960s and 1970s were harbingers of postmodernity, although their emphasis on gender, race, sexuality and the counterculture "connected better with anarchism and libertarianism than with traditional Marxism, and set the New Left against traditional working-class attitudes and institutions" (Harvey, p. 357). One of the great ironies of the postern era is how the politics of the New Left and New Right interested in this peculiar way that undermined organized labor and the welfare state, and unleashed a revival of free market capitalism. Although the New Left radicals and hippies of the 1960s could hardly have intended this, in the end the fact that their movements coexisted in the same time and space as the New Right or Barry Goldwater and Ronald Reagan turned out to be anything but coincidental.


Harvey, D. (1990). The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change. Blackwell Publishing, Ltd.
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Postmodernist Lens

Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39574249

ontological position of postmodernism exhibits scepticism towards knowledge. This paradigmatic view recognizes that the world is constantly changing and subsequently, no one position or perspective of the world should be privileged over any other (Jennings, 2004). While positivism has favored a single mode of knowledge, postmodern perspectives regard different approaches to knowledge as alternative social constructions (Arbib & Hesse, 1986). Postmodern thinkers are bothered by the implication of modern ontology that since there is one world out there, and observation is not problematic, then there is only one reasonable interpretation of the world. The postmodern philosopher counters that while there may in fact be only one 'true' world out there, "there are many reasonable, but distinct interpretations (or understandings) of that world" (Moore, 2001, pg. 4).

Postmodernism rejects the pictorial metaphor of knowledge in favor of a constructivist metaphor (Lyotard, 1984). As such, postmodernism provides new, unconstrained ways to move…… [Read More]


Arbib, M.A., & Hesse, M.B. (1986). The construction of reality. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Becvar, D., & Becvar, S. (2000). Family therapy: A systemic integration. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Fruggeri, L. (1992). Therapeutic process as the social construction of change. In K. Gergen & S. McNamee (Eds.), Therapy as a social construction (pp. 40-53). London: Sage.

Gergen, K. (1991). The saturated self: Dilemmas of identity in contemporary life. New York: Basic Books.
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Define What Is Meant by Postpositivist Realism

Words: 1616 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67610281

Post positivism

Defining Post positivism:

definitional exercise in identity politics, in expanding cultural and semiotic discourse, and reinterpreting the continuing the literary effort of the 20th and 21st century to deconstruct human life and society

Postmodernism, the literary buzzword of the past century, is often considered to be a 'liberal' form of hermeneutics, in the sense that rather than attempting to define what makes the canon great, it attempts to expand the notion of what is a literary canon, what is great literature in general. However, many liberal political activists have accused the deconstructionit movement and the postmodern aesthetic for its tendency towards reductionism and relativism. In other words, by stressing that everything, including identity, is a construction, there is little ground for feminist and Marxist critics to stand on, politically, speaking, to make a material critique of oppressive structures within a society. If all definitions are contextually based, how…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Moya, Paula. Learning from Experience: Minority Identities, Multicultural Struggles. University of California Press, 2002.
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Great Artists of the Late 20th and Early 21st Century

Words: 1922 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73078792

women artists," feminists have reflexively responded by trying to find great women artists from the past who were undiscovered or to emphasize little-regarded female artists from past artistic movements dominated by men. However, this can create the impression of feminists being 'desperate' to find examples of female greatness and over-inflating the reputation of relatively minor artists. Other feminist art historians have criticized the notion of what constitutes 'greatness' as overly masculine in quality and tried to create a new, specifically female-centric notions of artistic greatness. Feminist critic Linda Nochlin sees this as problematic given that there is no clear feminine principle uniting women artists through the ages: in fact, women artists and writers are more apt to resemble males of their respective periods than they are of all women throughout the ages.

Instead, Nochlin asserts that the absence of great female artists is similar to the reason why there are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hoffman, Lewis. "Premodernism, modernism, and postmodernism." Postmodern Psychology.

2008. 24 May 2014.

"Postmodernist art." Art Encyclopedia. 24 May 2014.
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Art in Film

Words: 1175 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16157818

Matrix, lade Runner, And Metropolis

Science-Fiction films have evolved through the decades as technology as progressed, allowing for greater Special Effects and visual demonstrations of worlds overrun by machines.

Three such films - The Matrix, lade Runner, and Metropolis have manifested their stories not only through their scenery and futuristic landscapes, but also through society and the forces governing them.

In their essays, Stan rakhage and Giuliana runo examine these influences within film and how they demonstrate the relevance of history in a social context; postmodernist influences; and the perceptions of vision as they appear on film.

In runo's essay Ramble City: Postmodernism and lade Runner, runo examines the film lade Runner, as it relates to postmodernism and the ideals surrounding the architecture, and social infrastructure of the world where people lack a 'real' history, and therefore, philosophically, a 'real' existence.

The city of lade Runner is not the ultramodern,…… [Read More]


Blade Runner Dir. Ridley Scott.

1982. Based on Philip K. Dick's Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?

Metropolis Dir. Fritz Lang

1927. Based on Thea Von Harbou's novel.
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Chalk Art of Julian Beever

Words: 369 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11299617

When a "camera" was mentioned, I thought that perhaps this was a photographic image, but it is not. The art form has to be better defined.

What the writer of this essay did so well, however, is to make me very interested in learning more about chalk art and Beever. I could definitely feel how much the writer enjoyed Beever's work. As soon as I read the article, I googled Beever's name and looked at his work. The writer said a link could not be included, but he/she could have just written the address (http/ / etc.), so it could be copied and pasted into the address box.

As I said above, reading this essay made me want to know more about chalk art, which I really never knew anything about. I went to Beever's website, and it was as fascinating as the writer said. I am glad that I…… [Read More]

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Sexual Politics Loom Large in

Words: 1509 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81393528

Every aspect of sociology is somehow affected by sexual politics and this can be seen in every postmodern representation of sexuality. Media is particularly dependant on sexual politics as a thematic representation and as a guiding force for human emotion. This is particularly true with regard to dramatic representations in film. The two films discussed above can be seen as examples of this thesis and illuminate both postmodernism and sexual politics in the modern world.

orks Cited

Cohen, Eric S. "To onder Again." First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life May 2000: 23.

Films That Go Thud; Some Actors Can Survive Bomb or Two." The ashington Times 5 Aug. 2003: B05.

Green, J. Ronald. "Always Already: Affinities between Art and Film." Afterimage 25.5 (1998): 8.

Hausladen, Gary J., and Paul F. Starrs. "L.A. Noir." Journal of Cultural Geography 23.1 (2005): 43.

Kipnis, Laura. Bound and Gagged: Pornography…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cohen, Eric S. "To Wonder Again." First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life May 2000: 23.

Films That Go Thud; Some Actors Can Survive Bomb or Two." The Washington Times 5 Aug. 2003: B05.

Green, J. Ronald. "Always Already: Affinities between Art and Film." Afterimage 25.5 (1998): 8.

Hausladen, Gary J., and Paul F. Starrs. "L.A. Noir." Journal of Cultural Geography 23.1 (2005): 43.
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Sociology With the Emergence of

Words: 1721 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63925884

Take as an example McDonald's venture to extend its business operations in countries within the Asian region. Through globalization, the company has learned to adapt to the culture of the country it invests in. Examples of such adjustments are the introduction of rice in most of the meal offerings of McDonald's in the Philippines, inclusion of spicy foods in McDonald's menus in India, and the establishment of large McDonald's buildings in China in order to accommodate the large number of consumers that patronize the fast food chain. These are examples of companies' conscious effort to recognize globalization and its principles.


Consensus." Available at

Feminist Utopia." Available at

Introduction to globalization." Available at

Positivism." Available at

Postmodernism and its critics." Available at

Socialization." Available at… [Read More]


Consensus." Available at .

Feminist Utopia." Available at .

Introduction to globalization." Available at .

Positivism." Available at .
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Cultural Issues

Words: 2449 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42698935

CULTURAL ISSUES in four texts

Cultural issues usually surface in a multicultural society like that of America's because co-existence of people from various different ethnic backgrounds can lead to undesired and unexpected conflicts. But these issues have also become important for those not living in a multicultural society because of the fact that world is rapidly turning into a global village. The closer the people of the world come, the more cultural issues they are likely to encounter. For this reason, it is important to study the reasons why cultural clashes take place and find out how cultural differences affect our perceptions. The authors of the texts chosen for this paper have skillfully and appropriately highlighted these issues.

Though the stories presented in these sources differ still the one thing that connects them to each other is the fact that they all revolve around cultural clashes resulting from racial, ethnic…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anne Fadiman, The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1997.

Malidoma Patrice Some, The Healing Wisdom of Africa: Finding Life Purpose Through Nature, Ritual, and Community, J.P. Tarcher, 1999

Stanley Grenz, A Primer on Postmodernism, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.; February 1996

Remember the Titans, Movie, 2000
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Estes Richard Estes Response This

Words: 311 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66539895

The idea of superrealism, or showing even more attention to detail than even some photographs themselves, or using the artist's talent to take mental images and make them into a pseudo-photograph, almost like trick photography, seems to be a way of destabilizing our notions of what is real. But this idea and how it relates to postmodernism does not really emerge from the essay. Would trick photography to show an image in the artist's mind have the same effect and meaning? However, the essay provokes many questions about Estes' intention, stated or implied.… [Read More]

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Death of the Author by

Words: 1759 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80924563

Human emotions and values are detached and unreal in this work, as well. Pynchon paints vivid pictures of the characters, but they are all flawed, somehow. Oedipa is married to a disc jockey junkie, Dr. Hilarius is a psycho afraid of Nazi retribution, the Paranoids really are paranoid, Metzger disappears, and Pierce Inverarity is a dead jokester who may be having the last laugh on Oedipa. The characters, like society, are flawed, and Pynchon portrays them with warped emotions and values as a caustic commentary on modern society in general. In addition, their values and emotions are questionable, as well. Many are detached even from themselves, and others, like Oedipa; seem to read far too much into many situations.

In conclusion, these works are the epitome of postmodernist literature. Convoluted, contrary, inner conscious and full of imagery and social commentary, they are funny and a bit depressing at the same…… [Read More]


Barthes, Roland. "The Death of the Author." North Carolina State University. 2007. 5 March 2007.

Pynchon, Thomas. The Crying of Lot 49. New York: Perennial Classics, 1999.
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French Lieutenant's Woman Book &

Words: 1111 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96249540

Karel Reisz' 1981 motion picture The French Lieutenant's Woman is based on the novel and the director also seems to be appreciative in regard to postmodernism and existentialism when considering the elements that he introduces in the film. Reisz created his film by designing a story within a story as he presents viewers with an account involving the actors playing Victorian characters. The director is not apparently concerned about criticizing a Victorian society, as he apparently wants audiences to think about how dilemmas present in the nineteenth century could also emerge in the 1980s. Reisz was well aware that he needed to address existentialism in his film, and he knew that he needed to do so by combining concepts contemporary to him and elements originating in Victorian England.

While Fowles used the narrator's voice with the purpose of intervening at different moments in the novel, Reisz has characters in the…… [Read More]


Lynn Dodson, Mary, "The French Lieutenant's Woman: Pinter and Reisz's Adaptation of JohnFowles's Adaptation," Literature/Film Quarterly 26.4 (1998)

Mahmoud, Fowles, " Mary Lynn Dodson, "The French Lieutenant's Woman," Random House, 2010.

Salami, Mahmoud, "John Fowles's fiction and the poetics of postmodernism," Associated University Presse, 1992

Dir. Reisz, Karel, The French Lieutenant's Woman. United Artists, 1981.
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Theoretical Foundations of Nursing Nursing Can Be

Words: 4161 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 25325887

Theoretical Foundations of Nursing:

Nursing can be described as a science and practice that enlarges adaptive capabilities and improves the transformation of an individual and the environment. This profession focuses on promoting health, improving the quality of life, and facilitating dying with dignity. The nursing profession has certain theoretical foundations that govern the nurses in promoting adaptation for individuals and groups. These theoretical foundations include theories, theory integration, reflection, research and practice, and assimilation.

Grand Nursing Theory:

There are several grand nursing theories that were developed by various theorists including the Science of Unitary Human Beings by Martha ogers, Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model, and Systems Model by Betty Neuman. Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model is based on the consideration of the human being as an open system. She argues that the system reacts to environmental stimuli via cognator and regulator coping techniques for individuals. On the other hand, the…… [Read More]


American Sentinel (2012). 5 Steps for Nurses to Stay Updated with Health Care Changes.

Retrieved September 4, 2013, from 

Andershed, B. & Olsson, K. (2009). Review of Research Related to Kristen Swanson's Middle-range Theory of Caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23, 598-610.

"Application of Theory in Nursing Process." (2012, January 28). Nursing Theories: A
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Bandura A 1999 Moral Disengagement in the

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 79224993

Bandura, A. (1999). Moral Disengagement in the Perpetration of Inhumanities. Personality and ocial Psychology Review, 3(3), 193-209.

Discusses the moral agency embedded in socio-cognitive theory and other self-regulatory mechanisms responsible for restraining immoral personal behavior. Focuses primarily on specific factors that lead to moral disengagement, in which individual root justification for immoral behavior. Author sheds light on the importance of having a moral agency and dangers of not have one. He maintains that in the absence of such an agency, immoral conduct becomes rampant and destroys the moral fabric of the society. The thesis revolves around the idea that "Given the many mechanisms for disengaging moral control, civilized life requires, in addition to humane personal standards, safeguards built into social systems that uphold compassionate behavior and renounce cruelty." I found the article valuable because the author backs his arguments with findings from previous studies. However a moral detailed discussion on…… [Read More]

Social work text exploring a wide range of sociological principles with an emphasis on critical analysis of each school of thought; objective consideration of the efficacy and utilitarianism of each social work paradigm.

Harrison, L.E., & Huntington, S.P. (Eds.). (2000). Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress (1st ed.). New York: Basic Books.

Specifically addresses the relationship between cultural values and societal development. Concludes that changes in societal values result in subsequent shaping of the developmental process of social structures. The
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Butoh Dance Butoh Is a

Words: 2187 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6963925

Their primary aim was to destabilize existing orders and this is what they accomplished with arts forms such as butoh. "Liminal entities are neither here nor there; they are betwixt and between the positions assigned and arrayed by law, custom, convention, and ceremonial" (Turner 1969, 94).

Hijikata, the man responsible for creating Butoh, also upheld Artaudian views on life and humanity. Keeping in view the traditional Japanese thinking of a connection between nature and man, Hijikata incorporated it in butoh movements. However he focused more on nature's darker side believing that, "the dirty is beautiful and the beautiful is dirty, and [life] cycles between them forever" (Kurihara 1997, 38). Hijikata, just like Artaud, forced the viewers to pay closer attention to the side of life that they had usually ignored. He believed that it is due to a break between man and the darker side of life that we suffered…… [Read More]


Artaud, a. "To Have Done with the Judgment of God, a radio play (1947)." In (S. Sontag, ed.) Antonin Artaud: selected writings. Berkeley etc.: University of California Press, 1988: 570-1.

Artaud, a. (1964) Le Theater et son Double. Paris: Gallimard.

Artaud, a. (1996) Oeuvres Completes XII 218. Quoted in Virmaux, a. & O., Antonin Artaud, Qui tes-vous? Lyon: La Manufacture.

Artaud, a. (1996) Oeuvres Completes XV 341. Quoted in Virmaux, a. & O., Antonin Artaud, Qui tes-vous? Lyon: La Manufacture.
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3rd Wave Feminism

Words: 431 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7441408

grrrl -- here me roar! We've come a long way since the bra-burning days of yore. Feminists in the 1960s and 1970s helped break down significant barriers for grrrls, and helped us to reclaim that fun-filled word. However, that "second wave" of feminism is long gone. We're back to struttin' our stuff, high heels, lipstick, and all. Now 20-somethings don't have to demand to be called a "woman" to assert feminine strength; grrrl is just fine. In fact, the term reeks of fun and frolic, of grrrl power. As Angela Mcobbie states in her book Postmodernism and Popular Culture, "far from having to relinquish their femininity to achieve 'equality, these girls have demanded their right to hold onto it intact, even excessively," (166). Welcome to the Third Wave of Feminism, grrrls!

Ironically, it took hairy legs and armpits to achieve this linguistic transformation and ride this third wave. We had…… [Read More]


Garrison, Ednie Kaeh. "U.S. Feminism-Grrrl-Style!" Feminist Studies. Spring 2000. Find Articles. 24 Apr. 2003. .

McRobbie, Angela. Postmodernism and Popular Culture. London: Routledge, 1994.

Straus, Tamara. "A Manifesto for Third Wave Feminism." Alternet. 24 Oct. 2000. Independent Media Institute. 24 Apr. 2003. .
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Political Science - Domhoff Shapiro

Words: 2546 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21981158

Putnam (2000) suggests that trust already exists within societies, when clearly there is evidence that it does not exist, and that people are not confident in who is in control (Domhoff, 2005). Putnam (2000) argues that it is important to have a strong and very active and aggressive civil society within the United States to consolidate democracy. Many of the traditions of independent civic engagement have been lost according to Putnam, and are now replaced with passivity among the peoples of the United States; far too often civic engagements rely on the "state" making civil societies as described by Putnam (2000) weak and incapable of developing. Putnam's idea of social capital is the view that social capital is a resource that is ingrained in norms and in social trusts, and it is these norms and trusts that help facilitate collaborative actions and help communities cooperate so they can achieve mutual…… [Read More]


Dahl, Robert Who Governs? 2005. Democracy and Power in an American City, Second edition. Boston: Yale University Press

Domhoff, William G. 2005. Who Rules America? Power, Politics and Social Change.

New York: McGraw Hill: Higher education

Putnam, Robert D. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American
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Are Music Videos Promotional Devices or Products in Themselves

Words: 3887 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50570986

Music Videos Promotional Devices or Products in Themselves

Music Videos: Promotional Device or Separate Product?

Music videos are constructed in many different ways, but many of them involve the artist and others singing and dancing to specific songs. Some also tell stories or provide other background dealings that make the music video much like a television program. An example of this would be Michael Jackson's 'Thriller,' which was a very long video that involved much storytelling and other information as opposed to just the song. Some of these story type videos are still done today but this seems to be more popular in country music that it does in rock-and-roll.

No matter what genre is dealt with, however, the debate as to whether music videos are promotional devices or a separate product in and of themselves has been continuing for many years. In 1981 music television first began broadcasting music…… [Read More]

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Postmodern Philosophy Philosophers Over the

Words: 1980 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15396724

Jean-Francois Lyotard (the Postmodern condition: A Knowledge eport 1979) describes postmodernism in the context of nature of social bond. He argues that due to the advent of the technology and with the invention of computer, information has been more restricted in the form of procedures and program. According to him some one must have access to all the information to check whether the decisions are madder correctly. He discuss in this paper about the language games which are gaining importance day by day as the communication is becoming so prominent and efficient. We can see the connecting point between Lyotard and Kuhn as well as Popper which also agree that truth is language dependent and textual interpretation vary from person to person so whole truth of knowledge is not absolutely conveyed.


Postmodernism seems to be overwhelmingly push everything into vagueness. The only thing according to postmodernism…… [Read More]


1-Dr. Dave Teague: Introduction to postmodern philosophy: Postmodern preaching 

2-Geoff Haselhurst (May, 2005): Philosophy Karl Popper: Discussion Popper's Problem of Induction. 

3- Gary Aylesworth First published Fri 30 Sep, 2005: Postmodernism:Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. #8" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Postmodernist Literature Discuss the Representation

Words: 3083 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82448769

Yarbrough quotes Ihab Hassan, who describes postmodernism as the "literature of silence" in that it "communicates only with itself," a reference that initially astounds the rational mind. Then, reading further in Yarbrough, Hassan is quoted as saying the term postmodernism applies to "a world caught between fragments and wholes, terror and totalitarianism of every kind."

In Vonnegut's novel, characters reflect the deconstruction of American society in the 1950s, during the period of paranoia dominated by U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy's fascist-like search for "communist sympathizers," which created terror and loathing and reflected how morally shallow yet potent the hammer of temporary totalitarian authority can be.

On page 96, Chapter 44, it is revealed that Horlick Minton had once been fired by the State Department for allegedly being "soft on communism" - but the only "real evidence" used to justify his dismissal, his wife announced, was a letter she wrote to the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Artson, Bradley Shavit. Synagogues as Centers for Social Justice, University of Judaism. Available at

Bellow, Saul. 1964. Herzog, The Viking Press, New York.

Ellison, Ralph. 1952. Invisible Man, Random House, New York

James, Fredrick. 1991. Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism, Duke
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Postmodern Approaches in Counseling Theory

Words: 1372 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86589516

Counseling Theory: Postmodern Approaches
Counseling orientation has experienced paradigm shifts over the decades from traditional pioneering theories such as cognitive theory, psychoanalysis, and humanism to the postmodernist theory. The rationale for the progression to postmodernism has been the evolving notion of a multiplicity of reality, a shift from modernist empiricism to constructivism (Shurts, 2015). The traditional counseling theorist considered counseling as a true mapping of the psychic phenomena depicting an accurate depiction of human psychological processes (Hansen, 2015). Contrasting with the modernistic approach that assumes a knowable reality, postmodernism assumes that observers create realities. Hansen (2015) notes postmodernism is grounded on the premise of anti-essentialism where observers always infuse phenomena with meaning as opposed to the true knowledge of phenomena being revealed by through objective observation. Postmodern therapy is anchored on the principle of collaborative and consultative stance between the patient and therapist as opposed to the unidirectional and authoritative…… [Read More]

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Vonnegut in Cultural History as

Words: 2683 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 49418035

A Vonnegut theme, however, is often hard to miss; especially since part of Vonnegut's style placed the author in a position where many readers could palpably feel him throughout the novel. Vonnegut seems to read alongside the reader and assist him; he seems to teach and guide -- gently -- as well as write. As such, Vonnegut helped re-define what high art, and the novel specifically, could be:

Irving, who went on to write "The World According to Garp" and "The Cider House Rules," remembered Vonnegut as a self-effacing presence who "didn't have an agenda about what 'the novel' should be." Vonnegut also appreciated that you didn't have to be in the classroom to get your work done (MSNC, 2007).

South Park postmodernism seems to be endemic to recent generations, and, if so, the ideological roots of those generations must be traced back to Vonnegut and his contemporaries.

Some more…… [Read More]


1. Vonnegut, Kurt.

a. Slaughterhouse Five. New York: Random House, 1969. Print

b. Glapagos. New York: Random House, 1985. Print.

c. Cat's Cradle. New York: Random House, 1963. Print.
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Ben Jonson Intertextualities The Influence

Words: 22973 Length: 80 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70168505

" James a.S. McPeek

further blames Jonson for this corruption: "No one can read this dainty song to Celia without feeling that Jonson is indecorous in putting it in the mouth of such a thoroughgoing scoundrel as Volpone."


asserts that the usual view of Jonson's use of the Catullan poem is distorted by an insufficient understanding of Catullus' carmina, which comes from critics' willingness to adhere to a conventional -- yet incorrect and incomplete -- reading of the love poem. hen Jonson created his adaptation of carmina 5, there was only one other complete translation in English of a poem by Catullus. That translation is believed to have been Sir Philip Sidney's rendering of poem 70 in Certain Sonnets, however, it was not published until 1598.

This means that Jonson's knowledge of the poem must have come from the Latin text printed in C. Val. Catulli, Albii, Tibulli, Sex.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alghieri, Dante Inferno. 1982. Trans. Allen Mandelbaum. New York: Bantam Dell, 2004.


Allen, Graham. Intertextuality. Routledge; First Edition, 2000. Print.

Baker, Christopher. & Harp, Richard. "Jonson' Volpone and Dante." Comparative
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Elaine Graham's Transforming Practice Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty

Words: 4411 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 75473831

Elaine Graham's

Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty

Major Schools of Thought and Actors

In Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty, Elaine L. Graham addresses Traditional, Postmodern, Empirical, Liberation and Feminist perspectives on Theology and ultimately on Pastoral Theology. In order to address these perspectives, Graham traces the historical development of each, current theological realities, and prospective "horizons." The result is an extensive review of the Pastoral Theolog (y)(ies) of the Church and its faith communit (y)(ies), viewed very strongly through the feminist pastoral perspective.

As presented by Graham, the Traditional perspective is built on Scripture that is rife with patriarchy and an overarching patriarchal hierarchy. hile providing conventionally binding values and norms, the Traditional perspective is decidedly male-centered: traditionally-based pastoral theology tended to focus on the traits of a good male pastor and was essentially restricted to the pastoral ministry of ordained males.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Graham, Elaine L. Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty. London: Mowbray, 1996.
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Postmodern With the Help of

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Even though the movement has experienced having more success in the better developed parts of the globe, it is also present in third-world countries in domains such as art and philosophy.

The modern era lasted until approximately the end of the first half of the twentieth century, as the 1940s still had people subjecting themselves to the typical behavior of the time. ith the new movement into place, people learnt that they had the chance to change their lives without anyone prohibiting them to do so.

Even though technology has begun to flourish decades before, the technology brought by Postmodernism was completely different from what it had been until the time.

Considering a team of Archeologists that would excavate a site where technology flourished during the beginning or the twenty first century and a site where it prospered during the 1940s, the findings that they would make is that the…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Hodder, Ian. (1995). "Interpreting archaeology: finding meaning in the past." Routledge.

2. McKenzie, Janet. (2001). "Changing education: a sociology of education since 1944." Pearson Education.

Hodder, Ian. (1995). "Interpreting archaeology: finding meaning in the past." Routledge.

McKenzie, Janet. (2001). "Changing education: a sociology of education since 1944." Pearson Education.
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Industrial Revolution and Beyond it Is Difficult

Words: 4904 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64200298

Industrial Revolution and Beyond

It is difficult for anyone now alive to appreciate the radical changes that the Industrial Revolution brought to humanity. e imagine that we know what it was like before this shift in economics, in culture, in society: e think of farmers tilling fields and of their children piling hay into stacks for winter forage, or of trappers setting their snares for the soft-pelted animals of the forests, or of fishers casting their hand-woven and hand-knotted nets into the seas from the hand-sewn decks of ships. e imagine the hard physical work that nearly every person in society once had to do in the era before machines substituted their labor for ours -- and this exchange of human (and animal) labor for machine-driven labor is indeed one of the key elements of the Industrial Revolution. But it is only one of the key elements. For with the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Atkins, Robert. Artspeak. New York: Abbeville Press, 1990.

Atkins, Robert. Artspoke. New York: Abbeville Press, 1993.

Banham, P. Reyner. Theory and Design in the First Machine Age. Cambridge: MIT, 1980.

Benjamin, Walter. Illuminations. New York: Schocken, 1969.
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Postmodern Cities and Consumption Postmodernist

Words: 1909 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37984485

In a world that is marked by homogeneity, capitalism has favorable conditions to grow. However with changes in thinking and urban theory, instead of describing this concept in terms of production, it is now consumption that defines our times. We are living in a consumer society or a consumerist culture because consumption drives production instead of it being the other way around. People have now become more liberal in the way they live their lives. There are no specific rules to follow and changing lifestyles mean everyone would want something different. This results in increased variety and expanded range of goods and services at people's disposal. Combine this with more disposable income and you have consumerism on hands. People are no longer afraid to live their dream lives and this often means fewer savings. Interestingly, consumers are not worried about that. It appears as if the fears that drove people…… [Read More]


Arnold, J. (2001) 'Why consumer confidence matters', BBC Online, 25 September 2001, at 

Baudrillard, J (1998a) the Consumer Society: Myths and Structures, Sage, London.

Baudrillard, J. (1995b) 'The virtual illusion: or the automatic writing of the world', Theory, Culture and Society, 12, 97-107.

Bauman, Z. (1983) 'Industrialism, consumerism and power', Theory, Culture and Society, 1(3), 32-43.
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Distortion of the American Dream

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Disillusionment and the Harlem enaissance and Post-Modernism

Distortion of the American Dream

The American dream has been as old as the American constitution. From the text, there is a highlight of the American dream and its distortion over years. It is presented as an old dream, which is as old as the Constitution of the United States of America. According to the text, those who framed the American dream were engaged the country in a state where everyone will gain the good as from working hard. Through working hard, people will be able to make it possible to attain different levels of their fulfillments. Nonetheless, today many things have changed with the changes in time (Hemingway, 2013). With the aspects of capitalism and materialism taking root in every society, the dream has been distorted. The possible supports for a statement that many of the people live within their required states…… [Read More]


Hemingway, E. (2013). Hills Like White Elephants: Short Story. Toronto: HarperCollins Canada.

Wicks, R. (2003). Modern French Philosophy: From Existentialism to Postmodernism. Oxford: One world Publications.
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Leadership Administrative Practices the Postmodern

Words: 2022 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 47510461

Louis and Smith (1991) identify such congruence as an indicator of the quality of work life influencing levels of teacher engagement with their work."

An appreciation by teachers of a significant gap between their current practices and those implied by the changes being proposed within their schools." perception, on the part of teachers, that participating in the school's change initiative is a significant but achievable challenge. Shedd and Bacharach (1991) argue that teaching provides intrinsic motivation under those restructuring initiatives which conceptualize teaching as a highly complex act and help teachers significantly expand their technical repertoires and their capacities to apply them reflectively and constructively. Contributing to the perception of a goal's achievability are opportunities to learn more about how the goal can be accomplished." perception by teachers that they know, specifically and concretely, what they will need to do (or that such specificity can be developed) eventually to implement…… [Read More]

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Modernity and Postmodernity

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dialectic of the Enlightenment in terms of the values of truth, progress and liberation. We will tangentially see how these concepts are linked to modernity and post modernity. Also, we will see what the two alternatives to dealing with the demise of the Enlightenment as Ferraris and Taraboletti Segre argue. The author will also refer to Lyotard and Habermas's stance on the issue. We will answer the question of why one can not separate the concerns of modernity and postmodernity from each other. We will see how the two discourses inform each other in terms of above subjects.

The dialectic of the Enlightenment has almost always been known in terms of the values of truth, progress and liberation. ather than having to look upon it as having died Ferraris and Taraboletti Segre argue that by becoming a philosophical issue, it is now beyond being localized to one discipline. The modern…… [Read More]


Fairfield, P.. (1994). Habermas, Lyotard and Political Discours. Available:

http://www.*****/pdf/19/rp_19_5.pdf. Last accessed 20 Feb 2012.
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Pessoa the Philosophies Embodied in

Words: 6419 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41477784

" (Gibbs 226) Alvardo de Campos is a naval engineer by profession and while his earlier writings are positive, his work develops characteristics of existential angst. Furthermore, what is intriguing is that all of these fictive authors created by Pessoa interact with one another and even translate each other's works. (Gibbs 226)

One critic notes that "Fernando Pessoa invented at least 72 fictive identities. "His jostling aliases...expressed his belief that the individual subject -- the core of European thought -- is an illusion." (Gray 52) This view goes to the heart of the matter, as will be discussed in the following sections of this paper; namely that the creation of these fictive identities emphasizes and highlights the modern crisis of identity and the existential and postmodern view that the self as a coherent and continuous entity is an illusion. The following extract emphasizes this central point and also allows for…… [Read More]


Cravens, Gwyneth. "Past Present." The Nation 13 Nov. 1989: 574+. Questia. Web. 22 July 2012.

Cullenberg, Stephen, Jack Amariglio, and David F. Ruccio. Postmodernism, Economics and Knowledge. London: Routledge, 2001.

Gabriel, Markus. "The Art of Skepticism and the Skepticism of Art." Philosophy Today 53.1 (2009): 58+. Questia. Web. 22 July 2012.

Gibbs, Raymond W. Intentions in the Experience of Meaning. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1999.