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Pajota’s Guerillas mission was to promote the success of the 6th Ranger Battalion operation through preventing counter-attack by the Japanese infantry from Cabu. This would entail sealing off a mile of the road and holding it for 24 hours for the Rangers to have adequate time to attack the Pajota POW Camp and safely rescue of the US prisoners of war before being engaged by Japanese reinforcements. The guerrillas will also work with Alamo Squadron to offer necessary reinforcements to the Battalion to enhance the efficiency of the operation.
The purpose of the 6th Ranger Battalion operation is to seal off a mile of the road in order for U.S. prisoners of war to be safely rescued before being engaged by Japanese Dokuho 359 forces. In this regard, Pajota guerrillas comprising five infantry squadrons will be deployed to establish a roadblock near the wooden bridge across…
King, M. J. (2016). Rescue at Cabanatuan. Retrieved March 11, 2017, from http://www.4point2.org/cabanatuan.htm
Menter, J. M. (2009). The sustainment battle staff & military decision making process (MDMP) guide : for Brigade Support Battalions (BSB), Sustainment Brigades (Sus Bdes), and Combat Sustainment Support Battalions (CSSB). Bloomington: AuthorHouse.
War Without Mercy
John W. Dower, War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War. Pantheon, 1987.
John W. Dower is a professor of Japanese history who received his Ph.D. In History and Far Eastern Languages from Harvard University in 1972 and has written extensively about popular culture in his scholarly work on Japanese and U.S. foreign relations history, including books such as Empire and Aftermath, Japan in War and Peace, and Embracing Defeat.
John Dower uses a wide variety of sources from the U.S., Britain and Japan to prove his thesis that the Pacific War was a merciless racial struggle that had far more in common with Hitler's war on the Eastern Front than the war between Germany and the Western Allies. Among these are diaries, letters, memoirs, newspapers, magazines, films, scholarly books and articles, radio broadcasts, official military and government documents, and statements by political and military…
Air Power in WWII
American Air Power in World War II
Strategic Air Power: "...designed or trained to strike an enemy at the sources of his military, economic, or political power." Tactical Air Power: "... using or being weapons or forces employed at the battlefront; of, relating to, or designed for air attack in close support of friendly ground forces..." Merriman-Webster Online
Introduction to American Air Power Leading up to WWII
eport of the Commanding General of the Army Air Forces to the Secretary of War
The United States Air Force Museum's section on WWII Combat Europe features a lengthy report from the Commanding General of the Army Air Forces, which was sent to the Secretary of War; in Section One the report stressed several points which led to both the development of strategic and tactical methods towards defeating the Nazis in Europe. The following points were addressed to the…
Green, Daniel. World War II Guide to Air Power: Body Armor ("Flak Suits"),
Information online] (Accessed 3 September 2004); available at http://www.ww2guide.com.
McManus, John C. Deadly Sky: The American Combat Airman in World War II; Novato, California: Presidio, 2000.
Merriman-Webster Online. Strategic, Tactical. Available at http://www.m-w.com .
Both were conscientious leaders and neither would allow herself to be stepped on. But the manner in which each accomplished this differed considerably. Miss edecker made her presence known in her quiet, defiant way, while Capain Crawford had an authoritative desk-pounding approach" (p. 104).
The natural leader has been defined by some as the person who is willing to take a stand on a moral issue and to stand alone, even when everyone else disagrees. In this regard, Mitch stands out as such a person. He has been chosen by the internees to be a judge of their disputes and to mete out punishments for wrong-doing. His willingness to stand on principle is revealed in a short conversation he has with Dottie. She feels uncomfortable about using their friend's shanty all the time and suggests that they sit at a picnic table which belongs to her friend Liz. Mitch refuses…
Danner, Dorothy Still. What a Way to Spend a War: Navy Nurse POWs in the Philippines,
Annapolis: Navy Institute Press, 1995.
Gary Powers Spy Plane Issue
The Cold ar has been called the twentieth century's 'longest-running international morality play.' It was a play that lasted decades and produced thousands of players, both major and small, as well as two critical scenes set in Cuba and Berlin. The full weight of the drama settled on one person, an American pilot named Francis Gary Powers. hen Powers 'fell from the sky' outside the Soviet city of Sverdlovsk, the cold war truce between the United States and the Soviet Union fractured. Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev declared, "The honeymoon was over."
The term Cold ar refers to the years of struggle between the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union and its allies following orld ar II. The Cold ar lasted over forty years, from the mid-1940's to the late 1980's. During this period, international politics were molded heavily by the rivalry between…
Cold War." Encarta. http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/refarticle.aspx?refid=761569374.
A accessed 04-08-2003).
Francis Gary Powers: Captain, United States Air Force, Pilot, Central Intelligence
Agency." Arlington National Cemetery. http://www.arlingtoncemetery.com/francisg.htm .(accessed 04-08-2003).
We must not forget, however, that, like most countries, China's economic leaps are tied to her political security. China's new model shows the world that economic security is as important as military security. Presently, though, based on the economic and political model of the world, China is focused on domestic economic issues and a slow but steady rise to socio-political power and role as a strategic player in global issues (Zakaria 2008 86-94). China has even begun to realize, possibly after the unfortunate events in Tianamen Square, that human rights are often tied to global economic issues. They can perhaps not understand why the West would act so emotionally on issues that occurred, say, during the Olympic Events China hosted, but they are aware that the world's public opinion is worth dollars -- both imported and exported. China still remains authoritarian, however, cracking down on Internet access, access to certain…
China Tops U.S. As Investment Target. (October 2012). Reuters. Retrieved from: http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/10/24/us-china-us-investment-idUSBRE89N0EZ20121024
Global Security Engagement: A New Model for Cooperative Threat Reduction (2009), National
Academies Press, Washington, DC. Retrieved from: http://www.nap.edu / openbook.php?record_id=12583&page=R1
How China Views America (2010). Globalresearch. Retrieved from:
ar in Iraq: An Application of Conflict Theory
The recent war with Iraq has been on the minds of people all across the world since well before it started. Many are worried that the United States will be seen as being too controlling, and that it should let the Iraqi people work out their own problems. Others, who are concerned about the threat of terrorist activity in this country and others, stick with the belief that the United States was right in their attempt to remove Saddam Hussein from power.
Regardless of which opinion one holds, there are theorists, both classical and modern, who have strong views on war. This is largely due to conflict theory, which is that life is largely characterized more by conflict that it is by consensus. Those who uphold this theory have different ways of looking at it, and the purpose of this paper is…
Collins, Randall. "Conflict Sociology." New York: Academic Press, 1974. 56-61.
Conflict. 2003. 10 April 2003 http://www.sunflower.com/~syber/sociology/html/conflict.html.
Dugger, William M., & Howard J. Sherman. "Institutional and Marxist theories of evolution." Journal of Economic Issues, 31 (1997): 991-210.
Introduction to sociological theory. 2003. 10 April 2003 http://www.dustbunny.fsnet.co.uk/Soci1.htm .
But their independence did not come easily.
n fact the Chechens are essentially a Muslim nation of about a million and a half, and since the early 19th century the Chechens have been fighting the Russians for their independence. Understanding a bit of history helps the viewer understand the political tensions in the film. The dictator Joseph Stalin ordered the entire population of Chechens deported to Central Asia in 1944, because the Chechens allegedly collaborated with the Nazis to bring down the Russians. This bitter memory is part of what drives the Chechens to insist on being independent of Russia.
Another subplot that has impact is the fact that the two captive Russian soldiers may be wearing the same uniform but they see the world in vastly different ways. They both dance to a Louis Armstrong song ("Let My People Go") and yet they bother each other too. But when…
In fact the Chechens are essentially a Muslim nation of about a million and a half, and since the early 19th century the Chechens have been fighting the Russians for their independence. Understanding a bit of history helps the viewer understand the political tensions in the film. The dictator Joseph Stalin ordered the entire population of Chechens deported to Central Asia in 1944, because the Chechens allegedly collaborated with the Nazis to bring down the Russians. This bitter memory is part of what drives the Chechens to insist on being independent of Russia.
Another subplot that has impact is the fact that the two captive Russian soldiers may be wearing the same uniform but they see the world in vastly different ways. They both dance to a Louis Armstrong song ("Let My People Go") and yet they bother each other too. But when the older soldier, Sasha, comes down to earth from his crustiness and becomes softly nostalgic, he reaches out and touches the hand of his younger colleague and the music in the soundtrack blares the song "The Slavyanka," which is a patriotic hymn in Russia.
In conclusion, that touching moment between Russian soldiers, and the relationship between Vanya and Dina, among other soft, human scenes, is apparently designed by the director Sergei Bodrov to reveal the irrationality of war. Again, as presented earlier in this paper, a perceptive person viewing this film could reach a conclusion that this is a pacifist film; at the very least the director and screenwriter have brought a short story from a giant of literature into a modern context and presented most of the characters as quite human and likable. The Muslim nation has been brutally mistreated over the centuries by the Soviets / Russians, so the story takes that overall theme and brings it down to earth with very human tensions that result in very human interactions. This film shows tired soldiers juxtaposed against fierce rebel fighters whose convictions are more powerful than the Russians. Interestingly, one of Dina's roles is to tell the soldiers they will have a proper burial, but the audience does not know at the end exactly what happened.
War & Human Rights Abuse: Parallelisms between Japanese-Americans in WWII and the U.S.-Iraq War (Gulf War II)
Among nations of varying cultures and societies, maintaining satisfactory political relations is a challenge. This is primarily due to differences among leaders and societies that make up this nation; thus, as a result of this diversity, it is inevitable that international relations among countries of the world may experience conflicts and antagonism with each other.
Declarations of war are one manifestation of conflicts and disagreements between two or more nations. Examples of these political conflicts are the First and Second World Wars, where devastation of the physical geography of countries and millions of deaths had occurred. Human history has, over time, illustrated how individual differences can potentially lead to bigger conflicts, thereby resulting to devastating, even deadly, results.
However, a far more important issue that should be focused on during times of war…
Cheney questions release of more photos." 11 May 2004. The New York Times Online. Available at http://www.nytimes.com .
Executive Order 9066." (1942). Available at National Archives and Records Administration.
S. forces were made to operate on ground and targeted operations were planned against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda fighters. There were significant individually planned battles and skirmishes between the U.S. army and Taliban often resulting in heavy losses to both sides. A tactic that Taliban often used in such conditions was the suicide attacks and planting improvised explosive devices (IEDs) that left the soldier carrying vehicles destroyed. The U.S. utilized an Iraqi style counter insurgency operations in the Afghan region that resulted in some strengthening of the conditions.
3.1.3 Power sharing agreements
In order to enhance the effectiveness of the U.S. presence in Afghanistan the U.S. forged agreements with many warring tribes and factions of the Northern Alliance to enhance the unity of these groups that were to be pitched against the Taliban. These agreements were aimed at removing the support base of Taliban and Al-Qaeda from the Afghan society…
Coll, S. (2005). Ghost wars: The secret history of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin.
Dreyfuss, R. (2005). Devil's game: how the United States helped unleash fundamentalist Islam. Metropolitan Books.
Giustozzi, a. (2008). Koran, Kalashnikov, and laptop: the neo-Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan. Columbia University Press.
Jones, a. (2013, Jan). Only Three Choices for Afghan Endgame: Compromise, Conflict, or Collapse: Counting down to 2014. TomDispatch.com. Retrieved from: [ http://www.commondreams.org/view/2013/01/28-3 ]
The time to go in and dismantle his war machine was now, Bush insisted.
But now, nearly four years after the invasion of Iraq, with nearly 3,000 American casualties and over $380 billion having been spent (Sidoti, 2006), less than 40% of Americans support the war. No weapons of mass destruction have been found. No evidence of any nuclear program Hussein was alleged to have launched has been found. And recently the U.S. intelligence agencies reported that the war in Iraq has created more terrorists, and that we are not any safer now than we were in 2001 after 9/11.
Moreover, the American people are clearly fed up with what they see on television from Iraq: a) there is now a civil war going on between rival ethnic factions, and dozens of innocent civilians are kidnapped and/or slaughtered every day; the U.S. involvement has exacerbated this bloodletting; b) images of…
Hess, Pamela. "Pentagon late to the information war." United Press International. Retrieved 1 Nov. 2006 at http://www.upi.com .
Reuters. "Factbox - Military and Civilian Deaths in Iraq. Retrieved 2 Nov. 2006 at http://www.alertnet.org .
Sidoti, Liz. "Analysis: Iraq war dominates campaign." Associated Press. Retrieved 1 Nov. 2006 from http://www.mercurynews.com .
What is meant by the term "arbitrage"?
Arbitrage is a term used in economics that means taking advantage of differences in price of a single item. The author references a padre who would purchase items sold for lesser amounts within one group of POWs and then re-sell it for a greater profit within another group of POWs. For example, buying coffee from the ritish at a small number of cigarettes and then selling it to the Russian prisoners for a much larger number of cigarettes. Generally, arbitrage should involve zero risk, because the two transactions should occur simultaneously, but this was not an option in the POW camps. According to Aswath Damodoran in Corporate Finance Theory and Practice, this form of arbitrage is classified as near arbitrage. Pure arbitrage requires that you invest no money, take no risk and walk away with sure profits. Unless the transactions can be completed…
Brown, P.J., (1982). "Constitution or Competition? Alternative Views on Monetary Reform." Literature of Liberty. Vol. v, no. 3, pp. 7-52. Arlington, VA: Institute for Humane Studies.
Damodoran a., (2001). Corporate Finance: Theory and Practice. NY: John Wiley & Sons. pp.12-30.
Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas. Entrepreneurs and the Economy. Retrieved from http://www.dallasfed.org/educate/everyday/ev3.html .
World War II. World War II was a turning point in world history, and brought together many allies to fight strong opponents for world domination. The War was supposed to be the "last" world war fought, but other conflicts since that time show the world is still a volatile and unsettled place, and it seems there will always be wars fought in this world.
World War II was fought on two major fronts -- Europe and Asia. There was also fighting in North Africa, and many Pacific Islands. The initial war began in 1939 when German dictator Adolph Hitler invaded Poland. England and France had pledged to support Poland as Hitler continued to take over countries in Europe, such as Austria and Czechoslovakia in the late 1930s. When Hitler invaded Poland,
France and England issued ultimatums to Germany which were ignored, and the war had officially begun, even though actual…
Boatner, Mark M. Biographical Dictionary of World War II. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1996.
Divine, Robert A., ed. Causes and Consequences of World War II. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969.
Kitchen, Martin. A World in Flames: A Short History of the Second World War in Europe and Asia, 1939-1945. London: Longman, 1990.
Lear and Comodore Barron, the commander of the American fleet in the Mediterranean agreed in 1805 that Ahmad was no longer useful to the American cause. As a result, Lear met with Muhammad D'Ghies, Tripoli's Minister for foreign affairs, and eventually reached an agreement. War prisoners would be mutually exchanged, and America had to pay a sum of $60, 000 to Tripoli. However, this sum was considerably smaller than what the Pasha had asked for in 1804. Legendary Commodore Charles Morris wrote, "On the 3rd of June, a peace was concluded with Tripoli by Colonel Lear, who had been authorized by the President to negotiate."
One of the most important consequences of the war was its power to produce some of the earliest American war heroes. In the absence of news correspondents, and the far-reaching means the press has today, the accounts of the war were given by the people…
"Studs Terkel's: The Good ar
In The Good ar Terkel presents the compelling, the bad, and the ugly memories of orld ar II from a view of forty years of after the events. No matter how horrendous the recollections are, comparatively only a few of the interviewees said that if the adventure never happened that they would be better off. It was a lively and determinative involvement in their lives. Even though 400,000 Americans died, the United States itself was not assaulted again after Pearl Harbor, the economy did begin to develop and there was a fresh contemporary feeling of humanity power that revitalized the nation.
A lot of women and Black Americans faced new liberties in the post war nation, but happy life following orld ar II was stained by the danger of the could be nuclear. Studs Terkel interviewed over 120 people by inquiring them to tell…
Terkel, S. (1997). The Good War: An Oral History of World War II. Boston: New Press.
"Executive order 9066" Franklin Delano Roosevelt. February 19, 1942. accessed from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=74#
Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, Personal Justice
Denied. (Washington, D.C.: The Civil Liberties Public Education Fund, 1997),
war on Iraq, and considers whether U.S. policy towards Iraq can prevail, through an analysis of eight facets of this policy: international trade; weapons of mass destruction; democratization; the war against tyranny vs. The grab for oil; the "shock and awe" tactics used at the beginning of the war; the U.S. occupation vs. liberation; whether the new government of Iraq will be Iraqi run or whether Iraq will become a puppet state; and, Operation Iraqi Freedom. The analysis is performed by means of an in-depth literature review, with relevant statistical support, where necessary. It is found that the war on Iraq was founded on false premises, and that the current U.S. policy towards Iraq is not sustainable for the Iraqi people nor for the honour of the U.S. government.
The war on Iraq (which some people would argue was an illegal invasion on Iraq, as it happened without regard…
Iraq War- Why America Should Have Never Gone to War
With human rights violation reaching its peak in Iraq and with pictures of Iraqi prisoners proving that U.S. soldiers are committing worst possible war crimes, every American is facing a dilemma: should we support the government or should we not. Everyone is asking the same question, what is America's point for continuing war in Iraq? Does America need to be in Iraq, should it have launched the military attack in the first, Is America really a champion of democracy or simply another terrorist state looking for ways to terrorize weaker nations? These are the questions that are bothering every thinking soul in the world and especially in America where public opinion is sharply divided on the issue of war. Any person with even the slightest degree of humanity left in him would want America to immediately pull out its troops…
Susan Page, Convergence of factors raises costs of Iraq war; As images erode U.S. credibility, analysts watch for tipping points in opinion, USA Today; 5/13/2004;
Siddioi, Moin, Pros & Cons of 'Gulf War II'. (View from the City). African Business; 2/1/2003;
JAMES TOEDTMAN. CHIEF ECONOMIC CORRESPONDENT, HIGH COST OF IRAQ WAR White House seeks extra $25B Newsday; 5/13/2004;
Prisoner mistreatment exposes U.S. double standard in human rights, XINHUA, (China); 5/11/2004
The Seven Years War saw Britain established as the greatest colonial power, with control over India and North America seemingly secured, while Prussia emerged as the greatest power on the Continent, and the dominant force inside Germany, reducing still further the power of the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg Austria. Frederick II of Prussia (the Great) emerges as the most remarkable leader of the war. Prussia was the smallest of the main combatants, and yet Frederick survived year after year of campaigning, and despite coming near to defeat he emerged triumphant (Richard).
Histories of the American Revolution tend to start in 1763, the end of the Seven-Year's War, a worldwide struggle for empire that pitted France against England in North America, Europe, and Asia. Fred Anderson, who teaches history at the University of Colorado, takes the story back a decade and explains the significance of the conflict in American history.…
Sociologists do not see war as something humanity is genetically programmed to do, but the result of social forces. Why do they believe this? What is the evidence? If war is not caused by biology, what are some of the social forces that sociologists argue have contributed to it? Illustrate your points with concrete examples from the readings.
According to Howard Zinn, there is no evidence that human beings are innately predisposed to war, biologically or sociologically. War is generated by the actions of governments, not individuals. Zinn justifies his contention by the fact that citizens must be urged through propaganda and monetary rewards to die for the state. This shows that all wars are innately unnatural and totalitarian, given that the state demands that citizens act against their personal interests, such as living to see their children grow up, to die for an abstract concept such as 'national security.'…
The play continues in a similarly tragic manner as all the children are shot without having any real guilt to defend themselves against. The play ends symbolically with Mother Courage pulling the cart in which there are now fewer supplies and no children, an overwhelming imagistic that the war practically takes away everything you have dear and leaves you empty.
While recht's play is very direct and uses a lot of imagery in order to describe the tragedy of Europe during the war, Montaigne uses, in fact, a parallel analogy by describing, in fact, the cannibals and wars in that society. His description of the devastation of wars in Europe during his time (Montaigne dies at the end of the 16th century, so he is not able to live and describe the Thirty Years War) are in fact comparisons of wars in another society.
According to his work "Of Cannibals,"…
1. Bertolt Brecht: Collected Plays, vol. 5. Vintage Books, 1972
2. de Montaigne, Michel. On Cannibals.1580. On the Internet at http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~wldciv/world_civ_reader/world_civ_reader_2/montaigne.html. Last retrieved on June 21, 2009
S. security, but on international security.
Source #7 from Google: owman, Karlyn, U.S. public opinion and the terrorist threat, June 6, 2006, available at http://www.aei.org/publications/filter.all, pubID.24492/pub_detail.asp.
Source evaluation: The article provides a well-documented insight into the public opinion in U.S. regarding the war in Iraq.
Source #8 from Google: Diminished Public Appetite for Military Force and Mideast Oil
Five Years Later..., released on September 6, 2006, available at http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=288.
Source evaluation: An article based on opinion polls regarding the people's opinion towards the war in Iraq.
Source #9: Gunaratna, Rohan, the Terrorist Threat Five years after 9-11, September 22, 2006, available at http://www.researchsea.com/html/article.php/aid/1031/cid/6?PHPSESSID=0f987fb38af332abab79864390a755c4.
Source evaluation: The article deals with the terrorist organization al-Qaeda and the changes in this field brought by the war in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Source #10 from Google: Layne, Christopher, No adult supervision, November 23, 2004, available at http://www.realisticforeignpolicy.org/archives/2004/11/index.php.
Source evaluation: The article is analyzing the decision-making…
Mazzetti, Mark, Spy Agencies Say Iraq War Worsens Terrorism Threat, published on September 24, 2006, available at http://www.nytimes.com /2006/09/24/world/middleeast/24terror.html?ex=1316750400&en=da252be85d1b39fa&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss;
Mueller, John, Is There Still a Terrorist Threat?: The Myth of the Omnipresent Enemy, from Foreign Affairs, September/October 2006, available at http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20060901facomment85501/john-mueller/is-there-still-a-terrorist-threat.html;
Fletcher, Michael a., Bush warns of enduring terror threat, September 6, 2006, available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article /2006/09/05/AR2006090500312.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Society answer is to throw them back behind bars for even the smallest infraction of the law. This is why examining the policies for drug crimes needs to be carefully examined. There is no one size fits all in these situations and each needs to be judge separately.
Some say that the mandatory minimum sentences for illegal drug offences is fair while critics say that these sentences are too harsh, especially for first time offenders whose crimes are of low severity. Proponents say that if the sentences are too lenient it has the effect of increasing the crime rate (Thompson, 1998). Again, each case needs to be looked at on an individual basis. The severity of the crime as well as the perpetrators past record should play a large factor in the punishment handed down. Also, rehabilitation efforts should play a factor in the sentencing. Instead of putting these individuals…
Bobo, L. And Thompson, V. (2006). Unfair by design: The war on drugs, race and the legitimacy of the criminal justice system. Social Research, 73(2), 445-472.
Hemmens, C., & Walsh, a. (2010). The Law and Social Control. Law, Justice, and Society: A Sociolegal Introduction (2 ed., pp. 211-240). New York: Oxford University Press, USA.
Pettit, B. And Western, B. (2004). Mass imprisonment and the life course: Race and class inequality in U.S. incarceration. American Sociological Review, 69(2), 151-169.
Thompson, S.P. (1998). Which policies are working in the war on drugs? The war on drugs: Opposing viewpoints (pp. 102-141). San Diego, Calif.: Greenhaven Press.
ar and Occupation: The Effects of the U.S. Occupation on Japan's Government and Politics
The recent change in the American foreign policy direction which has seen the replacement of its traditional anti-colonialist tilt by the neo-conservative belief of guided nation building evokes a lot of interest in the history of United State's occupation of post world war II Japan. Although each such occupation is different -- the political, social and cultural environment as well as the historical context of every war and country being different-- it is interesting to study how the Americans handled the re-building of Japan in the post-orld ar II period.
There is no doubt that the United State government's influence in shaping the future of Japan was overwhelming. In fact it would not be wrong to state that Japan's current political and economic status as a first world power is a direct result of the guiding…
Bell, P.M.H. "The World Since 1945: An International History.": New York: Oxford University Press, 2001
Dower, John W. "Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II." New York: Norton/Free Press:, 1999
Dower, John W. "Why Iraq is not Japan." Mercury News. Apr. 27, 2003. July 2, 2003. http://www.bayarea.com/mld/mercurynews/news/editorial/5728557.htm?template=contentModules/printstory.jsp
Gordon, Bill. "The Allied Occupation of Japan." May 2000. July 2, 2003 http://wgordon.web.wesleyan.edu/papers/alliedoc.htm
War has shown its ugly side many times throughout the ages. As people have seen through battles, the casualties can be devastating. People lose families, lose their livelihoods, lose their dignity, and lose their homes when they are amidst war. The stories and the personal experiences of non-combatants are often shown to shed light on the brutality and violence that exists in war. Soldiers rape women and kill men. They set fires to entire villages and thousands of children are either left dead, raped, or orphaned. This essay is meant to shed light on the effects of war on non-combatants.
John Keegan, in his book, explains the views of war and the way people may have a particular perspective on combat and the various classifications of people during a war. The friend is the ally who helps or comes to aid. The enemy is the person that needs to die…
Anny Politzer, 'Der heimkehrende Krieger' ['The Returning Soldier']
Bartell, L.S. True Stories Of Strange Events And Odd People. iUniverse, 2014.
Carlson, John. 'War On Behalf Of Noncombatants'. Isme.Tamu.Edu. Last modified 2015. Accessed April 8, 2015. http://isme.tamu.edu/JSCOPE04/Carlson04.html#_edn1 .
Keegan, John. The Face Of Battle. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1978.
Ethics of Prisoner Experiments
Prior to the medical trial at Nuremberg physicians and scientists were largely free to conduct experiments on unsuspecting persons (Freyhofer, 2004, p. 9-10), including inmates inside America's prisons. When it was discovered that German physicians had been conducting inhumane experiments on death camp and concentration camp prisoners during WWII, the world was shocked that doctors were capable of such behavior. The American Military Tribunal in Nuremberg heard arguments from both the defense and prosecution for twenty three doctors and administrators accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity. The defense argued that the doctors' conduct was not a significant departure from past practices and any inhumanity was more a function of the ongoing hostilities. The judges on the tribunal saw it differently and created ethical guidelines for medical researchers, because the evidence presented in court revealed the Hippocratic Oath could not protect patients and…
Freyhofer, Horst A. (2004). The Nuremberg Medical Trial: The Holocaust and the Origin of the Nuremberg Medical Code: Vol. 53. Studies in Modern European History. New York: Peter Lang.
HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). (2005). The Nuremberg Code. HHS.gov. Retrieved 4 Sep. 2013 from http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/archive/nurcode.html .
Hornblum, Allen M. (1998). Acres of Skin. Human Experiments at Holmesburg Prison. A True Story of Abuse and Exploitation in the Name of Medical Science. New York: Rutledge.
Lerner, Barron H. (2007). Subjects or objects? Prisoners and human experimentation. New England Journal of Medicine, 356(18), 1806-1807.
Ethical treatment of prisoners is a complex question, involving the nature of the prison system in the U.S. And the nature of those incarcerated in it, as well as ethical obligations that individuals owe to society as well as those that society owes to those who are imprisoned. Deontological ethics might hold, for example, that those who have violated the law and the basic moral norms of society deserve to be punished but at the same time even those convicted and imprisoned have certain basic human rights. For example, they have the right to food, clothing, shelter and medical care, and cannot be tortured, abused or brutalized. Another problem from a deontological perspective would be to criticize a society where blacks and Hispanics are a minority of the population but also the majority of the prison population, including those on death row. Indeed, they are more likely to be profiled,…
Capital Punishment (2011). Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Prison Inmate Characteristics (2009). Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Proportionality in War
The principle of proportionality in war is something that is hotly contested and debated. How the principle could and should apply in terms of response to military action or aggression, the incidence or possibility of civilian casualties and other things are all considerations when it comes to proportionality in war. In general terms, the argument to be made is that there should be consistence between a strike and a counterstrike. Obviously, the idea is to win whatever conflict is at hand. However, there are limits to this approach. For example, responding to a cruise missile strike with a nuclear strike is obviously not going to fly. However, there are some times where proportionality is clouded and made difficult to figure out. At the very least, it can be controversial. The dual nuclear strike on Japan during World War II is one example. The manner in which the…
Brown, Davis. 2011. "PROPORTIONALITY IN MODERN JUST WAR THEORY: A TORT-BASED APPROACH." Journal Of Military Ethics 10, no. 3: 213-229. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).
Case Briefs. 2017. "Public Committee Against Torture V. State Of Israel | Case Briefs." Casebriefs.Com. http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/criminal-law/criminal-law-keyed-to-kadish/exculpation/public-committee-against-torture-v-state-of-israel/ .
"DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE - LAW OF WAR MANUAL." 2017. US Department Of Defense. http://archive.defense.gov/pubs/Law-of-War-Manual-June-2015.pdf .
Eberle, Christopher J. 2016. "Rights, Goods, and Proportionate War." Monist 99, no. 1: 70. MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).
break out of war in Afghanistan and Iraq propelled alarming forecasts about its most likely psychiatric effects. he chief of recuperation or readjustment therapy services at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) asserted that as high as 30% of soldiers deployed to Iraq may establish posttraumatic tension ailment (PSD) (Dentzer, 2003), a disorder that can arise following experience of gruesome, dangerous occasions, such as battle, natural catastrophes, and rape. PSD patients do not simply remember their injury; they reexperience it as vibrant sensory recollections (flashbacks), horror stories, and invasive ideas. hey feel reduced or small and mentally detached from the family, friends and loved ones, yet likewise stressful, cranky, and hyper-vigilant as if risk were permanently present.
Psychiatry ratified the PSD medical diagnosis in 1980, mainly in feedback to the belated awareness of its signs in Vietnam veterans whose troubles had actually long been improperly comprehended and dealt with. Undoubtedly,…
Trochim, W. (2006). The Research Methods Knowledge Base, 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: Atomic Dog Publishing.
Vogt, Dawne S.; Samper, Rita E.; King, Daniel W.; King, Lynda A.; Martin, James A. (2008). Deployment stressors and posttraumatic stress symptomatology: Comparing active duty and National Guard/Reserve personnel from Gulf War I. Journal of Traumatic Stress. Vol. 21 Issue 1, p66-74. 9p.
Yin, R.K. (2008) Case study research: design and methods. 4th ed. London: Sage Publication Inc.
Nursing & omen's Roles Pre-and-Post Civil ar
The student focusing on 19th century history in the United States in most cases studies the Civil ar and the causes that led to the war. But there are a number of very important aspects to 19th century American history that relate to women's roles, including nursing and volunteering to help the war wounded and others in need of care. This paper delves into the role nurses played in the Civil ar (both Caucasian and Black nurses), the way in which the Civil ar changed the woman's work roles, the role women (both Black and Caucasian) played before, during, and after the war, and the terrible injustices thrust on women of color in a number of instances throughout the 19th century.
The oman's role in America prior to the Civil ar
"A woman's work is never done," is an old maxim but it…
Brockett, Linus Pierpont, and Vaughan, Mary C. (1867). Woman's Work in the Civil War: A
Record of Heroism, Patriotism and Patience. Chicago, IL: Zeigler, McCurdy & Co.
Child, Lydia. (1837). The Family Nurse [or] Companion of the American Frugal Housewife.
Bedford, MA: Applewood Books (originally published by Charles Hendee in Boston).
" Both of these statements are quite arguably true, yet both also smack of the immature self-assuredness that belies the innocence of the speaker, and it is this aspect of the girl -- her very pretensions to adulthood that, in effect, render her a more honest adult than most real adults -- that the narrator of the story seems to find the most interesting and appealing. As the girl is only beginning to glimpse the lack of innocence that accompanies growing up, and appears to be enjoying it, the narrator is able to travel the reverse course and rediscover an innocence thought lost.
This rediscovery happens in a far more direct way at the end of the story, when the narration has switched primarily to a third person, until Sergeant X -- who is obviously embittered, somewhat shattered, and generally disconnected from his life -- receives a letter form Esme.…
Eger, Christopher. "The Military Service of J.D. Salinger." Accessed April 2010. http://ww2history.suite101.com/article.cfm/the-military-service-of-jd-salinger
Salinger, J.D. "A Perfect Day for Bananafish." In Nine Stories. New York: Little, Brown, & Co., 1991.
Salinger, J.D. "For Esme -- With Love and Squalor." In Nine Stories. New York: Little, Brown, & Co., 1991.
Salinger, J.D. Franny and Zooey. New York: Back Bay Books, 2001.
This aspect of the war is paralyzing because we see the hopelessness of it all. Kantorek and his ilk will never know what the soldiers deal with on the field and this fact becomes cruel in its own way. They are not iron youth; they are fearful youth with everything in their futures to lose.
The brutality of war goes beyond what a soldier sees and experiences. Eventually, it begins to affect his mind and his heart. Soldiers too long on the battlefield grow hardened toward the war and death. This emerges in the trenches when Baumer says, "Chance makes us indifferent" (101). Life or death hangs in the balance every day for these soldiers and they can only face the unpredictable ways of war with apathy. The destruction of life is no longer shocking in the trenches. hile the still, small human voice in Baumer's head tells him he…
Remarque, Erich Maria. All Quiet on the Western Front. New York: Fawcett Crest Books. 1958.
Nixon and the Legacy of the War in Vietnam
Nixon & Vietnam
President ichard Nixon set out policy goals for the conflict in Vietnam in a speech to the nation on November 3, 1969. At the time the country was deeply divided over the question of our presence in the region. In this speech Nixon claimed a nation cannot remain great if it betrays its allies and down its friends and that a unilateral withdrawal of all United States forces would humiliate our nation and promote recklessness in the councils of those great powers who have not yet abandoned their goals of world conquest and spark violence wherever the nations commitments helped to keep the peace. A withdrawal of American forces would in the final analysis cost more lives and not bring peace, but more war. Nixon asserted that for these reasons he would not end the war…
Kerry, J. (1971, April 22). Vietnam war veteran John Kerry's testimony before the senate foreign relations committee, April 22, 1971. Ernest Bolt (Ed.). University of Richmond, Online ACS Course Fall 1999. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from https://facultystaff.richmond.edu/~ebolt/history398/JohnKerryTestimony.html
Nixon, R. (1969, November 3). Nixon's 'silent majority' speech. Watergate.info Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://watergate.info/1969/11/03/nixons-silent-majority-speech.html
Nixon, R. (1973, January 23). Nixon's 'peace with honor' broadcast on Vietnam. Watergate.info Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://watergate.info/1973/01/23/nixon-peace-with-honor-broadcast.html
America's wars have historically been a reflection of America's very own cultural tendencies; they're usually enormous in scale, they traditionally consist of a colorful variety of fronts and they are most often regarded as a man's game. So it doesn't strike one as peculiar, perhaps, that the perpetually striking images of Vietnam are of camouflaged nineteen-year-old men enduring the graces and horrors hosted by Southeast Asia during the skirmish that lasted over a decade. It may seem more peculiar, however, when one considers that more than 15,000 women relocated from their American homes to the perilous, jungle canopied land. Vietnam's legacy of physical handicapping, psychological desecration and cultural rifting echoes in an innumerable collection of films, books, publications, organizations and documentation detailing the heroics, trials and disgraces of a generation of men. But the women that this nation sent off to serve in a countless number of indispensable capacities have…
2. Evans, Barbara. Caduceus in Saigon: A Medical Mission to South Viet-Nam. London: Hutchinson, 1968.
3. Youngstrom-Diebolt, Jean. Keynote Address. Women's Memorial. Austin, TX. 1993.
4. Wilson, Captain Barbara A. Vietnam Southeast Asia. Military Women in Vietnam, 1996.
Early 20th century saw the outbreak of a deadly mysterious disease, pellagra that could cause anything from fever to dementia to death. The disease that had killed over 100,000 people by the end of 1914 was shrouded in deep mystery because of the fact that the epidemic was largely limited to the South and was exclusively affecting the peasant class. It was indeed a poor man's disease and conventional wisdom suggested it had something to do with sanitary conditions.
"Pellagra, a classic dietary deficiency disease caused by insufficient niacin, was noted in the South after the Civil War. Then considered infectious, it was known as the disease of the four Ds: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and death. The first outbreak was reported in 1907. In 1909, more than 1000 cases were estimated based on reports from 13 states. One year later, approximately 3000 cases were suspected nationwide based on…
1. Etheridge EW. The Butterfly Caste: A Social History of Pellagra in the South. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Company; 1972.
2. Harkness Jon M. Prisoners and pellagra, Public Health Reports; 9/1/1996;
3. Kraut, A.M. 2003. Goldberger's war: the life and work of a public health crusader. Hill and Wang. New York, New York, USA.
4. Roth, J. Goldberger's war:The life and work of a public health crusader -- Journal of Clinical Investigation 113 (5):650 2004
Her involvement finally earned her the Medal of Honor, and enduring gratitude for her contribution as a physician to the war effort.
Probably one of the most famous women who worked during the Civil War was Clara Harlowe Barton. Barton was a nurse during the war, who at first simply stockpiled medical supplies and food that she knew the soldiers would need, and later took her supplies into the field where they were most needed. One historian wrote of her right after the war ended, "Her devotion to her work has been remarkable, and her organizing abilities are unsurpassed among her own sex and equaled by very few among the other" (Brockett and Bellows 132). Later, her work in the field and her stockpiling of supplies in warehouses became known as the "Sanitary Commission," which eventually evolved into the worldwide humanitarian organization known as the ed Cross. Clara Barton worked…
Brockett, L.P., and Henry W. Bellows. Woman's Work in the Civil War: A Record of Heroism, Patriotism and Patience. Ed. Mary C. Vaughan. Philadelphia: Zeigler, McCurdy, 1867.
Dumene, Joanne E. "A Woman's Military Service as 'Albert Cashier'." The Washington Times 7 Dec. 2002: B03.
Faust, Drew Gilpin. Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
Johnson, Kellie. "Mary Edwards Walker, Pauline Cushman, Emeline Pigott, and Elizabeth Van Lew." University of San Diego. 20 Nov. 2002. 20 Dec. 2004. http://www.sandiego.edu/~kelliej/women.html
It is estimated that between 1900 and 1967, there were 526 civil wars called throughout the world (Civil pp). Today, there are literally dozens of wars going on around the globe, and dozens more that have ended during recent years, such as the civil wars in Guatemala and Tajikistan.
According to Christopher Cramer, most literature concerning civil wars has highlighted the role of political instability in the relationship between growth and inequality (Cramer pp). Although there are interlinkages between distribution, conflict and growth, these interlinkages are complex and cannot be read off or predicted from any convincing repeated empirical relationship between variables that are often loaded with too much and unclear meaning (Cramer pp). Cramer takes the title to his article, "Civil ar is Not a Stupid Thing: Exploring Growth, Distribution and Conflict Linkages" from a short story by Sicilian writer, Leonardo Sciascia, about a Sicilian dragooned into…
"Civil Wars Throughout the World."
Cramer, Christopher. "Civil War is Not a Stupid Thing: exploring growth, distribution and conflict linkages."
http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:N00ZR7tRHzsJ:mercury.soas.ac.uk/economics/workpap/adobe/wp73.pdf+countries+that+have+had+civil+wars& ; hl=en
World War II, which took place from 1939-1945, was waged by the Allied Nations as a struggle for freedom against the evil and totalitarian regimes that existed in Germany, Italy and Japan.
Leaders of the War
There were several leaders that made decisions that contributed to the start and end of WWII. Adolf Hitler, who became the leader of Germany during the Great Depression, is blamed for WWII. He raised German spirits by telling them of a better future and a better Germany. ut in reality, he gave them a war. Hitler planned to expand Germany by taking Austria, Poland, and many other countries. He believed that German people were superior to the rest of the world and wanted everyone to prove this. (Keegan)
efore Hitler, the spirit and nationalism of the German people was very low, but he was able to get the German people to take pride in…
Keegan, John. The Second World War. Penguin Books, 1989.
Allen, Thomas. World War II: The Encyclopedia of the War Years, 1941-1945. Random House, Inc., 1996.
A.J.P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War. Atheneum, 1983.
John Keegan. The Face of Battle. Penguin Books, 1987.
orld ar II broke out, Russia was not prepared, nor did she manage to be the military threat she could have been, because the nation was weakened by lack of industrialization, the defeat by Japan in 1905, and a lack of support by the people for involvement in this new war. hat seems clear is that Russia was not prepared when the war began and had to work to muster its army, provide war materials, and protect its own territory against the German advance. The fact that Germany was indeed stopped cold in Russia shows how well the Russians did their job, but the issue is why they did not do what they could before the war started given that the whole world could see war coming long before it reached Russia. More recently, though, the question of unpreparedness has been given a new look, and a new theory of…
McTaggart, Pat. "Winter Tempest in Stalingrad." World War II 12(4)(November 1997), 30-36.
Raack, R.C. "Stalin's Role in the Coming of World War II: Opening the Closet Door on a Key Chapter of Recent History." World Affairs 158(4)(1996), 198-211.
Taylor, a.J.P. The Origins of the Second World War. New York: Athenaeum, 1985.
Tucker, Robert C. Stalin in Power. New York: W.W. Norton, 1990.
Gulf War of 1991. The writer explores the history, the cause, and the war itself. The writer uses several sources to illustrate what the U.S. government bas dints decision to go to war on and how well received that decision was by the American public.
As the U.S. gears up for a probable attack on Iraq American minds turn back the hands of time to 1991 and the Gulf War. The war became nicknamed "Desert Storm" and that is exactly what it turned out to be. A storm that raged across the desert with such force it quelled any hope of defense from the Iraqi Army. Desert Storm was one of the shortest wars in history but it showed the world that the U.S. has not become a complacent party to wrongs committed by others. It demonstrated the strength and veracity by which America is capable of flexing its power…
Cary, Peter, Duffy, Brian (1992). A Desert Storm accounting., U.S. News & World Report, 03-16-1992, pp. 35-37.
Duffy, Brian (1993). Saddam Hussein: The Energizer bully., U.S. News & World Report, pp p. 58.
Duffy, Brian. (1992)The ground war., U.S. News & World Report, 01-20-1992, pp. 51-56.
Author not available (1992). The untold history of the war., U.S. News & World Report, pp p. 8.
Just War" Theory
The idea of a 'just war' is a conundrum. How can one group of people consider their actions 'right' or 'just' to apply military force against an another group. When can one group's actions, which will create devastation, economic difficulty, and death to thousands of people, be considered 'right?' In a civilized society, the concept of a 'just war' has become the centerpiece of many discussions, and has acted as a gate keeper, restraining hawkish tendencies of nations who pride themselves in freedom, and individual liberty. In order for a nation to engage in an activity which creates harm for another group, there must be a justifiable reason.
Just-war theory deals with the justification of how wars are fought, and attempts to give answers for why. Often the justification is based in either theoretical (ethical arguments) or in long standing historical hostilities between peoples. The theoretical aspect…
Arner, L. History Lessons from the End of Time: Gower and the English Rising of 1381. CLIO, Vol. 31, 2002
Augustine, The City of God (New York: Random House, 1950), Books 1, 3, and 4.
Holy Bible, King James Editions. Philadephia: WW Kirkbride and Co.1969.
Mosely, Alex. Just War Theory. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed 30 March 2004. Website: http://www.iep.utm.edu/j/justwar.htm
Great ar in American history does not signify any greatness for the disastrous affects it left behind. The aftermath of the civil war had been damaging for the Americans, which resulted in their rebuking the African-Americans, with a biased attitude towards their slavery. The book 'A lesson before Dying' emphasis on such a community, where the outcome of the wars were still hanging on their shoulders, yet it was becoming more difficult for the blacks to sanctify their identities. Leaving a young boy's life in danger, when he's unjustly announced with the death sentence. hile ' Snow Falling in Cedars' brings out the Japanese-Americans and their hardships while they try to live discreetly around coastal environment. It shows the side after orld ar II, when Japanese were taken into the concentration camps and even after they were released they had to fight a battle with the same people they had…
Gaines, J. Earnest, A Lesson Before Dying, Vintage Books, 28th (Sept 1997)
Gutterson, David, Snow Falling in Cedars, Random House 1st (Aug 1998)
The African-American: A Journey From Slavery to Freedom, C.W Post Campus
Available at: http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/aaslavry.htm#civil
Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality
The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the Second World War, and again in the new circumstances confronting the world in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. Novel establishments have been formed, old ones have withered away and an equally enormous quantity of intellectual writing has studied this, which is debatably the most significant sphere of international law. Any discussion on the lawful use of armed force ought to start with the United Nations Charter. The Charter redefined understanding of the legitimacy of the application of force by outlining situations under which it is allowed.1
The guiding theory of the Charter is affirmed in its Preamble that armed forces should not be used except in the general interest. Article 2(4) of the Charter preserves this…
Bailey, Sydney D. Four Arab-Israeli Wars and the Peace Process. Palgrave: Macmillan, 1990
Barber, Benjamin. Fear's Empire: War, Terrorism and Democracy. W.W. Norton and Company, 2003
Barton, F.D; Crocker, B. Winning the Peace in Iraq. Washington Quarterly Volume: 26, Number: 2. Spring 2003, pp. 7-22.
Bijl, Nick van der. Nine Battles to Stanley. Pen and Sword Books, 1999
American Way of War
The history of the American Way of War is a transitional one, as Weigley shows in his landmark work of the same name. The strategy of war went from, under Washington, a small scale, elude and survive set of tactics practiced by what seem today to be relatively "quaint" militias, to -- in the 20th century -- a full-scale operation known as "total war." True, "total war" was not a concept invented by the Americans in the 20th century. The North eventually practiced "total war" against the Confederates when Sherman's campaign left utter destruction of civilian territory in its wake. The ancient Romans practiced it when, under the direction of Cato, they destroyed Carthage because its mere existence, they felt, posed a threat to their prosperity. In the 20th century, however, "total war" received an enormous boost of technical support when the inventors of the atom…
Butler, Smedley. War is a Racket. LA: Feral House, 2003.
Chollet, Derek and James Goldgeier. America Between the Wars. NY: Public Affairs,
Debs, Eugene. "Anti-War Speech," 16 June 1918. Web.
Rather, the Union argues, Washington was ill-informed in its preparations for the campaign. Furthermore, the paper condemns Washington for seeking to force the removal of the Modocs from their native country in which they co-exist successfully with the whites.
Another example of the paper being protective of the military occurs on January 10, 1873, when the army was having little success flushing the Indians out of 'Lava Bed.' The Army cavalry was made to retreat after an attempted advance. The Union described this failed mission in a five sentence article. The last sentence of the article noted that the Army was expecting the arrival of Howitzer guns the following week. The title of the article, did not reference the failed offensive, but instead read was The Modoc War- The Howitzers Coming.
Most of the articles give daily updates as to the war. If there was any combat the previous day,…
"The Modocs: A Blundering War," Sacramento Daily Union, May 12, 1873
"Massacre of Modoc Prisoners," Sacramento Daily Union, June 10, 1873
"The Modocs," Sacramento Daily Union, June 6, 1873
France paid a high price for this conflict, and the conditions demanded by the Germans were harsh (Franco). France lost Alsace and Lorraine and were forced to pay 5 billion Gold Francs in reparations (Franco). Germany entered the conflict with a total of 797,500 men, against France's 935,960 troops (Franco). France lost 150,000 men, while Germany lost only 44,000 (Franco). To add further humiliation, Bismarck insisted that France allow a German triumphal march down the Champs Elysees (Siege).
hile the Franco-Prussian ar was a war declared, it was essentially a 6-month conflict. Although the French outnumbered the Germans, they were careless and underestimated the Germans' military tactics and strategies. Emperor Napoleon III had basically played right into Bismarck's hands. Napoleon lost his power and reign, while Bismarck achieved exactly what he had set out to do, unite Germany.
The aftermath of the Franco-Prussian ar generated considerable apprehension throughout Europe concerning…
The Franco-German War 1870/71. The History of Warfare. Retrieved November 30, 2006 at http://www.zum.de/whkmla/military/19cen/francoger.html
Paris, Michael. (1993 June 01). Fear of flying: the fiction of war 1886-1916.
History Today. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Siege of Paris: 1879 Franco-Prussian War. Paris Annals. Retrieved November 30, 2006 at http://home.eckerd.edu/~oberhot/paris/paris-1870.htm
" The rebel army thought nothing of stealing food and good drinking water from the citizens of Vicksburg. The rebel army authorities put 100 men in charge of securing homes and lives, but "over seventy-five of the men selected" for the policing duty were Creoles who spoke little or no English, and the troops pretty much took what they wanted. Many people became refugees and moved into tent cities outside the range of the Union guns. "There was something tangible about stealing a pig or helping oneself to a buck of water," alker explained on page 123.
Prices for food and other necessary items went through the roof during the build-up to the battle. Brandy was $40 a gallon on December 3; on December 29, "when Sherman was knocking on the gates of the city," brandy went up to $60 a gallon (p. 128). On December 20, the Vicksburg City…
Arnold, James R. Grant Wins the War: Decision at Vicksburg. New York: John Wiley & Sons,
Confederate Military History, Vol. 7, Chapter IX. "The Vicksburg Campaign." The Siege of Vicksburg (May 18 - July 4, 1863). Retrieved 23 Nov. At http://www.civilwarhome.com/siegeofvicksburg.htm .
Faust, Patricia L. "The Battle of Vicksburg." Historical Times Encyclopedia of the Civil War. Retrieved 20 Nov. 2006 at http://www.civilwarhome.com/battleofvicksburg.htm .
Grant, Ulysses S. "The Vicksburg Campaign." The Siege of Vicksburg. Retrieved 22 Nov. 2006 at
" Du Fu, of course, is speaking of the An Lushan Rebellion, which was not put down for nearly a decade in mid-eighth century China.
Emperor u's wars have essentially decimated the land. The lands are barren -- in more ways than one. The consequences of war are numerous: the men are gone, so in villages where couples should normally be uniting and having children, no children are had. The image Du Fu uses is of stark fields where "nothing grows but weeds," but the image could easily be construed as being representative of the lack of new life in the "two hundred districts / And in thousands of villages."
The next image Du Fu employs is one of heartbreaking sorrow: "and though strong women have bent to the ploughing, / East and west the furrows are all broken down." Du Fu's image is akin to the ballads of Ireland,…
Du Fu. "Song of War Chariots." Web. 24 May 2011.
"Heroes or Bandits! " 2008. Web. 24 May 2011.
Cause lead world war.
In spite of the fact that it happened almost a century ago, the First orld ar continues to intrigue people as a consequence of the forces involved in it, as a result of the catastrophic number of casualties, and generally because it demonstrates the fact that people are (or at least, they were) unhesitant about committing great crimes in order to impose their absurd thinking on others. It is difficult to determine whether the motives behind the war can be considered reasonable, especially given the fact that Europe had been in a state of turmoil years before the Austro-Hungarian heir, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, was assassinated.
One cannot simply consider causes when dealing with the reasons for which the First orld ar commenced. The conflict's causes alone are impossible to understand when given the numbers associated with it. "Some 61 million troops of 16 nations…
Bloch, Camille, The Causes of the World War An Historical Summary, trans. Jane Soames (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1935)
Higham, Robin and Showalter, Dennis E. eds., Researching World War I: A Handbook (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2003)
"World War I," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.
S. companies were anticipating (Meyer 2010). There have been very few oil profits from this war, which is another reason why the U.S. should not have gotten involved in it.
Moreover, the U.S. should not have gotten involved in the war in Iraq for the simple fact that the former committed several immoral acts during this armed conflict. hile one of the initial reasons for U.S. involvement in this belligerence was allegedly because of torture on the part of the previous Iraqi regime headed by Saddam Hussein, the U.S. has been implicated in several allegations that are remarkably similar, as the following quotation indicates.
…new leaked military documents…reveal how allied forces turned a blind eye to torture and murder of prisoners held by the Iraqi army. Reports of appalling treatment of detainees were verified by the U.S. army and deemed unworthy of further investigation. Responsibility for disciplinary action was passed…
No author. "The final reasons for going to war are being swept away." The Observer. 2010. Web. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2010/oct/24/editorial-iraq-atrocities-torture
Meyer, Cordula. "A Lot of Blood for Little Oil." Spiegel Online. 2010. Web. http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,732984,00.html
The terrorists responsible for 9/11 were not Iraqi
. The only reason for entering Iraq was the fact that there was a significant Al Qaeda base. The Iraqis themselves are the victims of their position amid the violence. In effect, they are paying for hostility and a war that is not theirs and that they have no involvement in. Perpetuating a war like this in a country that is essentially innocent is a gross violation not only of human rights, but also of ethics in general.
In conclusion, the worst part of the war in Iraq is probably its duration. Despite increasing public calls for a stop to the lack of ethical footing surrounding the war in Iraq, the American presence in the country has been ongoing for more than a decade under the premise of maintaining order and security
. However, since the start of the war, and even…
Cowan, Steven B. "The Ethics of War and the War in Iraq." Apologetics Resource Center. 9 November 2005. http://www.arcapologetics.org/articles/article04.htm 19 March 2012.
Rane, M.A. "The Iraq War -- the first Unlawful and Unethical War of the Third Millennium." International Humanist and Ethical Union, 4 November 2004. http://www.iheu.org/node/1177 19 March 2012.
M.A. Rane. "The Iraq War -- the first Unlawful and Unethical War of the Third Millennium." International Humanist and Ethical Union, 4 November 2004.
He knew that war was taking a horrible toll and that his side was losing and was bound to be defeated inevitably.
He had the practical first-hand knowledge of combat to make the correct, wise decision that saved countless thousands of lives. Would the same be possible today? It is highly unlikely. War, today, is highly theoretical: blips on a computer screen rather than blood on a knife, or at least visible detonations from a low-flying bomber.
Today's "captains of war" are so disconnected from the destruction they cause, one cannot help but wonder if the entire nature and principles of war have not changed forever.
Of course, nuclear weaponry has done its part in the shift. Today, man has the power to destroy his own planet hundreds of times over; until a few decades ago, man had immense destructive power, but it was limited in geography. For instance, America…
Lind, William S. "The Changing Face of War: Into the Fourth Generation." Marine Corps Gazette. October 1989.
Hallion, Richard. "Air Power and the Changing Nature of Warfare." JFQ. Autumn/Winter 1997/1998.
Changing Nature of Warfare." National Intelligence Council Report: May 25, 2004.
THE TWO FACES OF WAR
The basic and universal sentiment is that war assaults people's rights to life, security, subsistence, peace and liberty (Lacewing, 2012). Some contend, however, that war is just under certain conditions, which morally justify it. This Theory consists of three parts, namely the justice of resorting to war or jus ad bellum; just conduct in war or jus in bello; and justice at the end of war or jus post bellum. The justice basis of resorting to war is grounded on six criteria, which justify it. It has a just cause. It has the right intention. It is made through the proper authority. It is made as a last resort. It has a probability of success. And it has a proportionate response. Justice in war refers to the treatment of the enemy. There is justice if weapons prohibited by international law are…
Buell, J. (2002). Just war theory and the wars of the 20th century. Vol 11, Yale-New
Haven Teachers Institute. Retrieved on June 16, 2012 from http://www.yale-edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/2002/3/02.03.01.x.html
Chavez, F.B. III (2012). Legitimate use of military force. eHow: Demand Media, Inc.
Retrieved on June 16, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/facts_6869777_legitimate-use-military-force.html
Works on War
Boys, I've been where you are now and I know just how you feel. It's entirely natural that there should beat in the breast of every one of you a hope and desire that some day you can use the skill you have acquired here. Suppress it! You don't know the horrible aspects of war. I've been through two wars and I know. I've seen cities and homes in ashes. I've seen thousands of men lying on the ground, their dead faces looking up at the skies. I tell you, war is hell! -- General William ecumseh Sherman, 1880, to the cadets.
General Sherman truly says it all with his statement, "War is hell." Even if it is to protect one's country and its people, such as World War I or II, war still is the worst thing possible. he British poet Wilfred Owen strongly communicates this…
The novel also portrays how war impacts the basic needs of all humanity, such as food to eat. Starvation was not atypical of the Vietcong and the villagers, because many of the rice fields were lost through the bombing. The smallest amounts of horrendous tasting food, which do not even offer any nutrition, are worth gold. Early in the novel, Quan declines orangutan soup, where even the animal's hands are cooked. People steal and fight over food and use it as a means of barter.
Such stories are distasteful to everyone. The Vietnamese government even banned A Novel with No Name because of the "scathing dissection of the day-to-day realities of life for the Vietnamese during the final years of the Vietnam War." Apparently so much of the detailed material was brought to everyone's attention in this book, that Duong was arrested and jailed for seven months in 1991. Naturally, books such as this are just as difficult for Americans to read especially since the Vietnam War was very controversial and needlessly took so many lives on both sides.
How can one say which of these writers' works is more personally disturbing? Each war was so atrocious in its own way. Given the futility of the Vietnam War (which was not even a declared war) as well as the immense disrespect for the Geneva Convention and the treatment of prisoners of war and civilians, perhaps this was a greater hell. However, can there be one hell greater than another?
Louvigny returned to Quebec and was considered by Canadians to have ended the first Fox War. He returned to the area in 1717 to continue the policing of the Meskwaki forces, yet made little progress in making contact or forcing the provisions of the previous treaty. In later communication with the government, Meskwaki chiefs expressed their own desire for peace. During the period between 1714 and 1727, the French were able to reopen waterways and move freely throughout the areas previously hindered by the danger of Indian encounters. However, other communications between the French and the American Indians were failing. Among these, the greatest failure was the inability of the French to include the Indian groups in the agricultural settlements they had attempted, including the one at Detroit.
Though the city groups of Indians and white men did not last, the area remained secure enough for the French and Americans…
Edmunds, R. David, and Joseph L. Peyser. The Fox Wars: The Mesquakie Challenge to New France. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993.
Hagen, William Thomas. The Sac and Fox Indians. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1958.
Jones, George O, and Norman S. McVean. History of Wood County, Wisconsin. Publication details unknown, 1923, accessed 22 October 2006; available at http://www.scls.lib.wi.us/mcm/wood_county/ .
Kay, Jeanne. "The Fur Trade and Native American Population Growth." Ethnohistory 31, no. 4 (1984): 265-287.
Up until the point that the United States dropped the second atomic bomb on Japanese citizens, World War II was a just war. However, dropping the second bomb, perhaps even the first bomb, on innocent civilians, removed the war out of traditional rules of warfare and brought the world into a new phase of combat. Up until that time, the general rules of war prohibited using civilian targets. In fact, Germany was the first one to break this rule and this unjust act was one of the reasons the United States entered the war.
At the time the second bomb was dropped, the war ceased being just. However, after the bomb was dropped, new rules and regulations were created to accommodate this new face of war, therefore changing the rules of the game and thus the definition of a just war.
ailey, S. Prohibitions and Restraints in war. Oxford:…
Bailey, S. Prohibitions and Restraints in war. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972.
Childress, J. "Just War Theories." Theological Studies. 39 (1978), 427-45.
Martin, Glenn R. Prevailing Worldviews of Western Society Since 1500. New York: Triangle Publishing, 2006.
Frank Lambert's The Barbary ars: American Independence in the Atlantic orld is a look into a time when the United States was insignificant on the world stage; a time when the U.S. didn't even have a navy. The book literally begins with the tale of an American merchant ship named Betsey, which was captured by a band of Barbary pirates in November of 1784. The Crew, commanded by Captain James Erwin, were taken prisoner and held captive in the Moroccan port of Sale on the Atlantic coast. The newly independent United States of America was unable to act against this heinous act of piracy due to the fact that it had no navy. All naval ships authorized during the course of the Revolution had been sold off to help pay the expenses of the war. In 1784, the United States had no navy to speak of, and it's…
Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World. New York: Hill and Wang, 2005. Print.
American Civil ar [...] Civil ar event I would most like to eyewitness, and answer the questions: hy? hat would I have seen? ould participating in or seeing that event have made you a different person from the one you are today? If so, how? The Civil ar event I have chosen is the surrender at Appomattox courthouse.
The Civil ar ended nearly where it began, at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia, on April 9, 1865. I have chosen this event not because of the defeat of the South, but because it was the meeting of two great generals, and marked the end of a war that had torn the country apart. I believe the occasion was not only historically important, but also important in that it was an end to the bloodshed, and a stepping-stone to peace. hile a few Confederate forces continued to fight after the surrender, the war…
Author not Available. "Surrender at Appomattox, 1865." EyeWitness. 1997. http://www.ibiscom.com/appomatx.htm
Lowenfels, Walter, ed. Walt Whitman's Civil War. New York: Knopf, 1961.
Norton, Mary Beth. A People and a Nation- A History of the United States. (Volume A: To 1877), (fifth edition) Chapter 15. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1996.
Oates, Stephen. Portrait of America. (Vol. 1: to 1877.) Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1999 (Chapter 28).
Gypsies during World War II [...] treatment of the Gypsies by the Nazi in World War II, concentrating on pre-war treatment, and treatment during the war, including the round up of the Gypsies as compared to the Jews. It will also describe what made a Gypsy and how they were rounded up and transferred to the concentration camps. The Gypsies of Europe lost thousands during the war in the concentration camps, but their history is full of persecution and hatred. Even today, many Europeans look down on the Gypsies. These people have suffered as much as the Jews at the hands of Hitler's Nazis, but their story is far less known.
Who were the Gypsies in Europe? The gypsies, broken into different tribes or bands, first appeared in Europe sometime in the fifteenth century. After studying their language, made up of dialects of Sanskrit, Persian, Kurdish, and Greek and called…
Browder, George C. Hitler's Enforcers: The Gestapo and the SS Security Service in the Nazi Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Crowe, David, ed. The Gypsies of Eastern Europe. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe, 1991.
Friedlander, Henry. The Origins of Nazi Genocide From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
Greenwald, Rachel T. "Genocide as a Category of Analysis." German Politics and Society 20.4 (2002): 151+.
The question then becomes, not is there an Adolf Eichmann in each person, for undoubtedly there is. The question becomes, how well can people discern the difference between ideals with which they agree, and those things that are immoral; and perhaps most importantly, how effectively can people decide to do that which is morally correct even when faced with such unpopular consequences as standing out from the crowd and siding against a popular government (Alford)?
Those who held opinions that were opposed to Eichmann's trial in Israel did not wait to be heard. One notable contemporary in particular believed that the methods undertaken to achieve the trial were questionable at best. In 1961, Victor Gollancz published a pamphlet on the very trial in question. It was a plea to abstain from executing Eichmann, but it touched on issues related to the motives surrounding the trial. The Israeli Prime Minister wanted…
Alford, C. Fred. "The Organization of Evil." Political Psychology 11.1 (1990): 5 -- 27.
Web. 30 Mar. 2010.
"Argentina Uncovers Eichmann Pass." BBC News. 29 May 2007. Web. 12 April 2010.
Browning, Christopher. The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish
Furthermore, while it established Canada as an independent
nation, it also established America. As a war over its previous colonizer,
America can be said to have won a second war of independence. This is
further reflected in considering President Madison's war message to
Congress. Madison appeals to the "honor" of his country, as if Britain has
violated it and it is America's responsibility to retain it (Madison,
1812). Although the war was fought primarily for economic reasons, the
"honor" Madison is referring to was regained during the war as Great
Britain was unable to dominate the United States. In fact, the United
States did more than a good job of fighting the British. Thus, it appears
that the war was fought somewhat over honor, and the United States
maintained their honor in the war. This means that the United States
established itself, and its pride, in the war, and this…
Feldmeth, Greg D. (31 March 1998). U.S. History Resources. Retrieved 3
March 2007 from
Harney, Major W. (1989). The Causes of the War of 1812. Retrieved 4 March