Presidential Election Essays Examples

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Presidential Campaign

Words: 1192 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96947597

Presidential Candidates on Education

Education is the backbone of human growth in all fields of lives, by that economy, society, morality or personal development. It is the answer or solution to all the problems encountered by an individual, society or a nation. Through the direct use of knowledge, an educated person can help himself and others around him to overcome obstacles, develop himself and reach his highest potential. Therefore, education has been among the highest priorities of nations all over the world. Education has been among primary goals of all governments that ever ruled America and it is reason of American's success and hegemony in the world.

Thus, the candidates of American Presidential elections have come up with scrupulously detailed plans on improving the quality of education for people of America.

John Kerry is the candidate of the Democratic Party. He plans to increase job opportunities, increase the access and improve the quality of health care facilities and education, strengthening economy, military and relationships with other nations. He has proven himself as of possessing leadership qualities and humanitarian feelings during and after Vietnam War and years as member of Senate.

Kerry believes that every school should aim for and have…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
1) "John Kerry on Education" Official Web Site: Retrieved on 10th October 2004:

2) "Transforming the Federal Role in Education" George Bush's Official Web Site: Retrieved on 10th October 2004:

3) "No Child Left Behind" Accessed 10th Oct 2004:
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Presidential Debate Between George W

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13396803

Going to the issue of the presidential debate itself, the ABC News report quotes representatives of the Republican and Democratic parties, where the latter calls Bush "...' great debater'... But wins match-ups on 'style not substance'..." The Republicans, on the other hand, considers Kerry a "seasoned debater" but tends to 'take' "more than one position on foreign policy issues."

Drawing from these observations from the ABC News report, both news coverage by the CNN and NY Times contain statistics from various polling agencies, which reflects the public's sentiment regarding the recently concluded first presidential debate. The CNN report cites the CNN/USA Today/Gallup poll of 615 registered American voters as its primary reference to statistics drawn from questions about the Presidential candidates' chance of winning the election after the first debate (, 2004). The special report states that 53% of the voters consider Kerry's debate as better than Bush's, although 54% of the voters still consider Bush as the candidate who "would be better as commander in chief." The NY Times report, similarly, shows that 51% of the voters consider Bush as a suitable leader when it comes to dealing with international crises. The poll, which was conducted by New York…… [Read More]

Kerry, Bush start debate preparations." September 26, 2004. ABC News web site. Accessed October 4, 2004. Available at

Poll: Kerry tops Bush in debate." October 2004. Cable News Network (CNN) web site. Accessed October 4, 2004. Available at .
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Poll Data to Help Predict Outcome of 2012 Presidential Race

Words: 823 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65293879

Presidential Election Poll Data 2012

National Poll Data: 2012 Presidential Election

We are waist deep into election season. Now is the time for frantic fundraising, polling, and campaigning. Recent polls show a lot about the political beliefs and behavior of upcoming American voters. Analyzing poll results can help forecast the next president of the United States. After examining three polls in particular, a strong prediction can be made showing now President Barack Obama as the next likely president of the United States.

One ongoing poll helps paint a very detailed picture of how the two candidates are fairing within the American presidential race of 2012. This was a detailed poll that is continuously producing numbers base don interviewing registered voters. It is being conducted by Gallup Politics. Beginning in April 2012, representatives from Gallup Politics have asked registered voters "Suppose the presidential election were held today, if Barack Obama were the Democratic Party's presidential candidate and Mitt Romney were the Publican Party's candidate, who would you vote for" (Gallup Politics 2012). Thus, the poll is examining registered voters and their favoring of the two candidates. Moreover, the poll aims to clarify undecided voter information as well. According to the poll,…… [Read More]

Elliott, Scott. (2012). Latest polls & pundit ratings changes. Election Projection. Web. Retrieved September 29, 2012 from 

Gallop Politics. (2012). Election 2012 Trial Heat. Obama vs. Romney among registered voters. Polls. Web. Retrieved September 29, 2012 from
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2004 Presidential Campaign

Words: 1124 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4389805

Presidential Candidates

The presidential elections are due this November and therefore the campaign by the candidates is in full swing. The two candidates, Senator John Kerry and the present President George W. Bush, have adopted various strategies and campaign styles that could possibly help them win majority's votes. Here, is a comparison of their campaign styles, statements, position on various issues and websites and how this all has affected their poll results.

John Kerry has been traveling around the country, giving speeches at different universities, cities, union meetings etc. The main aim of his campaign is to pinpoint the mistakes/blunders committed by the Bush Administration and how he plans to amend them. However, neither his official website nor his speeches mention any of his past successes as a Senator, which would guarantee people of his success as a President. Below are some of extracts from his speeches and plans.

One of most important steps taken by bush' administration, was attack on Iraq. According to Kerry "Today we know that the mission is not finished.... We're still bogged down in Iraq, and the administration stubbornly holds to failed, unilateral policies,." "What we have seen is a steady loss of lives and…… [Read More]

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Presidential Campaign the Current Political Campaign Has

Words: 2210 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27615267

Presidential Campaign

The current political campaign has been met with great controversy and division amongst the American People. On the one hand, we have an incumbent president that has led the country through the most tragic time in our history. On the other hand, we have his opponent that believes that more can be done to secure the country against terrorism and the war in Iraq. In addition, we will explore the position of Ralph Nader, a third party candidate. The purpose pf this discussion is to focus on the views that these three candidates have and draw some conclusions about how each candidate desires to help the country.


The problem of affordable healthcare is one of the main issues that will ship this election. Many Americans do not have any healthcare coverage and many others do not have the amount of health coverage that they need. In addition, many doctors especially obstetricians are deciding to abandon the healthcare field because malpractice insurance is too expensive. In the following paragraphs, we will describe where each candidate stands on the issue of healthcare and a shortage of highly specialized healthcare practitioners.

George W. Bush (Republican)

According to the president's official…… [Read More]

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Presidential Character by James Barber

Words: 1550 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63121539

He seems to draw easy causal connections between policy and personality that deny the exterior circumstances of history. For example, he suggests that Hoover's rigid personality made him unable to accept changes in classical economic theory during the beginning of the Great Depression, and to adopt a more Keynesian approach. Barber asserts that it was not the conventional wisdom of the time that hampered Hoover as much as his own character, despite the fact that few people really could assuredly state they had the 'answer' to the financial crisis at that time. The adaptive-negative aspects of Johnson's personality made that president similarly resistant to the idea of pulling out of Vietnam, and his egoism made him unwilling to be seen as 'losing' the war -- but what about the pressures of the Cold War during that era? Historians also might find some objection to Barber's psychoanalyzing so many major presidential decisions.

On the other hand, questions such as how active the candidate is in terms of managing style and whether or not he or she truly enjoys political life seem like reasonable questions. Barber's stress upon good humor and flexibility do seem to be mirrored in the personality and demeanor…… [Read More]

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Election Results - President Barak

Words: 403 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19690608

Joy at a victory is not particularly remarkable, but the volume -- in size and decibels -- of the crowd, and the length of time MSNBC devoted to its coverage, indicates more the kind of "all-in" trust that Hobbes describes than the support of the masses for a political candidate in a healthy democracy.

Hobbes goes on to say that an assembly of men speaking in one voice would also be possible. But an assembly of men can never truly have just one voice; this country is a giant assembly of men and women, with many voices, and differing opinions. To put this much trust in one man, however much he may appeal to one's sensibilities and political opinions, is a scary step away from democracy and towards something far less individual and more nebulous.

Works Cited

Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan, Chapter XVII of the Causes, Generation, and Definition of a Commonwealth.

Election Coverage. MSNBC. 4 November…… [Read More]

Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan, Chapter XVII of the Causes, Generation, and Definition of a Commonwealth.

Election Coverage. MSNBC. 4 November 2008.
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Presidential Studies the Transfer of

Words: 2836 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64032062

S. interests in that part of the world. Then, on January 17, 1991, the U.S. launched the first attack, with more than 4,000 bombing runs. After 100 hours, Bush called off the offensive, saying he wanted to minimize U.S. casualties.

Though Bush was criticized for this withdrawal being premature, the U.S. made a retreat from Kuwait after the successful offensive, and Bush's approval ratings reached new highs.

Bush announced in early 1992, that he would run again for President, and his reelection looked probable. However, higher taxes and uncontrolled economic problems brought his term to an end in 1992, and Bush lost to Bill Clinton. Bush was running as a conservative, but so were Ross Perot and Pat Buchanan (who ran against him for the Republican nomination).

In order to defeat Pat Buchanan's bid for the Republican nomination, Bush declared even more conservative stances. Though he defeated Pat Buchanan, Ross Perot eroded much of Bush's conservative base and the liberal Clinton easily won the election.

George H.W. Bush to William Clinton

Clinton presented an alternative to George H.W. Bush in that his image was one of a confident, knowledgeable and experienced liberal Democrat. The Clinton administration immediately set to work,…… [Read More]

Farnsworth, S.J. And Lichter, S.R. (2004), New presidents and network news: covering the first year in office of Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush, Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 34:3, 29 Jul 2004, 674.

Frye, T. (1999). Changes in Post-Communist Presidential Power: Political Economy Explanation. A paper prepared for Ohio State University. Retrieved November 19, 2008 at
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Presidential Address 1 5 Pages Requested My Fellow

Words: 487 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15856047

PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS (1.5 pages requested)

My fellow Americans, the past two years have been tremendously challenging for all of us, as well as for me personally as your president. Tonight, I feel that I have to address a specific problem that has emerged since my election and that I fear is undermining the integrity of the constitutional form of government upon which all of us rely to guarantee the effectiveness of this great democratic republic.

As you know, the two-party political system and the bicameral nature of the American Congress is designed to guard against the usurpation of power by any one political party or group. However, in the last two years, a disturbing pattern has emerged in which some of the safeguards expressly designed and built into this system have been misused very deliberately and systematically for the purpose of achieving purely political goals and at great expense to, rather than for the benefit of, the American people. Today, I would like to appeal humbly but sincerely to all of my fellow members of our government and to their supporters in the general public to reject this approach to national politics.

For the last two years, this nation has…… [Read More]

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Communications Media Coverage of Presidential

Words: 2440 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24687851

A candidate is "dumb" or, possibly, "dumber" than his opponent.

The assassination of a Basque politician by the Basque separatist group ETA on the very eve of the election, March 7th, threatened to again confound public opinion of the relative merits of the two major candidates. Ramon Cotarelo, a professor of political science at Madrid's Complutense University opined that public sympathy could swing to Zapatero because the assassinated man was a member of his party or, as the media also reported, "But it could go the other way.... People might say, 'iron fist. The Socialists are no good. Look, they negotiate and it does no good. You have to vote for the right.'"

The idea that public opinion is so easily swayed by last minute violence, or by emotional responses to such violence, is typical of much political thinking in the two countries. Time is not wasted on the real issues facing the nation because it is believed that these are not the things that genuinely concern voters. Rather, the appeal is to emotional appraisals of dramatic developments or, in the absence of these developments, emotional "gut" reactions to candidate's personalities, speeches, stances on minor points, etc.

Both the United…… [Read More]


Boehm, Christopher. Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.
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Civics- Presidential Campaign and State

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17574419

This relationship was shown to be very high, and this shows that there is a great link between the economic condition of the country and the outcome of the elections irrespective of the other factors that play a role in the election. (Erikson, 27)

The war in Iraq and the peoples dissatisfaction with the policy of war where the causalities of over a million was not welcomed by the people although it gave the incumbent Bush a better rating. Thus though the war was a drain on the resources it contributed to the sentiments of the voters which brought in a second term to Bush. The 2004 election is a pointer in this regard. The 2000 election had placed Bush in a position where the party and his popularity were strong. At the beginning of the millennium Bush became the President inheriting a very strong economy and growing commercialization following the new globalization. (Crotty, 111)

The economy was thus a favorable factor for Bush and coupled with the fact that he was the incumbent it aided in keeping him in the seat for the second term. However the 2004 elections showed that the democratic nominee Al Gore was popular and…… [Read More]

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Federal Campaign Contribution Laws for Presidential and Vice Presidential

Words: 915 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25458127

Federal Campaign Contributions

Over the last several years, this issue of campaign finance has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because the influences of the affluent and special interests in the field of politics have become more perverse. However, the issue of the involvement of special interests in elections has been a major challenge (with the founding fathers warning about how this is a threat to democracy). ("The Presidential Election")

Recently, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that limits placed on campaign contributions (i.e. soft money) are unconstitutional. This has opened the flood gates for many different groups to establish political action committees (PACs) that will provide unlimited donations to candidates. This is going directly against the very laws which are designed to limit the influence of the special interests. As, there is a patchwork of regulations that are not supported by: consistent rulings from the courts. Instead, a select amount of laws are applicable. While other regulations (i.e. McCain Feingold) have been struck down (which is giving these groups unprecedented access to political candidates).

In the Presidential campaign, this lack of regulation means that PACs are forming (who will directly target the opposition). The way that this occurs,…… [Read More]

"The 2012 Presidential Election." Open Democracy, 2012. 20 Apr. 2012

"A Century of U.S. Campaign Finance Laws." NPR, 2012. Web. 20 Apr. 2012
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Mantle How Presidential Nominations Are

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79793034

In this regard, throughout American history, the political pundits have argued about who was going to be the next president and why, but one of the foremost factors that has not been included in their analysis has been gender and race. Indeed, to date, it would have been completely accurate to predict that it was a foregone conclusion that the next president would be "a rich white guy." Today, though, for the first time in America's history, the electorate is faced with some new choices that may spell the end of the good ol' boy cabal that has always seemed to control the political process in one fashion or another. In fact, the United States may be fielding its first viable black and female candidates ever during the next presidential election, and it the question is no longer a matter of "is America ready for a black or female president?" The question today, perhaps for the first time in the nation's history, will truly be, "Who will assume the mantle of presidential leadership next?" instead of "just another rich white guy."

Summary and Key Points of Claiming the Mantle.

As the title of the book implies, the main point of…… [Read More]

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Agenda-Setting Function Mass Media Work Current Presidential

Words: 1167 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71066103

agenda-setting function mass media work current presidential election. Consider essay: a) What issue(s) highlighted media ( candidates ) effect voters year? b) There emphasis independent voters swing states Ohio.

The role of the media in today's society is considered of utmost importance. It shapes opinions, if creates opinions, but most importantly it influences the way in which perceptions are created and decisions taken. This is why the media is viewed in a democratic society to be the fourth power in the state, after the executive, legislative, and judicial ones. This role is most obvious perhaps during election years and periods, regardless of the type of voting action. This is largely due to the fact that the media usually influences the agenda of the elections to take place.

The importance of the presidential elections is without any doubt. These are the times when the media exercises its biggest influence. The Watergate scandal in the 70s only proved a well-known fact, that the media has the power to discover and bring to the public eye almost any aspect of the public or private life. This essential asset of the media transformed it to an agenda setting factor. Studies conducted in the 70s…… [Read More]

References: Third Parties in U.S. Elections. 2008

Driehaus, B. "Court Orders Ohio to Include Libertarian Party on Ballot." The New York Times. 2008.
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General Politics Presidency Election

Words: 1532 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56705020

role of government in the current debates surrounding the enactment of universal healthcare and the illicit drug war along the Mexican border, it is critical to look to the powers granted by the Constitution. Yet, the Constitution has always meant different things to different people throughout American history. As any law student will tell you, one of the major conflicts surrounding the Constitution is the concept of Originalism. This legal understanding holds that if the Constitution is to mean anything, the courts must interpret it through the lens of the men who put the ink to the paper and established the government (Scalia, 1998). Yet, significant flaws exist in this theory as the Founders themselves were not of one mind but were a diverse and politically combative group to the point of fighting duels with one another (e.g. Hamilton's murder at the hands of Burr). To return to these modern issues, the real issue being faced is the power of the federal government to address issues that were not specifically assigned to it in the Constitution and how that document should be interpreted.

Proponents of universal healthcare argue that the legislation enacting it was Constitutional under Congress' expressed power to…… [Read More]

Baker, P. 2010. Obama Making Plans to Use Executive Power. New York Times. 12 Feb 2010.

Fiegerman, S. 2011. Congress Approval Rating Hits All Time Low. The Street. 21 Dec 2011.
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Shirley Chisholm 1972 Presidential Campaign

Words: 1271 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57374325

This can be clearly demonstrated by the fact that it took another 26 years for a black man to be elected president and we have yet to see a female head of state. Demographic representation in either major party has also come in waves of more or less over the years and both parties are still arguably challenged by special interest dominance and a more often then not wealthy constitution, with an even more wealthy pool of candidates to choose from, owing in great part to the not decreasing but increasing cost of running for national office at the congressional and presidential levels. (Magarian 1939)

Critics like Chisholm, though in the minority demanded changes such as an end to the Vietnam War and limitations or challenges to the seniority systems in the House and other arenas that dominate who and why voices are heard in various legislative debates and formulations and to some degree what makes it to ratification and what does not. ("Chisholm, Shirley Anita St. Hill") Chisholm also reflected most effectively the variation in demographic representation in the Democratic Party that was a result of the broader civil rights movement and all its challenges to traditional racist, sexist…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Chisholm, Shirley Anita St. Hill." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2007. "Shirley Chisholm for President 1972 Campaign Brochure .
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President Direct Popular Election and the Electoral College

Words: 2048 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85627276

members of the Electoral College are selected by voters; earlier, however, over 50% of states picked electors from within their governments, thereby eliminating the American public's direct participation in presidential elections. The onset of the 19th century witnessed a rapid transformation of this practice, with voting rights granted to an increasingly broader population segment. With continued expansion of the electorate, a number of individuals entitled to vote in the election for Electoral College members also increased, up to its current limit of every eligible adult American citizen (a legal adult means anyone who is 18 years of age or older). Therefore, the tradition voters choosing presidential electors became a preliminary, lasting facet of America's Electoral College structure. Also, though states (theoretically) still enjoy constitutional choosing rights via an alternative mode, this is highly unlikely (Electoral College - Facts & Summary). The Electoral College's existence and duties are, in modern American society, so little-known that a majority of voters in the U.S. think they directly vote for their President as well as Vice President during elections. Despite Electoral College members being popular figures in the government, (e.g., state legislators, governors, or other local and state governmental authorities), they often aren't recognized…… [Read More]

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2008 Democratic Presidential Primary --

Words: 7199 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46180969

Meanwhile in the journal Du Bois Review (Parker, et al., 2009, p. 194) the authors point to racism and patriotism as key themes for the 2008 Democratic primary election. "Race was a consistent narrative" used by those opposed to Obama, Parker explains (p. 194). Both Clinton and the Republicans "used racial references" to attack Obama, including the attacks on Obama "for his perceived inability to connect to 'real working Americans'" (p. 194).

The Republican sideshow called "Joe the plumber" attacked Obama with the charge that Obama was "seeking to take money from hardworking 'real Americans' to give it to 'those people'" (p. 194). Clinton questioned Obama's patriotism suggesting that he was not a "real" American. Parker notes that when Governor Dukakis ran for president as a Democrat, he was attacked but no one questioned whether he was "a real American as they did with Obama" (p. 195).

The authors present two faces of racism that Obama had to deal with, "symbolic racism" and "laissez-faire racism." But Parker claims in the article that there is another approach to racism and it is one "that connects national pride to racial antipathy: patriotism" (p. 196). Symbolic racism is the feeling among some white…… [Read More]

Alter, Jonathan. "Leading Democrats to Bill Clinton: Pipe Down." Newsweek. (2008).

Retrieved March 17, 2010, from .
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American Elections of 1876

Words: 1558 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28743408

Shady American Elections of 1876

The most corruption ridden, heinous and questionable presidential election in American history had only just begun. During the presidential campaign, Rutherford was blasted by Tilden's opposition labeling him thief, briber and a drunkard. Eyebrows were raised in states controlled by Republican about voting fraud; armed and dangerous bigoted white democrats had enveloped the South thwarting blacks from voting in elections. Hence in the aftermath, South Carolina, Louisiana and Florida were judged too close to call. With these states still in-pending, Tilden was short of one electrical vote of 185 as written in the constitution to win an election. Hayes captured 165 electoral votes; now he just needed 20 electoral votes to win from these mentioned three states to attain the president's seat. The crisis began slowly leading up to the threat of a civil war which finally concluded behind the curtain deal, popularly known as Compromise of 1877 as per which Hayes was the elected president whilst withdrawing federal troops in the South which ended with Reconstruction (King).

Elections 1876

The United States of America celebrated its birth year, 1876 after a perplexing and troublesome scandal over the rightful candidacy of the president. Rutherford B.…… [Read More]

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Winning an Election President Incumbent

Words: 970 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20870157

incumbent is the existing holder of a political office who normally has a structural advantage over challengers during an election," ("The Power of Incumbency" 1). In the House of Representatives, incumbents win over 80% of their elections ("The Power of Incumbency" 1). For the presidential race, the power of incumbency is different and in many ways, weaker due to term limits and the nature of the executive office. Anti-incumbency can haunt presidents who, for whatever exogenous or endogenous factors, had a difficult presidency. Prevailing party fatigue can also be a factor boosting the chances of a non-incumbent from the opposing political party. In the case of presidential elections taking place after a two-term president such as in 2016, there is no incumbent and therefore the process by which the hopefuls win their party's nomination becomes the focal point of their campaign work.

Incumbents enjoy obvious advantages over their non-incumbent counterparts such as name and brand recognition, access to campaign finance, access to state party leaders, and even access to government resources "that can be indirectly used to boost a campaign," ("The Power of Incumbency" 1). One of the most important means of boosting a presidential campaign is through the party…… [Read More]

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Dollarocracy How the Money and Media Election Complex Is Destroying America

Words: 2854 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12030934


Nichols and McChesney (2013) write about election spending and the negative effect that it has on democracy and governance in America in their book Dollarocracy: How the money-and-election complex is destroying America.. They have divided the book into central themes, including the concept of privilege, spending by the very wealthy, advertising and the role of the media in the election machine, finally arriving at some suggestions for reform to restore balance to the democratic system of the United States.

The book opens with an explanation of one of the core principles that underpins their arguments, that America is a society driven by class differences. Those with privilege consistently seek to use that privilege to enhance it. The authors make the case that such practices at this point are so rampant that "the United States is now rapidly approaching a point where the electoral process itself ceases to function as a means for citizens to effectively control leaders and guide government policies." Special interests -- primarily those of the richest Americans and corporate entities -- are now driving public policy debate, influencing public opinion and dictating the interests of government. "The moneyed interests are confident," they note, "that even in…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Nichols, J. & McChesney, R. (2013). Dollarocracy: How the money-and-election complex is destroying America. New York: Nation Books.
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1992 Presidential Campaign Television Advertising

Words: 1866 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44198367

The answer to this open-ended question was "someone other than Bush." They should have framed the question to leave only their answer, rather than suggesting we were "one unknown dictator away from the next major crisis." "Arkansas 2" gave us nothing to identify with except vague, generalized fear. This "differential reinforcement" (Althouse, Nardulli and Shaw 2001, p. 4) failed.

If these were the only campaign outreach, this would bear out the theory that negative or depressing / violent ads, even when they are supposed to support the incumbent rather than deride the opponent, mostly reinforce voters' existing attitudes (Althouse, Nardulli and Shaw 2001, p. 1-2), and drain resources away from where they could actually generate. If these types of commercials demoralize the American voter toward elections and government in general, we would think the politicians running for office would want to generate positive, rather than negative participation effects. Unless of course we are selling actual products, in which case "commercial advertisers should instead encourage the greater use of political advertising in general and negative political advertising in particular" (Iyengar and Prior, 1999 p. 10).


Althouse, S., Nardulli, P. And Shaw, D. (2001). Campaign Effects on Presidential Voting, 1992

2000.…… [Read More]

Althouse, S., Nardulli, P. And Shaw, D. (2001). Campaign Effects on Presidential Voting, 1992

2000. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, August 30 -- September 2, 2001, San Francisco, CA. Retrieved from
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Big Data Source for 2014 Election

Words: 730 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11504040

Open Data Source for Election 2014

Open data are the data that can be freely redistributed and used by anyone for personal or research purpose. One of the examples of open data is a government data that contain tremendous resources. Moreover, the open government data can assist in making a better decision. By law, the government data should be opened to anybody. Thus, the political analysts and statisticians have taken the advantages of the open data to generate a big data for the U.S. 2014 senate election in order to predict the outcome of the election results.

The purpose of this research is to investigate the role of big data for the analysis of the 2014 U.S. senate election. Since 2012, the big data has played a major role in the U.S. politics. In 2012, the Republican used the data analytics in winning the 2012 Presidential election by using the big data to predict the voter sentiments. Despite the benefits that can be derive from big data analytics in predicting election results; the use of big data is still new. By consequent, no comprehensive research paper investigates the role of big data in predicting the U.S. election results. The research…… [Read More]

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How the Election Process Is Rigged

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73251991

Voting rights in the U.S. has reached a critical stage as the Establishment becomes more concerned with the threat of outsider takeover. Recent years have seen everything from gerrymandering to heightened coordination among political elites (like Mitch McConnell), media Establishment leaders (like William Kristol), and business moguls (like Jeff Bezos) in an effort to control the voting outcomes of primaries (Ron Paul was blocked by the RNC in 2012 and in 2016 Trump's victories have been the rallying point for concern among these individuals). The voting rights law in the United States may at first seem simple but are in fact complicated by the rights of Super Pacs, delegates, and Super Delegates -- all of which combine to swing the political process to unjustly favor the outcome of the Establishment rather than of the voting populace.

According to U.S. law, anyone who is 18 years of age and a citizen of the U.S. (maintaining the residency requirements of his/her state) can vote in an election. However, this does not mean that the individual's vote is actually counted or in any way impactful. Presidential elections are still the result of an electoral process and the nomination of candidates is a result…… [Read More]

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Presidential Power

Words: 1125 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25330873

Presidential Power

While the scope of modern presidential power far exceeds the very limited but potent powers that the President is given in Article II of the Constitution, it does not appear that those powers have increased dramatically over the last 20 years, especially when one compares the President's power with congressional power. It is important to keep in mind that most presidents have "used their implied and informal presidential powers to enhance their personal influence" (Annenberg Foundation, 2014). This began with Washington and, in many ways, it has grown over the course of history, resulting in an Executive Branch that is more powerful than anticipated at the time of the Constitution. However, while the President is, nominally, the head of the Executive Branch, it is critical to keep in mind that the Executive is extremely dependent upon the Congress. "Congress controls the purse strings for all the branches of government; Congress has approval authority over appointments within the Executive and Judicial branches and the Military" (Lillebo, 2007). What this means is that the President may be exercising an increasing amount of power, when compared to the powers explicitly outlined in the Constitution, but he cannot exercise them without the…… [Read More]

Krinsky, A. (2013, July 9). A four-party system for the U.S. Retrieved September 16, 2014

from The Huffington Post website:
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Presidential Administration Continues to Insist That All

Words: 520 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72001398

presidential administration continues to insist that all of the factors are in place for an economic recovery, on the eve of a midterm election season, current trends don't seem to indicate any real or applicable relief from our recessionary status. What at first appeared to be a mild recovery may, in fact, be shaping up for the second leg of a double dip. This week's report placed unemployment, in the month of July, at 5.9%, a steady rate for the last six months. This mediocre stability, most analysts seem to believe, however, will give way this month to an even greater blow, perhaps as high as 6.5%. This news, combined with recent projections by mega-corps Disney and National Semiconductor that earnings will not meet expectations this quarter, have compounded the trauma to a stock market already reeling in the face of so much economic scandal. Rather than recovery, we seem to be well within the grips of a vicious economic cycle.

One of the best ways to observe the condition of the economy is by monitoring the risk of inflation as is evident by various economic indicators. A useful way to keep a watch on the value of the dollar…… [Read More]

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Nepal Parliamentary and Presidential Governments

Words: 968 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79992171

Preserving the current form of government will ease Nepal's transition from a constitutional monarchy to a constitutional republic. If the nation were to suddenly switch voting procedures and governmental structures, the resulting confusion would threaten to undermine the fledgling system. Furthermore, a large number of Nepalese residents are either connected to or from India and are familiar with its parliamentary system.

A parliamentary system allows for a greater plurality of voices in the legislative branch of government. Nepal is an extraordinarily diverse country, with no one ethnic group comprising more than 15.5% of the nation's population (CIA). The recent political strife in Nepal is partly rooted in the strong Maoist presence there. Maoist demands for political representation in parliament was finally granted during the recent turmoil in 2007 (CIA). Nepal's main considerations when composing its new constitution and attendant form of government include maintaining political stability, permitting a plurality of voices to be heard in congress, and to prevent political corruption. The difficult process of forging a new state can be made easier by a conscientious constitution that clearly outlines the roles and duties of each branch and office of government. A system of checks and balances will reduce the…… [Read More]

CIA. "Nepal." The World Factbook. July 24, 2008.

Lecture notes.
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Understanding Trump S Way of Campaigning

Words: 1694 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76982777

Presidential Election


Donald Trump is flying high in the 2016 presidential election campaigns. Besides crushing his Republican opponents in national polls, Trump's critics have thrown in the towel (McCutcheon & Mark, 2016). Having underrated his candidature and accused of a racist and sexist huckster, Trump is now receiving the ultimate compliment and being taken seriously. This essay attempts to discuss the mystery of Donald Tramp's appeal. His opponents have to deal with his demeanor, his disdain for intellectual and party elites, as well as his talent for drawing media coverage. How is Trump achieving all these successes? Whichever the case, Trump's current position and his ultimate fate warrant a theoretical explanation. George Lakoff's linguistic theory is used to understand Trump's success. In this sense, the essay will focus on three major linguistic aspects of how Trump wants us to see him: insulting, big words and incoherence.

Insulting and Winning

Trump does not talk like his fellow presidential contestants. How is Trump's language different? Partly it is because of the clipped accent and the dismissive tone (McCutcheon & Mark, 2016). Trump is engaging his audience emotionally and successfully unlike his rivals. In fact, experts…… [Read More]

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American Politics for the Presidential Party to

Words: 1883 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10677409

American politics, for the presidential party to lose congressional support in a midterm election. As any administration struggles in the early part of a term to define itself, it's likely to fall in and out of favor with a public still not inundated of the White House's identity and intentions. This is an opportunity rarely missed by the opposition, as sophomore year presidencies have commonly been forced to tolerate an exploitation of their greatest possible weakness. At the dual behest of the media and some genuine desire for social progress, the public has been prone to voicing protest in a midterm election. One prime example in recent history was Bill Clinton's first midterm election. He had taken a beating on the gays in the military issue in his first year. And as he grappled with a post-Reaganomics recession in those early years, people who were frustrated with unemployment and an alleged liberal conspiracy in office, gave over to a rising conservative wave that crested with radio broadcasts by Rush Limbaugh, Charlton Heston's increasing influence as a leader in the National Rifle Association and the 1994 Midterm elections, where a prodigious reversal in fortunes, washed Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich…… [Read More]

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Government Preferable in a Presidential System Why

Words: 612 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57244697

Government preferable in a Presidential system? Why or why not?

Before it can be considered whether a divided government is preferable in a presidential system, divided government must be defined. A divided government refers to a government, in which the president is a member of one political party, and at least one chamber of Congress, whether the Senate or the House of Representatives, is controlled by the opposite political party. Divided government is a frequent historical occurrence in America, meant to dissuade radical changes in policy and to motivate politicians of both parties to compromise on proposed legislation. Divided government is natural in a presidential democracy, and is preferable to a one-party congress when balance and stability of government is the chief cause for concern, as it was for the founding fathers in the 18th century.

It is normal for presidential systems to become divided governments, particularly in the mid-term elections. In the post-World War II era, 17 of 28 national elections of the United States produced a divided government, and rarely has the United States seen administrations where the White House and Congress were aligned with the same party. This divided-ness seems to outsider nations to be incredibly unwieldy…… [Read More]

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Education Assuming a Presidential Persona

Words: 1230 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2634860

It is headed in the right direction and will surly prosper in the many years to come.

(c)Why were you able to accomplish what you did when you did?

We have been able to accomplish what we have because of the Land Grant College Act of 1862. In early 1848, Congressman Justin Smith Morrill of Vermont suggested that American colleges might steer away from the portion of the studies that had been established so many years ago and think about moving in a direction of having studies with more practical values. In 1857, he introduced a bill that incorporated leading reform notions in regards to technical education. He proposed that institutions should promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in areas that relate to the professions that people were doing (Rudolph, 1990, p. 149).

This act provided for the support in every state of at least one college. Each state was given public lands or land script equal to 30,000 acres for each senator and representative under the apportionment of 1860. It was because of this and the independent benefaction of Ezra Cornell that allowed for the formation of Cornell University. Since the act provided nothing in…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Andrew Dickson White. (2009). Retrieved June 15, 2009, from Cornell University Web site:
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Voter Turnout

Words: 2166 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43446342


Role of Diminishing Marginal Return on Voter Turnout

This paper looks at the effects of diminishing marginal returns on voter turnout by comparing voter turnout in various countries. The paper will look at countries with both high and low voter turnout and attempt to explain the differences in the importance of the vote in explaining the differences.

Voter Turnout in Established and Less-Established Democracies

While the leaders in turnout during the past few decades have been mainly new democracies, when one looks at broader figures there does appear to be a difference in turnout between "established democracies" and "less-established democracies.

Political scientist Arend Lijphart, categorized established democracies as all countries that are democratic now, and have been democratic for the last 20 years, and which have a population of at least a quarter of a million people (International IDEA, 2000).

A. Discussion of Data from Established Democracies vs. Less-Established Democracies

At the time of his research, the overall average turnout in the post-war period for Lijphart's 36 established democracies is 73% -- a sharp contrast with the average of 59% for the remaining 136 countries. Nevertheless, as shown in Table 1, turnout rates in both established democracies, and the…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Trends in Modern Congress and Models of Presidential Leadership

Words: 1393 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46693315

Congress and Models of Presidential Leadership

The following article presents a discussion on campaigning trends in modern congress with critical emphasis on plebiscitary politics and governing, as well as a look into the application of the following presidential leadership models; minimalist, self- reliant, and strategic competence.



Trends in Modern Congress

Plebiscitary Politics

Robert Dahl, a political scientist, states that Congress is affected by the nature of American politics, which is increasingly becoming plebiscitary. Pushing for plebiscitary politics, Dahl propagates a more direct connection between elected officials and the public as well as the removal of intermediaries -- membership organizations and parties in this case -- that sought to represent public opinion to the officials they elected. If observed more keenly and directly, instead of mediated, public opinion is more crucial-- which is closer to Madison's dreams for the national legislature. New technologies facilitate plebiscitary politics. Developments in the transportation sector enable most members of Congress to go back to their state homes or districts on most weekends. Advancements in computer and telephone technology have made it easy and affordable for the views of the public to get to the legislators through public opinion polls.

On the…… [Read More]

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Fred I Greenstein the Presidential Difference Leadership

Words: 1598 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78318684

Fred I. Greenstein, The Presidential Difference: Leadership Style from FDR to Barack Obama, Third Edition. Princeton University Press, 2009.

Fred I. Greenstein's central point The Presidential Difference is that in the modern U.S. political system since the Great Depression and Second World War, the presidents are now they key actors, far more so than the pre-1933 period when Congress was the most important branch of government. Because the role of the executive expanded exponentially in both foreign and domestic affairs, the leadership style of the presidents became a crucial factor in policymaking and policy failures. He analyzes the leadership style of the thirteen presidents from Franklin Roosevelt to Barack Obama, including their communication abilities (or lack thereof), personality and emotional makeup, cognitive/intellectual abilities, and organizational talents. If Roosevelt set the pattern and served as the template for the modern chief executive -- and there seems to be little doubt that this is the case -- then most of his successors have fallen short of the mark in comparison. Indeed, certain presidents like Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon fell drastically short, which is especially ironic in the case of Johnson since he was FDR's young protege in the 1930s and 1940s.…… [Read More]

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Medicare 2012 Election The Great Medicare Debate

Words: 701 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95766906


2012 Election: The Great Medicare Debate

Since 1965, Medicare has been attempting to provide low cost, guaranteed access to much needed healthcare for senior citizens over the age of 65 and other age groups that suffer from disabilities and terminal diseases. These people represent some of the most vulnerable population groups in the United States. Most do not work, and rely on Medicare to provide them the access to healthcare they need. Unlike privatized health insurance companies, Medicare is a social insurance program that is paid for through federal mandates and tax payer funds. Billions of dollars are spent annually on over 50 million Americans in need (Alonso-Zaldivar 1). The care structure itself is broken into several main parts: Medicare Part A covers hospital costs, Part B cover most outpatient care costs, and Part C and D. cover prescription drug costs through dealing with other private insurance. Yet, the upcoming election in November is threatening to change and alter the structure. Each candidate has his own plan to deal with Medicare; both are trying to reign in the costs of operating Medicare, but with some elements being obviously more beneficial for Medicare recipients than others.

Mitt Romney is the…… [Read More]

Alonso-Zaldivar, Ricardo. "Mitt Romney Medicare Plain Raises Cost Questions." Huffington Post. 5.10.2012. Web. Retrieved from

Pugh, Tony. "Obama, Romney Offer Different Paths on Medicare, Social security." Herald Online. 8. 10. 2012. Web. Retrieved from
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Ads Analysis for Presidential Candidates

Words: 1843 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57664576

Campaign Advertisements

Ad Analysis for Presidential Candidates

Lyndon Baines Johnson

Link to chosen campaign ad:

The main ad I viewed for LBJ was the one entitled "Our President." It was a black and white ad of still photographs. The pictures were of Johnson sitting with a look of concentration and his head resting on one hand. The message in the background talked about what the president is to be and what the presidents have been. It is basically saying that Johnson is the current president and he matches the preceding ones in his concern, prudence, etc. The language of the ad is formal and biographical. There are no harsh or negative words and the tone is measured and consistent. At the end of the ad, two things are noticeable. The narrator asks that you "Vote for President Johnson on November third" and secondly he adds the catch phrase which accompanies all of the advertisements. He says "The stakes are too high to stay home." There is no real artistry to the ad and as it is all stills, there is no particularly interesting part. Some of the other ads are moving pictures, and some are stills, but the common…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Bush, George H.W. Advertisement. Living Room Candidate, 1988. Web.

Carter, Jimmy. Advertisement. Living Room Candidate, 1976. Web.
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Constitutional Democracy Presidential or Parliamentary System

Words: 1387 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53640569

Constitutional Democracy / Presidential or Parliamentary System

Social and Economic Sources of Democracy

For the successful development of a democracy, two major factors come into play regarding the sources of said democracy. Of course, some of the factors are also indications of other regimes -- fascist and communist -- though as argued by the various papers, there is a distinct difference in the political structures that determine democracies over fascist and communist regimes. Because of the major results created by such factors, the most important sources of democracy would have to be the economic, industrialized, and educational values within the nation.

"The level of economic development, as measured by per capita income, is by far the best predictor of political regimes" (Przeworski). While there appears to be a similarity between the development of economic countries in dictatorships and democracies, Przeworski maintains that a dictatorship eventually dies and paves the way to an inevitable democracy. In poorer countries, the chances of a democracy or a dictatorship developing are low; the per capita income directly relates to the development of capitalistic structure. Commercialization and the presence of a market structure allowed for the growth of a more modern environment. This "market commercialization"…… [Read More]

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Government Expenditures the 2012 Election

Words: 708 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12495467

Solutions for the Future

Even a quick look at budget documents for the next few decades indicate a system burdened with exploding costs of Social Security, Medicaid, and Medicare; the latter the powder keg of the debt explosion. A reform of Medicare in which there is "only $1 in Medicare taxes for every $3 in benefits likely to be received in retirement" (Appelbaum & Gebeloff 6) must be a Congressional and Presidential priority. Returning the program to a role of insurance rather than a direct coverage program would be a start; Paul Ryan's proposal of premium support is a working model. Social Security must also be strengthened with common sense adjustments in payroll tax collection and age eligibility.

Those are the entitlement reforms however; these changes also forego the numerous tax expenditures which increase the government tab. The earned income tax credit, home mortgage deduction, and education credits are tax code distortions which increase the national debt. It is time to completely rework the tax code and eliminate these carve outs to streamline the system, lower rates, and pave the way for a massive expansion of economic growth along with increased revenue flow to the federal government.


Yes, the…… [Read More]

Appelbaum, B. & Gebeloff, Robert. "Even Critics of Safety Net Increasingly Depend on it." The New York Times. The New York Times, February 11, 2012. Retrieved February 14, 2012 from
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Political Campaign Particularly a Presidential

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94750604

In fact, the election of 1912 is considered by many to be one of the most important in Presidential history and Wilson's win the result of Theodore Roosevelt breaking with the Republicans, splitting the vote, and allowing Wilson on the less popular Democratic ticket to garner enough votes to win, and possibly change 20th century American Foreign policy to an extreme (Chace, 2004).

In general, when Ulysses Grant came into office, he preferred to try his best to avoid the political infighting that resulted after Lincoln's assassination. Rather than form public policy based on party lines, he sought to surround himself with people who would give him accurate advice and a continuation of the reconciliation with the South rather than retribution or appeasement. Add to this, though, his need to ensure that the Federal government protected the newly freed slaves and prevented former Confederate separatists from regaining power in the South (Grant: A Reference Resource, 2011).

One particular issue that was important to grant was the idea of the newly freed slaves and their right to vote. Beginning in 1870, Congress passes a series of laws known as the Enforcement Acts, designed to protect the right to vote. One of…… [Read More]

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Kennedy-Nixon Presidential Debates in 1960

Words: 358 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38610905

I find it interesting that human beings react so strongly to a person's physical appearance and wonder how many other important decisions are based on looks. Even if Nixon did eventually get elected to the office of the presidency, this debate made him lose the 1960 election.

The Kennedy-Nixon debates were only the first of many that would be televised. Using television as a way to gain votes has been a key political tactic since the Kennedy-Nixon debates. As Morton (2005) points out, Al Gore sighed while George W. Bush was speaking, which made him come across as being pompous. I found it fascinating that candidates need to be almost like television stars in order for them to become elected. Politics is not only about how intelligent a candidate is or even their credentials. American voters appreciate style as much as substance.


Morton, B. (2005). "Kennedy-Nixon debate changed politics for good." Retrieved July 18, 2009 from… [Read More]

Morton, B. (2005). "Kennedy-Nixon debate changed politics for good." Retrieved July 18, 2009 from