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A primary is another system of electing delegates with a mandate to vote for a given candidate. Unlike caucuses, primaries are votes conducted by the government on behalf of the political party. This vote can be open, closed, semi-closed or semi-open. Open primaries allow citizens to vote in both parties' primaries; semi-closed only the primary for the party you belong to (independents may vote in these as well) and in closed primaries only registered members of a party may vote in that primary.
The specific rules for the conduct of caucuses and primaries will vary from state to state and between the different parties as well. ashington State has both a primary and a caucus. This adds to the complexity of the system, but provides each state with the opportunity to create a system that works best for their needs.
A presidential caucus is a caucus specifically designed for the…… [Read More]
revolves under the presidential leadership from its formation. The presidential candidate has to undergo an electoral process so that they are declared winners. The nation has faced challenges like the world wars and even the civil wars due to differences in ideologies. The paper is going to cover U.S. political campaign of President oodrow ilson in 1916 as well as how this campaign differs from that of 1912? U.S. political campaign of President Lincoln in 1864 and its strongest factor. In what ways are the ilson election and the Lincoln elections similar? How does the threat of orld ar I affect ilson's campaign? And how did the threat of Civil ar affect Lincoln's campaign.
U.S. political campaign of President oodrow ilson in 1916
Campaign in Europe was dominated by fighting. The campaign for oodrow ilson's re-election was based on a pledge of continued neutrality in the Great ar…… [Read More]
Also, viewers may perceive the negative advertising as an infringement upon their right to decide for themselves. Such a perception may result in reactance, a boomerang effect in which the individual reacts in a manner opposite to the persuader's intention. What these studies show, then, is that a candidate is never going to know how for sure how a negative ad may impact the voters. In the long run, it may be best to keep away from mudslinging unless able to deal with the consequences.
TV debates are another form of communication that provide input on issues and may impact the voters. Naturally, the debate that comes to mind first is the one between Kennedy and Nixon in 1960. Because Nixon hurt himself right before the TV lights came on, so he was not only exhausted but in pain as well. To top it off, his face always had a…… [Read More]
Pesidential Election and the State of the Maket
finance and capital maket fluctuates to both positive and negative events. It is agued that the pesidential election in Novembe 2012 in the U.S. can have woldwide financial amifications. Thee ae aguments fom economic agencies like Bloombeg that thee is an impotance of elections fo the makets, but it is stated that some of the feas ae myths. The U.S. pesidential election in Novembe 2012 has got the financial maket in volatile conditions. This it is agued is because of some individual peceptions. Some of the myths ae that 'paty affiliation mattes when it comes to maket etuns.' (Koesteich, 2012) Thee it is agued, no scientific basis fo this contention. Thee is also the obsevation that when the democat becomes pesident, the aveage etun fo the Dow Jones is 8.5%; fo Republicans the aveage is aound 6%." (Koesteich, 2012)
Some of the…… [Read More]
U.S. PESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF
When considering the context of American history, 2012 was a year that saw many important anniversaries. One of these was the 100th anniversary of the critical U.S. Presidential Election of 1912. Some of the important players in this election were Theodore oosevelt, William Taft, Woodrow Wilson, and socialist Eugene Debs. This election was historic for a number of reasons, some of which the paper will expound upon. The paper will consider some of the factors that made this election significant and noteworthy, as well as consider if there are any remnants of the election present within American politics, government, and culture in the 21st century.
The election of 1912 was a great contest for the 32nd presidency of the United States of America. World War I would be on the minds of many and international policy definitely played a role in the journey of each candidate…… [Read More]
Agenda-Setting and the Presidential Election:
The agenda-setting function of mass media has largely been influenced by concerns regarding news coverage and the public's view about the significance of the stories covered by mass media. Consequently, some theorists have stated that news editors and anchors have a relatively significant impact on determining the public's views of social reality. hile there were concerns on the ability of a particular story covered by news media to affect the public's attitudes and opinions, mass media has a huge influence on people's thinking and perception. This is because mass media influence the amount of thinking that people engage in regarding a particular story, which can lead to an increase on the relative importance of that specific issue (DeFleur & Ball-Rokeach, p. 264).
One of the major influences that the agenda-setting function of mass media has had on shaping public perceptions is presidential elections. Based on…… [Read More]
Primary Factors Contributing to Obama's Victory in 2012 Presidential Election
For some, the outcome of the 2012 U.S. presidential election was a foregone conclusion; incumbent presidents rarely lose their second election, and the challenger did not provide enough of a contrast to warrant a change in leadership at this point in history. For others, it came as a sudden surprise, an unexpected upheaval that challenged the very premise of their worldview. In either case, the theories about how arack Obama secured a second term abounded even before the vote counting was officially over, and there is no shortage of opinions of the subject. While it is difficult if not impossible to attribute the outcome to any single factor, a close analysis can at least provide some insight into which factors played the biggest part. Performing this analysis reveals that a combination of concerted get-out-the-vote efforts, a mutable, inconsistent…… [Read More]
Consequences of the Presidential Election of 1912
The 1912 presidential election had significant outcomes and consequences on the history of the United States. This election was contested by four candidates including a former president, a current president, and a future president who campaigned on different platforms and agendas in attempts to woo voters. This presidential election was characterized by some drama before the election date, particularly in the Republican Party, and highlighted the major differences between progressive and conservative governance policies. The presidential election of 1912 was conducted at a time when the Republican Party was characterized by the emergence of a rift between conservatives, led by the incumbent President William Howard Taft, and Progressives that was led by the former president, Theodore Roosevelt. While these two presidential aspirants had been close friend, their split divided the party and helped Woodrow Wilson, a Democrat to the win the election.[footnoteRef:2] Actually,…… [Read More]
2012 Political Campaign Funds of Presidential Election
Various reasons contribute to the usage of money by politicians during the campaign period. Some of them include conflict of interest whereby the politicians use their power to lure the public in supporting them. However, the American government has various set regulations of which the politicians are supposed to follow when using or spending the campaign funds. Some of the politicians claim that the wrong usage of the campaign funds is because they are underfinanced. his makes the current political system to favor only some individuals who end up spending the money in the wrong way. In order to stop the politicians from using the campaign funds in the wrong way, various strategies ought to be set. Some people suggest that it would be effective to implement this plan if only the government manages to take the campaign funds away from the politicians.…… [Read More]
Hubert Humphrey, Johnson's VP, announced his candidacy shortly after Johnson stepped down, and won the nomination during the Democratic Convention in Chicago. Humphrey chose senator Edmund Muskie as is VP running mate.
ISSUES of the CAMPAIGN (Republican Candidates) New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller ran in the primaries as a dove (anti-Vietnam) but Richard Nixon easily defeated him. George Romney also ran as a peace candidate, and was soundly beaten. California Governor Ronald Reagan also challenged Nixon, but not as a peace candidate, on the contrary Reagan talked tough on law and order in the streets. Nixon won the nomination and chose Spiro Agnew as his running mate.
American Independent Party) Segregationist Alabama Governor George allace ran for president on a conservative platform; he did not seriously challenge the major parties, but he did get a lot of votes in primaries by appealing to racist and conservatives who were upset at…… [Read More]
Table of Contents
Literature Review 4
Theoretical Discussion and Hypothesis 6
Research Design 6
Type of Research Design and Sampling 6
Temporal and Spatial Scope 7
Unit of Analysis 7
Operationalization of Dependent and Independent Variables 7
Data Collection Instruments and Techniques 8
Data Processing and Testing Techniques 8
Results (Expected) 8
Works Cited 11
How Does the Media Influence Presidential Elections?
This paper looks at the influence of media on presidential elections by first discussing the first presidential debate on TV between Nixon and Kennedy in 1960 and how there were no more televised debates until 1976 because TV’s influence was so powerful, candidates were not comfortable with the idea of being shown in a certain unflattering light the way Nixon was. Now today there is social media which is even more powerful than legacy media. However, many people already have their…… [Read More]
American politics have always been a hotbed of debate. Just how far politicians are willing to go in the quest to win has revolved around the type of campaign that the participants have taken part in. If the campaign is "clean" the opponents stick to the issues and debate their platforms with little attempt to discredit the others in the race. If the race is "dirty" it means that the politicians and those who are supporting them are willing to fling mud at the others. This can mean that personal lives, problems and problems of the candidates family members are acceptable tools to sabotage the opponent campaign. Throughout the history of the nation campaigns have run the gamut of clean and dirty with everything in between. In recent years the campaign for president that was between Clinton and Bush Sr. became dirty when each side brought up non-job related issues…… [Read More]
The topic of this paper is social media and its role in the 2016 presidential election.
Allcott, H., & Gentzkow, M. (2017). Social media and fake news in the 2016 election. Journal of economic perspectives, 31(2), 211-36.
Article posits that users of social media are more likely to believe news stories about their chosen or preferred candidate when the stories fall in line with the person’s ideological views. The article is helpful in explaining how social media and “fake news” works and can be used to make sense of the 2016 election.
Enli, G. (2017). Twitter as arena for the authentic outsider: Exploring the social media campaigns of Trump and Clinton in the 2016 US presidential election. European journal of communication, 32(1), 50-61.
Article shows that Trump’s use of Twitter to communicate with the masses was more authentic than Clinton’s and thus had a bigger impact in the election. The article’s…… [Read More]
If forcing females to bear children is something that you care strongly about, then the McCain/Palin ticket is for you. If the status quo is what you want, if you believe that America is on the right track, then vote McCain/Palin.
If, however, you are one of those voters who under most normal circumstances never consider voting for the likes of McCain/Palin then you have to ask yourself the big question. Why the sudden shift? Is it because you believe that Barack Obama is not ready or qualified for the office of Presidency, like his opponents have suggested? If so, then ask yourself when a person is ready to serve. How many more years in the Senate would it take? Does spearheading issues and committees mean nothing? Does deft diplomacy and communication skills count for nothing in a presidential candidate? Taking another approach: Barack Obama is far, far more qualified…… [Read More]
Another Wall Street Journal article (April 2, 2007) explains that Senator Hillary Clinton is the current top fundraiser among Democratic candidates for president.
n the Washington Post (March 29, 2007), former presidential candidate Steve Forbes has decided not to run again, but he threw his endorsement over to Republican Rudy Giuliani. Senator Hillary Clinton, meanwhile, picked up the endorsement of owa Governor Tom Vilsack, according to the New York Times (March 24, 2007). n the March 19, 2007 edition of the Washington Post, it is reported that presidential candidates will continue to receive Secret Service security protection. The Los Angeles Times (March 18, 2007) reports that Senator Clinton is running as "the female-warrior" candidate and Barak Obama is running as the "black-white-immigrant" candidate. And the Washington Post reports on March 18, 2007 that the excellence of the speechwriters for Democratic Senator Chris…… [Read More]
The coming presidential elections in the United States will be conducted on Tuesday, November 6, 2012 and will be America's 57th quadrennial presidential election. As the election approaches, various initiatives and measures have been taken to educate and empower America's voting public and create an increasingly responsible government. These efforts have primarily involved the provision of comprehensive, non-partisan information that relate to presidential candidates, news, issues, and political parties. These initiatives are mainly geared towards providing a platform for voters and non-voters to regularly obtain useful, straightforward, and impartial information linked to politics and issues. However, the major issue revolving around these elections is how the election results will be determined by current and previous decisions of the court. This is mainly because of the increased expectation that the coming presidential election may be a close election.
Presidential Election Laws:
The United States presidential elections are guided by constitutional…… [Read More]
Because of the extreme conditions of the 1930s depression, the New Deal under Franklin Roosevelt went further in expanding the powers of the federal government than any previous administration in history, certainly far beyond the very limited role permitted to it by the conservative administrations of arren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover in 1921-33. It was the worst depression in U.S. history, and led not only to the complete collapse of all Street and the financial system, but of industrial production as well, which fell 85% in 1929-33, while the Gross National Project fell by half and in some cities like Chicago the unemployment rate rose as high as 50-60%. At the same time, the entire banking system collapsed by 1933, as did agricultural prices, and money stopped circulating. John Maynard Keynes and other economists blamed this severe contraction on low incomes, unequal distribution of wealth,…… [Read More]
In what is shaping up to be the strangest election in United States history, the contest between the Democratic nominee, former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton and the Republican nominee, billionaire real estate developer Donald J. Trump is being closely monitored by U.S. voters and an increasingly concerned international community. The Democratic nominee has most recently been charged with several abuses of classified information during her tenure as secretary of state, perjury before the U.S. Congress and illicit dealings with foreign interests buying favors from the State Department through donations to the Clinton Foundation. Conversely, the Republic nominee has been labeled alternatively as “crazy,” “insane,” and “deranged” by a growing number of observers based on his erratic and hate-filled speeches. This essay on the 2016 U.S. Presidential election reviews the literature to provide brief biographies of these presidential candidates followed by an analysis of recent trends that have…… [Read More]
S. such as providing affordable healthcare for all, paid for by raising taxes on the wealthy; making a sincere effort for energy independence, and generating more jobs while investing in renewable energy and conservation (Borosage and Heuvel).
America, after decades of its love relationship with Conservatism, topped by eight years of the disastrous Bush presidency that has left the country on the brink of financial collapse and almost universal dislike, was indeed ready for change. it, therefore, decisively rejected the candidate -- McCain -- who promised more of the same and chose the candidate for change.
as the U.S. In Need for Change?
That there was a need for change in the U.S. is a no-brainer. On the domestic front, the U.S. is facing perhaps the most formidable economic meltdown since the Great Depression of the 1930s. In eight short years, the Bush administration has managed to turn a huge…… [Read More]
Tracy Flick, a preppy overachiever, is running unopposed for student council president. Mr. M, the faculty advisor, distains Tracy and has decided she needs an opponent. Mr. M talks Paul, the injured quarterback, into running - to go for the glory of leadership instead of the momentary glow of sports. Tammy, Paul's sister, decides to run for president after her girlfriend leaves her for Paul. Throughout the movie each character takes actions, fair or unfair, for personal gain. Mr. M throws the election to Paul as revenge against Tracy for having had an affair with his friend and fellow teacher who is fired. Tracy tears down the election posters out of frustration and blames someone else. Tammy falsely claims responsibility for ruining the posters so that she will be expelled and able to transfer to an all girl's school. Paul is the only candidates who wants whatever the outcome will…… [Read More]
Presidential Election Poll Data 2012
National Poll Data: 2012 Presidential Election
We are waist deep into election season. Now is the time for frantic fundraising, polling, and campaigning. ecent polls show a lot about the political beliefs and behavior of upcoming American voters. Analyzing poll results can help forecast the next president of the United States. After examining three polls in particular, a strong prediction can be made showing now President Barack Obama as the next likely president of the United States.
One ongoing poll helps paint a very detailed picture of how the two candidates are fairing within the American presidential race of 2012. This was a detailed poll that is continuously producing numbers base don interviewing registered voters. It is being conducted by Gallup Politics. Beginning in April 2012, representatives from Gallup Politics have asked registered voters "Suppose the presidential election were held today, if Barack Obama were…… [Read More]
He seems to draw easy causal connections between policy and personality that deny the exterior circumstances of history. For example, he suggests that Hoover's rigid personality made him unable to accept changes in classical economic theory during the beginning of the Great Depression, and to adopt a more Keynesian approach. Barber asserts that it was not the conventional wisdom of the time that hampered Hoover as much as his own character, despite the fact that few people really could assuredly state they had the 'answer' to the financial crisis at that time. The adaptive-negative aspects of Johnson's personality made that president similarly resistant to the idea of pulling out of Vietnam, and his egoism made him unwilling to be seen as 'losing' the war -- but what about the pressures of the Cold War during that era? Historians also might find some objection to Barber's psychoanalyzing so many major presidential…… [Read More]
S. interests in that part of the world. Then, on January 17, 1991, the U.S. launched the first attack, with more than 4,000 bombing runs. After 100 hours, Bush called off the offensive, saying he wanted to minimize U.S. casualties.
Though Bush was criticized for this withdrawal being premature, the U.S. made a retreat from Kuwait after the successful offensive, and Bush's approval ratings reached new highs.
Bush announced in early 1992, that he would run again for President, and his reelection looked probable. However, higher taxes and uncontrolled economic problems brought his term to an end in 1992, and Bush lost to Bill Clinton. Bush was running as a conservative, but so were oss Perot and Pat Buchanan (who ran against him for the epublican nomination).
In order to defeat Pat Buchanan's bid for the epublican nomination, Bush declared even more conservative stances. Though he defeated Pat Buchanan, oss…… [Read More]
PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS (1.5 pages requested)
My fellow Americans, the past two years have been tremendously challenging for all of us, as well as for me personally as your president. Tonight, I feel that I have to address a specific problem that has emerged since my election and that I fear is undermining the integrity of the constitutional form of government upon which all of us rely to guarantee the effectiveness of this great democratic republic.
As you know, the two-party political system and the bicameral nature of the American Congress is designed to guard against the usurpation of power by any one political party or group. However, in the last two years, a disturbing pattern has emerged in which some of the safeguards expressly designed and built into this system have been misused very deliberately and systematically for the purpose of achieving purely political goals and at great expense to,…… [Read More]
Strategic Use and Impact of Social Media in the 2012 Elections
The goal of the research is to find evidence of the use and impact of social media in U.S.'s 2012 presidential elections. This is because it was reported that President Obama won the elections because of the ground operation presented by volunteers of his elections' campaigns (CNN ire 1). I chose this topic since reports in state media indicated that the Republican Party was heading in the pre-election polls, but in the end, the Democratic Party won due to the use of technological innovation (Edsall 1). An in depth analysis of the research problem intends to reveal that the presidential contest favored President Obama, for using social media. Social media is increasingly an easy, fast, and effective way for people to have personal contact through technology. The intention is to prove the political premise that the most effective means…… [Read More]
Citizen United on the 2012 Elections
Effects of Citizen United
Citizens United is an organization in the United States that does not operate on profit and that focuses on conservatism. The scenario that is commonly related to the organization is the particular Supreme Court Case 'Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission," which attempted to ascertain the legality of specific aspects of campaign finance. The ruling that was made in the case influenced numerous practices that can be condoned during the election period. The 2012 elections are similarly projected to be influenced majorly by Citizens United based on the various changes that it has caused in the election system.
Citizen United's mission is described to be dedication to the restoration of the government of the United States to the control of the 'citizens'. In addition, it is committed to asserting American values that are linked to freedom of enterprise, national sovereignty…… [Read More]
In the 2016 U.S. presidential elections, the Democrats experienced significant losses in both the Senate and the House of Representatives in addition to losing the presidency. While the Democratic presidential candidate, Hillary Clinton, won the popular vote, Donald Trump won the electoral college votes to clinch the presidency. The Republicans not only won the presidency but also won the Senate and the House of Representatives. In the aftermath of the 2016 elections, the performance of the Democratic Party has been the subject of scrutiny among political analysts and experts in political matters. The media has remained puzzled with the outcome of the elections because they were so wrong in their predictions. One of the issues that has received considerable scrutiny by the media is why Democrats failed to capture more seats in the U.S. House and why they lost control of the Senate. This paper focuses on examining the reasons…… [Read More]
In this regard, throughout American history, the political pundits have argued about who was going to be the next president and why, but one of the foremost factors that has not been included in their analysis has been gender and race. Indeed, to date, it would have been completely accurate to predict that it was a foregone conclusion that the next president would be "a rich white guy." Today, though, for the first time in America's history, the electorate is faced with some new choices that may spell the end of the good ol' boy cabal that has always seemed to control the political process in one fashion or another. In fact, the United States may be fielding its first viable black and female candidates ever during the next presidential election, and it the question is no longer a matter of "is America ready for a black or female president?"…… [Read More]
agenda-setting function mass media work current presidential election. Consider essay: a) What issue(s) highlighted media ( candidates ) effect voters year? b) There emphasis independent voters swing states Ohio.
The role of the media in today's society is considered of utmost importance. It shapes opinions, if creates opinions, but most importantly it influences the way in which perceptions are created and decisions taken. This is why the media is viewed in a democratic society to be the fourth power in the state, after the executive, legislative, and judicial ones. This role is most obvious perhaps during election years and periods, regardless of the type of voting action. This is largely due to the fact that the media usually influences the agenda of the elections to take place.
The importance of the presidential elections is without any doubt. These are the times when the media exercises its biggest influence. The Watergate…… [Read More]
American Elections Have ecome Undemocratic
The American electoral process has been criticized on several points. This paper addresses some, though not all, of the ways in which the American political process has been criticized. Starting with campaign finance and whether expensive advertising exerts an influence on the outcome of elections out of proportion to its importance, I discuss the difficulty faced by potential candidates in getting their names on ballots when they are not the candidate being promoted by either the Democrats or Republicans. I then address whether the idea of plurality in national elections is a rational one and conclude with a discussion of the Electoral College and whether its presence and influence in the outcome of the presidential race runs contrary to the expressed democratic spirit of the United States.
First, there is the issue of campaign finance. Essentially, the uncomfortable question is this: is the American system…… [Read More]
role of government in the current debates surrounding the enactment of universal healthcare and the illicit drug war along the Mexican border, it is critical to look to the powers granted by the Constitution. Yet, the Constitution has always meant different things to different people throughout American history. As any law student will tell you, one of the major conflicts surrounding the Constitution is the concept of Originalism. This legal understanding holds that if the Constitution is to mean anything, the courts must interpret it through the lens of the men who put the ink to the paper and established the government (calia, 1998). Yet, significant flaws exist in this theory as the Founders themselves were not of one mind but were a diverse and politically combative group to the point of fighting duels with one another (e.g. Hamilton's murder at the hands of Burr). To return to these modern…… [Read More]
Another factor that determined the failure in the 2002 elections, is that the Democratic candidates' campaign was not as aggressive as it should have been. The Democrats' opponents used attack campaigns, so the Democratic candidates should have responded "preferably with a plan that turns his attack campaign into a character issue on him."
Other than this, Shawni Littlehale of the free-market Pioneer Institute for Public Policy esearch estimates that: "the majority of the electorate wants a fiscally conservative governor to push for lower taxes and cuts in our bloated state government, while they want their [state] rep/state senator to bring home perks for their cities ad towns."
The Democrats' success in the 2006 elections was determined by a very strong electoral campaign, the 50-State Strategy. From the beginning, the Democrats were determined to win and geared up in every precinct in the country in an unprecedented 50-state organizing strategy.…… [Read More]
In this essay, we will investigate the topic of Russian interference in the United States’ 2016 Presidential election. This essay will contain a list of topics related to Russian meddling, possible titles for essays covering those topics, an outline of the essay, and an example demonstrating how to write a strong essay. Our free example essay will not only explain how Russian interference influenced the election, but also show you how to write each part of an essay: introduction, thesis statement, and body paragraphs that combine evidence and analysis. The essay will conclude with a review of the information presented in the essay and suggestions for further action.
A New Kind of Cold War: Russian Meddling in the 2016 Election
Is Putin the De Facto President of the United States: How Russia Influenced the 2016 Election
Should Russian Interference in the 2016 Election Invalidate the Results?
What Does Russian…… [Read More]
Meanwhile in the journal Du Bois Review (Parker, et al., 2009, p. 194) the authors point to racism and patriotism as key themes for the 2008 Democratic primary election. "Race was a consistent narrative" used by those opposed to Obama, Parker explains (p. 194). Both Clinton and the Republicans "used racial references" to attack Obama, including the attacks on Obama "for his perceived inability to connect to 'real working Americans'" (p. 194).
The Republican sideshow called "Joe the plumber" attacked Obama with the charge that Obama was "seeking to take money from hardworking 'real Americans' to give it to 'those people'" (p. 194). Clinton questioned Obama's patriotism suggesting that he was not a "real" American. Parker notes that when Governor Dukakis ran for president as a Democrat, he was attacked but no one questioned whether he was "a real American as they did with Obama" (p. 195).
The authors present…… [Read More]
Shady American Elections of 1876
The most corruption ridden, heinous and questionable presidential election in American history had only just begun. During the presidential campaign, Rutherford was blasted by Tilden's opposition labeling him thief, briber and a drunkard. Eyebrows were raised in states controlled by Republican about voting fraud; armed and dangerous bigoted white democrats had enveloped the South thwarting blacks from voting in elections. Hence in the aftermath, South Carolina, Louisiana and Florida were judged too close to call. With these states still in-pending, Tilden was short of one electrical vote of 185 as written in the constitution to win an election. Hayes captured 165 electoral votes; now he just needed 20 electoral votes to win from these mentioned three states to attain the president's seat. The crisis began slowly leading up to the threat of a civil war which finally concluded behind the curtain deal, popularly known as…… [Read More]
E-Voting and elated Use of the Internet for Elections
Electronic voting often regarded as Internet voting, online voting or e-voting is an electoral system that utilizes encoding to permit a voter to pass on their secure and confidential ballot over the web. (E-Ping meeting Brussels) The democratic system of formation of government entails authority of the citizens to choose leaders and to represent them in the Legislative Assembly and form the government. It is pertinent to note that a lot of citizens are found to be uninterested in the process of election and do not even cast their vote. Such attitude of the voters may arise out of the lack of awareness about how and where to cast their ballot, lack of awareness about the election process or lack of time. (unning Head: Future Elections -- On the Internet?)
This is particularly true in case of United States since there…… [Read More]
incumbent is the existing holder of a political office who normally has a structural advantage over challengers during an election," ("The Power of Incumbency" 1). In the House of Representatives, incumbents win over 80% of their elections ("The Power of Incumbency" 1). For the presidential race, the power of incumbency is different and in many ways, weaker due to term limits and the nature of the executive office. Anti-incumbency can haunt presidents who, for whatever exogenous or endogenous factors, had a difficult presidency. Prevailing party fatigue can also be a factor boosting the chances of a non-incumbent from the opposing political party. In the case of presidential elections taking place after a two-term president such as in 2016, there is no incumbent and therefore the process by which the hopefuls win their party's nomination becomes the focal point of their campaign work.
Incumbents enjoy obvious advantages over their non-incumbent counterparts…… [Read More]
Nichols and McChesney (2013) write about election spending and the negative effect that it has on democracy and governance in America in their book Dollarocracy: How the money-and-election complex is destroying America.. They have divided the book into central themes, including the concept of privilege, spending by the very wealthy, advertising and the role of the media in the election machine, finally arriving at some suggestions for reform to restore balance to the democratic system of the United States.
The book opens with an explanation of one of the core principles that underpins their arguments, that America is a society driven by class differences. Those with privilege consistently seek to use that privilege to enhance it. The authors make the case that such practices at this point are so rampant that "the United States is now rapidly approaching a point where the electoral process itself ceases to function as…… [Read More]
The third secondary source we will look at here is Kaiser (2009). Kaiser argues that money has corroded the electoral process in the United States. He gives statistical data on the rising cost of political campaigns as an indication of how money's importance has grown in the last several decades. If the campaigns of all the candidates for President, the House, and the Senate cost less than a billion dollars in 1976, in 2000 it was $2.8 billion (even if adjusted to the inflation), while in 2004 it was $4.2 billion. "This steady increase appears now to be a permanent fixture of our politics," he says (p. 290). Kaiser also gives examples of how money spent by individuals allowed them to win seats in the House or the Senate. For example, John Corzine, a retired investment banker and a Democrat, won a Senate seat from New Jersey in 2000…… [Read More]
presidential administration continues to insist that all of the factors are in place for an economic recovery, on the eve of a midterm election season, current trends don't seem to indicate any real or applicable relief from our recessionary status. What at first appeared to be a mild recovery may, in fact, be shaping up for the second leg of a double dip. This week's report placed unemployment, in the month of July, at 5.9%, a steady rate for the last six months. This mediocre stability, most analysts seem to believe, however, will give way this month to an even greater blow, perhaps as high as 6.5%. This news, combined with recent projections by mega-corps Disney and National Semiconductor that earnings will not meet expectations this quarter, have compounded the trauma to a stock market already reeling in the face of so much economic scandal. Rather than recovery, we seem…… [Read More]
Preserving the current form of government will ease Nepal's transition from a constitutional monarchy to a constitutional republic. If the nation were to suddenly switch voting procedures and governmental structures, the resulting confusion would threaten to undermine the fledgling system. Furthermore, a large number of Nepalese residents are either connected to or from India and are familiar with its parliamentary system.
A parliamentary system allows for a greater plurality of voices in the legislative branch of government. Nepal is an extraordinarily diverse country, with no one ethnic group comprising more than 15.5% of the nation's population (CIA). The recent political strife in Nepal is partly rooted in the strong Maoist presence there. Maoist demands for political representation in parliament was finally granted during the recent turmoil in 2007 (CIA). Nepal's main considerations when composing its new constitution and attendant form of government include maintaining political stability, permitting a plurality of…… [Read More]
CUENT COVEAGE OF THE 2016 PESIDENTIAL ELECTION
Donald Trump is flying high in the 2016 presidential election campaigns. Besides crushing his epublican opponents in national polls, Trump's critics have thrown in the towel (McCutcheon & Mark, 2016). Having underrated his candidature and accused of a racist and sexist huckster, Trump is now receiving the ultimate compliment and being taken seriously. This essay attempts to discuss the mystery of Donald Tramp's appeal. His opponents have to deal with his demeanor, his disdain for intellectual and party elites, as well as his talent for drawing media coverage. How is Trump achieving all these successes? Whichever the case, Trump's current position and his ultimate fate warrant a theoretical explanation. George Lakoff's linguistic theory is used to understand Trump's success. In this sense, the essay will focus on three major linguistic aspects of how Trump wants us to see him: insulting, big…… [Read More]
Government preferable in a Presidential system? Why or why not?
Before it can be considered whether a divided government is preferable in a presidential system, divided government must be defined. A divided government refers to a government, in which the president is a member of one political party, and at least one chamber of Congress, whether the Senate or the House of Representatives, is controlled by the opposite political party. Divided government is a frequent historical occurrence in America, meant to dissuade radical changes in policy and to motivate politicians of both parties to compromise on proposed legislation. Divided government is natural in a presidential democracy, and is preferable to a one-party congress when balance and stability of government is the chief cause for concern, as it was for the founding fathers in the 18th century.
It is normal for presidential systems to become divided governments, particularly in the mid-term…… [Read More]
It is headed in the right direction and will surly prosper in the many years to come.
(c)Why were you able to accomplish what you did when you did?
We have been able to accomplish what we have because of the Land Grant College Act of 1862. In early 1848, Congressman Justin Smith Morrill of Vermont suggested that American colleges might steer away from the portion of the studies that had been established so many years ago and think about moving in a direction of having studies with more practical values. In 1857, he introduced a bill that incorporated leading reform notions in regards to technical education. He proposed that institutions should promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in areas that relate to the professions that people were doing (udolph, 1990, p. 149).
This act provided for the support in every state of at least one…… [Read More]
The selected candidate, Lyndon B. Johnson's ad can be found here: http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/1964. The ad chosen is the most famous of his ads, "Peace Little Girl (Daisy)."Although the ad is not informative in the traditional sense, the lack of explanatory words adds a powerful yet simple cinematic device that resonated with people making this ad value-laden. By using an innocent child juxtaposed with a bomb explosion, the fear generated by these images provided enough of a reaction that made the ad effective. It is because the overall message was fear, fear of what would happen should people not vote for Johnson. The male narrator at the end told the audience vote for Johnson and this direct action showed effectively that the audience really only has one choice in the campaign, to vote for Johnson.
There's no common link between this ad and the others below. However, the ad did influence me…… [Read More]
Role of Diminishing Marginal Return on Voter Turnout
This paper looks at the effects of diminishing marginal returns on voter turnout by comparing voter turnout in various countries. The paper will look at countries with both high and low voter turnout and attempt to explain the differences in the importance of the vote in explaining the differences.
Voter Turnout in Established and Less-Established Democracies
While the leaders in turnout during the past few decades have been mainly new democracies, when one looks at broader figures there does appear to be a difference in turnout between "established democracies" and "less-established democracies.
Political scientist Arend Lijphart, categorized established democracies as all countries that are democratic now, and have been democratic for the last 20 years, and which have a population of at least a quarter of a million people (International IDEA, 2000).
A. Discussion of Data from Established Democracies vs. Less-Established…… [Read More]
He still occasionally 'bums smokes' and chews nicotine gum to combat cravings (Altman, 2008, p 3). Obama's campaign released records suggesting that he is in excellent health -- only one page long. The only specific data they have revealed is his low cholesterol rating. The question arises -- if Obama is in such good health (and he does work out very frequently) why the reticence about the information (Altman, 2008, p.3).
The Obama campaign has implied that the mere appearance of good health on the part of the candidate should be enough, a statement that they would likely mock if it came from the older McCain. McCain has also cited the longevity of his mother as an example of why people should be unworried about his candidacy but again, this is hardly scientific proof of his fitness (Tasker & Chrissos, 2008, p.1). Of course, one of the reasons that questions…… [Read More]
Congress and Models of Presidential Leadership
The following article presents a discussion on campaigning trends in modern congress with critical emphasis on plebiscitary politics and governing, as well as a look into the application of the following presidential leadership models; minimalist, self- reliant, and strategic competence.
VICTIMS RIGHTS MOVEMENT
Trends in Modern Congress
Robert Dahl, a political scientist, states that Congress is affected by the nature of American politics, which is increasingly becoming plebiscitary. Pushing for plebiscitary politics, Dahl propagates a more direct connection between elected officials and the public as well as the removal of intermediaries -- membership organizations and parties in this case -- that sought to represent public opinion to the officials they elected. If observed more keenly and directly, instead of mediated, public opinion is more crucial-- which is closer to Madison's dreams for the national legislature. New technologies facilitate plebiscitary politics. Developments…… [Read More]
Fred I. Greenstein, The Presidential Difference: Leadership Style from FDR to Barack Obama, Third Edition. Princeton University Press, 2009.
Fred I. Greenstein's central point The Presidential Difference is that in the modern U.S. political system since the Great Depression and Second World War, the presidents are now they key actors, far more so than the pre-1933 period when Congress was the most important branch of government. Because the role of the executive expanded exponentially in both foreign and domestic affairs, the leadership style of the presidents became a crucial factor in policymaking and policy failures. He analyzes the leadership style of the thirteen presidents from Franklin Roosevelt to Barack Obama, including their communication abilities (or lack thereof), personality and emotional makeup, cognitive/intellectual abilities, and organizational talents. If Roosevelt set the pattern and served as the template for the modern chief executive -- and there seems to be little doubt that…… [Read More]
Superiority of the anadian Government over that of the United States Regarding Access to the Media by Political Parties
The media, with its diverse modes of mass communication, plays a pivotal role in electoral campaigns both in anada and the United States. andidates for political office thoroughly understand the infinite potential in utilizing the media for their campaign platforms. With just one brief thirty-second advertisement during a commercial break either on the radio or on television, a candidate instantaneously speaks to millions of attentive listeners and/or viewers. By launching a national communications campaign, a political nominee essentially creates the most efficient and mesmerizing tool in his electoral arsenal.
Though the media has admittedly proven to be an invaluable tool in bridging the gap between a candidate and his constituency, there are a myriad of ethical issues that constrict a candidate from utilizing this resource to it's fullest potential. The main…… [Read More]
Ad Analysis for Presidential Candidates
Lyndon Baines Johnson
Link to chosen campaign ad: http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/1964
The main ad I viewed for LBJ was the one entitled "Our President." It was a black and white ad of still photographs. The pictures were of Johnson sitting with a look of concentration and his head resting on one hand. The message in the background talked about what the president is to be and what the presidents have been. It is basically saying that Johnson is the current president and he matches the preceding ones in his concern, prudence, etc. The language of the ad is formal and biographical. There are no harsh or negative words and the tone is measured and consistent. At the end of the ad, two things are noticeable. The narrator asks that you "Vote for President Johnson on November third" and secondly he adds the catch phrase which…… [Read More]
Constitutional Democracy / Presidential or Parliamentary System
Social and Economic Sources of Democracy
For the successful development of a democracy, two major factors come into play regarding the sources of said democracy. Of course, some of the factors are also indications of other regimes -- fascist and communist -- though as argued by the various papers, there is a distinct difference in the political structures that determine democracies over fascist and communist regimes. Because of the major results created by such factors, the most important sources of democracy would have to be the economic, industrialized, and educational values within the nation.
"The level of economic development, as measured by per capita income, is by far the best predictor of political regimes" (Przeworski). While there appears to be a similarity between the development of economic countries in dictatorships and democracies, Przeworski maintains that a dictatorship eventually dies and paves the way…… [Read More]
Solutions for the Future
Even a quick look at budget documents for the next few decades indicate a system burdened with exploding costs of Social Security, Medicaid, and Medicare; the latter the powder keg of the debt explosion. A reform of Medicare in which there is "only $1 in Medicare taxes for every $3 in benefits likely to be received in retirement" (Appelbaum & Gebeloff 6) must be a Congressional and Presidential priority. eturning the program to a role of insurance rather than a direct coverage program would be a start; Paul yan's proposal of premium support is a working model. Social Security must also be strengthened with common sense adjustments in payroll tax collection and age eligibility.
Those are the entitlement reforms however; these changes also forego the numerous tax expenditures which increase the government tab. The earned income tax credit, home mortgage deduction, and education credits are tax…… [Read More]
Standard Outline of Presentation
The purpose of this presentation is to inform the audience about why voters are angry in today's political climate so that they might better understand their choices at the polls this November. The central idea of this presentation is that voters are angry because they perceive the Establishment to be against them, the system to be "rigged," and the wars in the Middle East to be unending and dangerous to global security.
The ideal audience for this presentation would be anyone attempting to understand why this election is seeing two unpopular candidates in a presidential contest -- on the one hand, a political insider and polished member of the Washington Establishment, and on the other hand an unpolished outsider who seeks to represent Middle America. The audience could be broad and include all genders, races, and ages.
This topic is important for the audience because an…… [Read More]
Obama famously referred to his white grandmother during the campaign who tragically passed away the night before he was elected, as a woman of tolerance, yet who still was subject to the prejudices of society enough to feel uncomfortable when she saw an African-American walking across the street. Although this remark was criticized, Obama's point was that in America, race was inescapable, and prejudice must be dealt with through voicing concerns, rather than pretending racial divides did not exist. At times, America's unspoken discourse about race seemed to harm Obama, as in his difficulty wresting the nomination from Clinton in states like Pennsylvania, states with large, older, white working-class populations. But the desire for change and the ability to cross barriers and humanize himself seemed to counteract this: The Obama generation "has been knocked for putting all of their personal stuff on full display...But there is an upside, too, which…… [Read More]
The author continues his analysis on how American politics will look like when he addresses the different points-of-view and chances of becoming the next American President for Mr. Obama and Mr. McCain.
An illustrative example of the many he offers, is the tax issue: once opposed to the tax cuts that President Bush made, Mr. McCain argues for the importance of lowering taxes whilst Mr. Obama argues for a system in which prosperous citizens pay more and higher taxes. Yet the most striking difference between the two that Birnbaum makes relates to foreign policy. The author basically argues in favor of Mr. Obama as he sees the McCain foreign policy not only imperial but also reckless and dangerous for the role that the United States will play in world politics. He sees McCain's vision as being worse that the Bush administration offering somehow exaggerated examples from the Republican candidate like…… [Read More]
urthermore, voter turnout for election 2004 exceeded voter turnout for 2000 by approximately 8%. However, many of those voters can be attributed to efforts of special interest groups, which appealed to voters in the extremes of both parties. If the Democrats plan to win future elections, they have to capture undecided voters in the swing states. The Democrats are not going to win the votes of the undecided by appealing to the far left of the Democratic Party.
Perhaps the best recent example of a moderate Democrat is Bill Clinton. Clinton was the last successful Democratic Presidential. In addition to being a political moderate, and despite the fact that Clinton was also better-educated than the average American and less overtly religious than Kerry, Clinton was seen as more in-touch with the average person. Some Democratic Party centrists have complained that Kerry's loss was due to him straying from the winning…… [Read More]
High turnouts also helped to determine several key local and state elections. The large numbers of Latino voters in California also helped secure the passage of Proposition 8, therefore revoking gay married couples of their rights. A majority of 53% of Latino voters supported Proposition 8 (Ferriss & Reese 1). This is also thought to be due to the higher association with religious institutions over white liberal voters in California
Young voters also flocked to the polls this election in record numbers. These voters represented a large liberal majority who voted primarily Democratic in most election decisions. Many sources have been labeling this 2008 election as the second largest youth turnout in the whole of American history, (Morgenstern 1). Unprecedented numbers of young voters showed up to the polls to make the voice of a young America heard. Somewhere within the ranges of 22 and 24 million young adults between…… [Read More]
Nixon's election indicated a shift to the right in American politics that would remain in place for most of the next twenty-five years. The success of the third-party candidacy of George allace also indicated that there was lingering racism in America. The long-term effects of the election for the Democrats was their being out of the hite House for twenty of the next twenty-four years during which time the Party underwent a major transformation. For Nixon, personally, the election actually signaled the beginning of the end of his political career. ithin months of the inauguration, the Nixon administration was plagued with controversy which ultimately led to Nixon's resigning in disgrace shortly into his second term of office.
Bundy, illiam P. Tangled eb: The Making of Foreign Policy in the Nixon Presidency. New York: Hill & ang Publishers, 1998.
Burner, David. Making Peace with the 60s. Princeton, NJ: Princeton…… [Read More]
election of George W. ush over Al Gore in 2000, who won the electoral vote in spite of losing the popular vote, rekindled a controversy that has been going on for some time now: has the Electoral College mechanism lived its time?
According to the United States constitution, each state is entitled to choose its electors for president and vice-president as a number equal to the total number of representatives and senators the respective state has. The choosing itself is left to the states, by direct popular vote in each state. If the voting for President is a tie, the Constitution specified that this would be decided upon in the House of Representatives. In the initial way the Electoral College was designed by the founding fathers, the winner of the majority of electoral votes would win the election and become president, while the runner-up would become Vice-President. Of course, it…… [Read More]