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Persuasion Features of Presidential Scandal Speeches

Words: 2997 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63115226

Presidential Speech

The Presidents accused of scandals in the history of American politics have been known to make memorable apology speeches. Even though, the speech that the Presidents made were done by different people and in different times, marked similarities and patterns have been noted. The Lewinsky scandal was basically a political sex scandal that occurred in 1999. This scandal came out because the President was accused of having a sexual relationship with an intern in the White House, Monica Lewinsky. The Watergate scandal occurred in 1970 because five men were caught at the Democratic National Committee and further investigations led to President Nixon being found guilty of committing fraud. Another fraud that highlighted a President as the causative agent was the Iran Arms and Contra Aid Controversy. This scandal occurred when President Reagan was in the administration and the officials in charge were accused of selling arms to Iran…… [Read More]

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Presidential Race Wednesday April 16

Words: 886 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53136169

Some critics feel that cCain needs to be more actively involved in the bill

Anyone with an interest in Veteran's benefits would be able to get some information about cCain's views. These might help a voter make a decision.

onday, April 14, 2008; Washington Post

The article deals with support that Obama is getting from both abortion foes and advocates. It gives details about his views concerning abortion and how others have responded to these views. Both pro-choice and abortion critics are interviewed for their response.

If the voter has a special interest in the abortion issue, this article might help him or her sort out the various details.

Saturday, April 26, 2008; the News & Observer

The article reports on a photo opportunity that involved John cCain, and whether it was a positive or negative situation. This and other controversial campaign visits/speeches are being called hypocritical by the Democrats.…… [Read More]

Monday, April 7, 2008; Washington Post

This article was written following the resignation of Clinton's chief strategist. It discusses the reasons for the resignation with quotes from a number of involved parties.

This will not assist anyone is choosing a candidate. It only presents information about Clinton's campaign staff.
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Presidential Candidates the Three Presidential

Words: 379 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60430603

Still, one has to wonder if the poor will move forward with insurance even with the subsidies. Certainly, many of these individuals will make poor healthcare decisions without federal mandates for healthcare.

Clinton's plan is the best because in mandates individual coverage for all Americans. Like Obama's plan, Clinton would provide tax credits for working families to help them cover their costs. Just like individuals need to buy automobile insurance to cover their bills if they are in an accident, they should have to buy health insurance to cover their medical bills if they become sick. This is only common sense given that an illness can quickly bankrupt a family. Clinton's plan is also that only one that makes people do the right thing rather than relying on individuals to behave responsibly.

ibliography

McCain's health care proposal emphasizes 'freedom'. (2007, October 11). CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2007/POLITICS/10/11/mccain.healthcare.ap/index.html

Providing affordable and accessible healthcare. http://www.hillaryclinton.com/issues/healthcare/…… [Read More]

Bibliography

McCain's health care proposal emphasizes 'freedom'. (2007, October 11). CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2007/POLITICS/10/11/mccain.healthcare.ap/index.html

Providing affordable and accessible healthcare. http://www.hillaryclinton.com/issues/healthcare/

The time has come for universal healthcare (2007, January 25). http://obama.senate.gov/speech/070125-the_time_has_co
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Presidential Character by James Barber

Words: 1550 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 63121539

He seems to draw easy causal connections between policy and personality that deny the exterior circumstances of history. For example, he suggests that Hoover's rigid personality made him unable to accept changes in classical economic theory during the beginning of the Great Depression, and to adopt a more Keynesian approach. Barber asserts that it was not the conventional wisdom of the time that hampered Hoover as much as his own character, despite the fact that few people really could assuredly state they had the 'answer' to the financial crisis at that time. The adaptive-negative aspects of Johnson's personality made that president similarly resistant to the idea of pulling out of Vietnam, and his egoism made him unwilling to be seen as 'losing' the war -- but what about the pressures of the Cold War during that era? Historians also might find some objection to Barber's psychoanalyzing so many major presidential…… [Read More]

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Presidential Election of 2008 in

Words: 350 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94293197

Another Wall Street Journal article (April 2, 2007) explains that Senator Hillary Clinton is the current top fundraiser among Democratic candidates for president.

n the Washington Post (March 29, 2007), former presidential candidate Steve Forbes has decided not to run again, but he threw his endorsement over to Republican Rudy Giuliani. Senator Hillary Clinton, meanwhile, picked up the endorsement of owa Governor Tom Vilsack, according to the New York Times (March 24, 2007). n the March 19, 2007 edition of the Washington Post, it is reported that presidential candidates will continue to receive Secret Service security protection. The Los Angeles Times (March 18, 2007) reports that Senator Clinton is running as "the female-warrior" candidate and Barak Obama is running as the "black-white-immigrant" candidate. And the Washington Post reports on March 18, 2007 that the excellence of the speechwriters for Democratic Senator Chris…… [Read More]

In the New York Times on March 13, 2007, it is reported that Nebraska Senator Chuck Hagel has decided not to run for the presidency on the Republican ticket. Although the senator was not in a financial position to compete against better-funded candidates - and his position against continuing the Iraq war might find favor with voters - Senator John McCain thought that Hagel could have made inroads. The New York Times reported on March 22 that New York State legislators have set next February 5, 2008, as the date for their presidential primary.

In the Los Angeles Times (January 25, 2007) it was reported that U.S. Senator John Kerry had decided not to make another run for the White House. Kerry was apparently not "position well" in contrast to some of the other Democratic candidates, and additionally, he said he wants to put "my energy to work as part of the majority in the Senate...to end this war." An editorial in the Wall Street Journal on April 3, 2007, reported that the Commission on Presidential Debates should create a presidential debate system whereby final presidential candidates from both parties would debate "at least once a week" from Labor Day to the November election. Another Wall Street Journal article (April 2, 2007) explains that Senator Hillary Clinton is the current top fundraiser among Democratic candidates for president.

In the Washington Post (March 29, 2007), former presidential candidate Steve Forbes has decided not to run again, but he threw his endorsement over to Republican Rudy Giuliani. Senator Hillary Clinton, meanwhile, picked up the endorsement of Iowa Governor Tom Vilsack, according to the New York Times (March 24, 2007). In the March 19, 2007 edition of the Washington Post, it is reported that presidential candidates will continue to receive Secret Service security protection. The Los Angeles Times (March 18, 2007) reports that Senator Clinton is running as "the female-warrior" candidate and Barak Obama is running as the "black-white-immigrant" candidate. And the Washington Post reports on March 18, 2007 that the excellence of the speechwriters for Democratic Senator Chris Dodd is evident; Dodd has received "rave reviews" from a speech he gave to the International Association of Fire Fighters.
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presidential negotiating case'study

Words: 695 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 79156361

Presidential Negotiations

President George H.. Bush is an eloquent speaker and an effective negotiator. Regardless of what your particular feelings on the what the US policies have been in the Middle East, it is clear by the address before Congress that President Bush offered before the American people how support for the war was gained. He acted with firm conviction and dedication to what he believed, as well as operated in an organized and effective leadership style. It is also clear that he was a skilled politician and carefully selected his battles. Although his calls for intervention in the Middle East were dressed in rhetoric that focuses on high ideals, there is reason to believe that Bush's motivations were largely pragmatic.

For example, in June 1989, the Chinese military suppressed a pro-democracy movement demonstrating in Beijing's Tiananmen Square in a violent demonstration that used a disproportionate use of tanks and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Global Research. (2012, March 5). Gulf War Documents: Meeting between Saddam Hussein and US Ambassador to Iraq April Glaspie. Retrieved from Global Research:  http://www.globalresearch.ca/gulf-war-documents-meeting-between-saddam-hussein-and-ambassador-to-iraq-april-glaspie/31145 

Miller Center. (N.d.). George H. W. Bush: Foreign Affairs. Retrieved from Miller Center:  https://millercenter.org/president/bush/foreign-affairs 

Walt, S. (2011, January 9). WikiLeaks, April Glaspie, and Saddam Hussein. Retrieved from Foreign Policy:  http://foreignpolicy.com/2011/01/09/wikileaks-april-glaspie-and-saddam-hussein/
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Victory Speech Offer Close Readings of Presidential

Words: 685 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23603801

Victory speech" offer close readings of presidential speeches given during times of crisis. Safire's essay analyzes Abraham Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address," which was delivered during a commemoration ceremony soon after one of the bloodiest battles of the Civil ar. ood's essay analyzes Barak Obama's victory speech after Obama won the presidency in 2008. Obama, the first African-American elected to the office of the presidency, took power during a time when America was at war and facing its deepest financial crisis since the Great Depression.

Safire analyzes the Gettysburg Address to encourage the reader reconsider the speech in a new way, given that the Address has become a kind of cliche, rather than a living, breathing document that inspires people. Safire notes the number of times the word 'dedicate' is articulated in the speech, and the determination and self-sacrifice called upon by Lincoln. He analyzes how the speech is broken down, paragraph…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Safire, William. "A spirit reborn." The New York Times. September 9, 2002. [March 24, 2011]

 http://www.nytimes.com/2002/09/09/opinion/a-spirit-reborn.html 

Wood, Victor. "A spirit reborn." The New Yorker. November 17, 2008. [March 24,

2011]  http://www.newyorker.com/talk/2008/11/17/081117ta_talk_wood
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Speech or Letter Currently There Is a

Words: 864 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33913860

Speech or Letter

Currently there is a great deal of controversy surrounding the issue of the reinstatement of the draft in the United States. There are rumors and whispers rampantly floating through the media that are frightening the general public, while the officials who are actually in the know about the subject are categorically denying such intentions. In an article written just a few days ago the Coastal Post (with no byline) contends that a military and civilian draft is inevitable by spring 2005. (Coastal Post nline (http://www.coastalpost.com/04/07/01.htm)

The title of the article in and of itself is inflammatory "Military and Civilian Draft Expected in 2005 For 18- to 25-year-olds." The article goes on to state that there are two pending bills in the House and Senate (twin bills: S. 89 and HR 163) meaning Senate bill 89 and House of Representatives bill 163. The article states that those two…… [Read More]

One of the last bits of evidence offered by the unknown author is associated with the language of the proposed (and historically unsupported unpopular) legislation, "Congress brought twin bills, S. 89 and HR 163 forward this year...entitled the Universal National Service Act of 2003, "to provide for the common defense by requiring that all young persons [age 18 -- 26] in the United States, including women, perform a period of military service or a period of civilian service in furtherance of the national defense and homeland security, and for other purposes." This is not a bill to reinstate a draft it is an unpopular and historically unsupported demand for compulsory military service. Voluntary service has been the popular stance since the Vietnam Era.

This work is obviously and inflammatory and unconvincing attempt at persuasion, written by someone who will remain anonymous. It dismisses the opposition by taking away its voice and clearly does not deal with counter evidence. The rhetorical appeals of the work are associated with highly emotional and trigger happy conspiracy theories, and unknown sources and experts. The article on a whole is not persuasive and despite its strong title it did not scare me at all.

Coastal Post Online "Military and Civilian Draft Expected in 2005 For 18- to 25-year-olds," July 13, 2004 at  http://www.coastalpost.com/04/07/01.htm
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Presidential History

Words: 1459 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12034932

Shakespeare structures his play King Lear, the first scene reveals how frustrated Lear is with his younger daughter Cordelia, who cannot find the words on command to express her love for him.

This sets Lear up to place his trust in her two older and conniving sister, Goneril and Regan.

In the second scene, a similar situation begins to develop for the Earl of Gloucester, who has two sons.

His situation is more complicated.

All three of King Lear's daughters are born legitimately (within marriage) to him.

However, the Earl has one legitimate and one illegitimate son.

The legitimate son, Edgar, stands to inherit his father's title and property.

Edmund, as a bastard son, is not likely to inherit anything.

The Earl has not denied Edmund's parentage, but Edmund is painfully aware, and resentful of, his second class status.

As Scene ii of Act I opens, Edmund is in his…… [Read More]

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Historical Speech

Words: 987 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76040604

Speech

For the first part of this exercise, I will dwell on Lou Gehrig's speech. The speech in question has featured prominently in quite a number of speech collections as a truly historical speech, alongside those given by the likes of Martin Luther King and Winston Churchill. Commonly referred to as the Iron Horse due to both his commitment and durability as far as baseball is concerned, Gehrig was at the prime age of 36 when he was struck by what has now come to be referred to as Lou Gehrig's disease. The disease effectively ended his long and illustrious career in baseball. This speech, which I will rewrite to convey the opposite message, was delivered by Gehrig during a ceremony held in his honor by his friends and team mates. Given his circumstances at the time, one would have expected the speech to be self-defeating and perhaps full of…… [Read More]

References

American Rhetoric (2013). Lou Gehrig: Farewell to Baseball Address. Retrieved from http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/lougehrigfarewelltobaseball.htm

Natural Resources Defense Council (2012). The Consequences of Global Warming on Weather Patterns. Retrieved from  http://www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/fcons/fcons1.asp 

Union of Concerned Scientists (2011). Climate Hot Map: Global Warming Effects around the World -- Solutions to Global Warming. Retrieved from  http://www.climatehotmap.org/global-warming-solutions/
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Poll Data to Help Predict Outcome of 2012 Presidential Race

Words: 823 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65293879

Presidential Election Poll Data 2012

National Poll Data: 2012 Presidential Election

We are waist deep into election season. Now is the time for frantic fundraising, polling, and campaigning. ecent polls show a lot about the political beliefs and behavior of upcoming American voters. Analyzing poll results can help forecast the next president of the United States. After examining three polls in particular, a strong prediction can be made showing now President Barack Obama as the next likely president of the United States.

One ongoing poll helps paint a very detailed picture of how the two candidates are fairing within the American presidential race of 2012. This was a detailed poll that is continuously producing numbers base don interviewing registered voters. It is being conducted by Gallup Politics. Beginning in April 2012, representatives from Gallup Politics have asked registered voters "Suppose the presidential election were held today, if Barack Obama were…… [Read More]

References

Elliott, Scott. (2012). Latest polls & pundit ratings changes. Election Projection. Web. Retrieved September 29, 2012 from  http://www.electionprojection.com/2012elections/polls/ 

Gallop Politics. (2012). Election 2012 Trial Heat. Obama vs. Romney among registered voters. Polls. Web. Retrieved September 29, 2012 from  http://www.gallup.com/poll/150743/Obama-Romney.aspx 

Rainey, James. (2012). Mitt Romney's 47% comment alienated undecided voters: Poll. Los Angeles Times. Web. Retrieved September 29, 2012 from  http://www.latimes.com/news/politics/la-pn-mitt-romneys-47-percent-poll-20120925,0,5822326.story
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US Presidential Elections

Words: 2409 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35771704

Presidential Elections

Because of the extreme conditions of the 1930s depression, the New Deal under Franklin Roosevelt went further in expanding the powers of the federal government than any previous administration in history, certainly far beyond the very limited role permitted to it by the conservative administrations of arren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover in 1921-33. It was the worst depression in U.S. history, and led not only to the complete collapse of all Street and the financial system, but of industrial production as well, which fell 85% in 1929-33, while the Gross National Project fell by half and in some cities like Chicago the unemployment rate rose as high as 50-60%. At the same time, the entire banking system collapsed by 1933, as did agricultural prices, and money stopped circulating. John Maynard Keynes and other economists blamed this severe contraction on low incomes, unequal distribution of wealth,…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Clarke, P. Keynes: The Rise, Fall and Return of the 20th Century's Most Influential Economist. Bloomsbury Press, 2009.

Fine, S. Sit-down: The General Motors Strike of 1936-37. University of Michigan Press, 1960.

Heinrichs, W. "Lyndon B. Johnson: Change and Continuity" in Warren I Cohen and Nancy Bernkopf Tucker (eds). Lyndon Johnson Confronts the World: American Foreign Policy, 1963-68. Cambridge, 1994: 9- 31.

Skidelsky, R. Keynes: The Return of the Master. Perseus Books Group, 2010.
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Clinton's Speech After Lewinsky's Scandal

Words: 4945 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 25316762

Clinton's Lewinsky Speech

Presidential scandal speeches should be considered a unique form of discoursed that follow a common pattern and have similar elements. All of these may not be found in every single speech but most certainly will, including ichard Nixon's Second Watergate Speech (1973), onald eagan's Iran-Contra Speech (1987), and Bill Clinton's Monica Lewinsky Speech (1998). All the presidents used strong, direct and active voice when making these speeches, with Clinton seeming to be particularly prone to narcissism and use of the first-person singular. A standard feature of all such speeches is for the president to take responsibility for what went wrong, express regret, and then call on the country to move on so the government can return to dealing with the nation's 'real' business. Both Nixon and Clinton also had a strong tendency to blame their political enemies for their predicament, and with good reason, although in Nixon's…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Clinton, B. (1998). Monica Lewinsky Speech.

 http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1998/08/17/speech/transcript.html 

Nixon, R. (1973). Second Watergate Speech.

 http://watergate.info/nixon/73-08-15watergate-speech.shtml
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Lincoln's Speech Compared the Evolution of Lincoln's

Words: 1602 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90316321

Lincoln's Speech Compared

The Evolution of Lincoln's Thought in His Speeches

Abraham Lincoln is one of the most celebrated and popular Presidents in the history of the United States. Lincoln presided over the Presidency at a difficult time for the country, when the unity of the nation was at stake and the question of slavery deeply polarized the society into two. Lincoln was able to preserve the Union, but at a great cost which made him as controversial as he was popular. But it is uncontroversial among his contemporaries and the readers of his speeches today that the sixteenth President of the United States was a great orator, able to address a broad range of audience: rich and poor, literate and illiterate, freemen and slaves; and he possessed a rare skill of persuasion. Lincoln was able to address a divided nation with great care and measurement. He was reserved when…… [Read More]

Works Cited

All the references come from The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, edited by Roy P. Basler, and is available online at (Accessed: February 19, 2011).
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Huckabee's Victory Speech in Iowa

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92570013

" He also makes sure to mention how much his family enjoyed their stay in Iowa, bringing up the names of his children and one aspect each one those loved best. his makes Iowa voters feel at him with Huckabee and respect his opinion because it is so alike to their own.

Mike Huckabee then turns to attack the money oriented American political style. He explains how America needs to see how money does not control everything, and gives his victory in Iowa as an example of how change is possible. His message resonates well with the population of Iowa, the majority of which have never lived a lavish life style associated with East and West Coast politicians, "Well, tonight we proved that American politics still is in the hands of ordinary folks like you and across this country who believe that it wasn't about who raised the most money…… [Read More]

Throughout his victory speech, Mike Huckabee continues to bring up traditional Middle America values of family and morality. By tapping into the very core of his audience's existence, he assured his victory which brought about his speech. Although his message may have been lost in translation if speaking to New York of California voters, the middle class values of home over money really made a mark in Iowa. This is why his campaign was so successful in Iowa, he appealed to the voters' sense of family and the need for change to address Middle American values over money and power.

Source of Speech Transcripts:

Newsday.com.  http://www.newsday.com/news/local/politics/ny-ushuck0105-transcript,0,4901882.story?page=2
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Alexander Stephens Cornerstone Speech

Words: 904 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51489899

Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens' "Cornerstone Speech"

The Civil War was by far the most costly war in terms of human life ever fought by the United States, and the events that precipitated this conflict on U.S. soil included the succession of seven Southern states by March 1861 to form the Confederate States of America. With President Jefferson Davis leading the way, his vice president, Alexander Stephens, delivered a speech in support of the Southern cause including assurances that the new constitution was an improvement on the old, and that commercial enterprises were free to engage in interstate and international commerce at their discretion. Citing concerns over Northern superiority in infrastructure that would make prosecuting the war challenging, the vice president also assured his audience that enormous investments had already been made throughout the South and that more would be made in the future. In sum, this speech was a…… [Read More]

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Susan B Anthony's Speech Women's Right to Suffrage

Words: 835 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42539856

Success: Susan B. Anthony's Speech

The 1870s went down in history as the decade when women's movements stood strongly against oppression, demanding that women be given the same rights as men. In 1873, Susan Anthony was arrested and later released on a $100 dollar fine, all because she had voted in the presidential election the previous year. This, in her mind, amounted to oppression, and was an injustice not only to her, but to all American women. She took her stand, stating that if African-Americans, who prior to 1865 were not considered U.S. citizens, could vote, then women who were citizens by every technical definition, had every right to vote. Antony's speech, 'omen's Right to Vote' successfully combines pathos, logos, and ethos, using both facts and personal testimony to create emotional resonance in her audience. Although this speech alone was not sufficient to grant women the right to vote, it…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Halsall, Paul. "Modern History Sourcebook: Susan B. Anthony: Women's Right to Vote." Fordham University, 1997. Web. 31 May 2014  http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1873anthony.asp 

Miraglia, Ann. "Susan B. Anthony: the Rhetorical Strategy of Her Constitutional Argument (1872)." The College at Brockport Library. State University of New York, 1989. Web. 31 May 2014  http://digitalcommons.brockport.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1003&context=cmc_theses
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Analyzing Obama's Speech Through Aristotle

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72926986

Obama's speech is a good example of Aristotle's rhetoric in practice.

The object of Obama's speech is to win the presidential nomination. His speech is persuasive. He is appealing to the populace of South Carolina (and to that end, he praises them and calls them "the good people of South Carolina").

Analyzing Obama's speech is interesting not so much because of the beauty of the speech -- it is indeed a work of art, poetic -- but also because it teaches us much about rhetoric. We see Aristotle's lesson through the subject and form -- through the craft -- of the speech.

Look at the patterns, for instance, of his speech -- the point so f contrast: The people voting for him, for instance, span a diversity of differences: "They are young and old; rich and poor. They are black and white; Latino and Asian and Native American." Nonetheless, this…… [Read More]

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Nixon's Speech This Is a

Words: 929 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42011871

C. with interest 4 1/2 per cent.

To further arouse compassion, he includes the personal detail about his parents:

"I owe $3,500 to my parents and the interest on that loan which I pay regularly, because it's the part of the savings they made through the years they were working so hard, I pay regularly 4 per cent interest."

. He calls himself "a man of modest means" adding that Abraham Lincoln said: "God must have loved the common people -- "he made so many of them." Nixon, inother words, refers to himself as a 'common'man.

In Paragraph 4, he abuses his opponent commiting the as hominem fallacy i.e. attemtpting to negate the truth of a claim by pointing out negative characteristics or beliefs of the person supporting it.

And now I'm going to suggest some courses of conduct. First of all, you have read in the papers about other…… [Read More]

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2008 Presidential Elections - Mccain

Words: 2256 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 23414383

S. such as providing affordable healthcare for all, paid for by raising taxes on the wealthy; making a sincere effort for energy independence, and generating more jobs while investing in renewable energy and conservation (Borosage and Heuvel).

America, after decades of its love relationship with Conservatism, topped by eight years of the disastrous Bush presidency that has left the country on the brink of financial collapse and almost universal dislike, was indeed ready for change. it, therefore, decisively rejected the candidate -- McCain -- who promised more of the same and chose the candidate for change.

as the U.S. In Need for Change?

That there was a need for change in the U.S. is a no-brainer. On the domestic front, the U.S. is facing perhaps the most formidable economic meltdown since the Great Depression of the 1930s. In eight short years, the Bush administration has managed to turn a huge…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Borosage, Robert and Katrina Heuvel. "What Obama Needs for Progressive Reform." The Nation. September 01, 2008. November 17, 2008.  http://www.thenation.com/doc/20080901/borosage_kvh 

Grunwald, Michael. "For Obama, Race Remains Elephant in the Room." Time Magazine. Monday, Sep. 15, 2008. November 17, 2008.  http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1841109,00.html 

It's time America should take a chance and make Barack Obama the next leader of the free world." The Economist. October 30, 2008

Jakes, T.D. "Will a Black President Really Heal the Racial Divide?" Time Magazine. November 04, 2008. November 17, 2008.  http://www.time.com/time/politics/article/0,8599,1856574,00.html
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2016 Presidential Election Essay

Words: 2047 Length: Pages Document Type: Paper #: Array

Abstract

In what is shaping up to be the strangest election in United States history, the contest between the Democratic nominee, former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton and the Republican nominee, billionaire real estate developer Donald J. Trump is being closely monitored by U.S. voters and an increasingly concerned international community. The Democratic nominee has most recently been charged with several abuses of classified information during her tenure as secretary of state, perjury before the U.S. Congress and illicit dealings with foreign interests buying favors from the State Department through donations to the Clinton Foundation. Conversely, the Republic nominee has been labeled alternatively as “crazy,” “insane,” and “deranged” by a growing number of observers based on his erratic and hate-filled speeches. This essay on the 2016 U.S. Presidential election reviews the literature to provide brief biographies of these presidential candidates followed by an analysis of recent trends that have…… [Read More]

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2008 Democratic Presidential Primary --

Words: 7199 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 46180969

Meanwhile in the journal Du Bois Review (Parker, et al., 2009, p. 194) the authors point to racism and patriotism as key themes for the 2008 Democratic primary election. "Race was a consistent narrative" used by those opposed to Obama, Parker explains (p. 194). Both Clinton and the Republicans "used racial references" to attack Obama, including the attacks on Obama "for his perceived inability to connect to 'real working Americans'" (p. 194).

The Republican sideshow called "Joe the plumber" attacked Obama with the charge that Obama was "seeking to take money from hardworking 'real Americans' to give it to 'those people'" (p. 194). Clinton questioned Obama's patriotism suggesting that he was not a "real" American. Parker notes that when Governor Dukakis ran for president as a Democrat, he was attacked but no one questioned whether he was "a real American as they did with Obama" (p. 195).

The authors present…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alter, Jonathan. "Leading Democrats to Bill Clinton: Pipe Down." Newsweek. (2008).

Retrieved March 17, 2010, from http://www.newsweek.com.

Balz, Dan, and Johnson, Hanes. The Battle for American 2008: The Story of an Extraordinary

Election. New York: Viking, 2009.
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Agenda-Setting Function Mass Media Work Current Presidential

Words: 1167 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71066103

agenda-setting function mass media work current presidential election. Consider essay: a) What issue(s) highlighted media ( candidates ) effect voters year? b) There emphasis independent voters swing states Ohio.

The role of the media in today's society is considered of utmost importance. It shapes opinions, if creates opinions, but most importantly it influences the way in which perceptions are created and decisions taken. This is why the media is viewed in a democratic society to be the fourth power in the state, after the executive, legislative, and judicial ones. This role is most obvious perhaps during election years and periods, regardless of the type of voting action. This is largely due to the fact that the media usually influences the agenda of the elections to take place.

The importance of the presidential elections is without any doubt. These are the times when the media exercises its biggest influence. The Watergate…… [Read More]

References

America.gov.. Third Parties in U.S. Elections. 2008  http://www.america.gov/st/usg-english/2008/September/20080926163103naneerg0.5847132.html 

Driehaus, B. "Court Orders Ohio to Include Libertarian Party on Ballot." The New York Times. 2008.  http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/19/us/politics/19ohio.html?_r=1 

McCombs, M. The Agenda-Setting Role of the Mass Media in the Shaping of Public Opinion. N.d.  http://www.infoamerica.org/documentos_pdf/mccombs01.pdf 

The Conservative Brawler. Agenda-Setting What is it, what role did it play in the 2008 presidential election and where is it going? Agenda-Setting in the Media. 2009. http://www.theconservativebrawler.com/2009/11/msm-agenda-setting-in-2008-election.html
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Constitutional Democracy Presidential or Parliamentary System

Words: 1387 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53640569

Constitutional Democracy / Presidential or Parliamentary System

Social and Economic Sources of Democracy

For the successful development of a democracy, two major factors come into play regarding the sources of said democracy. Of course, some of the factors are also indications of other regimes -- fascist and communist -- though as argued by the various papers, there is a distinct difference in the political structures that determine democracies over fascist and communist regimes. Because of the major results created by such factors, the most important sources of democracy would have to be the economic, industrialized, and educational values within the nation.

"The level of economic development, as measured by per capita income, is by far the best predictor of political regimes" (Przeworski). While there appears to be a similarity between the development of economic countries in dictatorships and democracies, Przeworski maintains that a dictatorship eventually dies and paves the way…… [Read More]

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Ads Analysis for Presidential Candidates

Words: 1843 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57664576

Campaign Advertisements

Ad Analysis for Presidential Candidates

Lyndon Baines Johnson

Link to chosen campaign ad: http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/1964

The main ad I viewed for LBJ was the one entitled "Our President." It was a black and white ad of still photographs. The pictures were of Johnson sitting with a look of concentration and his head resting on one hand. The message in the background talked about what the president is to be and what the presidents have been. It is basically saying that Johnson is the current president and he matches the preceding ones in his concern, prudence, etc. The language of the ad is formal and biographical. There are no harsh or negative words and the tone is measured and consistent. At the end of the ad, two things are noticeable. The narrator asks that you "Vote for President Johnson on November third" and secondly he adds the catch phrase which…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bush, George H.W. Advertisement. Living Room Candidate, 1988. Web.

Carter, Jimmy. Advertisement. Living Room Candidate, 1976. Web.

Clinton, William J. Advertisement. Living Room Candidate, 1992. Web.

Ford, Gerald R. Advertisement. Living Room Candidate, 1976. Web.
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Consecutive Executive George W Obama

Words: 4436 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Methodology Chapter Paper #: 7688432

Kant was no exception to the paradigmatic priorities (i.e. objectivity as knowledge) of the era, and brief reference to the episteme is serves accuracy in discursive analysis of this heritage within American politics and policy thought. For instance, Kant's Critique of Judgment is enormously influential in establishing a connection between judgment and political and moral precepts to conduct in communities. Intellectual lineage to Kant's model of Enlightenment 'reason" combines ritish Empiricism with Continental Rationalism; and partly explains why his philosophical proposition that the existence of persistent war against non-liberal states is a requirement to perpetual peace is reiterated in scholarly expiation since the Enlightenment period, making Perpetual Theory of War as lasting as seminal reference (ehnke, 2009, Caranti, 2006 and Murray, 2003). Discourse Analysis toward the study's cause-and-effect analysis is derived from speeches and interviews taken from the ush administration in Table 1.

Table 1

President ush -- Speeches and…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Behnke, a. (2009). Eternal Peace, Perpetual War? A Critical Investigation into Kant's Conceptualisation of War. Conference Papers -- International Studies Association, 1-18.

Bolton, J. (2010). Obama's Next Three Years. Commentary, 129(1), 24-28.

Brose, C. (2009). The Making of George W. Obama. Foreign Policy, (170), 52-55.

Caranti, L. (2006). Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace? Reflections on the Realist Critique of Kant's Project. Journal of Human Rights, 5(3), 341-353. doi:10.1080/14754830600812357.
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Speaking Analysis on George W Bush

Words: 1556 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96633681

portraying an analysis of the speaking style of George ush

Executive Review

The objective of this paper is merely to collect a number of speeches by George W. ush so as to analyze the particular features and characteristics of his respective speaking style, delivery Etc.

The significance of the presidential speeches of George W. ush is rendered rather unsurprising when considering the circumstances leading to each speech. Take into consideration, for instance, the fact that the inevitable undermining of the political system (s) of the United States of America is the prime reason the leader is viewed with doubt and yet awe for since the execution of the gruesome terrorist attacks conducted against the U.S. On the 11th of September, 2001, it an obstacle that George ush encountered within an exceptionally immature phase of his presidency, ush has at times said things that enraged the world even as they acknowledge…… [Read More]

Bibliography [Annotated]

Lumpkin, Beverley. Everything old is new again. ABCnews.com. March, 2002. Accessed online on June 14, 2004 @  http://abcnews.go.com/sections/us/HallsOfJustice/hallsofjustice70.html  critically focused website that particularly stresses upon the lingual inadequacy of George Bush

George W. Bush. [Presidential] Remarks to rescue workers in New York. September, 2001. Accessed online on June 14, 2004 @  http://www.nando.net/special_reports/terrorism/transcripts/story/79294p-1108713c.ht  website that offers a transcript of the president's remarks to rescue workers at 'Ground Zero' in New York

George W. Bush, Grand Rapids, Mich., January 29, 2003. Bushisms. Accessed online on June 14, 2004 @  http://politicalhumor.about.com/library/blbushisms.htm  website that offers a compilation of a plethora of ridiculous misnomers and errors in various speeches by Bush

Russert, Tim. Transcript of interview with President George W. Bush. Meet the Press. February 8, 2004. NBC News. Accessed online on June 14, 2004 @  http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4179618/
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Jimmy Carter Annotated Bibliography Secondary

Words: 1912 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2391785



Barone's conclusion is based on exit polling conducted anyway, by the polling firm Sumate/Penn, Schoen & Berland, showing that Chavez should not in fact have won the election.

Porter, Joy. "Jimmy Carter: the Re-Emergence of Faith-Based Politics and the Abortion Rights Issue." Presidential Studies Quarterly, 35 (2005). HighBeam

Research. Retrieved January 30, 2007, from: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-134172066.html.

he article by Joy Porter examines one-time potentially (but never truly realized) long-term ground-breaking political effects of Jimmy Carter's Presidency, i.e., impacts (or, as Porter actually, finally, argues, the lack of them) of the former President's non-right-wing, comparatively liberal Evangelism, on religiously-based American political discourse (and activism) up to 25 years after his Presidency concluded in 1980. As Porter argues, during Carter's 1976 campaign for the Presidency especially, although he clearly used his own distinct faith-based politics as its centerpiece, Jimmy Carter's own personal Christian faith did not in fact promote the agenda of the…… [Read More]

The article by Joy Porter examines one-time potentially (but never truly realized) long-term ground-breaking political effects of Jimmy Carter's Presidency, i.e., impacts (or, as Porter actually, finally, argues, the lack of them) of the former President's non-right-wing, comparatively liberal Evangelism, on religiously-based American political discourse (and activism) up to 25 years after his Presidency concluded in 1980. As Porter argues, during Carter's 1976 campaign for the Presidency especially, although he clearly used his own distinct faith-based politics as its centerpiece, Jimmy Carter's own personal Christian faith did not in fact promote the agenda of the religious right, even if it was Carter himself who (ironically) initially awakened right wing Christians themselves to the galvanizing potential of their political agenda(s). Further, because Jimmy Carter's faith-based Presidency was in fact what originally stimulated, right-wing Christians to begin coalescing around their own distinctive political issues, the right wing itself ultimately rejected him for a second term, instead favoring Ronald Reagan since his own conservatism was comparable to theirs.

The U.S. And Israel Stand Alone." Spiegel Interview with Jimmy Carter. August 15, 2006. Spiegel International Online. Retrieved February 16, 2007, at  http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/0,1518,431793,00.html .

In this interview with Germany's Der Spiegel online magazine that took place with former U.S. President Jimmy Carter in mid-August 2005 during the international publicity run-up to the January, 2006 publication of his then-newest book, Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis (2006), Former President Carter, discusses frankly what he sees as both the political and moral failings, into his second term as president, of George W. Bush, e.g., especially, the war in Iraq and his handling of it. Carter further notes within the interview that America now is in an especially precarious spot vis-a-vis the Middle East in general, and that the United States is alone in the world in its unconditional support, under George W. Bush as President, of Israel's overly aggressive political actions and attitudes. Carter also talks to Der Spiegel about Cuba's Fidel Castro, his protracted illness, and how Castro's eventual death will likely impact Cuba and its neighbors.
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Rhetoric in Modern Day Proceedings the Topic

Words: 3269 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3205711

rhetoric in modern day proceedings, the topic will reflect the modern day influence that rhetoric has on governmental processes from decision making to laws that are passed in Congress.

The paper shall deal with the importance of rhetoric in modern day proceedings, with its influence on governmental processes from decision making by Presidents to that of the Congress, The paper shall argue that rhetoric is far moved away from reality.

The terminology 'rhetoric' traces its origin in different periods of time in its different interpretations. Its different interpretations at different times led people to seek its origin in many ways and in varied histories. At times it is used disparagingly as oral out bursting of radicals; at other times it is generalized as a public speech. Traditionally, it is also seen to be used to indicate a branch of study relating to speech. People are also seen to use the…… [Read More]

References

Short and Highly Idiosyncratic History of Rhetoric. Retrieved at http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~robertsmiller/histrhet.html. Accessed on 15 July, 2004

Bennett, Drake; Pauken, Heidi. All the President's Lies. The American Prospect Volume. 14 no. 5, May 1, 2003 Retrieved from www.prospect.org/print/V14/5/bennett-d.html. Accessed on 15 July, 2004

Bostdorff, Denise; Goldzwig, Steven. Idealism and pragmatism in American foreign policy rhetoric: The case of John F. Kennedy and Vietnam. Presidential Studies Quarterly; New York; Summer 1994; Volume: 24, Issue: 3, p.515

Friedlin, Jennifer.Scorecard on Bush Finds Rhetoric Gap. March, 08, 2004. Retrieved at  http://www.womensenews.org/article.cfm/dyn/aid/1740Accessed  on 15 July, 2004
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Jimmy Carter His Childhood Upbringing

Words: 1296 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92349380

These policies blurred the state and church boundary. In the end he could not satiate the religious right elements completely and got severe criticism from leftist and feminist groups. His religious stance got him the presidency and it was also the religion that got him out of the office.

Primary Source ibliography

Jimmy Carter: His Childhood, Upbringing & Presidency

ooks

Carter, Jimmy. (1996). A Government as Good as Its People. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press.

This volume presents sixty-two of the best and most notable public statements made by Jimmy Carter on his way to becoming president of the United States. Excerpts from the debates with President Ford, Interviews, speeches and news conferences of Jimmy Carter, made on the road to the White House. He speaks on such topics as crime, poverty, nuclear energy, foreign policy and human rights annd thus this book can be a good insight on Carter's…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Jimmy Carter: His Childhood, Upbringing & Presidency

Books

Ebel, H. & deMause, L. (1997). Jimmy Carter and American Fantasy: Psychohistorical Explorations. Two Continents / Psychohistory Press. New York.

Fantasy analysis is a technique for examining an historical record such as a newspaper article, Congressional committee transcript or Presidential speech and picking out the body language, metaphors, repetitive phrases, similes, strong feelings and symbolic terms and then determining their common themes. The result is an understanding of the shared, un-conscious meaning of the record. The psychohistorian is thus provided with a valuable tool for getting beneath the formality and defensiveness of the manifest content to underlying feelings and fantasies. Fantasy analysis was first described in Jimmy Carter and American Fantasy, ed. Lloyd deMause and Henry Ebel and so this book can be considered good in analyzing the impact of faith on Carter's life & presidency.
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Critical Thinking and Language Roles

Words: 1102 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96276514

Finally, as he or she goes to express which type of furniture he or she means to buy, he or she uses "couch" to denote an informal piece of furniture and "sofa" to denote a formal one. If others have different interpretations of these two words, then they will have trouble understanding what this buyer wants to purchase.

Thus, language and the diversity of language greatly impact the critical thinking process. People assign linguistic terms to objects, ideas, and abstractions, which impacts how they are characterized in a person's mind. In addition, these characterizations affect the expression of one's thoughts, limiting that expression. These expressions are limited because no two people have the exact same understanding of different words and phrases. Each word or phrase has, for each individual person, a repertoire of childhood memories, connotations, associations, etc. Thus, it is never possible to be sure that what you are…… [Read More]

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Kagan Robert Kagan Has Been Described as

Words: 1156 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89417013

Kagan

obert Kagan has been described as a "neoconservative historian,"[footnoteef:1] and yet the commentator's views are more complex than can be squeezed into one phrase. Kagan does exhibit some of the hallmarks of neoconservative ideology, including the continued belief in American exceptionalism, and a willingness to use terms like "new world order."[footnoteef:2] Kagan vehemently opposes the belief that the American hegemon is declining in status and power, admitting only that the United States is rethinking its role in foreign policy and international affairs. Kagan is a foreign policy advisor who Barack Obama has reportedly heralded and cited in presidential speeches.[footnoteef:3] One reviewer of books in The New York Times described the author's work as being "wonderfully argued."[footnoteef:4] Another claims that glaring logical fallacies, "fuzzy generalizations, debatable assertions and self-important declarations of the obvious," generally discredit the international relations maestro.[footnoteef:5] Therefore, obert Kagan emerges as a highly controversial commentator who, at…… [Read More]

References

Kagan, Robert. "A Changing World Order." The Washington Post. 15 November, 2013. Retrieved online:  http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/a-changing-world-order/2013/11/15/4ce39d1a-489a-11e3-b6f8-3782ff6cb769_story.html 

Kagan, Robert. "A Twilight Struggle." Foreign Affairs. July/August 1996. Retrieved online:  http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/52129/david-c-hendrickson/a-twilight-struggle-american-power-and-nicaragua-1977-1990 

Kagan, Robert. Of Paradise and Power. New York: First Vintage, 2004.

Kagan, Robert. The Return of History and the End of Dreams. New York: Random House, 2008.
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American Chitra Bajerjee Divakaruni and

Words: 1175 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61499175

The characters in the poem are enjoying an Indian movie with a simple plot that makes them cry and feel good among themselves although for as long as the film was running, they have returned to their Indian identity completely loosing their American features.

The two authors share the same revelation that came later in life and made them write the two respective literature pieces. but, while Divakaruni is writing in a manner that presents things in the light of a lightly self mockery, although the topic remains as serious as possible, Liu describes what appears to be a crisis. Despite of his life achievements, he places himself among those who needs to find the contact with reality by going back to his roots, but is not capable to do it anymore. The second generation Chinese-American boy cannot be both Chinese and American, but at the end of his writing,…… [Read More]

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Leaves a Remarkable Impression on

Words: 359 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48534742

Writers, especially those who specialize in non-fiction, must also remember to organize their thoughts and stop assuming that their readers are on the same page as they are.

When I write I first outline what I will say, either in my head or on paper. Once I start I don't look back or linger too long on any one word or phrase or else I will get stuck. I don't believe in writer's block, I only believe in working hard to overcome self-censorship and worry. I don't like revision work, and rewriting is my greatest weakness. I don't yet know whether or not I am a good writer because not enough people have read what I wrote or offered feedback. This class, I hope, will help me hone my talents. I need more frequent and more honest feedback so that whatever I write will become as good as it can…… [Read More]

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Sociology of Popular Culture

Words: 2411 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81906617

Sociology of Popular Culture

Popular Culture

A popular culture is a complex term defined by a number of already existing definitions which explore the different spectrums associated with the term. The initial understanding of this culture was based on the lifestyle adopted by the masses; the subordinate, lower class, which made them separate from the elite class. However, today, it is considered to be a lifestyle which includes different cultural practices, artifacts and other cultural commodities, that is widely accepted by the population. Therefore, in order to study a popular culture, it is important to focus on the varying aspects such as identity, representation, regulation, production and consumption where the latter two have an interdependent relationship. For this reason, this paper would look into the underlying fact of the contemporary popular culture where the producers are also the consumers.

The theorists of the cultural studies started studying popular culture when…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Bielby D, 2001, Popular culture: production and consumption, Wiley-Blackwell, United States.

Douglas, S, 1994, Where the girls are: Growing up female with the mass media. New York: Random House

Kellner, D, 1995, Media culture: Cultural studies, identity, and politics between the modern and the postmodern. New York: Routledge

Leadbeater, 1996, Urban Girls: Resisting Stereotypes, Creating Identities. New York: New York University Press
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Robert A Dahl's on Democracy Believe We

Words: 1499 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 76763635

Robert A. Dahl's On Democracy believe we are on an irreversible trend toward more freedom and democracy - but that could change.

Dan Quayle (1947 -), 5/22/89

The term, democracy, means many things in popular discourse. One has only to turn on the television to hear presidential speeches, public discussion, or news commentators espousing its virtues -- "goodness," "virtue," and "liberty," almost as if the term has become synonymous with freedom itself. In fact this trend is becoming so prevalent, that I find myself checking with each new release of Microsoft Word, if ther term "democracy" might yield "freedom" in its thesaurus.

Although today's average rabid patriot (a species won't to exclaim statements like, "Our boys are over there in eye-rak fighting for our freedom!") may see nothing amiss with this notion, there remains the issue of the tremendous disservice that results from the simplistic coupling of the two terms,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dahl, Robert. On Democracy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.
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Understanding Trumps Way of Campaigning

Words: 1694 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76982777

Presidential Election

CUENT COVEAGE OF THE 2016 PESIDENTIAL ELECTION

Donald Trump is flying high in the 2016 presidential election campaigns. Besides crushing his epublican opponents in national polls, Trump's critics have thrown in the towel (McCutcheon & Mark, 2016). Having underrated his candidature and accused of a racist and sexist huckster, Trump is now receiving the ultimate compliment and being taken seriously. This essay attempts to discuss the mystery of Donald Tramp's appeal. His opponents have to deal with his demeanor, his disdain for intellectual and party elites, as well as his talent for drawing media coverage. How is Trump achieving all these successes? Whichever the case, Trump's current position and his ultimate fate warrant a theoretical explanation. George Lakoff's linguistic theory is used to understand Trump's success. In this sense, the essay will focus on three major linguistic aspects of how Trump wants us to see him: insulting, big…… [Read More]

References

Lakoff, G. (2009). The Political Mind: A Cognitive Scientist's Guide to Your Brain and Its Politics. New York: Penguin Books

McCutcheon, C., & Mark, D. (2016). Doubletalk: The Language, Code, and Jargon of a Presidential Election. Internet Source;  https://www.overdrive.com/search?q=C89B8F78-ADD0-40C0-AF02-D753178B589D .

Schick, K., & Schubert, L. (2014). So What? The Writer's Argument. New York: Oxford University Press
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Mitt Romney President Candidate Summary

Words: 1470 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77786097



Some big endorsements have gone Mitt Romney's way, from an early endorsement from New Jersey Governor Chris Christie, to several endorsements from other republican governors around the country. Big names like Donald Trump have also recently endorsed Mitt Romney, proving that he has strong ties in the fiscally conservative business community. In the states in which Mitt Romney has faced primaries, he has received dozens of editorial and local endorsements from a plethora of different sources.

Mitt Romney is putting all of his time and money into markets he thinks that he can win, but also is trying to reach at least second place in every state that he cannot win. ith this strategy, even in his weak states such as South Carolina, he still appears to be the second favorite, and the strength of his campaign is not questioned. Mitt Romney is most favored in states which have a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Please note that these works were not directly cited, nor were they paraphrased. The knowledge of the above essay is my own, but the following were consulted during the research process:

"Mitt Romney Biography - Facts, Birthday, Life Story - Biography.com." Famous Biographies & TV Shows - Biography.com. 03 Feb. 2012 .

MACROBUTTON HTMLDirect

Mitt Romney for President | Mitt Romney for President of the United States of America in 2012. 03 Feb. 2012 .
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Public Address the Ceo of Verizon Communications

Words: 1134 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22541555

Public Address

the ceo of verizon communications recently had the great opportunity to attend the Progress and Freedom Foundation Forum in Houston with the keynote speaker being Mr. Ivan Seidenberg, Chief Executive Officer for Verizon Communications. Mr. Seidenberg's presentation before an audience made up of company executives and other interested parties was to say the least the most professional speech I have ever heard. His opening comments provided much inspiration and showed how important my position with Verizon is to the overall success of the company: "As one of America's premier telecom network operators, Verizon is a key player in the technology sector, and therefore in the economy as a whole. We invest more capital, deploy more technology, and serve more customers than virtually anyone else in the country. We've established a record of real investment, real competition, and real innovation. And we've worked hard to put ourselves in a…… [Read More]

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Candidates Project Have Chosen to

Words: 3340 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35860743

She also clearly makes a stand against continuing to rely to any large degree on non-renewable resources and giving the scientific community more authority and right.

Clinton Platform;

Clinton's platform is currently relying very heavily upon the idea of helping the middle class. Her campaign bus is currently touring Iowa with a slogan of "The Middle Class Express." She is actively seeking middle class support, and her platform is dominated by issues resolving to make those who currently feel invisible in the current administration. She is speaking to the idea that the rich are getting richer, the poor are getting poorer and the middle class is disappearing. The sentiment is a strongly held belief in middle America and the platform is strong, as it speaks to the current feeling of America.

If you place your mouse over the numbers next to Clinton's opening picture on her official website her position…… [Read More]

Resources

AP, "Democratic rivals target Hillary Clinton in debate" October 30, 2007,  http://www.clarionledger.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20071030/NEWS/71030060 

Clinton, Hillary, Official Website 2008 Candidacy Retrieved October 30, 2007 from www, hillaryclinton.com

Clinton, Hillary, Senator NY Overview Immigration Retrieved October 30, 2007 at http://clinton.senate.gov/issues/immigration

CNN Elections 2008 Info Retrieved October 30, 2007 at  http://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/2008/issues/issues.socialsecurity.html
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Reagan's Challenger Address

Words: 742 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93920039

speech "Challenger Address to the Nation" by President onald eagan. Specifically, it will analyze the elements of the rhetorical situation in the address. It will also discuss how the elements relate to eagan's presidency and popularity at the time of the speech in January 1986. onald eagan endures as one of the most popular American presidents, and speeches such as this one are one indication of his popularity. They are poignant, resilient, and emotional, all of which characterize his administration and his outlook as a politician and a person.

When the Challenger space shuttle exploded during take-off in 1986, the event shocked and saddened the nation. America lost seven of its brightest and best astronauts, and the country grieved over the loss. eagan's speech acknowledged that grief and mourned along with the nation. The speech is quite indicative of eagan's public popularity at the time. Just like eagan himself, the…… [Read More]

References

Cannon, L. (2001). Ronald Reagan: The Presidential portfolio: a history illustrated from the collection of the Ronald Reagan library and museum. New York: Public Affairs.

Ritter, K., & Henry, D. (1992). Ronald Reagan: The great communicator. New York: Greenwood Press.

White, J.K. (2004). Ronald Reagan: The power of conviction and the success of his Presidency. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 34(1), 173+.

Reagan, Ronald. (1986). Ronald Reagan: The space shuttle Challenger tragedy address. Retrieved from the American rhetoric.com Web site: http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/rreaganchallenger.htm 29 Aug. 2005.
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Pres Debate the October 3rd

Words: 307 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 31940141



Governor Romney's public speaking style was somewhat less poised, but was again immediately observable in his first response. After also thanking everyone and even joking wth the President about his anniversary, he launched into a somewhat hesitant series of brief anecdotes about people wanting help. His posture shifted more frequently, his speech contained more hesitations and pauses, and his gaze wavered from the camera to the moderator to the audience present at the University of Denver, and his words were equally as evasive as the President's but without the confidence or comfort. Again, this appeared to continue throughout the debate, though Romeny did appear to gain some confidence as the debate wore on and his comfort in the setting grew.… [Read More]

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Maybe Same-Sex Marriages Didn't Make

Words: 1811 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27552166



Nationwide, those who attended graduate school were 11 percentage points more likely to vote for Kerry than those without a college education.

In other discoveries, Bush supporters believed overwhelmingly (72% to 26%) that Iraq has weapons of mass destruction (still). This is despite the fact that it was categorically established that Iraq had no such weapons.

Bush supporters also believed, in comparison to Kerry supporters, overwhelmingly that Iraq was tied to Al Queda, when again it was categorically established there existed no such ties.

This article continues to establish that Bush supporters voted for an image and a set of factual inconsistencies that they either mistakenly believed or wanted to believe, whereas Kerry's supporters voted on facts.

Despite Rhetoric, Bush, Kerry Agree on Many Issues. Washington Post: May 9, 2004.

Although many people felt the 2004 election was an epic clash between two completely opposing camps, in reality, both sides…… [Read More]

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American Democracy Voter Turnout in 1988 American

Words: 3140 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55831538

American Democracy

Voter Turnout in 1988 American Presidential Election:

Democracy is for the people and by the people and it can be successful if people participate effectively in electing their representatives. In 1988, presidential elections were held in United States of America. Statistics shows that voter turnout for this presidential election was very low. Voter turnout was as low as 50.1%. In spite of an increasing trend of voter turnouts in the presidential election of 1948 and in the presidential elections of 1960, the voter turn out in 1988 decreased sharply to merely half of the population that are eligible for casting votes. The turnout was below the American presidential elections standard. Most of eligible candidates who did not cast their votes were supporters of Dukakis. If these people had cast their votes the situation would have been different for 1988 elections. It can also be said that 1988 presidential…… [Read More]

References

Bardes, B.A., Shelley, M.C., II, & Schmidt, S.W. (2012). American Government and Politics Today. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Franklin, M.N. (2004). Voter Turnout and the Dynamics of Electoral Competition in Established Democracies Since 1945. Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Janda, K., Berry, J.M., Goldman, J., & Hula, K.W. (2012). The Challenge of Democracy. Australia; Boston: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Polsby, N.W., Wildavsky, A., & Schier, S.E. (2012). Presidential Elections: Strategies and Structures of American Politics. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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System of Checks and Balances

Words: 1062 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96347767

In most occasions however, the consent of the Congress is rather difficult to acquire and this often leads to frictions in the relations between the two parties. So tense are these relationships that the President perceives his meeting with the Congress as the most demanding and largest milestone in his path. "The President often sees Congress as an obstacle to be overcome, and always has to calculate how his proposals will play out with Congress. He cannot dictate to Congress what he wants, and faces a huge task in communicating with Congress because of its size and diversity" (Hamilton, 2004).

The frictions which occur between Congress and President have had a historical positive side in the meaning that they forced Presidents to forward flawless action plans, based on real facts, resource estimations and expected outcomes. Today however, the general perception is that these tensions are a means of stalling and…… [Read More]

References:

Hamilton, L., 2004, Congress and the President, Center on Congress, http://www.centeroncongress.org/radio_commentaries/congress_president.php last accessed on August 12, 2009

2009, United States Government, MSN Encarta, http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500781_3/united_states_government.html last accessed on August 10, 2009

The Constitution of the United States of America, Cornell University Law School,  http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.overview.html  last accessed on August 10, 2009
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Plato Was a Teacher of

Words: 1577 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64734100

President Kennedy also used Aristotle's logic or logos to convince people to fight against public enemy such as poverty. JFK also used metaphor and the most famous sentence delivered after metaphor was "asks not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country." (Nicholas, 2001 P. 283). The phrase was to appeal and persuade American people to devote their energy to the building of their country as well as cherishing their country as a nation. While the speech was specifically focus on American public, it was also adapted to global people in general. His speech was rhetoric in nature because the speech was a unique for of public speech ever made by any U.S. president.

Conclusion

The paper explores relevance of rhetoric and rhetoric criticisms in public communication. The paper identifies the importance of rhetoric is politics, business and academic communities. To demonstrate importance…… [Read More]

References

Campbell, K.K. (2008). Rhetorical Criticism. The International Encyclopaedia of Communication.

Cyphert, D. (2010). The Rhetorical Analysis of Business Speech.Unresolved Questions Journal of Business Communication. 47 (3): 346-368.

McCroskey, J.C.(1997). King Martin Luther 'I have a Dream' in: An Introduction to Rhetorical Communication.7th Ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon: 288-291.

Nicholas, C.(2001). 'Ask Not… a Critical Analysis of Kennedy Inaugural'. Great Speech for Criticisms and Analysis. Alistair Press.
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Burkian Analysis Brief Analysis of

Words: 2998 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55667727



Stephen Colbert's Speech at the White House Correspondents Dinner, 2006

In this speech comedian Stephen Colbert gives a hysterically funny account of the Bush administration and the White House Press Corps. President Bush and the member of the press are co-agents. Often he takes an idea of Bush's and carries it to its ridiculous conclusion and "gives people the truth, unfiltered by rational argument." The message seems to be that together Bush and the press have cuckolded the American public with a myriad of speech acts and policies that are illogical as well as destructive.

With Bush and the press as co-agents, the scene that contains them is Washington, D.C., the United States of America, and the whole world. The scene is in a state of economic chaos due to the actions of the co-agents. For example, Colbert states that democracy is our "greatest export. At least until China figures…… [Read More]

References

Burke, K. (1945). A grammar of motives. Berkeley: University of California Press.
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Freedom of the Press and

Words: 5379 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 31422897

Authors Donald Lively and ussell Weaver describe Hustler Magazine as Falwell's "antagonist (p. 79)," no doubt representing for Falwell abuses of our Constitutional freedoms.

"In 1983, Hustler Magazine decided to parody Falwell using a Campari Liqueur advertisement. The actual Campari ads portrayed interviews with various celebrities about their 'first times.' Although the advertisement actually focused on the first time that the celebrities had sampled Campari, the ads portrayed the double entendre of the first time that the interviewees had engaged in sex. Hustler mimicked the Campari format and created a fictional interview with Falwell in which he stated that his 'first time' was during a drunken incestuous rendezvous with his mother in an outhouse (p. 79)."

The Oregon Commentator, May, 2007

There is probably no limit to the outrage that was felt by Falwell, and by his support base, both of which would have been offended, first, by using Falwell…… [Read More]

References

Block, H. (Artist) (1979). Spiritual Leader, Washington Post, Field Newspaper

Syndicate, April 8, 1979. Found online at Pop Art Machine,  http://popartmachine.com/item/pop_art/LOC+1158615/SPIRITUAL-LEADER-/-HERBLOCK.-UNPROCESSED-%5BITEM%5D-%5BP&P%5DREPRODUCTION ..., retrieved March 1, 2010.

Chunovic, L. (2000). One Foot on the Floor: The Curious Evolution of Sex on Television

From I Love Lucy to South Park. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
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Huckabee Mick Huckabee Has Surprised

Words: 2234 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28298855



Meanwhile, Huckabee supports local political jurisdictions passing laws that punish undocumented immigrants, and he asserts those laws "protect the economic well-being, physical safety, and quality of life" for citizens in those communities. By using "physical safety" Huckabee frames this issue in the context that immigrants are criminals out to harm people. But the Immigration Policy Center (IPC) (Rumbaut, et al., 2007) reports that "Foreign-born Mexicans" had an incarceration rate" of 0.7% in 2000, "more than 8 times lower than the 5.9% of native-born males of Mexican descent." And while the "undocumented population has doubled to 12 million since 1994," violent crime in the U.S. has declined 34.2%, the IPC reports.

Moreover, according to the American Immigration Law Foundation (Esbenshade, 2007) local ordinances such as the ones Huckabee believes in (that make it illegal to rent to undocumented immigrants, for example) - if they conflict with federal immigration law - are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dougherty, Michael Brendan. "The Audacity of Huck: The Religious Right roils the Establishment by backing one of its own." The American Conservative 7.2 (2008): 6-8.

Esbenshade, Jill. "Division and Dislocation: Regulating Immigration through Local Housing

Ordinances." American Immigration Law Foundation. Retrieved 7 February 2008, at http://www.ailf.org/ipc/special_report/sr_sept07.shtml.

Guidelines for Writing a Rhetorical Analysis. "The Guidelines." Retrieved 6 February, 2008 from http://core.ecu.edu/engl/snyderh/1100/raguide.html
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Presidents the Top Five Great

Words: 1820 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82129322



The Presidency of George alker Bush, 2001-present, has been marked primarily by his war on terrorism, however, he has proposed to make welfare more focused on the well-being of children and strengthen support of families, provide Affordable Health Care for Low-Income Families and Individuals, and has asked Congress to aid him in achieving significant immigration reform that includes matching a willing worker with a willing employer, protecting workers from abuse, and protecting the rights of legal immigrants while not unfairly rewarding those who came here unlawfully or hope to do so.

orks Cited

Dallek, Robert. 2001. Hail to the Chief: The Making and Unmaking of American

Presidents. Oxford University Press.

Dallek, Robert. 2003. John F. Kennedy's Civil Rights. Quandary. American History

Magazine. August.

Garland, Howard. 2001. Images in words: Presidential rhetoric, charisma, and greatness. Administrative Science Quarterly. September 01.

George . Bush. The hite House. http://www.whitehouse.gov/index.html. (Accessed June 17, 2005).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dallek, Robert. 2001. Hail to the Chief: The Making and Unmaking of American

Presidents. Oxford University Press.

Dallek, Robert. 2003. John F. Kennedy's Civil Rights. Quandary. American History

Magazine. August.
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President Reagan's Human Rights Record Was Ronald

Words: 913 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30729658

PESIDENT EAGAN'S HUMAN IGHTS ECOD

Was onald eagan a Good President?

President eagan's International Human ights ecord

President eagan's International Human ights ecord

The Cold War and Apartheid

On September 26, 1986, President onald eagan (1986) sent a message to the House of epresentatives that he would not sign into law H.. 4868 because it imposed punitive economic sanctions against South Africa as a whole. His stated rationale was that the people most affected by the sanctions would be the Black workers, not the ruling White elite. eagan agreed that apartheid needed to end, but not at the expense of those already suffering the most under White rule. On the surface this logic seems admirable, even honorable, but others have questioned eagan's motives. Although eagan did not use the exact phrase "constructive engagement," this term would come to represent his policy stance towards apartheid. eagan's message to the House followed…… [Read More]

References

Bruce, D. (2005). Interpreting the body count: South African statistics on lethal police violence. South African Review of Sociology, 36(2), 141-59.

Bush, R. (1985). Reagan and state terrorism in Southern Africa. Crime and Social Justice, 0 (24), i-x.

Reagan, R.W. (1986, Sep. 26). Message to the House of Representatives returning without approval a Bill concerning apartheid in South Africa. Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. Accessed 6 Feb. 2014 at http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/search/speeches/speech_srch.html.

Reagan, R.W. (1987, Jun. 12). Remarks on East-West relations at the Brandenburg Gate in West Berlin. Accessed 6 Feb. 2014 at http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/search/speeches/speech_srch.html.
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Rhetorical Implications of Modern Political

Words: 1072 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 10485849

The speech is full of images and words denoting grand principles, especially "freedom," and the manner in which these are intermingled with the logical arguments and exhortations for support -- and pledges of support -- that have direct literal meanings blur the line between discursive and presentational symbols. Each of Obama's words has specific meaning out of the context of this speech, and each word largely retains this meaning within the speech, but the context of the speech as a whole shifts the meanings of these words and of the entire speech, transforming the symbols into something that appears to have ore substance presentationaly than is substantiated through a discursive examination of the same speech.

An excellent early example of the way Obama melds discursive and presentational symbols is in his first direct reference to the division that Berlin experienced for decades: "And on the twenty-fourth of June, 1948, the…… [Read More]

Works Cited.

Brand, Peg. "Susanne Katherina Knauth Langer." Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. London, 1998.

Langer, S. (1951) Philosophy in a New Key. "Discursive Forms and Presentational Forms"

Liukkonen, Petri. "Susanne K. Langer." Accessed 29 April 2010. http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/slanger.htm

New World Encyclopedia. "Susanne Langer." Accessed 29 April 2010.  http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Susanne_Langer#Symbols_and_myth
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Strategic Use and Impact of Social Media in the 2012 Elections

Words: 3709 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39248298

Strategic Use and Impact of Social Media in the 2012 Elections

The goal of the research is to find evidence of the use and impact of social media in U.S.'s 2012 presidential elections. This is because it was reported that President Obama won the elections because of the ground operation presented by volunteers of his elections' campaigns (CNN ire 1). I chose this topic since reports in state media indicated that the Republican Party was heading in the pre-election polls, but in the end, the Democratic Party won due to the use of technological innovation (Edsall 1). An in depth analysis of the research problem intends to reveal that the presidential contest favored President Obama, for using social media. Social media is increasingly an easy, fast, and effective way for people to have personal contact through technology. The intention is to prove the political premise that the most effective means…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Changing Face of America Helps Assure Obama Victory." Pew Research Center for the People & The Press. People-Press. 7 Nov 2012. Web. 19 Apr 2013.

"Election 2012: Barack Obama wins with 'Better Ground Game'." CNN Wire. 7 Nov 2012. Web. 19 Apr 2013.

Blow, Charles M. "Election Data Dive." New York Times. Nov 9, 2012. Web. Apr 19, 2013.

Edsall, Thomas, B. "Campaign Stops: What We Already Know." New York Times, The Opinion Pages. Nov 4, 2012. Web. Apr 19, 2013.
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Salinas Pri Carlos Salinas De

Words: 6480 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47465403

This, of course, would represent one aspect of the resentment served to Salinas. The other aspect would be the significant impact of the economic crisis and the continued devaluation of the Peso. These things reflected on the ineptitude of a party seldom challenged as it should have been.

To most, the failures effecting the whole of the nation had marked the need for a hastening of democratic reform, which would in turn reflect quite negatively on the candidacy of the PRI candidate. In an article dated to 1988, it was characterized thusly, with report stating that "the Institutional Revolutionary Party on Sunday designated Carlos Salinas de Gortari, the budget and planning secretary in the present government, to be its presidential nominee. Getting the nomination is tantamount to being named president. The PRI, as the party is universally called here after its Spanish initials, has ruled Mexico for six decades. As…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Associated Press (AP). (1987). Inflation up 159% in Mexico. The Dallas Morning News.

Bruhn, K. (1997). Taking on Goliath: The emergence of a New Left Party and the Struggle. Penn State Press.

Camin, H.A. & Meyer, L. (1993). In the shadow of the Mexican Revolution.

Daria, J. & Santamaria, D. (2006). Oaxaca Under a State of Repression. The Narco News Bulletin. Online at  http://www.narconews.com/Issue40/article1672.html
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Role of Finances and Media

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99829888

S. Constitution (Edwards, Wattenberg, & Lineberry, 2009). The reason that the decision is so potentially harmful to the nation is that it permits corporate entities to contribute virtually unlimited amounts to their own privately-funded political advertisement (Liptak, 2010).

The implication of the Citizens United case is that corporate conglomerates, powerful industries, and even foreign governments could purchase unlimited amounts of media airtime on American public media to promote the election of some candidates or to oppose the election of others (Liptak, 2010). ealistically, the amount of federally authorized public funding (USFEC, 2011) is absolutely inconsequential by comparison.

Necessary Changes

Quite obviously, the single most important necessary change to American politics is the reality of political lobbying through campaign contributions to the political campaigns of elected officials. The specifics of exactly what rules to implement in that regard are much less important than simply acknowledging that the excuse that campaign contributions…… [Read More]

References

Edwards, G., Wattenberg, M., and Lineberry, R. (2009). Government in America: People,

Politics, and Policy. New York, NY: Longman.

Kennedy, E. (2006). America: Back on Track. Viking: New York.

Liptak, A. "Justices, 5-4, Reject Corporate Spending Limit." The New York Times;
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Plato Political Science American Executive

Words: 1765 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 99931707



Presidential power is thus a matter of persuasion of the public and the other branches and actors within the government. Today in particular, because of the ability of the President to invoke the information of the intelligence agencies, information which the President has special authority over, he can persuade members Congress that if they do not do his bidding, they are jeopardizing America. hen the presidential office was first created, the federal army and navy were far smaller than today -- and only Congress has the power to declare war. Yet many undeclared wars have been waged subsequently, and Congress has ceded some of its powers of controlling these institutions, from the Gulf of Tonkin resolution during Vietnam, to being persuaded by faulty intelligence it is assured it is true, as in Iraq. Presidents like Gerald Ford have limited the prosecutorial abilities of the nation by bestowing pardons, even changed…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Neustadt, Richard E. Presidential Power and the Modern President. New York: Free Press,
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Function of the American Government the American

Words: 3137 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77559875

Function of the American Government

The American government has had a long-standing checks-and-balances efficiency within its three-branch system. Because of the separate governable powers within the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the United States, American law has been approved after many constant revisions and discussions. It is extremely commendable that the legislative branch takes into account the representation of both "state" and "people." This is not to say, of course, that the government system of the United States is utterly perfect; the executive branch certainly holds a bit more power within the government than one would like.

One major positive effect of the passing of laws is the representation included within those laws. Long before the House-and-Senate solution of Congress, there was always the problem of representation amongst the population of the respective states. State borders vary in land mass and population; how does one reconcile a largely-populated state…… [Read More]

References

Dahl, Robert. (1977). "On Removing Certain Impediments to Democracy in the United States." Political Science Quarterly 92(1), pp. 1-20. The Academy of Political Science.

Lieberman, Robert. (2011). "Why the Rich are Getting Richer: American Politics and the Second Gilded Age." Foreign Affairs.

Putnam, Robert D. (1996). "The Strange Disappearance of Civic America." The American Prospect 24, pp. 34-48.

Short Answer Questions -- Part Two
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Advertising and Public Relations Serve to Communicate

Words: 1541 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 43564571

Advertising and public relations serve to communicate ideas and convince the audience of something. Politicians are among the most prolific advertising spenders during election campaigns and can have enormous public relations machines. This is especially true of Presidential candidates, who must first run for their party's nomination and then must run for President. We know that Hillary Clinton went from frontrunner to loser in the race for the Democratic Presidential nomination in 2008. There are lessons to be learned about the different factors that contribute to selling an idea, in this case Clinton as President, to different audiences. This case study will evaluate Clinton's campaign leading up to the Democratic primary using the OSTE model. The OSTE model focuses on research, objectives, strategies, tactics and evaluation.

esources

The Hillary Clinton campaign at the time of the case was a large organization. It featured both extensive advertising and public relations, backed…… [Read More]

References:

Cree, C. (2008). Hillary Clinton's approach to social media killed her campaign. Success Creations. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from  http://successcreeations.com/339/hillary-clintons-approach-to-social-media-killed-her-campaign/ 

Gawiser, S. & Witt, G. (2012). 20 questions a journalist should ask about poll results. National Council on Public Polls. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from  http://www.ncpp.org/?q=node/4 

Murray, M. (2008). The primary vs. general election fallacy. NBC News. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from  http://www.nbcnews.com/id/23591347/ 

OpenSecrets.org. (2008). Hillary Clinton. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from  http://www.opensecrets.org/pres08/summary.php?cid=N