Prison System Essays (Examples)

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Prison Punishment Should Prison Be Punitive or

Words: 2477 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52781814

Prison Punishment

Should Prison be Punitive or Rehabilitation in Nature?

A question that has existed since the beginnings of the modern prison system has been that of whether prison should be an unbearable punishment for an action committed, or rehabilitation for the accused to rid them of a particular behavior. In ancient times, a violent crime was usually responded with a violent verdict, resulting in torture and pain, and the concept of 'an eye for an eye' that led human law for thousands of years. Recently, however, civilization has rejected the outward torture of prisoners, and has tried to implement a system based on fairness, both during the trial and during the punishment. hile prisoners may not feel like their jail time is fair, modern civilization has elected judges to make these decisions for society. There is still the question, however, of what in today's world is the goal of…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Larrabee, A., (2006). Punishment vs. Rehabilitation in the Criminal Justice System. Retrived from, http://voices.yahoo.com/punishment-vs.-rehabilitation-criminal-justice-119962.html.

Multiple authors. (2010). Should Criminal Justice Focus More on Rehabilitation or Punishment. IDebate. Retrieved from  http://idebate.org/debatabase/debates/law-crime/house-believes-criminal-justice-should-focus-more-rehabilitation .

Peak, K., (2012). Justice Administration: Police, Courts and Corrections Management (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson: Prentice Hall.

Turner, A., (2012). Work Programs for Texas Inmates Go High Tech. Chron. Retrieved from,  http://www.chron.com/news/houston-texas/article/Prison-factories-train-inmates-and-save-the-state-3450137.php .
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Prison Reform the United States

Words: 3176 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7254901

The average felony sentence imposed upon federal and state offenders in 1996 was 62 months, or just over 5 years. On average these prisoners actually serve 45% of a state sentence for a mean prison stint of 2 years and 4 months, and 85% of a federal sentence for a stint of 4 years and 5 months. Once they are released, the recidivism rates are high. According to Lin (2000), "incarceration, as it stands, does not prevent recidivism" (p. 4). In addition, even if the released prisoners do not commit another crime, it does not mean that they become self-supporting and contribute to their community as much as possible.

.Lin (2000) argues that it is not clear that prisons, as institutions, have the capacity to provide the type of environment required for preparation of returning to the outside world. Prisons are not presently designed to be schools or factories, most…… [Read More]

References

Alexander, M. (2010) Is Mass Incarceration the New Jim Crow? NY: New Press

Durham, a.M. (1994) Crisis and reform: current issues in American punishment. Canada: Little Brown and Co.

Johnson, R. Hard Time: Understanding and Reforming the Prison

Katz, L., Levitt, S.D., & Shustorovich, E. (2003) Prison conditions, capital punishment and deterrence. American Law and Economics Review, 5(2):318-343,
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Jail Memo To the County

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47346676



However, given that the problem of overcrowding is pervasive in the prison system in general, and not simply at these specific junctures of the judicial process, the choice between a low-use jail and a high-use jail would seem to be the real question. More and more prisoners who might once be shipped to the state penitentiary are now being confined to jails for more extended periods of time than ever before. Thus, to accommodate this problem, a high-use jail that has many of the monitoring and rehabilitative capacities of a prison system would be more useful to the community.

The purpose and function of a high-use jail low-use jail is designed for shorter-term inmates, while a high-use jail is designed to accommodate not simply more inmates, but a wider variety of inmates for longer durations of time. It has the ability to deal with more violent offenders, but also has…… [Read More]

Works Cited

What is the difference between jail and prison?" (2006). Public Health and Criminal

Justice. Operated by the CDC: Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Page last reviewed 18 Oct 2006. Retrieved 9 Mar 2007 at http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/od/cccwg/difference.htm
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Prison Crowding

Words: 1287 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53618609

prison overcrowding and its effect on the criminal justice system. Prison overcrowding has skyrocketed in the United States in the last three decades, leading to a multitude of problems in the criminal justice system. Overcrowding costs taxpayers money, it leads to dysfunction within the penal population, and it creates dangers for prison staff. It is a result of many items in society and the criminal justice system, and it must change if America's prisons are to remain effective and viable.

Many people may not be aware just how much the prison population has grown in the last thirty years. One researcher notes, "From 300,000 prisoners in 1977, the prison population has risen steadily to over 1.5 million as of June 30, 2005, a 400% increase" (Pfaff, 2008). The two largest states housing prisoners, California and Texas, have seen stupendous growth in their prison populations, but not in their funding. Another…… [Read More]

References

Haney, C. (2006). Prison overcrowding: Harmful consequences and dysfunctional reactions. Retrieved 31 July 2009 from the Commission on Safety and Abuse in America's Prisons Web site: http://www.prisoncommission.org/statements/haney_craig.pdf. 1-17.

Jacobs, J.B. (2007). Finding alternatives to the carceral state. Social Research, 74(2), 695+.

Moore, S. (2009). The prison overcrowding fix. Retrieved 31 July 2009 from the New York Times Web site: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/11/us/11prisons.html.

Pfaff, J.F. (2008). The empirics of prison growth: A critical review and path forward. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 98(2), 547+
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Prison Management From the Prison

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96996046

In addition, prison managers must deal with the mundane as well as the human equation, because much of their jobs are in the paperwork, union rules, state statutes, and other regulations that are required in the prison system. Management in the prison is a unique challenge, because of the many responsibilities that come with it. It is clear, just as business management and leadership are evolving, that prison management will continue to evolve, and as it does, it could create model prison systems of the future.

Finally, it is important to note that prisons are unique operations, but they still should uphold management principles. Author Daly continues, "Management is responsible for the mission and strategy of the organization. Prisons are unique with special features but they still reflect the philosophy and methodology of management" (Daly, 2002). Prison management should have clearly defined goals and missions regarding their inmate populations, but…… [Read More]

References

Boin, a. (2001). Crafting public institutions: Leadership in two prison systems. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Daly, W.C. (2002). Shades of gray in prison administration. Education, 122(3), 488+.

Greene, J. (2003). Chapter Five Lack of correctional services. In Capitalist punishment: Prison privatization & human rights, Coyle, a., Campbell, a., & Neufeld, R. (Eds.) (pp. 56-66). Atlanta: Clarity Press.
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prison psychologists and biases in corrections

Words: 935 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90528984

.....psychologists working in prisons in the United States, Boothby & Clements (2000) found some disturbing trends in corrections. Although the number of prison psychologists has doubled in the past twenty years, the vast majority of prison psychologists remain Caucasian males who may be unable to address the diverse needs of the incarcerated community. Biases and assumptions about inmates may also hinder the ability of inmates to seek and receive psychological treatment. Moreover, a full third of prison psychologist work time is spent on administrative duties -- more than the time spent on direct treatment. Only 26% of their work time is devoted to directly treating the inmates, meaning that structural and institutional variables are impeding the delivery of quality mental health care to the prison community.

Interestingly, the profession of clinical psychology was practically born in the prison context. As Magaletta, et al. (2016) point out, prison wardens partnered with…… [Read More]

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Prison Conditions in the United States and Russia

Words: 974 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98729681

Maximum security prisons have grown in recent decades and have implemented methods some may deem inhumane. A 2016 article discusses prison conditions in maximum security prisons and addresses specifically the topic of preservation of human dignity and disease prevention. The author mentions the Dudley Lee v. Minister of Correctional Services case that held "that prison authorities have a duty of care to prevent prisoners from being infected with HIV-related illnesses such as TB" (Torriente, Tadion, & Hsu, 2016). The applicant was sent to a maximum security prison in South Africa where he eventually was diagnosed three years later with TB. Another instance of the government and its failure to acknowledge the need to safeguard a prisoner's health is the . v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex-parte Glen Fielding. Here the case discusses of a prisoner in the United Kingdom asking for condoms and being denied unless given…… [Read More]

References

Engel, P. (2013). Here's What Life Is Like Inside Russia's Toughest Prison.Business Insider. Retrieved 16 April 2016, from http://www.businessinsider.com/inside-russias-black-dolphin-prison-2013-10?op=1

Torriente, A., Tadion, A., & Hsu, L. (2016). Opening the Door to Zero New HIV Infections in Closed Settings. Health and Human Rights Journal. Retrieved 16 April 2016, from http://www.hhrjournal.org/2016/02/opening-the-door-to-zero-new-hiv-infections-in-closed-settings/

Vasiliades, E. (2005). Solitary Confinement and International Human Rights: Why the U.S. Prison System Fails Global Standards. American University International Law Review, 21(1). Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1045&context=auilr
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Prison Term Policy

Words: 810 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12121537

Classical Criminology theories in examining a case that studies a bill which is meant to increase the maximum term for prisoners charged with armed robbery, by double.

The Enlightenment was the basis on which Classical Criminology theories came to be. The theories emphasize on the notion that people choose to end their own lives, and that people need to be punished to prevent them from committing crimes in the future. Classical theories are based on the assumption that people have their freedom, and committing an offense is by choice (The Classical School of Criminology & Its Influence Today). The theories are also based on the assumption that people try to look for pleasure and avoid painful experiences. The notion of hedonism was one of the major ideas, which means that people try to look for pleasure and avoid pain. The idea is used in classical theories to inform punishment. Every…… [Read More]

References

(2011). Legislative News, Studies and Analysis - National Conference of State Legislatures. Principles of Effective State Sentencing and Corrections Policy. Retrieved August 29, 2016, from http://www.ncsl.org/research/civil-and-criminal-justice/principles-of-sentencing-and-corrections-policy.aspx

South. (2010). Homepage - Times Free Press. Bill would keep armed robbers in prison longer - Times Free Press. Retrieved August 29, 2016, from  http://www.timesfreepress.com/news/politics/state/story/2010/jun/08/bill-would-keep-armed-robbers-in-prison-longer/19461/ 

(n.d.). Study.com - Take Online Courses. Earn College Credit. Research Schools, Degrees & Careers. The Classical School of Criminology & Its Influence Today - Video & Lesson Transcript - Study.com. Retrieved August 29, 2016, from http://study.com/academy/lesson/the-classical-school-of-criminology-its-influence-today.html

Writer Thoughts
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Prison Stereotypes

Words: 535 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44166005

correctional stereotypes in the movie " the Shawshank edemption." This essay will explain the correctional policies that are demonstrated in the movie and suggest ways in which these portrayals are accurate or inaccurate.

The movie "The Shawshank edemption" revolves around the life and times of a prisoner named Andy. Andy was a banker in his former life before he was framed for the murder of his wife and her lover. The story documents the unfair treatment Andy has received in society and concludes with him escaping prison and finding his redemption that he felt that he had earned by maintaining an attitude of hope and faith.

The Shawshank Prison, where Andy was detained, resonated with many prison system stereotypes within the movie. The warden of the prison is depicted as a cruel and inhumane person, bent on sadistically treating his prisoners and guards. This stereotype of the "evil warden" provides…… [Read More]

References

Fiddler, M. (2007). Projecting the prison: The depiction of the uncanny in The Shawshank Redemption. Crime, Media, Culture, 3(2), 192-206.

Kermode, M. (2003). The Shawshank Redemption. British Film Inst.
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Overcrowding in Prisons

Words: 1976 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54169893

Prison Overcrowding

Arguably the most pressing issue facing the field of corrections today is the problem of prison overcrowding. Overcrowding negatively impacts nearly every aspect of running a corrections facility, and even exacerbates problems when inmates are eventually released (Specter, 2010). Overcrowded prisons increase the likelihood of violence against both inmates and corrections officers, and there is evidence tying overcrowding to higher rates of suicide and homicide (Davies, 2004, & Camp, Gaes, Langan, & Saylor, 2003). The problem has only gotten worse over the last few decades, and there is no evidence that policymakers or administrators have plans to do anything soon (Giertz & Nardulli, 1985, & Taggart, 1996). After examining the relevant literature concerning the history, scope, and reasons behind prison overcrowding, it becomes clear that the solution to overcrowding and its attendant costs must come in the form of administrative/institutional reform coupled with a serious reconsideration of the…… [Read More]

References

Camp, S.D., Gaes, G.G., Langan, N.P., & Saylor, W.G. (2003). The influence of prisons on inmate misconduct: A multilevel investigation*. Justice Quarterly: JQ, 20(3), 501-533.

Davies, R. (2004). Deaths in UK prisons are due to overcrowding, says report. The Lancet,

363(9406), 378-378.

Giertz, J.F., & Nardulli, P.F. (1985). Prison overcrowding. Public Choice (Pre-1986), 46(1),
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Analyzing Prison Condition in USA vs Russia

Words: 1387 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87208689

Prison Condition in USA vs. ussia

In assessing the human rights conditions of maximum security facilities, human rights groups look into 3 main areas: the duration of confinement; the conditions of confinement, and the criteria of eligibility. Each of these areas must be looked into individually and then considered in the context of the entire situation (Human ights Watch). Quite a number of concerns have been raised about the human rights conditions of the individuals held in prisons including: mistreatment of inmates / detainees by prison officials; unsafe conditions; and lack of sufficient legal protection (United States Department of State, n.d.). This paper also compares the situation of prison facilities in the United States and ussia.

Introduction

The Standard Minimum ules, or the SMs for the Treatment of Prisoners are one of the most important international agreements on how prisoners should be handled. The SMs were adopted in 1955 by…… [Read More]

References

Hounshell, B. (2010). What are Russian prisons like? Retrieved March 15, 2016 from http://foreignpolicy.com/2010/12/28/what-are-russian-prisons-like/

Human Rights Watch (n.d.). Supermax Prisons: an overview. Retrieved March 15, 2016 from https://www.hrw.org/reports/2000/supermax/Sprmx002.htm#TopOfPage

Markovic, V. (2000). Maximum Security Prisons: A Comparative Analysis. CRIME AND JUSTICE INTERNATIONAL, 16(39), 9-10.

Rosen, A. (2012). Inside Russia's Prison System. Retrieved March 15, 2016 from http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/10/inside-russias-prison-system/263806/
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Prison Problem The Violence People

Words: 1336 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83053070

A major portion of an inmate's helplessness, deprivation, depression and self-loathing etc. arises due to physical and psychological victimization that he or she has to face. Physical victimization includes homicide, assault and rape. These arise due to poor staff supervision and keeping defenseless prisoners with the violent ones. On the other hand, psychological victimization involves verbal manipulation and harsh psychological attacks of personal nature.

The stronger inmates attempt to create their own subcultures that show their dominance, rule and assertion on all prisoners (Heilpern, 1998). To fulfill the maintenance of these subcultures, they resort to rape, riots or even homicide spreading mental illnesses like stress, phobias, enhanced criminal activity, shame, guilt, etc. among the weaker prisoners.

Imprisonment: Eliminating or aggravating crime?

It is not a hidden matter that jails, even after intensive care and security, are not free of brutality, stress and violence among the inmates. The safety of each…… [Read More]

References

Cragg, W. (2002). The practice of punishment: Towards a theory of restorative justice. Routledge.

Foucault, M. (2008). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison.

Gendreau, P., Cullen, F.T., & Goggin, C. (1999). The effects of prison sentences on recidivism. Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada.

Gudrais, E. (2013, March). The Prison Problem. Harvard Magazine.
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System Security Every Organization Which

Words: 2884 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71773228

Attacks on the system security include password theft, back doors and bugs, social engineering, protocol failures, authentication failures, Denial of Service attacks, active attacks, botnets, exponential attacks including worms and viruses, and information leakage. (Fortify Software Inc., 2008); (Fortify Software, n. d.)

Servers are targets of security attacks due to the fact that servers contain valuable data and services. For instance, if a server contains personal information about employees, it can become a target for stealing identities. All types of servers, which include file, database, web, email and infrastructure management servers are vulnerable to security attacks with the threat coming from both external as well as internal sources.

Some of the server problems that can jeopardize its security include: (i) Weakly encrypted or unencrypted information, especially of a sensitive nature, can be intercepted for malicious use while being transmitted from server to client. (ii) Software bugs present in the server…… [Read More]

References

Bace, Rebecca Gurley; Bace, Rebecca. (2000) "Intrusion Detection"

Sams Publishing.

Fortify Software Inc. (2008) "Fortify Taxonomy: Software Security Errors" Retrieved 17 November, 2008 at http://www.fortify.com/vulncat/en/vulncat/index.html

Fortify Software. (n. d.) "Seven Pernicious Kingdoms: A Taxonomy of Software Security
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Systems Theory According to Two

Words: 912 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45693138



Systems Theory makes several assumptions that are useful for understanding the 14-year-old's behavior:

The state or condition of a system, at any one point in time, is a function of the interaction between it and the environment in which it operates." (Longres, 1999, p. 19)

Change and conflict are always evident in a system. Individuals both influence their environments and are influenced by them. Processes of mutual influence generate change and development." (Longres, 1990, p. 19)

Each person in a family is part of the whole system. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts." (Longres, 1990, p. 266)

These assumptions make us understand that the responsibility for the acts of the 14-year-old rest not with the child himself, but with the relationships and interactions in his family. More than anything else, the real issue is a family boundary problem where the hierarchical subsystem had not had a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brother Arrested in Slaying of Girl, 4." Washington Post 20. Sept., 2004: B-1

Longres, John F. Human Behavior in the Social Environment. Itasca, IL F.E. Peacock Publishers, Inc., 1990

Teen Appears in DC Court In Slaying of Sister, 4." Washington Post 21 Sept. 2004: B-3
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Prison Privatization of Prisons Privatization of Prisons

Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7091042

Prison Privatization

Privatization of prisons

Privatization of prisons is referred as a way of taking over the existing public amenities or facilities by the private operators, building of new operations and additional prisons by for profit prison sectors. Private prisons are more safe, efficient and effective compared to the public sector prisons. This is because; the public sector prisons are wasteful in terms of money that is spent more than the available money. Privatized prisons tend to run more cost effectively as well as efficiently if it happens to meet the budget (Cheung, 2004). When there is a good budget in the private companies, they more often than not make sure that the necessary changes run within the set budget, however the public sector only prints more money and that is the reason as to why the private prisons are more safe and effective.

esearch shows that privatized prisons in…… [Read More]

References

Cheung, A., (2004). Prison Privatization and the Use of Incarceration. The Sentencing Project. Retrieved February 9, 2013,  http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/inc_prisonprivatization.pdf 

Smith, A. (2012). Private vs. Public Facilities, Is it cost effective and safe? Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://www.corrections.com/news/article/30903-private-vs.-public-facilities-is-it-cost-effective-and-safe-
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Native Canadians in the Prison

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69588443



The oyal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (CAP) was established in 1991 to investigate the issues faced by the Canadian First Nations in terms of both their social lives and justice issues. This entity also found that the Canadian First Nations have been disproportionally represented, and concluded that the justice system has "failed" these people (Office of the Correctional Investigator, 2010). CAP also found a particular overrepresentation of Aboriginal women in the criminal justice system, while the general federally incarcerated population in the country declined by 12.5% from 1996 to 2004. For the same period, First Nations representatives in the system increased by 21.7%.

Factors that influence this population include not only discrimination and racial or cultural prejudice, but also economic and social deprivation that tend to lead to substance abuse and violence across generations, as mentioned above.

Demographic information shows Aboriginal offenders to be among the younger age groups, who…… [Read More]

References

The History of Canada Online. (n.d.). First Nations and the Justice System. Northern Blue Publishing. Retrieved from: http://canadachannel.ca/HCO/index.php/6._First_Nations_and_the_Justice_System

Office of the Correctional Investigator. (2010). Backgrounder: Aboriginal Inmates. Retrieved from: http://www.oci-bec.gc.ca/rpt/annrpt/annrpt20052006info-eng.aspx
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Arizona's Correctional Healthcare System Prison Healthcare Arizona's

Words: 1975 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40325503

AIZONA'S COECTIONAL HEALTHCAE SYSTEM

Prison Healthcare

Arizona's Correctional Healthcare System

The Arizona Department of Corrections (ADC) is the agency ultimately responsible for providing healthcare to the state's prison population. Even though the Healthcare Services division within the ADC manages the medical clinics in Arizona's prisons, there are a number of sections and divisions that have important roles to play in ensuring inmates receive the care they are legally entitled to recieve. This essay describes the structural organization that ultimately provides healthcare to inmates and how it operates to ensure statutory compliance.

Arizona's Correctional Healthcare System

Arizona Department of Corrections Organizational Structure

The Arizona Department of Corrections (ADC) is ultimately responsible for providing healthcare for the prison inmate population in the state of Arizona (ADC, 2011). This state agency is responsible for maintaining and administering all ADC institutions and programs, including community supervision for adult inmates released to their communities. The…… [Read More]

References

America Civil Liberties Union. (2009). Know your rights: Medical, dental, and mental health care. ACLU.org. Retrieved 15 Dec. 2011 from http://www.aclu.org/prisoners-rights/know-your-rights-medical-dental-and-mental-health-care

Arizona Department of Corrections. (2011). AZCorrections.gov. Retrieved 15 Dec. 2011 from http://www.azcorrections.gov/

Arizona Department of Corrections. (2011). Medical Services. AZCorrections.gov. Retrieved 15 Dec. 2011 from http://www.azcorrections.gov/adc/divisions/health/Hema_Health_Medical.aspx

Arizona Medical Board. (2011). Official website of the Arizona Medical Board. AZMD.gov. Retrieved 16 Dec. 2011 from www.azmd.gov.
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Healthcare in Prisons

Words: 1577 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28956815

Federal Bureau of Prisons

While most people seem to agree that prisoners should have access to basic healthcare while incarcerated, there is tremendous variation about what type of healthcare constitutes basic care. The reality is that many prison inmates receive a better quality of healthcare than non-incarcerated working-class individuals, but many inmates also suffer consequences because of significant medical neglect. For the federal prison system, the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) is the agency given broad oversight over healthcare in prison. In fact, the BOP is in charge of all aspects of inmate care for all inmates in the federal prison system.

The BOP is part of the Department of Justice (DOJ). It was established in 1930 to regulate the federal prison system. The BOP's job is not limited to healthcare. Instead, it has responsibility for the entire federal prison system, which "currently includes 114 prisons, 6 regional offices, 2…… [Read More]

References

U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General Audit Division. (2008). The

Federal Bureau of Prison's Efforts to Manage Inmate Health Care. Retrieved April 29,

2013 from the Justice.gov website: http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/BOP/a0808/final.pdf

Wallechinsky, D. (2012). Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved May 1, 2013 from Allgov.com website:  http://www.allgov.com/departments/department-of-justice/federal-bureau-of-prisons-bop?agencyid=7204
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Caught Up in the System One Get

Words: 1556 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54107851

Caught Up in the System

One get tough policy in particular that has had lasting effects in contemporary times is related to measures designed to keep sex offenders from pursuing more criminal transgressions of the law. Specifically, some of these measures occurred in the final years of the 20th century when laws were implemented (such as the Jacob Wetterling Act and Megan's Law, respectively) to get sex offenders to register in statewide databases that are available to the general public. Additionally, restrictions about residency requirements (where sex offenders can live and go) has had a significant effect on crime victims for a largely unintended outcome, which is that the stringent regulations (which may be violated if an offender needs to pick up a prescription or fails to register with a state agency because he or she is homeless) can oftentimes create levels of stress that causes offenders to either not…… [Read More]

References

Davey, J.D. (1998). The Politics of Prison Expansion: Winning Elections by Waging War on Crime. New York: Praeger Publishers.

Hannah, J. (2011). Experts: Sex Offender Laws Flawed. Retrieved from:

http://www.cfcamerica.org/news/news/3081-experts-sex-offender-laws-flawed

Tewksbury, R. And D. Dabney (2009). Prisons and Jails: A Reader. Boston: McGraw Hill Higher Education.
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Criminal Justice & the Prison

Words: 791 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80238593

There are three basic types of research designs including: (1) experimental designs; (2) quasi-experimental designs; and (3) non-experimental designs. (Shadish, Cook and Campbell, 2002) the 'gold standard' is stated to be represented by "...experimental evaluations that make use of the random assignment of individuals to interventions and control groups..." (Mulhlhausen, 2009)

Mulhlhausen (2009) reports that randomized evaluations are of the nature that serve to "ensure that pre-progam differences between the intervention and control groups do not confound or obscure the true impact of the programs being evaluated." In addition, random assignment is stated to enable the evaluator in testing "for differences between the experimental and control groups that are due to the intervention and not to pre-intervention discrepancies between the groups. y drawing members of the interaction and comparison groups from the same source of eligible participants, these experimental evaluations are superior to other evaluations using weaker designs." (Mulhlhausen, 2009)…… [Read More]

Bibliography

David Weisburd, Cynthia M. Lum, and Anthony Petrosino, "Does Research Design Affect Study Outcomes in Criminal Justice?" Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, No. 578 (November 2001), pp. 50-70.

Nathan James, "Offender Reentry; Correctional Statistics, Reintegration into the Community, and Recidivism," CRS Report for Congress, April 21, 2009.

William R. Shadish, Thomas D. Cook, and Donald T. Campbell, Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002).

Muhlhlausen, David B. (2009) Prisoner Reentry: A Limited Federal Government Role. The heritage foundation. 5 Nov 2009. Online available at: http://www.heritage.org/Research/Crime/tst110509a.cfm#_edn35
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Most Significant Problem Facing the Criminal Justice System

Words: 882 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31146808

Criminal Justice System Today

Most Significant Problem Facing the Criminal Justice System

What is the most significant problem facing the criminal justice system today?

The urgency needed in addressing crime issues is a factor that is widely acceptable, the public view crime and fear of crime as among the most vital issues. A number of communities have been converted into war zones with a ring of gunshots being the order of the day and night. The society struggle everyday to bring order but, this is challenged by criminal behaviors that do not adhere to traditional standards. On the other hand are the policy makers and administrators in the criminal justice systems trying to unravel the complex nature of crime. There have been significant changes in how policing, adjudication, sentencing, imprisonment, and community corrections are approached. The existence of pressure from the public and ever changing policies creates the need understand…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Green, B. (2011). "Criminal Justice - What's Ahead? Roadblocks and New Directions."

Criminal Justice, Volume 25, Number 4.

Leipold, A.D. (1995). Why grand juries do not (and cannot) protect the accused, 80 Cornell.

Rev. 260
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U S Correctional System U S Correctional

Words: 1014 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44370521

Therapy aims at deterring the criminals from committing crimes in the future. The therapy is where the offender undergoes a counseling and treatment system to help them recover from that mindset of committing the crime. Psychological counseling aims at creating a positive attitude in the criminal. Therefore, in rehabilitation, the justice and correctional system work towards the emancipation of individuals to stop committing criminal acts.

Which method is more effective in reducing crime, Punishment or rehabilitation?

The impact of punishment and rehabilitation in the society help to analyze which of the two methods of the correctional system is more effective. According to the Criminal Justice Statistics, a majority of the American society prefers swift punishment to rehabilitation (Blakely, 2008). In this survey, a resounding three quarters of people have the view that punishment is the primary justification of sentencing. Additionally, a 70% of people believe that, incapacitation is the surest…… [Read More]

References

Blakely, C. (2008). American criminal justice philosophy revisited. Federal Probation, 72(1),

43-47,72. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/213978959?accountid=458 

Edgely, M. (2010). Criminals and (second-class) citizenship: Twenty-first century attainder? Griffith Law Review,19(3), 403-437. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/848429174?accountid=458 

Stanko, S., Gillespie, W., & Crews, G.A. (2004). Living in prison: A history of the correctional system with an insider's view. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.
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Role and Evolution of the American Prison

Words: 3536 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27365626

ole and Evolution of the American Prison System

Explain the Primary ole and Evolution of the American Prison System and Determine if Incarceration educes Crime

The United States constitution is the fundamental foundation of the American criminal justice system. Given that the document is now over two hundred years old, it constantly experiences numerous amendments and interpretations. As a result, the criminal justice system over the years experienced alterations in order to reflect the needs and beliefs of each subsequent generation. The configuration of the modern prison system has its basis in the late 1700's and early 1800s. The development of the modern prison system aims at protecting innocent members of the society from criminals. The prison systems also deter criminals from committing more crimes through detaining and rehabilitating them. However, more and more deluge of white-collar crimes and other crimes, burdens the American criminal justice system and the prison…… [Read More]

References

Barnes E. Harry. (1921). The Historical of the Prison System in America. Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol. 12, No. 1, May, 1921

Craig Haney. (1998). The Past & Future of U.S. Prison Policy Twenty-Five Years after the Stanford Prison Experiment. American Psychological Association July 1998 Vol. 53, No. 7, 709-727

Dina R. Rose & Todd R. Clear (2006). Incarceration, Social, Capital, & Crime: Implications for Social Disorganization Theory. Volume 36, Issue 3, pages 441-480.

Escresa - Guillermo, Laarni (2011) Reexamining the Role of Incarceration and Stigma in Criminal Law. Law and economics, criminal law, stigma, social norms, behavioral economics.
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How International Organizations Impact Incarceration and Prison Management in Brazil

Words: 3190 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3422744

International Organizations Impact Incarceration and Prison Management in Brazil

People incarcerated in prisons from developing countries like Brazil face long years of confinement in dirty and cramped quarters. Some of the harsh conditions the prisons present include inadequate hygiene, insufficient food allocations, and no clothing or other basic amenities. Even as the conditions do not form a pattern across the continent, the prevalence hits higher concerns requiring intervention from international organizations. The interactions allow resident prison managers to address inadequacies through prison reform and increased attention towards human rights. Various barriers include state secrecy, absence of public interest, and weak civil society inhibiting collection of sustainable information on the deplorable prisons. The veil of ignorance on the kinds of prison conditions that fuel abuse and neglect of people incarcerated makes it imperative for investigation of prison trends. International organizations generate information regarding issues that affect the penal system of the…… [Read More]

References

Adetula, G. A, Adetula, A., & Fatusin, A. (2010). The prison subsystem culture: Its attitudinal effects on operatives, convicts and the free society. Ife Psychologia. 18(1): 232-251

Austin, J.E. (2008). Strategic Management In Developing Countries. New York: Simon and Schuster

Baer, L.D., & Ravneberg, B. (2008). The outside and inside in Norwegian and English prisons. Geografiska Annaler Series B: Human Geography, 90(2), 205-216.

Friedman, A., & Parenti, C., (2013). Capitalist Punishment: Prison Privatization and Human Rights. New York: SCB Distributors
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Holloway Hmp Holloway Road Prison

Words: 6856 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22617462

The Home Office website was also a good source of informstion in this regard. A very good article that shed light on the more negative view of Holloway prison as well as units in other prisons was Getting it right? Services for pregnant women, new mothers, and babies in prison. An extremely useful report that deals specifically with Holloway prison was REPORT ON AN UNANNOUNCED FOLLOW-UP INSPECTION OF HM PRISON HOLLOWAY 11 -- 15 December 2000

Y HM INSPECTORATE OF PRISONS. This report provide some telling and insightful data that invaluable in terms of assessing the value and function of the mother and baby units in this prison.

4. Theoretical aspects

There are many theoretical aspects that pertain to the issue of mother and child units at a prison such as Holloway. In general terms, and from a criminological perspective, there is the view that units of this kind are…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Burrell I. Jail baby units reviewed 1998 [Online] Available at: By

 http://www.independent.co.uk/news/jail-baby-units-reviewed-1189057.html  [Accessed 2 April, 2010].

Female Prisoners [Online] Available at: http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/adviceandsupport/prison_life/femaleprisoners / [Accessed 3 April, 2010].

Holloway [Online] Available at: http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/prisoninformation/locateaprison/prison.asp?id=454,15,2,15,454,0[Accessed 3 April, 2010].
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Overcrowded and Under-Funded Prisons According

Words: 3353 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55816431

In the American Disease: Origins of Narcotic Control, David Musto notes that throughout the twentieth century, America's drug wars have regularly scape-goated minority groups, like the Chinese with opium, marijuana among the Mexicans, and cocaine among the African-Americans (McCormick 2000).

The National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals reported in 1973 that "the prison, the reformatory and the jail have achieved only a shocking record a failure. There is overwhelming evidence that these institutions create crime rather than prevent it," yet during the next two decades both state and federal legislatures implemented increasingly stiffer penalties and mandatory minimums claiming that prisons were an effective tool for crime control, and longer prison terms would reduce crime by deterring or incapacitating criminals (McCormick 2000). However, at the end of this period, after the average prison sentence had tripled and the prison population at more than quadrupled, a National Academy of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Demleitner, Nora V. (2005 October 01). Smart public policy: replacing imprisonment with targeted nonprison sentences and collateral sanctions. Stanford Law Review. Retrieved September 18, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Dickenson, Rachel. (1996 February 01). The prison population bomb.

American Demographics. Retrieved September 18, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Incarceration. (2005). The Sentencing Project. Retrieved September 18, 2006 at http://www.sentencingproject.org/issues_01.cfm
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Adaptations to Prison Life the

Words: 1546 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77193912

Prisoners feign conformity with rehabilitation programs merely in an effort to get ahead. Prison stays involving the shedding of one's former self, and its replacement with a new prison self that conforms to all the expectations and behavioral patterns of inmate culture. This inmate culture is inherently hostile to the aims of corrections staff. Corrections staff must avoid doing anything that would tend to enhance the validity of inmate culture. They must resort to equal measures in reaction to prisoner provocations. Prisoners must not be stripped of their humanity. They must be maintained as independent men and women capable of surviving on their own, in a reasonably normal society. Notions of status, respect, and hope for the future, must be maintained as they would outside the prison walls. Corrections personnel must enable prisoners to continue to follow, and believe in, the rules of normal society, even if, in the beginning,…… [Read More]

References

Frase, R.S. (2004). 4 Limiting Retributivism. In The Future of Imprisonment, Tonry, M. (Ed.) (pp. 83-112). New York: Oxford University Press.

(2003). Prisonization: Individual and Institutional Factors Affecting Inmate Conduct. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing.

Richards, S.C., & Ross, J.I. (2001). Introducing the New School of Convict Criminology. Social Justice, 28(1), 177.

Stanko, S., Gillespie, W., & Crews, G.A. (2004). Living in Prison: A History of the Correctional System with an Insider's View. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
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Against Increasing Funding for Prison-Based

Words: 1945 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71638724

The cost for processing a drug court case through the court system is only a fraction of the cost for processing criminal drug cases through the court system. Furthermore, the cost of drug court and other drug treatment for drug offenders is only a fraction of the cost for imprisonment of these individuals. Drug offenders finishing alterative drug court or other treatment programs have been found less likely to have repeated charges and convictions of drug offenses and to have longer abstinences from use of drugs. Finally, in terms of costs to society that cannot be measured in monetary terms, the alternative sentencing of drug offenders to drug courts and other treatment programs will end the breakdown of society that has been witnessed due to imposition of prison sentences on drug offenders. The research conducted in order to prepare for the debate and in order to complete the research within…… [Read More]

Bibliography

The Federal Prison Population: A Statistical Analysis (2004) the Sentencing Project. Online available at http://www.sentencingproject.org/Admin/Documents/publications/inc_federalprisonpop.pdf

Clay, Rebecca (2006) Incarceration vs. Treatment: Drug Courts Help Substance Abusing Offenders. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration News March/April Vol. 14. No.2. Online available at http://www.samhsa.gov/samhsa_news/VolumeXIV_2/index.htm

Shaffer, Deborah; Bechtel, Kristin; and Latessa, Edward J. (2005) Evaluation of Ohio's Drug Courts: A Cost Benefit Analysis. Center for Criminal Justice Research Dec 2005. Online available at http://www.uc.edu/criminaljustice/ProjectReports/Ohio_Drug_Courts_Cost_Benefit_Analysis_2005.pdf

Drug Court Benefits (nd) Online NCDI.org available at http://www.ndci.org/courtfacts_benefits.html
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Experimental Psychology Zimbardo Prison Study

Words: 2123 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95692907

In fact, during the study, the guards became more sadistic when they thought no one was watching them. Zimbardo notes, "Their boredom had driven them to ever more pornographic and degrading abuse of the prisoners" (Zimbardo). This may be the same reason guards at Abu Ghraib tortured and humiliated their charges, and the study seems to indicate this could happen in just about any prison anywhere, if the guards have enough power. The world should pay more attention to this study and its implications. As another writer notes, "The young men who played prisoners and guards revealed how much circumstances can distort individual personalities -- and how anyone, when given complete control over others, can act like a monster" (Alexander). This is what happened at Abu Ghraib, and chances are it is happening all around the world as well. In an interview about Abu Ghraib, Zimbardo notes the prison environment…… [Read More]

References

Alexander, Meredith. "Thirty Years Later, Stanford Prison Experiment Lives On." Prisonexp.org. 22 Aug. 2001. 9 Jan. 2007. http://www.prisonexp.org/30years.htm

Bronstein, Phyllis A., and Kathryn Quina, eds. Teaching a Psychology of People: Resources for Gender and Sociocultural Awareness. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1988.

Giles, David. Media Psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003.

O'Toole, Kathleen. "The Stanford Prison Experiment: Still Powerful After All These Years." Stanford University. 8 Jan. 1997. 9 Jan. 2007. http://www.stanford.edu/dept/news/pr/97/970108prisonexp.html
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Privatizing Prison Administration

Words: 713 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16040271

Privatizing Prison Administration

Description of the Financing System.

Description of How the Current System orks. The financial costs associated with maintaining America's prison system are staggering. Just to stay even with an inmate population that grows by 50,000 to 80,000 a year, approximately, 1,000 new jails and prisons have been built since 1980, and about one new 1,000 bed facility must be added every week for the next ten years (Mccormick 2000). The cost of imprisoning adult offenders ranges from $25,000 to $70,000 a year, and the total costs associated with constructing each new prison cell has soared to $100,000; as a result, the annual budget for constructing and maintaining prisons has jumped in the last two decades from $7 billion to almost $40 billion dollars (Schlosser 1999).

According to Stephen Donziger (1997), "prisons are the largest public works program in America, providing housing, food, (and only sometimes) education, mental…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Campbell, Allison, Andrew Coyle and Rodney Neufeld (Eds.). Capitalist Punishment: Prison

Privatization & Human Rights. Atlanta: Clarity Press, 2003.

Mccormick, Patrick T. (2000). Just Punishment and America's Prison Experiment. Theological Studies, 61(3):508.

Schlosser, Kathryn Casa. (July 2, 1999). Prisons: The New Growth Industry. National Catholic Reporter, 16.
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Controlling the Prison Population According

Words: 1376 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78083676

S. pp). This is partly due to high recidivism because within three years of their release, two of every three prisoners are back behind bars (U.S. pp). Criminologists attribute the prison population growth to "get tough on crime" policies that have subjected hundreds of thousands of nonviolent drug and property offenders to long mandatory sentences (U.S. pp). Malcolm Young of the Sentencing Project, says, "e have to be concerned about an overloaded system which sentences many offenders quickly and is not dong a good job of sorting out people who should be incarcerated from people for whom other responses would produce better, less expensive results" (U.S. pp).

The rise in the prison population varies by state, yet since 1998, twelve states experienced stable or declining incarceration rates but crime rates in those states declined at the same rates as in the other thirty-eight (U.S. pp).

Young says, "e're working under…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Incarcerated America. April 2003. Accessed from the Human Rights Watch web site on May 04, 2005. http://www.hrw.org/backgrounder/usa/incarceration/

Mandatory Sentencing Laws Fuel Prison Overcrowding Crisis, Fill Prisons With Non-Violent Substance Abusers. Accessed from the Families Against Mandatory Minimums web site on May 05, 2005. http://famm.org/si_sbs_arizona_press_release_5_11_04.htm

McDonough, Siobhan. Crime rate down, but prison population on the rise.

Houston Chronicle. April 25, 2005. Accessed from the Houston Chronicle web site on May 05, 2005. http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/ssistory.mpl/nation/3151865
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Correction System in the United States the

Words: 608 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11298957

Correction System in the United States

The objective of this brief study is to examine the correctional system in the United States. This system was historically a state-owned and government-operated institution however, in recent years the prison system in the United States has become privatized and this has created a new paradigm in terms of housing prisoners under the present judicial system's orders.

If It Is roken

The prison system received a wake-up call in the Spring of 2011 due to a ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court that the California prison system was required to reduce the inmates in its overcrowded prison system by 30,000 individuals. The court ruled that the California state's system was "incompatible with the concept of human dignity." (Thomas and eckel, 2011) The United States is reported to have roughly 2 million individuals incarcerated in local, state, and federal jails or prisons, which equals "the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Mikkelsen, Randall (2007) U.S. Prison System: Costly and Harmful Failure. Reuters News. 19 Nov 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.reuters.com/article/2007/11/19/us-usa-prisons-idUSN1841666120071119

Private Prisons are Back (2012 ) Corrections. Retrieved from:  http://www.correctionsproject.com/corrections/pris_priv.htm 

Thomas, Cal and Beckel, Bob (2011) Jailbroken: 5 Ways to Fix the U.S.A.'s Prisons. 13 Jul 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/forum/2011-07-13-prison-jail-system-america_n.htm
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Sweden's Current Justice System Overview

Words: 3924 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32355412

In 1993 there were 155,704 recorded crimes of burglary and of these 20,200 were residential burglaries. Since the mid-1970s the level of recorded burglaries has fluctuated around a level of 130,000 to 150,000 crimes per year although during the three last years, 1991 to 1993, the level has been close to 155,000. The number of recorded car thefts in 1993 was 61,141 and of these 18,300 were attempts. During the 1980s the number of recorded thefts of cars has doubled from 34,301 in 1980 to 69,003 in 1989. However, in the last three years this crime has decreased from roughly 70,000 in 1991 to roughly 61,000 in 1993.

Drug offenses. In 1993, 40,700 violations of the Narcotic Drugs Act were reported to the police. This figure is 40% higher than in 1990. Due to the method of counting drug offenses and the fact that this is a crime category highly…… [Read More]

Resources

An Introduction to the Sami Culture" (1996) Retrieved, January 28, at  http://boreale.konto.itv.se/samieng.htm 

Criminal Matters" Swedish Government Offices Website Retrieved, January 28, at http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2138/a/14884

Malmstrm, C. "Diversity in the European Context" Retrieved, January 28, at http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/8660/a/82943

Reiter, P.L. (2007), Comparative criminal justice systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall/Pearsons.
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Failure of America's Prisons the

Words: 985 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51383898

238). Furthermore, prison stigmatizes convicts, and, upon release many people, particularly employers, are reluctant to take a chance on someone with the stigma of a prison record (Macionis, p.238). Prison also breaks social ties between the prisoner and non-criminal friends and family, weakening the very type of community ties that are believed to help deter criminal behavior (Macionis, p.238). Therefore, if one of the goals of the tough-on-crime stance is to reduce criminal activity, it is clear that American prisons simply are not accomplishing that goal.

In addition, over the past two decades, "the American prison population has climbed from 300,000 to more than two million- roughly equal to the combined population of Austin, Denver, Nashville, and ashington, D.C." (Silverstein, p.1). In addition, "largely because of racially-biased drug sentencing laws, about half of America's prison population is African-American and one-quarter of all black men are likely to be imprisoned at…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Macionis, John J. Sociology. 13th ed. City of Publication. Prentice Hall, 2009.

Silverstein, Ken. "Introduction." Prison Nation: The Warehousing of America's Poor. Eds.

Tara Herivel and Paul Wright. New York. Routledge, 2003.1-5. Print.

Street, Paul. "Color Blind." Prison Nation: The Warehousing of America's Poor. Eds.
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U S Corrections Systems the Current U S Prison

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59811484

U.S. Corrections Systems

The current U.S. prison system has several purposes, including retribution, incapacitation, deterrence, and rehabilitation. (Legal Encyclopedia, 2011). Although the current model is attempting a greater emphasis upon rehabilitation, this objective has met varying successes and failures. One of the most legitimate criticisms against prison rehabilitation programs is the fact that the treatment involved is compulsory or coercive. This factor then led to the likelihood of returning to criminal activity once the prisoner is released.

According to the Legal Encyclopedia (2011), there have been advances in rehabilitation programs that have in fact proved to reduce recidivism. The success of these programs are based upon their focus on offenders' needs and on improving their cognitive and social skills. ecidivism resulting from these programs amounted to 30% or more.

Because of the high costs of maintaining and constructing prisons, the rehabilitation purpose has enjoyed increased attention over recent years. Simply…… [Read More]

References

Gest, T. (2010). Covering Sentencing. Covering Crime and Justice. Retrieved from: http://www.justicejournalism.org/crimeguide/chapter14/chapter14_pg05.html

Legal Encyclopedia (2011). Prisons and Jails: Development of Prisons and Jails in the United States. Retrieved from: http://law.jrank.org/pages/18929/Prisons-Jails.html
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State Prison Populations

Words: 925 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78744361

Causes of Increases in Prison Populations

The United States has experienced an unprecedented increase in prison populations over the last decade, a trend that began in the 1980's. In just seven years during the last decade, prison populations rose by 58% -- from 1,726.000 to 1.1 million (S, 1998). 1997 alone showed an increase of over 5% (S, 1998).

Three factors play heavily into these facts: the war on drugs, longer sentences, and mandatory laws at the federal level and in many states requiring sterner sentences for repeat offenders. These changes in our approach to criminal prosecution have resulted in two significant changes in our prison system: a change in racial balance, and a prison population that now contains significantly more older prisoners than before these changes occurred.

Roach (2002) reported on years of research done by Angela Davis and others. He found persuasive evidence that Blacks receive harsher treatment…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, Jennifer. July 19, 2002. "Aging Prison Populations Drive Up State Costs." Stateline. Accessed via the Internet 9/28/02. http://www.stateline.org/story.do?storyId=243927

Roach, Ronald. Jan. 17, 2002. "From the classroom to the courtroom: scholars assess race and class in the American criminal justice system." Black Issues in Higher Education.

Staff writers (SW). Aug. 1998. "Crime rate declines; prison population continues to rise." Jet.

United States Department of Justice (USDJ). Aug. 25, 2002. "OJP Freedom of Information Act page." Bureau of Justice Statistics. Accessed via the Internet Sept. 28, 2002. www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs
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The Scotland System of Handling Inmates

Words: 546 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51017544

Correction System Management in Scotland

Prison superintendents and female prisoners

The prison system in many countries has mostly subject the inmates to absolute control and more so the victims of this institutionalized ills are the women. The masculine sex roles have been stamped into the psyche of the female inmates in a manner that replicates the abuse that exists in abusive relationships, only in this case perpetrated by the prison officials and the superintendents. The prison environment has concentrated more on the implementation of dominance as a policy rather than empowerment. The prison superintendents have emphasis more on the coerced conformity rather ta offering caring and supportive environment hence the female inmates fail to receive the rehabilitation that they need. The ultra masculine sex roles that are imposed on the female inmates can be said to be generally imposed by the superintendents in charge of the prisons.

Special management inmates…… [Read More]

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Drug Prison Email L Jones Officer

Words: 389 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86701001



Of course, I completely understand the volatile nature of the prison vs. rehab debate. However, I believe that if you take a look at the information available. Specifically check out the publications from Deputy Director of the Prison Reform Trust, Nick Flynn -- especially, "Drugs in Prison, Another Quick Fix (2005)." Also, consider the 2002 Corrections Today article by Jeff Goodale. I trust that both of these writers will present my point quite will.

In short, I urge you to consider my opinion regarding an alternative sentencing option for offenders like Mr. Smith. In my opinion one of the states in-patient, minimum security rehabilitation centers may be more appropriate. Please let me know what you think.

Thank you very much for your time.

Sincerely:

Officer Betty Rumble

orks Cited

Goodale, Jeff. (2002). The prison that drugs built: Illinois designs a new women's prison for the new reality. Corrections Today. August.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Goodale, Jeff. (2002). The prison that drugs built: Illinois designs a new women's prison for the new reality. Corrections Today. August. Retrieved from Web site on October 18, 2005, from, http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go1850/is_200208/ai_n7187734

Flynn, Nick. (2005). Drugs in Prison: Another Quick Fix. Web page. DrugText.org. Retrieved on October 18, 2005, from, http://www.drugtext.org/library/articles/four1.html
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For Profit Prisons and Ethics

Words: 3566 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95905857

US PIVATE PISONS & PISONE LABO

Event

First Theory: Karl Marx

Analysis of the Evidence

Second Theorist: Max Weber

Analysis of Evidence

Event

The event being investigated in this study was published in the New York Times on May 24. 2014. The article is about the very low pay for working prisoners in the U.S. private jails and about allegations about them being exploited. The article is written by Ian Urbina and is titled "Using Jailed Migrants as a Pool of Cheap Labor." The article is available at the following link: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/25/us/using-jailed-migrants-as-a-pool-of-cheap-labor.html.

The article describes the plight of illegal immigrants into the U.S. and how the government policy has prevented them from being employed in the U.S. However, when these very illegal immigrants land up in the prisons, especially in the private prisons of the country, they are forced to contribute labor at very low rates or even without pay.…… [Read More]

References

Bloch, Maurice. Marxist Analyses And Social Anthropology. Print.

Bowles, Paul. Capitalism. Harlow, England: Pearson/Longman, 2007. Print.

Engels, Friedrich. On Historical Materialism. New York: International Publishers, 1940. Print.

Massey, Garth. Readings For Sociology. New York, N.Y.: W.W. Norton & Co., 2009. Print.
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Open and Closed System Models in Criminal

Words: 1053 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66287728

open and closed system models in criminal justice. Specifically it will define open and closed system models of organizations and explain why it is important that the criminal justice professional should know the differences between these models. It will also provide a specific organizational example of each type of organization, one for open systems and one for closed systems, and describe how these organizations meet the criteria of either the open or closed system perspective. There are vast differences in management and outcome between open and closed system models in organizations, and these differences are especially important to the criminal justice system. An open system allows for change and growth, while a closed system is less flexible and far more bureaucratic.

The open and closed ideas of system models in organizations were originated by organizational experts obert L. Kahn and Daniel Katz in the 1960s. There are three basic system…… [Read More]

References

Ciarkowski, Arthur A. "8 Influencing Structure: From Hierarchy to Chaos." How Public Organizations Work: Learning from Experience. Ed. Bellavita, Christopher. New York: Praeger, 1990. 111-122.

Hartmann, Francis and Charles Wellford. "Panel III Changing Nature of Criminal Justice System Responses and Its Professions." U.S. Department of Justice. 1998. 10 June 2005.

< http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/reports/98Guides/lblf/panel3d.htm

Roeckelein, Jon E. Dictionary of Theories, Laws, and Concepts in Psychology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.
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Pennsylvania Correctional System vs Auburn Correctional System

Words: 751 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86799314

Corrections

Pennsylvania Correctional System VS Auburn Correctional System

Compare and contrast the Pennsylvania Correctional System and the Auburn Correctional System. What correctional system most closely explains our modern day prisons? Why?

The Pennsylvania Correctional System was one of the first correctional systems created in the new nation of America. It was instituted during the 18th century. At the time, it was felt that "the solution to the disorder and corruption in most prisons ...lay in complete separation of each inmate for his or her entire sentence, a system which had been tried occasionally in England but was always abandoned because of costs and inadequate prison structures" (Johnston 2012). The philosophy of the Pennsylvania System was heavily influenced by the Quakerism of the state, which stressed the need for penitential reflection as a way of repenting and establishing a closer relationship between the inmate and God. "The system of 24-hour separation…… [Read More]

References

Both sides of the wall. (2012). Correction History. Retrieved:

http://www.correctionhistory.org/auburn&osborne/brochure2.htm

Johnston, Norman. (2012). Prison reform in Pennsylvania. The Prison Society. Retrieved:

 http://www.prisonsociety.org/about/history.shtml
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Kerik on Flawed System

Words: 319 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27616671

Flawed System

Bernard Kerik was the chief of police in New York City, and then spent time behind bars. "The system is flawed," he says. The system annihilates people's lives, destroys their careers, and destroys families. Kerik mentions one commercial fisherman who lost his license and is spending three years in prison for "catching too much fish." This is one example of the flaws in the system. Kerik also comments on the political pressures on law enforcement officials. Ethics are often taking a back seat to political expediency and reputation.

The American people need to be educated about what is going on, Kerik notes. People need to know what is going wrong, and members of congress need to respond. Prison sentences should never be "life sentences" in the sense that people cannot be penalized the rest of their lives for one mistake. The label of "convicted felon" debilitates a person…… [Read More]

Reference

Kerik, B. (2013). Interview with Lauer, M. (2013). Ex-top cop Bernard Kerik: The prison system is flawed. Retrieved online: http://www.today.com/video/today/53455672#54615943
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U S Criminal Justice System as in the

Words: 1078 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 658999

U.S. Criminal Justice system as in the last few decades and link the trends to the future. We will access the following, including:

ecent and future trends and contemporary issues affecting the criminal justice system.

Value of the criminal justice system in a changing society.

Traditionally, American citizens have traditionally thought of the United States criminal justice system as being in the business of dispensing justice for crimes that are actually committed. Unfortunately, over several decades a move within the criminal justice system has been unfolding where instead of punishing past offenses, it attempts to prevent future crimes through the incarceration and control of dangerous offenders. This is a fallacious approach and erodes our constitutional protections of individual rights under the Bill of ights and the United States Constitution.

Unfortunately for individual rights in the United States, the criminal justice system has misused the War on Terrorism and an act…… [Read More]

References

Greenberger, M. (2004). Is criminal justice a casualty of the bush administration's

"war on terror"?. Retrieved from http://www.americanbar.org/publications / human http://www.americanbar.org/publications/human_rights_magazine

_home/irr_hr_w

home/irr_hr_winter04_casualty.html.
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How Islam Is Getting Into U S Prisons

Words: 1062 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78482299

Terrorism and Correctional Administrations

As if correctional administrators and other connected with prisons don't have enough problems on hand, when prisoners are also terrorists, or prisoners get radicalized in prison and attempt to conduct terrorist activities, prisons have a huge problem. This paper reviews the issues surrounding terrorism and prisons.

Ann Coppola, News Reporter for Corrections.com

This interview between counterterrorism planning expert, Bill Sturgeon, and reporter Ann Coppola, took place on the 12th of November, 2007, long before the more recent terrorism issues in the news (ISIS, and "lone wolves" doing terrible violent deeds). Sturgeon flatly said, "hile currently there is not a large number of terrorists in American prisons and jails, that could change quickly in corrections" (Coppola, p. 2).

Sturgeon said that throughout history prisons have been places where "disgruntled groups" such as terrorists, revolutionaries, and others have seen as "targets" for disruption and violence (Coppola, 2007). Coppola…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coppola, A. (2007). Terrorism in corrections, a ticking time bomb. Corrections.com.

Retrieved April 19, 2015, from http://www.corrections.com.

Hamm, M.S. (2010). Locking Up Terrorists: Three Models for Controlling Prisoner

Radicalization. Indiana State University. Retrieved April 19, 2015, from http://www.indstate.edu.
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Women at Five State Prison

Words: 10602 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80834550

5%, compared to 4.8% for males). (Chesney-Lind, 1998, p. 66)

The author also re-confirms the fact that data regarding of female inmate's indicate that as cited the passage of increased penalties for drug offenses has certainly been a major factor in this increase. Again, it is also important to see that implementation of these stricter sentencing reform initiatives which supposedly were devoted to reducing class and race disparities in male sentencing, pay very little attention to gender and the particular needs of women have been grievously overlooked. (Chesney-Lind, 1998; Aday, 2003)

The advent of mandatory sentencing schemes and strict punishment for drug offenses has been devastating to women. Many states have adopted harsh mandatory sentencing schemes. The Federal Sentencing Guidelines, which eliminated gender and family responsibility as factors for consideration at the time of sentencing, were adopted. (5) the policy of eliminating gender and family responsibility, combined with heightened penalties…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice System Essay

Words: 3528 Length: Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

This essay discusses how the criminal justice system is an important part of the government, allowing for the prosecution, imprisonment, and rehabilitation of criminals. Apart from the court system and police, the criminal justice system has other components like criminal justice agencies that provide additional information for researchers to form studies and articles to help improve the criminal justice system as a whole. This Criminal Justice Essay will help students looking to understand what the system is and what components make up the system. By exploring the core of the criminal justice system, one can understand law and how the government carries out enforcement of the law within the country.

Titles

What is at the Core of the Criminal Justice System in the United States?

The Effects of the Criminal Justice System on Crime

Does the Criminal Justice System Need Change?

Selected Title: The Role of The American Criminal Justice…… [Read More]

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Privatization of Prisons

Words: 1735 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13417431

Furthermore, even the goal of preventing recidivism (and crime rates in general) conflict with the profit motive of any industry whose demand is measured by the numbers of criminals convicted and sentenced to terms of incarceration.

Conclusion:

Prison privatization has increased in the last few decades in the U.S. Its proponents believe that privatizing prisons will reduce the financial strain on government authorities in connection with maintaining correctional services. Critics are extremely wary of any transition to for-profit business models in the realm of corrections, primarily because of the tremendous potential for inherent conflicts of interests. Ultimately, the best approach might be a hybrid format where private entities supplement government authorities, but subject to appropriate legislative guidelines and oversight mechanisms sufficient to ensure that industry standards and integrity are not compromised the way they might be under unrestricted privatization policies.

eferences

Cullen, F.T., Eck, J.E., Lowencamp, C.T. (2002). Environmental Corrections:…… [Read More]

References

Cullen, F.T., Eck, J.E., Lowencamp, C.T. (2002). Environmental Corrections: A New Paradigm for Effective Probation and Parole Supervision. Federal Probation, Vol. 66, No. 28.

Dershowitz, a.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.

Gaines, L.K., Kaune, M., Miller, R.L. (2006). Criminal Justice in Action: The Core.

Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.