Prisons Essays (Examples)

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Stereotyping People Who Have Been in Prison

Words: 958 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90402548

For some prisoners, their sentences do not end. Even after being released, they are followed around by the specter of suspicion, fear, and prejudice. Stigma against former offenders, even non-violent ones, can stymie even the most ambitious, optimistic, and hard-working reformed criminal. The criminal justice system in the United States has become so punitive that rehabilitation is no longer even a viable goal. With little chance for reformation or hope, many nonviolent reformed offenders have trouble reintegrating into the community, finding work or a place to live. When prisoner reintegration is unsuccessful, everyone suffers. Unable to find employment because employers are biased against former felons, some former inmates have no choice but to turn to the grey and black market economies to make a living. It is unfair to stereotype people who have been in prison as violent offenders since there are many reasons that individuals can find themselves incarcerated. Not…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Eisen, Lauren Brooke and Inimai Chettiar. “39% of Prisoners Should Not Be in Prison.” Time. Dec 08, 2016. Accessed: 
Federal Bureau of Prisons. “Offenses.” Accessed:
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Prison Industrial Complex

Words: 2762 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69517339

Prison Industrial Complex as Another Form of Mandatory Minimum Sentencing

US sentencing policies are still lean which has led to the federal government to incarcerate so many people. There are too many criminals committing too many crimes, and this explains why we have too many prisoners. Currently, the government's prison is holding 200,000-armed robbers, 150,000 sex offenders and 100 murderers (Davis, 2008). These people are enough to make fill a city. Many people have been opposed to the idea that these people should be released form prisons. U.S. have the largest number of violent offenders despite the recorded decline in crime rate. However, the number of people sent to prison for committing violent offences has gone down during the prison boom. In 2010, over 50% of people being taken to prison were violent offenders. America has enormous prison populations because the courts are sentencing individuals who have not committed violent…… [Read More]


Davis, A. (2008). Masked racism: reflections on the prison industrial complex. Homewood, IL:


Goldberg, E. (2009). Prison Industrial Complex and the Global Economy. Oakland: M Pr-ss

Gottschalk, M. (2010). Cellblocks & red ink: mass incarceration, the great recession, & penal reform. Daedalus 139 (3): 62 -- 73
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Prison Nurseries There Are Few Assets as

Words: 2731 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73021498

Prison Nurseries

There are few assets as precious to a nation as it children. Especially in the developed world. Social, care, and education systems are set up in such a way as to nurture the young ones to that they can grow and develop effectively to make the most of their lives and their future. Indeed, not making sure that children's lives can progress along optimal levels can result in dire consequences for a nation and its future. It affects everything from the economy to the moral fabric of a nation to not care for its children. It is also, however, a sad fact of the world today that not all children are born to loving parents, a home and family, or in otherwise ideal circumstances. Indeed, some children are born to mothers who are in prison. While there are many programs to care for these children, there is little…… [Read More]


Benevolent (2013, Jul. 15). Prison Babies. Retrieved from: 

Carlson, J.R. (2009, Spring). Prison Nurseries: A Pathway to Crime-Free Futures. Corrections Compendium 34(1). Retrieved from: 

Ford, A. (2012). Bonding Behind Bars: Do Prison Nurseries Help or Hinder Parenting? Meredith Corporation. Retrieved from:

Lee, O. (2012, May 29). What Happens to Babies Born in Jail? Takepart. Retrieved from:
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Prison Health Care Agency in 1930 the

Words: 1519 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48290933

Prison Health Care Agency

In 1930, the Federal Bureau of Prisons was set up so that more progressive and benevolent care could be provided for Federal prisoners/convicts. Moreover, the purpose behind the establishment of this Bureau was to bring professionalization in the prison service and to make certain that the eleven operational Federal prisons are administered with consistency and centralization. In the present times as well, the Federal Bureau of Prisons has the responsibility of providing custody and care to the Federal inmates that are more or less two million in numbers ("About the Bureau of Prisons"). To cut a long story short, the Federal Bureau of is responsible to lock up federal lawbreakers and delinquents in prisons that are out of harm's way, civilized, inexpensive, and sheltered. Provision of medical care is also a part of the mentioned responsibilities. Thus, the Bureau of Prisons is in charge of the…… [Read More]


About The Bureau of Prisons. (n.d.). BOP: Federal Bureau of Prisons . Retrieved May 28, 2013, from

Inmate Medical Care. (n.d.). BOP: Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved May 28, 2013, from

Inmate Mental Health Treatment & Counseling. (n.d.). BOP: Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved May 28, 2013, from

The Federal Bureau of Prison's Efforts to Manage Inmate Health Care. (February 2008). The United States Department of Justice. Retrieved May 27, 2013, from
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Prison Libraries

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3215800

Prison Libraries

hen most people think about prison libraries today they most likely recall the 1995 movie, "The Shawshank Redemption" which revolved around the library of Maine's state prison from 1947 through the late1960's (Shawshank pg). The movie portrayed the evolution of the library during some twenty years, as it went from a small cramped room housing a meager selection of books to larger quarters with vast selections of books, music and educational materials (Shawshank pg). This evolution would not and could not have taken place if not for the relentless solicitations by the movie's main character, Andy Dufresne. His tireless efforts resulted in donations from various organizations (Shawshank pg). The movie was an accurate depiction of a typical prison library. Until the last century, most were non-existent and the few that did exist were poorly stocked. Due to the funding shortages that have always faced federal and state prisons,…… [Read More]

Washington to Cut Prison Libraries?" Library Journal. February 05, 2001. 05-01-2003).

Willing, Richard. "La. man savors freedom's taste." USA Today. December 23

1999; pp 04A.
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Prison Reduction of Prison Population Current Impact

Words: 5174 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95678066


eduction of Prison Population

Current impact

Population affected

Government Policies.

Effectiveness of Policies

Efficacy of the strategies

This paper highlights the prison system and relates multiple factors to it. It gives a brief background of the topic and then describes the U.S. crises of prison system. In addition to this, it highlights various factors related to the prison population of Indiana. After that, this paper focuses on the present situation of the prison system and then gives light to the affected population due to this reason. Beside this, it describes different types of policies and strategies of the government in this regard, reforms in these policies and suggests some useful strategies. In the end, conclusion is provided which tells the need of bringing positive change in the society.



United States prison crisis

a. U.S. being the largest jailer in the world

b. Indiana facing the challenge of…… [Read More]


Clear, T.R., Hamilton, J.R., Jr., & Cadora, E. (2011). Community Justice. Chicago:Taylor & Francis.

This book presents a good relationship between community and crimes. It highlights the main impacts of crimes on the entire community and gives suggestions that informal control can result better in reducing crimes.

Currie, E. (1988). Crime and Punishment in America. New York: H. Holt.

It describes the main features of the prison system in America and tells that many people view the American prison system as the most lenient system of punishment. However, it is for the betterment of the criminals as well as for the society.
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Prison Funding Finding Funds for Fighting Crime

Words: 1904 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38932108

Prison Funding

Finding Funds for Fighting Crime: Financial Contingency planning for California's Prison System

Prisons have always been a controversial aspect of society, and far more so in the modern era of sociological and psychological inquiry into the nature of crime, punishment, and rehabilitation. Deciding precisely what function prisons are meant to serve and how they should go about serving it has been the cause of a great deal of social and political debate, and these issues are far from settled. There are those that argue for the reduction of prison terms and sentencing lengths and a move to more rehabilitative efforts rather than the punitive focus most prisons seem to hold today, while others insist that making prisons punitive and able to accommodate more inmates serves as a deterrent to crime and as a testament to the rules of justice. These abstract issues in and of themselves make the…… [Read More]


Gilroy, L., Summers, A., Randazzo, A. & Kenny, H. (2010). Public-Private Partnerships for Corrections in California. Accessed 12 February 2012. 

Governor's Budget. (2012). Accessed 12 February 2012.

Skelton, G. (2011). Prison overcrowding and underfunding lead to more local burdens. LA Times. Accessed 12 February 2012.
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Prison Conditions

Words: 1053 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29871864

Prison Conditions

There are two major issues that need to be addressed with regards to prison conditions. One is the whether humane conditions are provided and the other is concerned with the degree of rehabilitation that prisons facilitate. On both counts, U.S. prisons need to take actions to prevent abuse and to reduce the high number of repeat offenders as our prison populations swell beyond control.

According to Human Rights Watch, prisoners suffer from physical mistreatment, excessive disciplinary measures, intolerable physical conditions and inadequate medical and mental health care. Prisons are severely overcrowded and do not have adequate staffing.

Many local jails are unsafe, vermin-infested and lack areas where inmates can get exercise or fresh air. Violence by inmates and guards is common. Mentally ill inmates who comprise between six and fourteen percent of the incarcerated population do not receive adequate monitoring and treatment. Private prisons operate without sufficient control…… [Read More]


Butterfield, Fox. "Inmate Rehabilitation Returns as Prison Goal.." New York Times. 20 May 2001. 28 Feb. 2003. .

Human Rights Watch Prison Project," Human Rights Watch Organization. 28 Feb. 2003.

Inmate Rehabilitation." The Stop Violence Coalition of Kansas City. 28 Feb. 2003.

Ruggiero, Diane. "Torture, Plain and Simple': Amnesty International Reports Abuse In Women's Prisons," 4 Mar. 1999. Web Site. 28 Feb 2003.
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Prison Rape

Words: 1233 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22624528

Prison Rape

Analysts continue to debate the appropriate role of the corrections system. One camp firmly believes that prisons are places punishment. The other side argues that the primary role of prisons is to provide rehabilitation, to train former criminals to become participative members of society.

This paper argues that even though restitution and punishment is important, the more vital role of prisons lies in rehabilitation. Realistically, most prisoners will be eligible for parole. It is therefore in the general public's best interests to ensure that prisons serve as venues for rehabilitation, by providing services like counseling and job skills training.

The focus of this paper is on one of the biggest obstacle to the goal of rehabilitation -- violence in prisons.

Studies have shown that the environment in many prisons is permeated with violence ("Violence and inmate characteristics"). This atmosphere makes it virtually impossible for any rehabilitation to occur.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bates, Eric. "Private Prisons are Abusive and Inefficient." Prisons. Bryan J. Grapes, Ed. Current Controversies Series. Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. 2004.

Rideau, Wilbert and Wikberg, Ron. Life Sentences: Rage and Survival Behind Bars. New York: Three Rivers Press, 1992.

Stephen Donaldson, "A Million Jockers, Punks, and Queens, Stop Prisoner Rape: Sex among American Male Prisoners and its Implications for Concepts of Sexual Orientation," Stop Prisoner Rape, Feb. 4, 1993. available online from
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Prison Reform

Words: 1784 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26007776

Prison Reform

The United States criminal justice system houses the largest prison population in the world; both in terms of the total prison population as well as the proportion of prisoners to the total population (per capita). The United States has a bigger prison population than China and India despite having nowhere near the total population. It also holds a greater percentage of its population in incarceration than any other country in the world as well including such nations such as Russia, North Korea, or even Iran. The United States has about five percent of the world's population however it has about twenty-five percent of the world's prison population.

There are many stereotypes that uphold the image of the inmate, prisoner, or felon as a violent criminal, that must be locked away to keep the population safe. However, in many cases, the actual prison population is made up of a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chang, C. (2012, May 14). North Louisiana family is a major force in the state's vast prison. Retrieved from NOLA.

Greenwald, G. (2009). Drug Decriminalization in Portugal. Cato Institute.

Head, T. (N.d.). Key Facts About the War on Drugs. Retrieved April 8, 2013, from Civil Liberties:

Maag, C. (2012, August 28). In Missouri, debtors prison is alive and well. Retrieved from MSN Money:
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Prison Duncan Argues That the

Words: 1598 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37622076

Duncan's thesis on the attractions of prison is more psychologically grounded, however. People seek constraints and limits, just as they are imprisoned by societal standards and limits, or Foucault's notion of the Panopticon.

The criminal is also a kind of fantasy-child for society, according to Duncan. Like a child, a criminal dwells in a kind of in-between space, a place where anything is possible, and redemption is possible. The American gospel of self-reinvention, as seen in films like "The Shawshank Redemption," romanticizes prisons as places where people can radically rebuild their lives and characters. This explains why prisons like Alcatraz, rather than being hated or feared are actually viewed with affection. Convicts become romantic outlaws and pioneers in the imagination of the media, the crimes are forgotten when criminals are viewed through the rose colored glasses of history. The prisons that confirmed their deviancy are similarly romanticized as the place…… [Read More]

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Prison Problem The Violence People

Words: 1336 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83053070

A major portion of an inmate's helplessness, deprivation, depression and self-loathing etc. arises due to physical and psychological victimization that he or she has to face. Physical victimization includes homicide, assault and rape. These arise due to poor staff supervision and keeping defenseless prisoners with the violent ones. On the other hand, psychological victimization involves verbal manipulation and harsh psychological attacks of personal nature.

The stronger inmates attempt to create their own subcultures that show their dominance, rule and assertion on all prisoners (Heilpern, 1998). To fulfill the maintenance of these subcultures, they resort to rape, riots or even homicide spreading mental illnesses like stress, phobias, enhanced criminal activity, shame, guilt, etc. among the weaker prisoners.

Imprisonment: Eliminating or aggravating crime?

It is not a hidden matter that jails, even after intensive care and security, are not free of brutality, stress and violence among the inmates. The safety of each…… [Read More]


Cragg, W. (2002). The practice of punishment: Towards a theory of restorative justice. Routledge.

Foucault, M. (2008). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison.

Gendreau, P., Cullen, F.T., & Goggin, C. (1999). The effects of prison sentences on recidivism. Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada.

Gudrais, E. (2013, March). The Prison Problem. Harvard Magazine.
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Prison as a Deterrent for

Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66810200

This will also lead to the finding on whether the kind of offense committed translates to a lengthier sentence on imprisonment and in effect, on the likelihood that the ex-convict will commit the same or a different kind of offense again. Lastly, the researcher is also interested to determine whether the commitment of re-offense, if indeed committed by the ex-convict, changes in level or degree -- that is, whether the re-offense has a greater, lower, or the same level of punishment.

In terms of the research sample, the researcher proposes looking into a sample of ex-convicts who came from the same correctional/prison facility. By sampling a group of ex-convicts from the same prison facility, the researcher prevents data from being tainted with extraneous variables, such as the existence of prison programs, which might influence the ex-convict's reformation during his/her prison term. Thus, when a particular correctional or prison facility is…… [Read More]

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Jail Memo To the County

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47346676

However, given that the problem of overcrowding is pervasive in the prison system in general, and not simply at these specific junctures of the judicial process, the choice between a low-use jail and a high-use jail would seem to be the real question. More and more prisoners who might once be shipped to the state penitentiary are now being confined to jails for more extended periods of time than ever before. Thus, to accommodate this problem, a high-use jail that has many of the monitoring and rehabilitative capacities of a prison system would be more useful to the community.

The purpose and function of a high-use jail low-use jail is designed for shorter-term inmates, while a high-use jail is designed to accommodate not simply more inmates, but a wider variety of inmates for longer durations of time. It has the ability to deal with more violent offenders, but also has…… [Read More]

Works Cited

What is the difference between jail and prison?" (2006). Public Health and Criminal

Justice. Operated by the CDC: Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Page last reviewed 18 Oct 2006. Retrieved 9 Mar 2007 at
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Prison Punishment Should Prison Be Punitive or

Words: 2477 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52781814

Prison Punishment

Should Prison be Punitive or Rehabilitation in Nature?

A question that has existed since the beginnings of the modern prison system has been that of whether prison should be an unbearable punishment for an action committed, or rehabilitation for the accused to rid them of a particular behavior. In ancient times, a violent crime was usually responded with a violent verdict, resulting in torture and pain, and the concept of 'an eye for an eye' that led human law for thousands of years. Recently, however, civilization has rejected the outward torture of prisoners, and has tried to implement a system based on fairness, both during the trial and during the punishment. hile prisoners may not feel like their jail time is fair, modern civilization has elected judges to make these decisions for society. There is still the question, however, of what in today's world is the goal of…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Larrabee, A., (2006). Punishment vs. Rehabilitation in the Criminal Justice System. Retrived from,

Multiple authors. (2010). Should Criminal Justice Focus More on Rehabilitation or Punishment. IDebate. Retrieved from .

Peak, K., (2012). Justice Administration: Police, Courts and Corrections Management (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson: Prentice Hall.

Turner, A., (2012). Work Programs for Texas Inmates Go High Tech. Chron. Retrieved from, .
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Prison Reform the United States

Words: 3176 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7254901

The average felony sentence imposed upon federal and state offenders in 1996 was 62 months, or just over 5 years. On average these prisoners actually serve 45% of a state sentence for a mean prison stint of 2 years and 4 months, and 85% of a federal sentence for a stint of 4 years and 5 months. Once they are released, the recidivism rates are high. According to Lin (2000), "incarceration, as it stands, does not prevent recidivism" (p. 4). In addition, even if the released prisoners do not commit another crime, it does not mean that they become self-supporting and contribute to their community as much as possible.

.Lin (2000) argues that it is not clear that prisons, as institutions, have the capacity to provide the type of environment required for preparation of returning to the outside world. Prisons are not presently designed to be schools or factories, most…… [Read More]


Alexander, M. (2010) Is Mass Incarceration the New Jim Crow? NY: New Press

Durham, a.M. (1994) Crisis and reform: current issues in American punishment. Canada: Little Brown and Co.

Johnson, R. Hard Time: Understanding and Reforming the Prison

Katz, L., Levitt, S.D., & Shustorovich, E. (2003) Prison conditions, capital punishment and deterrence. American Law and Economics Review, 5(2):318-343,
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Prison Management From the Prison

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96996046

In addition, prison managers must deal with the mundane as well as the human equation, because much of their jobs are in the paperwork, union rules, state statutes, and other regulations that are required in the prison system. Management in the prison is a unique challenge, because of the many responsibilities that come with it. It is clear, just as business management and leadership are evolving, that prison management will continue to evolve, and as it does, it could create model prison systems of the future.

Finally, it is important to note that prisons are unique operations, but they still should uphold management principles. Author Daly continues, "Management is responsible for the mission and strategy of the organization. Prisons are unique with special features but they still reflect the philosophy and methodology of management" (Daly, 2002). Prison management should have clearly defined goals and missions regarding their inmate populations, but…… [Read More]


Boin, a. (2001). Crafting public institutions: Leadership in two prison systems. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Daly, W.C. (2002). Shades of gray in prison administration. Education, 122(3), 488+.

Greene, J. (2003). Chapter Five Lack of correctional services. In Capitalist punishment: Prison privatization & human rights, Coyle, a., Campbell, a., & Neufeld, R. (Eds.) (pp. 56-66). Atlanta: Clarity Press.
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Prison Crowding

Words: 1287 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53618609

prison overcrowding and its effect on the criminal justice system. Prison overcrowding has skyrocketed in the United States in the last three decades, leading to a multitude of problems in the criminal justice system. Overcrowding costs taxpayers money, it leads to dysfunction within the penal population, and it creates dangers for prison staff. It is a result of many items in society and the criminal justice system, and it must change if America's prisons are to remain effective and viable.

Many people may not be aware just how much the prison population has grown in the last thirty years. One researcher notes, "From 300,000 prisoners in 1977, the prison population has risen steadily to over 1.5 million as of June 30, 2005, a 400% increase" (Pfaff, 2008). The two largest states housing prisoners, California and Texas, have seen stupendous growth in their prison populations, but not in their funding. Another…… [Read More]


Haney, C. (2006). Prison overcrowding: Harmful consequences and dysfunctional reactions. Retrieved 31 July 2009 from the Commission on Safety and Abuse in America's Prisons Web site: 1-17.

Jacobs, J.B. (2007). Finding alternatives to the carceral state. Social Research, 74(2), 695+.

Moore, S. (2009). The prison overcrowding fix. Retrieved 31 July 2009 from the New York Times Web site:

Pfaff, J.F. (2008). The empirics of prison growth: A critical review and path forward. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 98(2), 547+
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Jail and a Prison What

Words: 379 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80339327

Generally, persons sentenced to prison have been convicted of a felony offense. There are both state-run and federally run prisons. hether a prisoner is confined to a state or a federally run prison determines on whether he or she was convicted in a federal or a state court. (hat is the Difference Between a Jail and Prison, 2006, Public Health and Criminal Justice) prisoner may begin his or her movement through the criminal justice system in a jail. However, after his or her case has been heard, and he or she has been arraigned, then he or she will likely be able to post bail, or, if unable to do so, be confined to a prison in the jurisdiction where he or she will be tried. After his or her conviction, the most appropriate venue for incarceration will then be determined, depending on the length of the sentence and the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

What is the Difference Between a Jail and Prison?"(18 Oct 1006) Public Health and Criminal Justice. Retrieved 30 Oct 2006 at
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Prison Culture

Words: 1950 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18919889

Corcoran State Prison: Prison Culture and Effect on Inmates

The prisons in the U.S. have a long history of offering correction services and rehabilitation for the people convicted of various crimes within the society. There have been increased incarceration of inmates over the last few decades with prisons getting more populated than before hence the introduction of the privately run correction facilities to help handle the large number of people within the prison walls at any given time. However, the inclusion of the private prisons have not helped matters much neither have they improved the rehabilitation process or the living standards of the inmates in comparison to the state owned correction facilities. There have continued to thrive the prison cultures and in effect influenced the way the prisoners relate to each other and even relate to the correctional officers. This prison culture will be the focus of this paper and…… [Read More]


Bureau of Justice Statistics (2011). Prison and Jail Deaths in Custody, 2000-2009 - Statistical Tables. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from 

California State Prison, Corcoran, (2013). California State Prison, Corcoran - Mission Statement. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from 

David R. Shaw, (2009). California State Prison, Corcoran Warden Derral Adams One-Year Audit. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from,%20Corcoran%20State%20Prison.pdf 

Paige J., (2013). Court experts cite 'serious' healthcare risks at Corcoran prison. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from
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Prison Gang Is a Select Group of

Words: 1468 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86506062

prison gang is a select group of inmates with an organized chain of command and an established code of conduct. They operate in secrecy with a view to controlling their prison environment through intimidation and violence meted on non-members. Some of the oldest prison gangs in the U.S. were formed as early as 1950s. Some notable example is Gypsy Jokers that operated in Washington State prisons (Fleisher & Decker, 2001). Violence in correctional facilities in the United States is something that has been with us for quite a while. Prisoners and prison officers have both fallen victims to this violence.

Think of the San Antonio, Texas incident where 281 prisoners were stabbed and 13 slain (The Ledger, 1984). There was divided opinion on what motivated such heinous acts with some prison officials opining that prison gangs who were divided along racial lines were responsible. Some attacks were thought to be…… [Read More]

References List

Fleisher, M.S. & Decker, S.H. (2001). An overview of the Challenge of Prison Gangs.

Corrections Management Quarterly, 5(1), 1-9.

Knox, G.W. (2005). The Problem of Gangs and Security Threat Groups (STG's) in American

Prisons Today: Recent Research Findings From the 2004 Prison Gang Survey. Retrieved from
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Jail Time and Death Penalty Finding New

Words: 2882 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55231289

Jail Time and Death Penalty: Finding New Ways to Deter Criminal Behavior

Jail Time and Death Penalty: A Deterrent?

For years many law enforcement agencies have relied on the assumption that jail time or the death penalty serve as adequate deterrents to crime or criminal activity. However multiple studies confirm that jail time and the death penalty are not effective methods alone for deterring criminals. Because of this it is important that law enforcement agents, government officials and community members work together to uncover effective tools for deterring crime and discouraging criminals from repeating crimes after release.

Jail time and the death penalty do not deter crime. Early Gallup Polls conducted in the 1980s and 1990s show that while roughly two thirds of Americans and law enforcement agents support the death penalty, there is inadequate evidence supporting its use as an effective deterrent to crime (Akers & adelet, 1996). Many…… [Read More]


Abraham, E., Boyle, J., Mullen, R. & ratelle, J. (1996). "California program reduces recidivism and saves tax dollars." Corrections Today, 58(5): 118.

Akers, R.L. & Radelet, M.L. (1996). "Deterrence and the death penalty: The views of the experts." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 87(1): 15.

Clayton, S.L. (2005 -- Apri). "Jail inmates bake their way to successful reentry."

Corrections Today, 67(2):78.
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Prison Conditions in the United States and Russia

Words: 974 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98729681

Maximum security prisons have grown in recent decades and have implemented methods some may deem inhumane. A 2016 article discusses prison conditions in maximum security prisons and addresses specifically the topic of preservation of human dignity and disease prevention. The author mentions the Dudley Lee v. Minister of Correctional Services case that held "that prison authorities have a duty of care to prevent prisoners from being infected with HIV-related illnesses such as TB" (Torriente, Tadion, & Hsu, 2016). The applicant was sent to a maximum security prison in South Africa where he eventually was diagnosed three years later with TB. Another instance of the government and its failure to acknowledge the need to safeguard a prisoner's health is the . v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex-parte Glen Fielding. Here the case discusses of a prisoner in the United Kingdom asking for condoms and being denied unless given…… [Read More]


Engel, P. (2013). Here's What Life Is Like Inside Russia's Toughest Prison.Business Insider. Retrieved 16 April 2016, from

Torriente, A., Tadion, A., & Hsu, L. (2016). Opening the Door to Zero New HIV Infections in Closed Settings. Health and Human Rights Journal. Retrieved 16 April 2016, from

Vasiliades, E. (2005). Solitary Confinement and International Human Rights: Why the U.S. Prison System Fails Global Standards. American University International Law Review, 21(1). Retrieved from
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Prison Term Policy

Words: 810 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12121537

Classical Criminology theories in examining a case that studies a bill which is meant to increase the maximum term for prisoners charged with armed robbery, by double.

The Enlightenment was the basis on which Classical Criminology theories came to be. The theories emphasize on the notion that people choose to end their own lives, and that people need to be punished to prevent them from committing crimes in the future. Classical theories are based on the assumption that people have their freedom, and committing an offense is by choice (The Classical School of Criminology & Its Influence Today). The theories are also based on the assumption that people try to look for pleasure and avoid painful experiences. The notion of hedonism was one of the major ideas, which means that people try to look for pleasure and avoid pain. The idea is used in classical theories to inform punishment. Every…… [Read More]


(2011). Legislative News, Studies and Analysis - National Conference of State Legislatures. Principles of Effective State Sentencing and Corrections Policy. Retrieved August 29, 2016, from

South. (2010). Homepage - Times Free Press. Bill would keep armed robbers in prison longer - Times Free Press. Retrieved August 29, 2016, from 

(n.d.). - Take Online Courses. Earn College Credit. Research Schools, Degrees & Careers. The Classical School of Criminology & Its Influence Today - Video & Lesson Transcript - Retrieved August 29, 2016, from

Writer Thoughts
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Criminal Justice Prison Architecture

Words: 728 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6645815

Prison Architecture

Criminal Justice, Prison Architecture

The evolution of prison architecture is a reflection of societies changing attitudes toward crime and punishment. Prisons have progressed from simple places for incarceration where the primary purpose is to protect the public to instruments of punishment where the loss of freedom is penalty for breaking the law, to institutions for reform dedicated to mould the guilty to conform to society's norms. Initially imprisonment was a means of detaining debtors to ensure payment, the accused before trial, or the guilty before punishment. Courts imposed sentences including fines, personal mutilation such as flogging or branding, or death. In 18th-century England transportation to penal settlements in the Thirteen Colonies and later Australia, became an increasingly popular penalty because it removed the guilty from local society; length of sentence and destination reflected the severity with which the court viewed the offence. Eventually a new type of prison,…… [Read More]


Johnson, D. (2011) Prison architecture. The Canadian encyclopedia. Retreived October 16, 2011, from

Lewis, J. (2009, june 10). Behind bars…sort of. The New York times magizine. New York Times. Retrieved October 16, 2011, from
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Analyzing Prison Life for Inmates

Words: 3314 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77684400

Prison Life for Inmates

Sending offenders to prison has been used as a way of dealing with prisoners for a long time. It was not always seen as a way of punishment; rather, it was used as detention pending the actual punishment of these offenders. The application of imprisonment has been around, perhaps, for as long as humanity has existed. In Old Testament times, prisons were used in Jerusalem. Some prominent personalities have been reported to have been born in prison environments. Others have been imprisoned. It is reported that Lord Krishna was born in prison at a place called Mathura. Shahjahan was imprisoned by his son at Agra. The ritish constructed the historic cell at Port lair for detaining for life those who revolted against their rule. Prisons have not always been viewed as a way of punishing offenders; rather they have been used to detain offenders before the…… [Read More]


Bradford, Andrew Ryan. "An Examination of The Prison Environment: An Analysis of Inmate Concerns Eight Environmental Dimensions." School of Graduate Studies (2006).

Burlington County. "Prison Museum." A National Historic Landmark Located in The Heart of Holly 2013.

Covert, H. "Ministry to The Incarcerated." Chicago: Loyopla Books, 1995.

Department of Corrections. Victims Services Programs. 2015. .
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Smuggling of Drugs Into Prison

Words: 1411 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43266895

Prison Substance Abuse

If there are two things that plague prisons the most other than violence, they would obviously be drug dependency and mental illness. Quite often, there is a combination of the two in the same prisoners. However, there is also the problem of active drug use and dealing in prison and that shall be the focus of this brief research report. Within this report, there will be a statement of purpose, a description of the research design, the overall research findings, a discussion section and then a conclusion with a resolution. eferences to scholarly literature will pervade this report. While prisons and their personnel due to their best to curb or even stop substance abuse in prison, the influx of drugs is never-ending and the importation thereof is done in many different ways.

Statement of Purpose

The purpose of this study is fairly easy. The amount of literature…… [Read More]


Forsyth, Simon J., et al. "Striking Subgroup Differences In Substance-Related Mortality After Release From Prison." Addiction 109.10 (2014): 1676-1683. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 6 Dec. 2015.

Obstbaum, Yaira, and Sasu Tyni. "Who Receives Substance Abuse Treatment In The 'Real World' Of The Prison? A Register-Based Study Of Finnish Inmates." Journal Of Scandinavian Studies In Criminology & Crime Prevention 16.1 (2015): 76-96. Legal Collection. Web. 6 Dec. 2015.

Wood, Steven R., and Anthony, Jr. Buttaro. "Co-Occurring Severe Mental Illnesses And Substance Abuse Disorders As Predictors Of State Prison Inmate Assaults." Crime & Delinquency 59.4 (2013): 510-535. ERIC. Web. 6 Dec. 2015.

Zarkin, Gary A.1, et al. "Lifetime Benefits And Costs Of Diverting Substance-Abusing Offenders From State Prison." Crime & Delinquency 61.6 (2015): 829-850. Education Abstracts (H.W. Wilson). Web. 6 Dec. 2015.
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Analyzing Prison Condition in USA vs Russia

Words: 1387 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87208689

Prison Condition in USA vs. ussia

In assessing the human rights conditions of maximum security facilities, human rights groups look into 3 main areas: the duration of confinement; the conditions of confinement, and the criteria of eligibility. Each of these areas must be looked into individually and then considered in the context of the entire situation (Human ights Watch). Quite a number of concerns have been raised about the human rights conditions of the individuals held in prisons including: mistreatment of inmates / detainees by prison officials; unsafe conditions; and lack of sufficient legal protection (United States Department of State, n.d.). This paper also compares the situation of prison facilities in the United States and ussia.


The Standard Minimum ules, or the SMs for the Treatment of Prisoners are one of the most important international agreements on how prisoners should be handled. The SMs were adopted in 1955 by…… [Read More]


Hounshell, B. (2010). What are Russian prisons like? Retrieved March 15, 2016 from

Human Rights Watch (n.d.). Supermax Prisons: an overview. Retrieved March 15, 2016 from

Markovic, V. (2000). Maximum Security Prisons: A Comparative Analysis. CRIME AND JUSTICE INTERNATIONAL, 16(39), 9-10.

Rosen, A. (2012). Inside Russia's Prison System. Retrieved March 15, 2016 from
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Arizona's Correctional Healthcare System Prison Healthcare Arizona's

Words: 1975 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40325503


Prison Healthcare

Arizona's Correctional Healthcare System

The Arizona Department of Corrections (ADC) is the agency ultimately responsible for providing healthcare to the state's prison population. Even though the Healthcare Services division within the ADC manages the medical clinics in Arizona's prisons, there are a number of sections and divisions that have important roles to play in ensuring inmates receive the care they are legally entitled to recieve. This essay describes the structural organization that ultimately provides healthcare to inmates and how it operates to ensure statutory compliance.

Arizona's Correctional Healthcare System

Arizona Department of Corrections Organizational Structure

The Arizona Department of Corrections (ADC) is ultimately responsible for providing healthcare for the prison inmate population in the state of Arizona (ADC, 2011). This state agency is responsible for maintaining and administering all ADC institutions and programs, including community supervision for adult inmates released to their communities. The…… [Read More]


America Civil Liberties Union. (2009). Know your rights: Medical, dental, and mental health care. Retrieved 15 Dec. 2011 from

Arizona Department of Corrections. (2011). Retrieved 15 Dec. 2011 from

Arizona Department of Corrections. (2011). Medical Services. Retrieved 15 Dec. 2011 from

Arizona Medical Board. (2011). Official website of the Arizona Medical Board. Retrieved 16 Dec. 2011 from
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Contraband in Jail

Words: 1463 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41517723

Contraband in Jail

Controlling contraband should be the top priority of any prison management, regardless of the level of security. Contraband is any item that a prisoner is not allowed to possess (Frantz 178). All correctional facilities provide their inmates with room and board, clothing, medical care, and basic hygiene items. A number of these facilities allow their inmates to buy items from the commissary or receive other articles or items through other authorized channels. Any other thing, aside from these that a prisoner possesses are contraband. eapons and escape materials are both dangerous in the correct circumstances. A number of staffs who work in prisons are acutely aware of the destruction that these items are likely to cause. These items, in addition to drugs and alcohol, can cause great havoc and pose a potential danger to staff and other inmates. Other items such as materials to make homemade ropes…… [Read More]

Works cited

Blackburn, Ashley G, Shannon K. Fowler, and Joycelyn M. Pollock. Prisons: Today and Tomorrow. Burlington, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2013. Print.

Frantz, Michael. Jail Time: What You Need to Know Before You Go to Federal Prison! Indianapolis, IN: Dog Ear Pub, 2009. Print.

Hoover, Stevin. Mark Whitacre Against All Odds: How "The Informant" and his Family Turned Defeat into Triumph. Bloomington: Xlibris, 2010. Print.
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Policing Social Control and Prison

Words: 1962 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78804299

Many unintended consequences have resulted from this "war." esearch on legitimate medical uses of banned substances, such as marijuana, have been hampered by legal road blocks. Violence stemming from drug-trade disputes has become an international problem. The onset of the AIDS in the 1980s hit addicts who injected illegal drugs particularity hard since the virus it passed through bodily fluids. Some governments were moved to initiate needle exchange programs in part because "slowing the spread of a fatal disease for which no cure exists was the greater moral imperative" (Nadelmann, 1998, p. 115).

Practically speaking the cost of exchanging needles is considerably less than the expense of treating patients with the AIDS virus. Nonetheless, exchange programs in this country have been held back by political issues and moral judgments.


If we were to muster the political and moral courage to reexamine this issue in another light many of the…… [Read More]


Drug War Chronicle. (2005, October 28). Feature: Drug war prisoner count over half a million, U.S. population at all time high. Drug reform coordination network. Retrieved May 4, 2012, from 

Micucci, a.J. & Gomme, I.M. (2005, September/October). American police and subculture support fot the use of excesive force. Journal of criminal justice. Vol. 33, Issue 5, 487-500. Retrieved May 4, 2012, from

Nadelmann, E.A. (1998, January/February) Commonsense drug policy. Foreign affairs, Vol. 77, Issue 1. 111-126. Retrieved April 4, 2012, from

Pager, D. (2003, March). The mark of a criminal record. American journal of sociology, Vol. 108, No. 5. 937-975. Retrieved April 4, 2012, from
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State Prison Inmates Should Be Paroled Early to Help With the States Budget Problems

Words: 3026 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33447439

Prison Inmates Should Be Paroled Early to Help Control the State's Budget Problems

This paper argues that inmates at State prisons should be having premature releases from prisons so that the States can manage their budget problems. As the paper illustrates, despite criticisms on parole that it introduces unreformed culprits back in the society and that the program is unorganized, parole is a major contributor in reducing prison populations, which directly translates to reduced State expenditures (Licari, 2009). All the implementation of parole releases has either direct or indirect economic effect to the States as well as the prisoner and society as a whole. eformed individuals are able to earn their income thus independent of the government (Sons, n.d.). In addition, as there is professional structure of parole, they lead to faster reforming and procedures that reduce caseloads enabling parole officers to spend more time with the high-risk individuals (National…… [Read More]


Clear, T.R., Cole, G.F., & Reisig, M. (2008). American Corrections, (8th ed.). Connecticut, U.S.:

Cengage Learning.

Corley, C. (2009, December 13). States release inmates early to cut prison costs.

Retrieved from
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Gang Life in Prison When

Words: 754 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12735233

When Santano looks back on his old life in prison he comments that Fulsom was the "big time." He had more power there. Before the gang, if someone wanted something from him, "They just took it" because he was weak, but being in the gang stopped that because he became strong. He looks back on prison life with a certain sense of nostalgia and tells his girlfriend, "I loved it in there."

The gang allows him to be competent under horrible circumstances. He has been deprived of all the ordinary, normal experiences we take for granted, such as dancing, learning to drive a car, going to the beach, standing in the moonlight with a girl, and making love. All he has ever known is violence and the need to keep others afraid of him in order to protect himself. He's more or less ruined for life on the outside by…… [Read More]

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Programs for Drug Abuse Treatment in Prison

Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3656775

Substance Abuse Programs in Prison

The work of Harrison (nd) reports that the 'Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) for State Prisoners Formula Grant Program was created by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 in response to the increasing number of incarcerated individuals in the United States with substance abuse problems." ( It is reported that RSAT grants may be used to "implement or expand treatment programs for inmates in residential treatment facilities operated by State and local correctional agencies that provide individual and group treatment activities for inmates." (Harrison, nd, p. 2) The RSAT programs must be in a six to twelve month length, provide residential treatment facilities that are apart from the general prison population, be focused at the substance abuse problems of inmates, work in developing the cognitive, social, behavioral, vocational in addition to other skills that serve to bring about resolution to the…… [Read More]


Frantz, M. (2009) What You Need to Know…Before You Go To Federal Prison. Dog Ear Publishing. 2009.

Harrison, LD (nd) Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners Implementation Lessons Learned. Google Books. Retrieved from:
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Holloway Hmp Holloway Road Prison

Words: 6856 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22617462

The Home Office website was also a good source of informstion in this regard. A very good article that shed light on the more negative view of Holloway prison as well as units in other prisons was Getting it right? Services for pregnant women, new mothers, and babies in prison. An extremely useful report that deals specifically with Holloway prison was REPORT ON AN UNANNOUNCED FOLLOW-UP INSPECTION OF HM PRISON HOLLOWAY 11 -- 15 December 2000

Y HM INSPECTORATE OF PRISONS. This report provide some telling and insightful data that invaluable in terms of assessing the value and function of the mother and baby units in this prison.

4. Theoretical aspects

There are many theoretical aspects that pertain to the issue of mother and child units at a prison such as Holloway. In general terms, and from a criminological perspective, there is the view that units of this kind are…… [Read More]


Burrell I. Jail baby units reviewed 1998 [Online] Available at: By  [Accessed 2 April, 2010].

Female Prisoners [Online] Available at: / [Accessed 3 April, 2010].

Holloway [Online] Available at:,15,2,15,454,0[Accessed 3 April, 2010].