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Integrity: Privacy Protection in e-Commerce Websites
Privacy Protection in e-Commerce Websites
Back in the 90s, websites were more or less digital brochures that did little more than serve their registered users with monthly electronic newsletters. Today, however, websites are powerful and complex information platforms that not only store and process data, but also allow for the sharing of information across a wide range of online platforms. We share personal data on these websites, and unfortunately, the same passes on to numerous other parties, compromising our own security as well as that of our families in the process. The situation is even worse in the case of e-commerce websites. Whilst they have made shopping a whole lot easier by bringing specialty retail within a few clicks, they have also sprawled up opportunities for thieves who now find it a whole lot easier to obtain personal information and credit card numbers from…
Ackerman, M.S. And Davis, D.T., 2003. Privacy and Security Issues in E-Commerce. In. D.C. Jones (Ed.), New Economy Handbook, San Diego: Academic Press. Chapter 5.
Amazon Inc., 2014. Amazon.com Privacy Notice. Amazon Inc. [online] Available at https://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?nodeId=468496
Best Buy Inc., 2014. Best Buy Privacy Hub. Best Buy Inc. [online] Available at http://www.bestbuy.com/site/legal-privacy-policies/privacy-policy/pcmcat204400050062.c?id=pcmcat204400050062
Confab, howeve, is an achitectue that is able to bypass these limitations and combine both appoaches. It is limited, though, and a tue pevasive envionment calls fo complex pefeences that can be easily manipulated by the end use.
Moeove, all these appoaches ae not completely sufficient in meeting the challenges mentioned in section 3.2. Fo instance, PETs and pivacy models do not explicitly contibute in a eduction of data collection, no is that thei intent o pupose. Although anonymous data collection is based on the assumption that if data is collected anonymously then it cannot be linked with any individual, and if data cannot be elated to an individual then it poses no theats in tems of pivacy. Thus, detailed pivacy policies and safeguads fo data ae not seen as citical in this model. By collecting anonymous data, one may ague that a tue minimum amount of pesonal data is…
references that can be easily manipulated by the end user.
Moreover, all these approaches are not completely sufficient in meeting the challenges mentioned in section 3.2. For instance, PETs and privacy models do not explicitly contribute in a reduction of data collection, nor is that their intent or purpose. Although anonymous data collection is based on the assumption that if data is collected anonymously then it cannot be linked with any individual, and if data cannot be related to an individual then it poses no threats in terms of privacy. Thus, detailed privacy policies and safeguards for data are not seen as critical in this model. By collecting anonymous data, one may argue that a true minimum amount of personal data is being collected. However, ensuring complete anonymity remains both technically and practically difficult.
For example, mix zones and changing pseudonyms are used to maintain anonymity but it is also possible to break the anonymity and track a user in a mix zone. Pervasive computing, then, needs other, more robust means to minimize the amount of data collection. Moreover, there are usability and efficiency issues that arise with any of these approaches. Testing, for example, is typically done in a controlled environment under limited conditions. The effectiveness of many of these solutions, then, has not been adequately tested under typical, real-world, conditions. In a true pervasive computing environment, users will move extensively between different computing environments and will interact with various devices (e.g. starting from small portable hand held device to large wall sized displays), and applications. It is difficult to predict how privacy solutions will perform in a true user-environment under more typical conditions.
Thus, it will be necessary to find and incorporate a unique privacy model that accentuates both social and legal norms, while ensuring the technical ability to protect privacy.
Newman, a. 2008, Protectors of Privacy: Regulating Personal Data in the Global Economy, Cornell University Press.
Internet: Privacy for High School Students
An Analysis of Privacy Issues and High School Students in the United States Today
In the Age of Information, the issue of invasion of privacy continues to dominate the headlines. More and more people, it seems, are becoming victims of identity theft, one of the major forms of privacy invasion, and personal information on just about everyone in the world is available at the click of a mouse. In this environment, can anyone, especially high school students, reasonably expect to have any degree of privacy? High school students, after all, are not protected by many of the same constitutional guarantees as adults, but their needs for privacy may be as great, or greater, than their adult counterparts. To determine what measure of privacy, if any, high schools students can expect at home and school today, this paper provides an overview of the issue of…
Alarming Number of Teens Addicted to the Internet. (2001, February 1). Korea Times, 3.
Albanes, R., Armitay, O., Fischer, B., & Warner, J. (1998). Marijuana, Juveniles, and the Police: What High-School Students Believe about Detection and Enforcement.
Canadian Journal of Criminology, 40(4), 401-20.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
This education program must include all levels of the institution from the highest level of management, physicians, nurses, technicians and support staff. As much as possible, it should also include all outside vendors and casual hires.
Although employee leaks remain the primary source for the loss of proprietary information attacks on information systems by hackers, viruses, worms and the occasional angry employee are becoming an increasingly more serious problem. The actual seriousness of this problem is skewed due to the fact that most institutions do not report such occurrences in order to avoid the negative publicity associated with such breaches.
Security breaches of this nature have traditionally been relegated to the exclusive province of it personnel. It was believed that such personnel were best able to handle such problems and, for the most part, that remains the case but due to the increase in such occurrences collateral damage must now…
3 Health Information Privacy. (n.d.). Retrieved November 29, 2010, from Department of Health and Human Services: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy
4 Nickels, William, McHugh, James, McHugh, Susan, (2008). Understanding Business, McGraw-Hill
5 Security Research in the Computer Science Department at Carnegie Mellon. (2010). Retrieved November 29, 2010, from Computer Science Department: http://www.csd.cs.cmu.edu/research.areas/security
Privacy & Civil Liberties
needs to communicate goals to the American public that include protecting the nation against threats to national security, ensuring the safety of citizens, friends, allies, and nations with cooperative relationships (Clarke, 2013). Promote national security and foreign policy interests, including counterintelligence, counteracting, and international elements of organized crime. Protect the right to privacy. Protect democracy, civil liberties, and the rule of law, eliminating excessive surveillance and unjustified secrecy. Promote prosperity, security, and openness in a networked world adopting and sustaining policies that support technological innovation globally and establish and strengthen international norms of Internet freedom and security. Protect strategic alliances that preserve and strengthen strategic relationships, protect those relationships, and recognize the importance of 'cooperative relationships'.
The U.S. government must protect national security and personal privacy that includes Fourth Amendment rights. Risk management should involve the rights to privacy, freedom and liberties on the internet and…
Clarke, R.A. (2013). Liberty and Security in a Changing World. The President's Review Group on Intelligence and Communications Technologies.
Protection of Digital Health Information
With increase health information technology store access patient information, likelihood security breaches risen. In fact, Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ): In United States, a whopping 97% increase number health records breached 2010-2011
Ensuring that patient information is protected at all times is vital for any health care institution. Patient information records contain sensitive information that can be used for malicious purposes like identity theft, credit card fraud, and leaking of information for malicious intent. The advancement and use of technology has made it easier for patient information to be accessed within the health care facility Shoniregun, Dube, & Mtenzi, 2010.
This increases the speed of service delivery to the patient and improves the care given to the patient. Technology has allowed for the use of portable electronic devices by the healthcare practitioners in entering and accessing patient records and information. Portable electronic devices are small…
Green, M.A., & Bowie, M.J. (2005). ESSENTIALS OF HEALTH INFORMATION Management: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES: Principles and Practices. Independence, KY: Thomson/Delmar Learning.
Harman, L.B., & Association, A.H.I.M. (2006). Ethical Challenges in the Management of Health Information. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Laurinda B. Harman, C.A.F., and Kesa Bond. (2012). Electronic Health Records: Privacy, Confidentiality, and Security. American Medical Association Journal of Ethics, 14(9), 712-719.
Shoniregun, C.A., Dube, K., & Mtenzi, F. (2010). Electronic Healthcare Information Security. New York / Heidelberg: Springer.
Privacy Matters: Introduction to Sociology.
As Glenn Greenwald points out, the Internet has been turned into a tool of mass surveillance, notably with the NSA always lurking and spying on the Digital Era’s best means of communication. To some extent this type of spying and violation of privacy has become accepted as the norm because sociopolitical discourse in the modern era presupposes that there are two types of people in the world, as Greenwald puts it—those who are good (who do not plot against the state) and those who are bad (terrorists who do plot against the state). Those who are good have nothing to hide and therefore should not mind if the state snoops around and peeks into one’s personal messages and private life to make sure you are still one of the good guys. The problem with this is that it is a violation of trust and privacy…
Employee Privacy Torts
History of Employee Privacy
Changing Trends of Employee Privacy
Impact of Innovative Technology on Employee Privacy
ole of Social Media towards Employee Privacy
Impact of Changing Community/Society on Employee Privacy
Adaptation to the new Environment pertaining to Employee Privacy
Employee Monitoring and Surveillance
Laws and Employer Policies for Text Messaging and Social Media
Electronic Communication Privacy Act
Monitoring of Employee Conversations over Telephone & Email
ecommendations for creating Effective Policies
Future Implications of Employee Privacy
As years have passed and the human race has penetrated into the epoch of twenty first century, the technological advancements have conquered almost every facet of human life, especially the workplace. The widespread platform of the internet has become the integral part of a person's life, in the same manner as businesses are employing technological advancements to perform numerous activities like internet infrastructure, maintenance of computers and so on. It means that…
Baker, D., Buoni, N., Fee, M. & Vitale, C. (2011). Social Networking and Its Effects on Companies and Their Employees. Retrieved from: http://www.neumann.edu/academics/divisions/business/journal/Review2011/SocialNetworking.pdf
Bergh, N.V.D. (2000). Emerging Trends for Eaps in the 21st Century. Haworth Press, Incorporated.
Campbell, D. (2007). The Internet 2007: Laws and Regulatory Regimes. USA: Lulu.com.
Cate, F.H. (1997). Privacy in the Information Age. USA: Brookings Institution Press.
Employee Privacy Torts
Issues relating to employee privacy have been at the forefront of businesses for many years. This has been fuelled by the dynamic workplace which changes constantly and also by employees and employers being more litigation-conscious. Technology has also spurred on employee privacy issues with e-mail and the internet being related to heightened concerns about vulnerability of employers to litigation. Many employers have thus exacerbated their concerns relating to employee privacy and especially monitoring of employee behavior. Employee privacy is respected in many of the large corporations. However, there still exist some breaches in employee privacy. Small business owners are at most risk as a result of their increased monitoring practices and close employer-employee interaction.
oberson v. ochester Folding Box Company
One of the major cases that brought employee privacy to the limelight was oberson v. ochester Folding Box Company
Franklin Mills Co. decided to appeal…
Anderson v. City of Philadelphia, 845 F. 2d 1216 (1988).
Borse v. Piece Goods Shop, 963 F.2d 611 (1991).
Burlington Industries, Inc. v. Ellerth, 524 U.S. 742 (1988).
City of Ontario v. Quon, 130 S.Ct. 2619, 560 U.S. (2010).
ight to Privacy
Being a citizen of the United States comes with many benefits in comparison to citizenship in other countries. Through the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of ights we are granted certain rights -- the right to free speech, freedom of religion, freedom of the press, and freedom of assembly -- just to name a few. However, despite the 27 amendments the Bill of ights that guarantee American protections and liberties, there is no explicit law that guarantees protection to a citizen's right to privacy (Davis, 2009). It is more of an assumed protection, although most Americans do not realize it.
In 1928, Associate Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis referred to the right to privacy as the "right to be left alone" (De Bruin, 2010). This assertion is often supported with a citation of the 14th amendment which states: "No State shall make or enforce any law which…
Cowan, J. (2010). Why we'll Never Escape Facebook. (Cover story). Canadian Business, 83(10), 28-32.
Davis, S. (2009). Is There A Right To Privacy? Pacific Philosophical Quarterly. 90(4), 450-475.
De Bruin, B. (2010). The Liberal Value of Privacy. Law & Philosophy, 29(5), 505-534. doi:10.1007/s10982-010-9067-9.
Doyle, C., & Bagaric, M. (2005). The right to privacy: appealing, but flawed. The International Journal of Human Rights. 9(1), 3-36.
Employee Handbook Privacy Section
ABC Widget Company: Employee Handbook Privacy Section
What privacy rights issues should be addressed?
In the Age of Information, there are increasing concerns being voiced about what can legitimately be expected to be kept private, and how these issues affect employees' rights in the workplace. According to Hayden, Hendricks and Novak (1990, most adults spend approximately one-half of their waking hours in the workplace today, and it is therefore not surprising that employment practices affect a broad range of privacy rights. With the sole exception of polygraph ("lie-detector") testing, there are not many areas of workplace activities that are addressed by the U.S. Constitution or national privacy laws. As a result, employers in the United States have a great deal of flexibility in collecting data on their employees, regulating their access to personnel files, and disclosing the contents of employee files to those outside the organization.…
Backer, T.E. & O'Hara, K.B. (1991). Organizational change and drug-free workplaces:
Templates for success. New York: Quorum Books.
Hayden, T., Hendricks, E. & Novik, J.D. (1990). Your right to privacy: A basic guide to legal rights in an information society. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Muhl, C.J. (2003). Workplace E-Mail and Internet Use: Employees and Employers Beware An
iegele indicates that "employers often wish to know whether they are entitled to contact an applicant's references and what obligations they may have in this regard. ith respect to obtaining consent to contact such references, it is accepted that an applicant who lists references on a job application or resume is implicitly consenting to a prospective employer contacting and obtaining information from those references. Similarly, it is generally accepted that an applicant who lists former employers is deemed to be giving consent to have those employers contacted for references." (iegele, p. 3)
This speaks to the fundamental condition in the relationship between employer and prospective employee. The latter must make available willingly certain information that would otherwise be considered private and protected. This is part and parcel to the process of attempting to gain employment and provides the prospective employer with avenues to determine the suitability of the individual…
Draper, H. (2012). Facebook Privacy Issues Arising in Hiring Process. Biz Journals.
Fleischer, M. (2010). A Legal Landmine: Privacy Issues in the 21st Century. Med Team Support Staffing.
Forster, E. & Garakani, G. (2007). Critical Issues in the Hiring Process. Blaney McMurtry Barristers & Solicitors, LLP.
Waggott, G. (2011). Law Note -- Pre-Hiring Background Checks. McMillan.ca.
The courts have basically given businesses cart blanc with regard to the monitoring of what their employees say and do in their work email as well as on their work computers, even when they sign in to private web-based email accounts for private transmissions, as such events can be recorded by employers, as the computer being used has been designated by the courts as the domain of the employer to be used by the employee only for the purpose of legitimate business commerce.
Though there are still a limited number of court cases that document the firing of employees, as legitimate on the grounds of their use of employee computers to engage in non-work related communications, they do exists and they are being determined in the favor of the employer. These cases will likely serves as a bridge that will continue to severely limit the "privacy" of individuals, i.e. clearly…
Clochetti, Cory a. Monotoring Employee E-Mail: Efficient Workplaces vs. Employee Privacy.
Duke L. & Tech. Rev. 0026 http://www.law.duke.edu/journals/dltr/articles/2001dltr0026.html .
Froomkin, a. Michael. "The Death of Privacy?." Stanford Law Review 52.5 (2000): 1461.
Rich, Lloyd L. Right to Privacy in the Workplace in the Information Age All Good Layers Legal Resource Directory October, 31, 2007 http://www.allgoodlawyers.com/guestbookview.asp?key=97
Unfortunately, many consumers may not be aware of their photographic image being used in this fashion and even if they were, existing privacy laws fail to provide any substantive protections. For example, in response to these trends, the Harvard Law eview published an essay entitled, "In the Face of Danger: Facial ecognition and Privacy Law," with a majority of the article describing how "privacy law, in its current form, is of no help to those unwillingly tagged" (2007, para. 3). These issues have become even more salient because of the proliferation of social networking sites as discussed further below.
Privacy within social networking sites
Currently, there is a wide array of social media networks available, including social sharing sites such as YouTube and Flickr and social networks such as Linkedln and Facebook (Hensel & Deis, 2010). Others such as Spokeo and Twitter have become the virtual meeting places of choice…
Bamberger, K.A. & Mulligan, D.K. (2011). Privacy on the books and on the ground. Stanford Law Review, 63(2), 247-249.
Brodkin, J. (2009, December 8). PCWorld. Retrieved from http://www.pcworld.com/article/
Buchholz, R.A. & Rosenthal, S.B. (2006). Internet privacy: Individual rights and the common good. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 67(1), 34-36.
The same survey quoted by Ries noted that 92% of respondents do not trust online companies to keep personal information confidential and 82% believe that the government should regulate use of personal information by online companies. (FTC Study, 2-3)
If companies do not respond, not only will business stand in danger of being over-regulated by the government, but also consumers may not trust sites and withdraw their business. This was recognized, not by a liberal publication, but the stalwart defender of capitalism known as Business eek. To stem consumer privacy fears, the publication proposed a four-point plan to protect online consumer privacy through relatively non-invasive federal legislation. The plan has the added advantage of being similar to the data privacy requirements adopted by the European Union, another concern, given the increasingly international nature of internet commerce -- and it might be added the United States cannot afford to lag behind…
Business Week. (29 Mar 2000) "Online Privacy it's time for rules in Wonderland." Retrieved 5 Mar 2005 from www.businessweek.com.Online version, www.businessweek.com/2000/00_12/b3673001.htm
FTC. (2000) "Privacy Online." A Report to Congress. Retrieved 5 Mar 2005 from www.ftc.gov/privacy/index.html
Ries, David. (2001) "Protecting online consumer privacy: an overview." Pbi.org. Retrieved 5 Mar 2005 at http://www.pbi.org/Goodies/privacy/privacy_ries.htm
Times change and so do social institutions. When the laws protecting our privacy were originally drafted there was not even the notion of email. Such a concept was so futuristic as to be well beyond the most imaginative of the Founding Fathers. Today, however, emails have become a regular course of communication between members of society and, as such, they deserve attention. Do they fall within our expectation of privacy or does their digital nature make them automatically public?
The legal case that brought this issue to the forefront was that of a young marine, Lance Corporal Justin Ellsworth of Michigan (Chambers, 2009). Ellsworth was killed in action in Iraq in 2004 but prior to his death he had written emails to this family and friends. After his death, his family requested the email provider, Yahoo, to grant them access to Ellsworth's account but Yahoo refused to honor…
AOL. (2003). AOL Information. Retrieved April 25, 2011, from AOL Legal Department: http://legal.web.aol.com/aol/aolpol/memagree.html
Benson, P. (2007). The Theory of Contract Law. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Chambers, J. (2009, April 21). They win right to see late son's messages. The Detroit News, p. 1.
Kozyris, P.J. (2007). Regulating Internet Abuses: Invasion of Privacy. London: Kluwer Law International.
Ethics is an essential part of the individual condition. As an important person who starts up a large business as well as deals on a daily basis with other corporation at all arena of expansion so basically business ethics is lively and glowing plus hotly chat about in boardrooms all over the world. Furthermore for the majority of administration and boards know their accountability goes well beyond periodical results. These corporations consist of one component of a much larger arena that has lost its cooperative acceptance for unprincipled actions. Moreover, if an individual is in scripting copy and keeping a client's electronic business or electronic commerce website think about the consumer confidentiality and legal issues which includes publishing and copywriting for a customer is an evidence of how they are out looked to the rest of the earth. pessimistic or offensive piece of writing published as regards a variety of…
Graham JH Smith, Partner Bird & Bird, et al. Internet Law and Regulation. Thomson Sweet & Maxwell, 2007.
David R. Johnson and David G. Post, et al. Law and Borders - the Rise of Law in Cyberspace. Standford Law Review, 1996.
CRS Report for Congress. Rev. Of Internet Privacy: Overview and Pending Legislation, by Macia S. Smith. The Libary of Congress July 10, 2003.
Hamlet, Clay, and Mike Strube. "Community Banks Go Online." ABA Banking Journal, 2003.
Employee E-Mail and Internet Privacy Policies
The increased usage of the Internet and e-mail has changed the way companies do business. Nearly instantaneous communication can take place globally. Information on a countless number of topics can now be accessed from anywhere around the world. These technological developments have not only helped employees increase their efficiencies, but also has given them a new means of distraction from their duties. For this reason, many companies have developed e-mail and Internet policies.
At my job, our e-mail policy states that e-mails should not include illegal or libelous statements. E-mail is to be used for business purposes only and e-mail communications are the property of the company. For this reason, the company may access sent and received from work computers at any time, this includes deleted e-mails that are stored on the company's servers. The Internet policy is similar in that the Internet is…
Fact sheet 7: Workplace privacy and employee monitoring. (2010). Retrieved 6 Dec 2010, from http://www.privacyrights.org/fs/fs7-work.htm #4a.
Privacy rights of employees using workplace computers in California. (2010). Retrieved 6 Dec 2010, from http://www.privacyrights.org/ar/employees-rights.htm .
Even when information should be shared with other educators and/or administrators, however, this does not mean that the information should become a part of general or public knowledge (Omstein & Levine 2007). Again, the risk of stigmatizing the student or in some way calling their development into question is quite high in certain circumstances, and even in the most mundane of instances other parents and non-educators might attempt to exert undue influence over another student's placement based on rumors or knowledge obtained through a lapse in privacy protection. This ultimately takes the power of decision making out of the teachers' and administrators' hands; instead of leaving the information and the decisions to those trained and equipped to handle them, breaching the privacy rights of students could potentially lead to a sort of mob rule of the schools, where the loudest voices make the decisions.
This is, of course, an extreme…
Chowdary, S. (2004). Mastery of teaching skills. Delhi: Discovery Publishing.
Omstein, A. & Levine, D. (2007). Foundations of education. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
Location rivacy in ervasive Computing
Lab workers wore bats (small mobile devices with radio transceivers and ultrasonic transmitters) to provide position information to location-aware applications and colleagues in the lab. * The strong correlation between entry and exit motion is not modeled in anonymity sets. er Shannon's1 definition of maximal entropy, only when all the members of an anonymity set are of interest to the observer, anonymity set size is a good measure of anonymity. *If all elements are equiprobable, for a set size of n, a log2 n bits of information is needed to identify one element.
Modeling user movements can show the anonymity level offered by the mix zone. Knowledge encoded in a movement matrix enables an observer to make a "guess" about user activity superior to the accuracy that can be achieved through a random choice. The identity of users is expressible as a conditional probability of…
Pervasive computing can enable observers to achieve submeter accuracy of the comings and goings of those they track. Stejano (2002) argues that a change of scale of several orders of magnitude impacts qualitative as well as quantitative data -- this is a residual problem in pervasive computing. Many location systems track users in an ongoing fashion, gathering huge amounts of information that has the potential to be sensitive and valuable data. Options for controlling the information that is tracked by location systems are limited. Users want to be in control of access to their private and personal data. Users also want to experience applications with the ease that is a result of data tracking.
Resources 5 -- Harvard
* The inherent tension that exists in the privacy-protection framework can be addressed through the use of pseudonyms that are changed frequently. This measure provides a way for users to avoidance having their identification revealed by the locations they visit. Beresford and Stanjano describe techniques they have developed for mapping the location privacy issue to anonymous communication through the application of mix zones, and they provide examples of two anonymity assessment metrics: anonymity sets and entropy.
The art and science of protection has evolved and transformed over the past decades where new levels of its requirements are in high demand. This structural shift in the needs for protection have also created the environment where stark contrasts between approaches and industry becomes rather evident. These noticeable differences need to be addressed in order to successfully and truly understand how this process can be maximized for effectiveness, efficiency and economics.
The purpose of this essay is to highlight and describe the different requirements, limits of authority, limits of force, material assets, ethics and best practices of three differing and distinct realms of protection. The essay will first examine physical protection be highlighting aspects of its use in the U.S. Federal Government. The essay will then explain information protection highlighted how the U.S. Military uses this type of protection and how it is reflected in their practices.…
Chen, D., & Zhao, H. (2012, March). Data security and privacy protection issues in cloud computing. In Computer Science and Electronics Engineering (ICCSEE), 2012 International Conference on (Vol. 1, pp. 647-651). IEEE.
Gordon, P. (2013). What to Expect when Force Protection Conditions Change. U.S. NAVY.Mil, Navy Public Release, 21 Feb 2013. Retrieved from http://www.navy.mil/submit/display.asp?story_id=72213
Hertig, C. (2001). The Evolving Role of Protection Officers. Security Solutions, 1 Nov, 2001. Retrieved from http://securitysolutions.com/mag/security_evolving_role_protection/
Markon, J. (2014). Can the Federal Protective Service meet new demands for heightened security? The Washington Post, 30 Oct 2014. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com /blogs/federal-eye/wp/2014/10/30/can-the-federal- protective-service-meet-new-demands-for-heightened-security/
Privacy Protection Features Present
Social Security Number:
Customer Information Sharing:
Information Provided by Website
Comparison among Top E-commerce Websites
First Mover vs. Follower in E-Commerce
Disadvantage of First Mover
Throughout the major part of the last century, there has been a lot of development and advancement in the field of information and technology (Jing, 2009). Most of the business activities have shifted base from being orthodox setups towards the IT portals. This development has also given rise to certain issues which were not present with the business fraternity earlier. In the past two decades, there has…
C. Juan. (2006). The electronic commerce security architecture and the safety technology apply. Net Security Technologies and Application. 7(1), 56-58. C. O'Connor. (2013). Wal-Mart Vs. Amazon: World's Biggest E-Commerce Battle Could Boil Down To Vegetables. Available: http://www.forbes.com/sites/clareoconnor/2013/04/23/wal-mart-vs.-amazon-worlds-biggest-e-commerce-battle-could-boil-down-to-vegetables/ . Last accessed 31 December 2014.
C.O' Connor. (2013). Wal-Mart Vs. Amazon: World's Biggest E-Commerce Battle Could Boil Down To Vegetables. Available:
Privacy Risks In Using Facebook
When contemplating using Facebook, users must engage in a cost-benefit analysis. This analysis will be different for every individual on both a personal and professional level. Even for individuals who are not concerned about incurring major risks to their personal and professional security, the constant temptation of accessing online social networking sites can be a drain upon their time and mental stability. For others, the concern that their friends may be judging them based upon their posts, particularly in this heightened and polarized political climate may be disconcerting. On the other hand, Facebook does provide an easy way to remain connected to individuals that a poster might not otherwise be in contact with, including old school friends and people with similar interests living far away.
The main professional concern for Facebook users is that something that a prospective or current employer might disagree with may…
Fox-Brewster, T. (2016). Facebook is playing games with your privacy and there is nothing you
can do about it. Forbes. Retrieved from: https://www.forbes.com/sites/thomasbrewster/2016/06/29/facebook-location-tracking- friend-games/#3eb4d26c35f9
Giang, V. (2012). Is it legal for employers to check Facebook? Business Insider. Retrieved from:
Hern, A. (2016). Facebook is chipping away at privacy and my profile has been exposed.
The Guardian. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/jun/29/facebook-privacy-secret-profile- exposed
McDonnell, A. (2016). 60% of employers are peeking into candidates\\' social media profiles.
Career Builder. https://www.careerbuilder.com/advice/60-of-employers-are-peeking-into- candidates-social-media-profiles
Internet Privacy for High School Students
The unrestrained stream of information is conceived necessary for democracies and market-based economies. The capability of the Internet to make available the vast quantity of information to practically everyone, irrespective of their locations thus entails large benefits. The Internet provides access to the greatest libraries of the world to the students even in the smallest towns and permit the medical specialists to analyze the patients situated about thousands of miles away. The attribute of interactivity of the Internet fosters communication and personal and political expression. The Internet also assists to make the economies progress as it enhances the ease, speed and cost effectiveness with regard to the collection, compilation and delivery around the world to the multiple extent. The electronic commerce will decline the business costs as companies are able to take the benefits of enhanced access to customers, products and suppliers worldwide along…
Baskin, Joy Surratt; Surratt, Jim. "Student Privacy Rights and Wrongs on the Web" School Administrator. Vol: 35; No: 2; pp: 102, 114-116
Beth Givens, (February 2000) "Privacy Expectations in a High Tech World" Computer and High Technology Law Journal. Retrieved from http://www.privacyrights.org/ar/expect.htm Accessed on 14 April, 2005
'Board Policy with Guidelines Date Subject: Student Technology Acceptable Use Policy" (17 July, 2001) North Sanpete School District Policy. Number V-30. Retrieved from http://www.nsanpete.k12.ut.us/~nshs/nslibrary/accuse.html Accessed on 14 April, 2005
Brooks-Young, Susan. (November-December, 2000) "Internet usage update" Today's Catholic Teacher. Vol: 17: No: 2; pp: 53-56
protect the privacy of the individual via EU Directive for Protection of Personal Data
The internet revolutionized the human life as we know it. It established a culture of liberty aided by not just ingenuousness but also standardized protocols. This was achieved by transmitting the essential products for business-related growth, adopting a model of governance with no formal existence of regulations along with free availability of abundant software packages. This internet revolution can't be underestimated as it has its pros and cons, which also comes under discussion in this paper. With the surging popularity of internet, there happen to be a plethora of new dilemmas knocking at the door. There are tons of merits of Internet for that matter while its demerits have been ignored and hidden along the sidelines. These issues have materialized in the preceding decade and the demand is urgent to solidify a legislation which is tasked…
Andrew, S. (2011). The Federal Trade Commission and Privacy: Defining Enforcement and Encouraging the Adoption of Best Practices, 48 SAN DIEGO L. REV. 809, 854 -- 56.
Aquilina, K. (2010). Public security vs. privacy in technology law: A balancing act? Computer Law & Security Review. Volume 26, Issue 2, March 2010, Pages 130 -- 143
Asinari, M and Poullet, Y. (2004). Public security vs. data privacy -- Airline passengers' data: adoption of an adequacy decision by the European commission. How will the story end?' Computer Law & Security Report, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 370 -- 376.
Bambauer, D.E. (2013). Privacy vs. Security. The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology. Vol. 103, No. 3.
Privacy: E-Marketing as a Threat to Privacy
Privacy is one of the most complex issues facing e-commerce today. Due to advances in information technology, it is becoming harder for individuals to maintain control over their personal information. More specifically, the advent of the information age has brought with it numerous concerns particularly because the accessibility of the internet allows for easy collection, processing, storage and utilization of personal information by multiple parties, which they use to their own advantage (Pavlou, 977). hen it comes to e-commerce, information privacy is also a major source of concern because firms make use of their websites to gather information about their consumers, and they utilize this information to develop marketing strategies and conduct customized promotions. One study by PriceaterhouseCoopers (PC), for example, revealed that two thirds of all customers surveyed would embrace e-commerce more if they knew retail sites would not misuse their personal…
Denning, Tamara., Kohno, Tadayoshi and Levy, Henry, M. "Computer security and the modern home." Communications of the ACM, Vol. (56)1, (2013) 94-103. Print
Lycett, Mark. "Datafication: making sense of (big) data in a complex world." European Journal of Information Systems, Vol. (22) 1, (2013) 381-386 .Print
Pavlou, Paul "State of the information privacy literature: Where are we now and where should we go?" MIS Quarterly, Vol. (35)4, (2013) 977-988. Print
Willison, Robert. & Warkentin, Merril. "Beyond deterrence: An expanded view of employee computer abuse." MIS Quarterly, Vol. (37)1 (2013) 1-20. Print
ight to privacy has been under attack in recent years from many sources. Issues such as terrorism and technological development has provided an opportunity and an excuse to lessen the protections that have been previously awarded Americans, as well as citizens of a number of other countries, in the name of their own protection. Albeit the threats of terrorism are real, there are also a series of threats that come from the violation of citizens' right to maintain their privacy in their daily activities. It is not only an invasion of privacy from the governments around the world that is an issue, but private organizations are also able to collect an immense amount of intrusive data about their customers or target markets. A legitimate balance between these concerns must be reached and in a timely manner because there is a significant amount of evidence that this balance is uneven and…
Gellman, B. (2013, December 23). Edward Snowden, after months of NSA revelations, says his mission's accomplished. Retrieved from The Washington Post: https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/edward-snowden-after-months-of-nsa-revelations-says-his-missions-accomplished/2013/12/23/49fc36de-6c1c-11e3-a523-fe73f0ff6b8d_story.html
Sadowski, J. (2013, February 26). Why Does Privacy Matter? One Scholar's Answer. Retrieved from The Atlantic: http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/02/why-does-privacy-matter-one-scholars-answer/273521/
This will pevent the employee fom claiming that they had thei basic civil ights violated.
In the futue, once new changes ae intoduced (fom tansfomations in technology), is when thee will be new policies implemented. Duing this pocess, eveyone will have to go though a new couse that will explain these guidelines. Afte they have finished, is when they will sign anothe disclosue document.
If the kind of appoach was used by employes, it will help to avoid many of the legal challenges that ae impacting fims. This is because executives ae taking the Iowa Supeme Cout guidelines and ae going beyond them. In the event that they ae sued, the fim can demonstate that they ae doing above what is equied (when it comes to these challenges). It is at this point, that an employe can stike a balance between monitoing the activities of staff membes and potecting thei…
references cited in the paper in APA guideline format
protection of personal rights. For instance, in the case of the U.S. Supreme Court on Griswold V. Connecticut, married couples should have the rights to privacy when it comes to birth control.
PROTECTING THE RIGHTS TO PRIVACY
Imagine the state telling people how many children they can have, what birth control methods they can use, and blasting the personal information of individuals on the television, computer, radio and etc. Personal information about what diseases, medical health, salaries, how many times an individual has been married, how many divorces, and other personal rights should be protected by the Fourth and Fifth Amendments. Should the state laws have the ability to give personal information to others? Should companies or individuals have the right to get personal information about a person off the computers? hat should individuals do to keep their privacy?
In Connecticut, it is a crime for a person to use…
Electronic Privacy Principles" CPSR Available Online at http://cpsr.org/program/privacy/privacy8.htm
Epic.org Electronic Privacy Information Center" Latest News October 16, 2002 Available Online at http://www.epic.org
Privacy and Civil Liberties" CPSR Available at http://cpsr.org/program/privacy/privacy.htm
Junk' Mail: How Did They All Get My Address" Fact Sheet 4: Reducing Junk Mail Oct 1992 Available Online at http://www.privacyrights.org/fs/fs4-junk.htm
Protection Act (1998) was instituted in order to protect the privacy of individuals in terms of communication. The fundamentals of this Act are: (i) data may only be used for the specific purposes for which it was collected, (ii) with certain exceptions, data may only be shared with other parties with key individual's authorizations, (iii) with certain exceptions, key individual's have a right to know about personally-relevant data. (iv) Personal information must be updated and maintained only for requisite time. (v) Personal information may only be sent outside European Economic Area with individual's consent, (vi) with exceptions, all entities that process personal information must register with the Information Commissioner's Office, (vii) security measures, such as firewalls must be in place for all entities holding personal information, and staff must be fully equipped so that no leakage occurs, (viii) factually incorrect information must be corrected (JIC Legal, 2007).
Communications Act 2003…
Advertising Standards Authority (ASA), Available at: http://www.asa.org.uk )
Advertising Standards Authority (ASA), 'Control of Ads', Available at:
Ethical Dilemma Matrix
A business organization's Internet Service Provider (ISP) is providing preferential service (improved access, faster connection and download/upload speeds) to certain websites, apparently on the basis of business ties and co-ownership entanglements.
Autonomy, Justice, espect for Persons
-Users of the Internet have the duty to make and exercise their own choices, which is limited by preferential access.
-This duty also insists that users be able to face all risks and opportunities available in equal measure, and with fair access.
-Users have the right to be viewed as important ends in and of themselves, served by the ISP and not simply serving the ISP in terms of money.
the organization has a duty to ensure that its employees can perform their functions with minimal interference, and that stakeholders in the business are able to exercise autonomy in their…
FCC. (2005). August 5, 2005 Policy Statement. Accessed 21 October 2011.
Kapoor, G. (2007). Corporate Laws. New York: Taxmann Publications.
Victim blaming is one demeaning and devaluing act of putting the victim of a crime as being responsible, in part or in full for a crime or harm that actually affects them. It portrays the victim as being responsible for their own harm caused by another person. The blame emanates in the form of unexpected or negative social responses from the mental health, legal, medical professionals. This negative response can also be from the media or the immediate family as well as other friends and people he relates to. The responses towards victims of crime are often founded on the misunderstood positions taken by others, especially the outside spectators. This lack of understanding will then lead the observers to believe that the victim actually deserved to have faced the harm that befell them, or categorizes them as individuals with low self-esteem who are out to intentionally look for violence. These…
In order to maintain information secrecy one would use cryptography. This is intentionally making information unintelligible. This method is mainly employed during the transmission of information. Cryptography ensures that only the intended person would be able to decipher the information (Whitman & Mattord, 2011, p. 339). The process of deciphering encrypted text is referred to as cryptanalysis. Cryptology is the mathematics branch covering cryptography and cryptanalysis. Cryptology has been in use since 1900 B.C. In Egyptian hieroglyphs. A Mesopotamian cryptography was discovered in 1500 B.C. that surpassed that of the Egyptians. The book of Jeremiah was written using alphabet substitution called ATBASH. Cryptography was employed during the First World War to decipher radio communication. Prisoners have also used cryptography to decipher their messages in order to protect their privacy. A key in cryptography is a parameter or piece of information that would determine the functional output for a…
Whitman, M., & Mattord, H. (2011). Principles of Information Security (4th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
The subject of DNA fingerprinting has become a prominent issue on several fronts. The applicable paradigms involved include law enforcement, privacy concerns and immigration, just to name a few. A few questions and concerns about DNA will be included in this repot including what precisely DNA fingerprinting is, how it is done, the step-by-step methods of fingerprinting, how DNA is compared on an electrophoresis (EPG), what precisely EPG is, whether the author of this report agrees with DNA fingerprinting everyone for medical reasons, why DNA is considered potential evidence in a court of law and whether the author of this report aggress with the government wanting to DNA-fingerprint everyone so that they can learn about disease propensity and other pieces of information. hile DNA fingerprinting has and will continue to render a large amount of benefit, the privacy and other rights of people to be fingerprinted are a…
Aarli, Ragna. "Genetic Justice And Transformations Of Criminal Procedure." Journal Of
Scandinavian Studies In Criminology & Crime Prevention 13.1 (2012): 3-
21. Academic Search Premier. Web. 14 Oct. 2014.
Ai, Bingjie, et al. "The Elimination Of DNA From The Cry Toxin-DNA Complex Is A
PHI Security and Privacy
Privacy and security is significant for any institution operating under offices because of clients, which prompts for the need of protecting the flowing information. In the context of a hospital, there is need for protecting the client's information in order to assure them of their privacy and security. Privacy is always important when attending to the clients since it provides an environment where the latter can open up to their doctors. Privacy refers to what the protected; information about the patient and the determination of the personalities permitted to use while security refer to the way of safeguarding the information through ensuring privacy to information (odrigues, 2010). The patients also need security because of the inevitability of serene environment for their recovery. Even though St. John's hospital presents good strategies in terms of their sound policies, this is not enough in ensuring confidentiality in the information…
Harman, L.B., & American Health Information Management Association. (2006). Ethical challenges in the management of health information. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett
Nass, S.J., Levit, L.A., Gostin, L.O., & Institute of Medicine (U.S.). (2009). Beyond the HIPAA
privacy rule: Enhancing privacy, improving health through research. Washington, D.C:
This is achieved by forcing them to maintain a list of individuals who do not wish to be conducted about purchasing a variety of products and services. Furthermore, these protections were enacted to ensure that businesses are not engaging in tactics that are abusive by limiting the times when they can call and what they can say. (Caudill, 2000)
In contrast with the Consumer Privacy Bill of ights, the proposed regulations are designed to enhance protections. This is occurring over the Internet vs. On the telephone. These differences are showing how there is a loop hole in existing regulations as to how these laws are applied. The new guidelines are building upon the provisions from the Telephone Consumer Protections Act of 1991 by establishing procedures as to the way confidential information is used and collected from firms. This is occurring is through placing limits on an organization's online activities. ("Consumer…
Consumer Privacy Bill of Rights. (2012). CNN Money. Retrieved from: http://money.cnn.com/2012/02/22/technology/bill_of_rights_privacy/index.htm
Fact Sheet. (2012). White House.gov. Retrieved from: http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2012/02/23/fact-sheet-plan-protect-privacy-internet-age-adopting-consumer-privacy-b
Barlough, R. (2003). The Do Not Call Registry Model. Marshall Journal Computer and Information, 22, 79 -- 85.
Caudill, E. (2000). Consumer Online Privacy. Journal of Public Policy, 19 (1), 7 -- 19.
egulating Internet Privacy
Privacy regulation has remained pinnacle of issues that got birth with internet. Every innovation in technology is at the expense of privacy; it is no more there as most of technicians believe. A layman using internet does not find how and when his personal information is can be traced by someone else; privacy at workplace that was once enjoyed by the employees is no more at one's disposal, and the never ending cookies and internet bugs allow heightened levels of internet surveillance. General public, heedlessly, isn't aware of such issues and is jolted only when such issues are raised on media. Marc otenberg tells us about its importance, "Privacy will be to the information economy of the next century what consumer protection and environmental concerns have been to the industrial society of the 20th century" (Spinello, 2003).
What is the extent of privacy erosion? Where is it…
Lugaresi, N. (2010). Electronic privacy in the workplace: Transparency and responsibility. International review of law, computers & technology, 24(2).
OECD guidelines on the protection of privacy and transporter flows of personal data. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2013, from http://www.oecd.org/internet/ieconomy/oecdguidelinesontheprotectionofprivacyandtransborderflowsofpersonaldata.htm
Schwartz, Paul M. (2000). Internet privacy and the state. Connecticut Law Review, Vol. 32, spring.
Spinally, R.A. (2003). Cyber Ethics: Morality and law in cyberspace. Canada, CA: Jones and Barlett Publishers.
E-Commerce and Privacy
Internet security has become a big issue because post people use it, at least in some capacity, and there are many unscrupulous people also who would love to profit from the security lapses of web sites. Since this is a factor in whether a web business can make money, it is just as important for the site as it is for the customer to make sure that an individual site is secure. Following is a description of an internet site security system designed to keep visitors from being defrauded and an evaluation of the security of four web sites which should have great security protocols.
For a web site to be secure, the security measures should be transparent. A user should be able to see what is there to protect them even if they do not understand what the measures are or how they work (Ackerman &…
Ackerman, Mark S., and Donald T. Davis, Jr., "Privacy and security Issues in E- Commerce." In, The New Economy Handbook, in press. Web.
Ackerman, Mark S., Lorrie Faith Cranor, and Joseph Reagle. "Privacy in E-Commerce: Examining User Scenarios and Privacy Preferences." ACM Conference on Electronic Commerce, 1999. pp 1-8. Web.
Privacy Rights Clearinghouse. "Fact Sheet 23: Online Shopping Tips: E-Commerce and You." Retrieved 29 November, 2010. Web.
Equal Protection Clause of 14th Amendment
The equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment extended to protections of the Bill of ights to all Americans, including pregnant women. Therefore, it is fundamentally unconstitutional under the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to criminalize pregnant women who take illegal drugs for fetal abuse or neglect without applying the same conditions on pregnant women who endanger their unborn child by drinking alcohol, smoking, or otherwise failing to provide the best possible nurturing environment for the fetus. This paper reviews the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature together with the precedential case law concerning these issues to support this view, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
A growing body of research concerning fetal development together with innovations in modern healthcare technologies have provided researchers with new insights about what can harm or nurture…
Blank, R.H. (2002). Mother and fetus: Changing notions of maternal responsibility. New York:
Flavin, J. (2009). Our bodies, our crimes: The policing of women's reproduction in America.
New York: New York University Press.
They would subsequently call them at home, leave literature and fetus dolls at their door, and even call families and distant relatives of the patients to inform them of the patients' plans to ask them to intercede. The Pro-Life advocates argued that they were lawfully exercising their right of free speech on public property (such as across the street fro doctors' offices) to verbally attack patients by name as they exercise their equally important right to personal physical autonomy under the recognized privacy penumbras.
The Value of the Legal Approach Suggested by the Article
The Yale Law Journal article (Clapman, 2003) explained various ways that the general right of free speech is limited by more important privacy rights. For example, truth is ordinarily an affirmative defense to defamation. However, existing law already recognizes that certain statements, despite being truthful, serve no valid purpose besides injuring another person, such as by…
Clapman, A. "Privacy rights and abortion outing: a proposal for using common-law torts to protect abortion patients and staff." The Yale Law Journal. Yale University,
School of Law. 2003. Retrieved May 25, 2010 from HighBeam Research:
Dershowitz, A. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
ecommendations for Organizations
The many factors of data mining and their use for profiling customers and their needs also create opportunities for organizations to build greater levels of trust with their customers as well. And trust is the greatest asset any marketer can have today. The following are a series of recommendations for how organizations can address demographic influences that impact their marketing strategies in light of concerns surrounding the ethics of data mining.
First, it is imperative, across all demographic segments that marketers make a deliberate a very clear effort to explain their opt-in and opt-out policies and also provides evidence that they do what they claim to in this area. The greatest challenge for the consumer is controlling their personal information online and ensuring it is well managed to their preferences (Pratt. Conger, 2009). Marketers who give consumer control over their data in this way will…
Adams, N.M. (2010). Perspectives on data mining. International Journal of Market Research, 52(1), 11.
Bose, I., & Chen, X. (2009). Hybrid models using unsupervised clustering for prediction of customer churn. Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, 19(2), 133.
Kaiser, C., & Bodendorf, F. (2012). Mining consumer dialog in online forums. Internet Research, 22(3), 275-297.
Kiron, D. (2012). Why detailed data is as important as big data. MIT Sloan Management Review, 53(4), 1-3.
This will prevent visitation to illicit websites such as pornographic and gambling websites; prevent usage of ecommerce sites such as Amazon or Ebay; or to prevent the use of general recreational or social sites such as Facebook and Myspace. Other companies may elect, with all legal protection, to prevent any web navigation beyond those sites which are essential to conducting business.
hy do companies implement e-mail and Internet use policies?
Most companies determine to use such monitoring policies based on the calculated view that the loss of privacy will promote greater workplace efficiency by discouraging inappropriate use of company resources and time. Among the reasons supplied for using email and web-use monitoring, the text by iBrief (2001) offers the needs to preserve the company's professional reputation, the maintenance of employee productivity, preventing sexual harassment or cyberstalking, preventing defamation, preventing illegal company disclosure and preventing copyright infringement. (iBrief, 1)
iBrief. (2001) Monitoring Employee E-Mail: Efficient Workplaces Vs. Employee Privacy. Duke L. & Technology Review, 26.
Privacy Rights Clearinghouse (PRC). (2009). Fact Sheet 7: Workplace Privacy and Employee Monitoring. Privacy Rights.org. Online at http://www.privacyrights.org/fs/fs7-work.htm
" The full force and authority of a regular police officer is necessary to make such an intrusion. Yet, such a police officer would not be able to summarily search or seize on the premises of a regular home. The homeless person's effects are; therefore, protected from unlawful search and seizure.
Citron, Eric F. "Right and Responsibility in Fourth Amendment Jurisprudence: The Problem with Pretext." Yale Law Journal 116.5 (2007): 1072+.
Greenhalgh, illiam ., and Mark J. Yost. "In Defense of the "Per Se" Rule: Justice Stewart's Struggle to Preserve the Fourth Amendment's arrant Clause." American Criminal Law Review 31.4 (1994): 1013-1098.
Joh, Elizabeth E. "The Paradox of Private Policing." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 95.1 (2004): 49+.
illiam . Greenhalgh, and Mark J. Yost, "In Defense of the "Per Se" Rule: Justice Stewart's Struggle to Preserve the Fourth Amendment's arrant Clause,"…
Citron, Eric F. "Right and Responsibility in Fourth Amendment Jurisprudence: The Problem with Pretext." Yale Law Journal 116.5 (2007): 1072+.
Greenhalgh, William W., and Mark J. Yost. "In Defense of the "Per Se" Rule: Justice Stewart's Struggle to Preserve the Fourth Amendment's Warrant Clause." American Criminal Law Review 31.4 (1994): 1013-1098.
Harmony, History, Shopping & Digital Privacy
HARMONY, HISTORY, SHOPPING
Growing numbers of people are turning to online access for a number of rather ordinary activities. And increasingly they are learning that in doing so they are becoming involved in a world of business and to some extent deception that is at best built on a rather fragile foundation of trust and market forces. We have known for some time that as users of the virtual universe of opportunities, we are sharing with others information about us and what we want. ut the extent to which this information is otherwise being used has been left in the hands of a relatively unguarded concept of openness and honesty. We seem to like the idea of putting ourselves out in the world to see what happens of its own accord, no matter whether we are looking for love, our family's past or good…
But this search for convenience has tremendous disadvantages that we often easily overlook. Clearly, it involves giving away information whose value we have little appreciation for. But just as importantly, we do this without recognizing that those who gather this information do so with the intention of reshaping our future. They use the information to determine where we might like to go in future searches for information. The privacy pages of sites like Ancestry.com (2012), as one example, openly tell us if we read them that their software is using the information they give us to decide what we might like -- effectively cutting out the world of luck or chance in the searches we seem to want to make for ourselves.
PROTECTIONS: For the most part the experience of exploring the virtual world of access is very much like the adventure itself: it is built on us having a sense of trust that the system itself will guard our interests. Most advanced nations have some acceptance in core human rights being based on people being free to exploit their own privacy; but how this happens in practice remains unclear. So what we find is that collectively we seem to use the power of our numbers and this interest in privacy to be its own source of protection. There are consumer protection laws and common sense rules (Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, 2011), and these make up the majority of what we count on for protections.
Mostly though we trust that if people or businesses do something with the information that we provide them that is not as expected, masses of people -- usually through the media -- will create a
" (Muntenu, 2004)
According to Muntenu (2004) "It is almost impossible for a security analyst with only technical background to quantify security risk for intangible assets. He can perform a quantitative or qualitative evaluation using dedicated software to improve the security of the information systems, but not a complete risk assessment for the whole information system. Qualitative assessment based on questionnaires use in fact statistical quantitative methods to obtain results. Statistical estimation represents the basis for quantitative models." Muntenu states conclusion that in each of these approaches the "moral hazard of the analyst has influence on the results because human nature is subjective. He must use a sliding window approach according to business and information systems features, balancing from qualitative to quantitative assessment." (2004) qualitative study of information systems security is reported in a study conducted in U.S. academic institutions in the work of Steffani a. urd, Principal Investigator for…
Burd, Steffani a. (2006) Impact of Information Security in Academic Institutions on Public Safety and Security: Assessing the Impact and Developing Solutions for Policy and Practice. Final Report." NCJ 215953, United States Department of Justice. National Institute of Justice, Oct 2006.
Muntenu, Adrian (2004) Managing Information in the Digital Economy: Issues & Solutions Information Security Risk Assessment: The Qualitative vs. Quantitative Dilemma
Full text PDF: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/215953.pdfMunteanu , Adrian (2004) the Information Security Risk Assessment: The Qualitative vs. Quantitative Dilemma. Managing Information in the Digital Economy: Issues & Solutions.
In health care, the protection of confidential patient information is an important key in to addressing critical issues and safeguarding the privacy of the individual. To provide more guidance are federal guidelines such as: the Health Care Insurance Affordability and Accountability Act (HIPPA). On the surface, all facilities are supposed to have procedures in place for discarding these kinds of materials. ("Summary of HIPPA Privacy ule," 2102)
In the case of St. John's Hospital, they have become known for establishing practices of innovation (which go above and beyond traditional safety standards). Yet, at the same time, there are no critical internal controls governing how this information is thrown away. What most executives are concentrating on: is meeting these objectives from an external stakeholder perspective.
This is creating problems inside the facility, as the custodial staff able to go through the garbage and read this information. The reason why,…
Summary of HIPPA Privacy Rule. (2012). HHS. Retrieved from: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy /hipaa/understanding/summary/index.html
Alguire, P. (2009). The International Medical Graduate's Guide. Philadelphia, PA: ACP Press.
Johnston, A. (2012). State Hospitals become more Transparent. Times Record News. Retrieved from: http://www.timesrecordnews.com/news/2012/jan/13/state-hospitals-become-more-transparent/
Kilipi, H. (2000). Patient's Autonomy. Amsterdam: ISO Press.
sorts of legal protections should UG have.
ug automatically has protection of its trade secrets, which involve confidential issues such as product plans and new designs, any sort of business proceedings, and products under development prior to patent application. ug does not need to file anything to maintain these rights other than take all reasonable precautions to keep them secret, such as informing employees that these are trade secrets, refraining from making press releases regarding these secrets, and in very sensitive areas they might consider requiring employees to sign confidentiality agreements. These reasonable measures are necessary to validate any later claim that industrial espionage had occured or intellectual property rights had been violated. ug should obviously also copyright original works in terms of form, and patent original inventions in terms of function. These protections prevent other business from using their technology. Patents for function are valid for about 17 years,…
Copyright" Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 18 Jul 2004, 21 Sep 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright
Patent" Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 18 Jul 2004, 21 Sep 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patent
Privacy" Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 18 Jul 2004, 21 Sep 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Privacy
RICO (law)" Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 18 Jul 2004, 21 Sep 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RICO_%28law%29
Some of the violations of civil and human rights that have resulted for the PA include "aggressive deportations, crackdowns at borders, surveillance of mosques and homes...destroyed livelihoods, splintered families and the loss of a sense of belonging and citizenship," the group asserts on their eb site. Moreover, many peace activists, demonstrators at anti-war rallies, animal-rights groups, student organizations, and critics of the U.S. policy towards Cuba, have been monitored and added to FBI and CIA databases as potential "enemies of America."
ID CHIPS: An article in ABA Journal (Tebo, 2006) points out that employees of some companies are being asked to have ID chips implanted in their arms so their employers "can monitor their movements," Tebo writes. And while the company that is using these ID chips, (www.Cityatcher.com) can rightly say absolute security is pivotal to their customers, many experts, the article continues, "worry that the law is not…
American Civil Liberties Union. (2006). Federal Court Strikes down NSA Warrantless
Surveillance Program. Retrieved 27 Oct. 2006 at http://www.aclu.org/safefree/nsaspying/26489prs20060817.html .
Berghel, Hal. (2006). Phishing Monger and Posers. Communications of the ACM, 49(4), 21-25.
Eggan, Dan. (2005). Bush Authorized Domestic Spying. Washington Post, Retrieved 27 Oct, 2006, at http://www.washingtonpost.com .
Patriot Act also has the ability to strip the American public of their basic rights to privacy. The Patriot Act allows easy access to financial records, pen registers and trap-trace devices could be installed on personal computers and telephones, and student records can be accessed without consent of the school (Unpatriotic Acts). These unregulated powers are guaranteed by the Patriot Act in three amendments. These three amendments include the Title III, the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA), and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) (The U.S.A. PATRIOT Act). They allow the government to search through private records in the interest of "national security." As result of these three amendments, thousands of immigrants in the United States have been detained and interrogated based upon their religions. Many of these immigrants, as in some cases, even American citizens, have been in federal military custody for months at a time while their backgrounds…
ACLU - First City In Georgia Passes Pro-Civil Liberties Resolution. American Civil
Liberties Union. 15 May 2004 www.aclu.org/safeandfree/safeandfree.cfm?ID=14687
ACLU - Patriot Act Fears Are Stifling Free Speech. American Civil Liberties Union. 15 May 2004 www.aclu.org/safeandfree/safeandfree.cfm?ID=14307
ACLU - Safe and Free. American Civil Liberties Union. 16 May 2004
The greatest challenge to the legal foundations of the Internet is the continual assault on individual privacy, brought about by continually loosening standards as to how personal data is used, stored and tracked online. Foremost among these threats is the relentless use of personal data from websites, social networks and other online forums where people are coaxed into giving up as much data as possible to support advertising strategy-based business models (Christiansen, 2011). This is the greatest possible threat to individual liberties as it strikes at the core of a person's dignity online and their ability to trust websites they actively engage with and rely on for their work or social lives (Dhillon, Moores, 2001). Facebook is among the most egregious of violators, with a history of being hypocritical in their approach to personal information privacy while building a business model worth many billions of dollars (Chai, Bagchi-Sen,…
Chai, S., Bagchi-Sen, S., Morrell, C., Rao, H.R., & Upadhyaya, S.J. (2009). Internet and online information privacy: An exploratory study of preteens and early teens. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 52(2), 167.
Christiansen, L. (2011). Personal privacy and internet marketing: An impossible conflict or a marriage made in heaven? Business Horizons, 54(6), 509.
Dhillon, G.S., & Moores, T.T. (2001). Internet privacy: Interpreting key issues. Information Resources Management Journal, 14(4), 33-37.
Dinev, T., & Hart, P. (2006). Internet privacy concerns and social awareness as determinants of intention to transact.International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 10(2), 7-29.
Employers may unequivocally monitor any message that utilizes company-provided email" (Sherman, 2007, pg. 649). Problems arise when the employer attempts other methods monitoring as Sherman notes; "The law is not clear, however, when an employer accesses an employee's webmail" (Sherman, pg. 649). Similar to the Deal v Spears case, the employer must take certain precautions in order to secure the right of monitoring. Many companies have developed policies and guidelines that are communicated to the employee in order to meet those requirements, but there are plenty of employee rights organizations that worry about infringement of employee privacy.
As technology can afford anonymity so to can it provide evidence that see through such anonymity. Thomas Jefferson once wrote; "Laws and institutions must go hand in hand with the progress of the human mind. As that becomes more developed, more enlightened, as new discoveries are made... And opinions change with the change…
Foley, J.P. (ed.); (1900) the Jeffersonian cyclopedia: A comprehensive collection of the views of Thomas Jefferson, pg. 726
Sherman, M.A.; (2007) Webmail at work: The case for protection against employer monitoring, Touro Law Review, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 647-683
United States Court of Appeals; (1992) Sibbie Deal; Calvin Lucas, Appellees v. Newell Spears; Juanita Spears, doing business as White Oak Package Store, Appellants, 980 F.2d 1153, 61 USLW 2353, 8 IER Cases 105
Williams, K.R.; (2008) Protecting what you thought was yours: Expanding employee privacy to protect the attorney-client privilege from employer computer monitoring, Ohio State Law Journal, Vol. 69, No. 2, pp. 347-390
My overall advice to Mr. Smith would be that he has a weak case, at best.
To evaluate whether Susie has a valid equal protection claim, one must start by determining whether the city ordinance is a state action. As a city is a branch of the state, the smoking ordinance would be considered a state action. The next step is to determine whether she belongs to a suspect class or whether a fundamental right is being violated. Although being a woman places her in a quasi-suspect class, this ordinance does not involve a distinction between the genders. Instead the issue is between smokers and non-smokers and as such, there is no suspect class involved. Furthermore, there is no fundamental right involved as neither the right to smoke or to open a business is considered a fundamental right. (Chemerinsky, 2002; p. 157).
Under these facts, the court will…
Barron, Jerome. (2005): Black Letter Outline on Constitutional Law. West Publishing.
Chemerinsky, Erwin. (2002): Constitutional Law: Principles and Policies. Fredericksburg: Aspen.
Graham, Francis. (2003): Equal Protection: Rights and Liberties Under the Law. New York: ABC-CLIO Inc.
Korematsu v. U.S., 584 F.Supp. 1406 (1984).
Privacy Concerns with Storing Organizational Data in the Cloud
The Security Pros and Cons of Cloud Computing
Drawing on the observation provided by Kesan, Hayes, and Bashir that, “[T]he market forces peering into private lives may not be doing so with malicious intentions, but the corresponding decrease in consumer control of their personal information is nonetheless harmful” (p. 471), the purpose of this paper is to explain why this statement is accurate. To this end, an analysis of the benefits as well as the compliance risk concerns that are associated with the storage of organizations’ data in the cloud is followed by a discussion concerning the balance between efficiency and deprioritizing privacy concerns, and an analysis about whether additional regulatory intervention is necessary.
Review and Analysis
The balance between efficiency and deprioritizing of privacy
There is a cost-benefit analysis involved with determining the precise balance between efficiency and the need…
Coss, D. L. & Dhillon, G. (2020, Summer). A framework for auditing and strategizing to ensure cloud privacy. Journal of Information Systems, 34(2), 79-83.
Lomas, N. (2020, July 17). Legal clouds gather over U.S. cloud services after CJEU ruling. TechCrunch. Retrieved from https://techcrunch.com/2020/07/17/clouds-gather-over-us-cloud-services-after-cjeu-ruling/ .
While this may seem absurd, on the other hand, careless employees, if not monitored, could actually expose private customer data in a dangerous fashion -- an employee who accesses his work account on his computer through a wireless network in a public place could be hacked, and cause grief to a customer as well as himself.
A utilitarian might state that the greatest good for the greatest number lies in stringent scrutiny of employees -- after all, the number of people potentially harmed by security breaches is far greater than the one or two employees who must self-monitor their email more carefully. Thus employers should have the right to exercise oversight of customer data and employee use of corporate information and technology, at home and at work. But a Kantian would respond that to set such a precedent is dangerous, and leaves open the possibility that someday all workers who…
One of the largest issues between the two nations is the issue of truck passage. In the past trucks carrying goods or cargo had enjoyed a cursory glance as they crossed into the other nation however, after the World Trade Towers came down border agents on both sides of the border began to investigate trucks with much more scrutiny than ever before.
Historic allies, Canada and the United States agreed following 9-11 to a plan for a "secure and smart border" both U.S. And Canadian officials said would protect against terrorist attacks while facilitating this vital stream of trade. Seventy percent of the trade with Canada is truck-borne, with a truck crossing the border every three seconds in a stream of 200,000 vehicles each day (Canada, 2002).
The essence of that agreement was that the United States and Canada would devise ways to identify regular, unthreatening traffic in people…
Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Accessed 10-22-06)
Danna, Anthony and Oscar H. Gandy 2002 All that glitters is not gold: Digging beneath the surface of data mining. Journal of Business Ethics 40: 373-386.
Ericson, Richard V. And Kevin Haggerty 1997 Policing the Risk Society. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Abortion and the Right to Privacy
It is a summary of the most important elements of your paper. All numbers in the abstract, except those beginning a sentence, should be typed as digits rather than words. To count the number of words in this paragraph, select the paragraph, and on the Tools menu click ord Count.
United States' law is descended from English common law. As it stands, the historical idea of a life beginning at "quickening" has been replaced by the idea of fetal "viability." Despite a brief historical hiatus, women maintain the right to an abortion, before life begins. Despite Georgia's best efforts, fetuses are not people, legally or otherwise. Naturally, states regulate abortions and even proscribe them, under specified circumstances. However, the historical right to privacy in the home includes the right to choose whether to procreate. The right to privacy is protected in the substantive due…
Boyd v. United States, 116 U.S. 616, 116 U.S. 630 (The Supreme Court December 11, 1886).
Bullough, V. (Ed.). (2001). Encyclopedia of Birth Control. Santa Barbara, CA, U.S.: ABC-CLIO.
Coke, E. (2001). The Third Part of the Institutes of the Laws of England: Concerning High Treason, and Other Pleas of the Crown and Criminal Causes. Clark, N.J.: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.
Garrow, D. (1998). Liberty and Sexuality: The Right to Privacy and the Making of Roe v. Wade (2nd Edition ed.). Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.
Student Searches, Free Speech & Expression, and Privacy in the Wired Age
Student searches and in-school discipline for off-campus conduct
Free Speech and Expression on and off campus
Privacy in the wired age on and off campus. (Facebook, twitter, myspace, blogs, cellphones)
What are a students' constitutional rights when it comes to searches and seizures, on and off campus discipline, free speech, expression, and privacy in the wired age when on and off campus? How are students protected by the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights when it pertains to the three items listed above?
Students are often subject to rules and regulations that are associated with school codes of conduct and those rules and regulations are sometimes not reflective of constitutional rights to free speech and free action inside the laws. These long list of potential violations are printed by institutions and are made available to students, in…
In short students and especially minor students and their parents should make themselves aware of the codes of conduct the student is expected to uphold and live within those guidelines even if they feel the guidelines are overreaching as students have little recourse because even most public institutions such as public schools are still considered voluntary and enrollment in them requires certain standards to be upheld. This is not to say it is likely that all new students will read and memorize a code of conduct but they must beware that violations especially that hurt others will not likely be tolerated. It is not likely that the constitutional protection of students will be expanded, rather to the contrary laws that protect others from immoral, unethical and/or illegal or harmful behaviors in a public forum such as the internet, across email, and cell phones will likely be expanded. It also must be made clear that the intent to harm another does not have to be present for that harm to be done or for the individual(s) responsible to be held accountable for it. In other words consider yourself under public scrutiny when you are enrolled in any institution and act accordingly, upholding the law and the moral and ethical standards associated with your role as a student.
Wheeler, T. (2011). Facebook Fatalities: Students, Social Networking, and the First Amendment. Pace Law Review, 31(1), 182-227. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Williamson, L. (2009). Private Rants Become Public When Aired Online. InsideCounsel, 20(211), 67-68. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
right to privacy is wrongly assumed to be expressly protected by the Constitution; in fact no right to privacy clause exists but is implied in the Bill of Rights. Privacy is implied, for example, in the freedom of religious beliefs and practice guaranteed in the First Amendment. The Fourth Amendment's provision against unlawful search and seizure refers to the right to privacy, as does the Fifth Amendment right to remain silent. Privacy is broadly believed to be a natural extension of other rights in the Constitution.
In Griswold v. Connecticut the court described the right to privacy as part of a "penumbra" or zone encompassing at least the First, Third, Fourth, and Fifth Amendments ("Griswold v. Connecticut and the Right to Contraceptives"). The Griswold case provided the foundation for the later case Roe v. ade, which used the same penumbra analogy to show that childbearing choices fall within the presumed…
ACLU. "Your Right to Privacy." Retrieved online: https://www.aclu.org/other/your-right-privacy
"Griswold v. Connecticut and the Right to Contraceptives," Findlaw. Retrieved online: http://family.findlaw.com/reproductive-rights/griswold-v-connecticut-and-the-right-to-contraceptives.html
Kernell, Samuel, Jacobson, Gary C., Kousser, Thad, and Vavreck, Lynn. The Logic of American Politics. 6th edition. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
"The Right of Privacy." Retrieved online: http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/rightofprivacy.html
Deteminism. Now the quey aises whethe o not the futue is set o will it change the futue? Citic C.A. Wolski said that "At the outset, Minoity Repot... pomises to mine some deep subject matte, to do with: do we possess fee will o ae we pedestined to ou fate?" But the quey still emains whethe the pecogs' visions ae ight? James Beadinelli asked "is the Pecogs' vision accuate, o has it in some way been tampeed with? Pehaps Andeton isn't actually going to kill, but has been set up by a cleve and knowledgeable ciminal who wants him out of the way." Accoding to the pecog Agatha as Andesn can see his futue, he can alte it as well i.e. Fee Will (Hueme, 2009). If data shaing is eally going to incease secuity, then the belief amongst many is -- knowing the futue eally helps enhance civil libeties at…
references and the death of free will. This could also lead to the abandonment of the right to choose and change one's mind.
What needs to happen?
What needs to happen is that the BJA needs to investigate and observe more thoroughly the data sharing issues like privacy and civil independence using the DOJ's Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative (Global) Advisory Committee (GAC or "Committee"). The GAC symbolizes more than 30 key organizations across the justice and public protection landscape and is run by top-level justice executives and practitioners (and, more than, 1.2 million justice practitioners). This assembly operates as the Federal Advisory Committee to the top most-ranking law enforcement authorized in the country, the U.S. Attorney General, on standards-based justice-linked
However, this still relatively young application of internet technology does come with a wide array of security concerns that highlight the ethical and legal responsibilities facing these handlers of sensitive information.
ith identify theft and hacking of open source network activities real threats in the internet age, it is increasingly important for online shoppers bankers to be aware of the risks and for online financial institutions to be armed to protect against them.
For the banking industry, which has gone to considerable lengths to continually upgrade security measures, this presents a demand which is simultaneously economic and ethical. Indeed, the transition of users from traditional to online banking methods will be a shift "resulting in considerable savings in operating costs for banks." (Sathye, 325) This highlights the nature of it risks for all companies, which must balance security concerns with the financial optimization often associated with such change.
CMU. 2003. Risk Management. Carnegie Mellon University: Software Engineering Institute. Online at http://www.sei.cmu.edu/risk/index.html
Comptroller of the Current, Administrator of National Banks (CoC). (2005). Authentication in an Internet Banking Environment. Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. Online at .
Sathye, M. (1999). Adoption of Internet Banking by Australian Consumers: An Empirical Investigation. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 17(7), 324-334.
Stoneburner, G; Goguen, a. & Feringa, a. (2002). Risk Management Guide for Information Technology Systems. NIST 800-30.