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Proctor and Gamble Strategic Case Study
P&G is an American multinational consumer goods corporation founded in 1837, headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio. It manufactures and distributes food and beverages, cleaning supplies and personal care products. In 2011, it showed almost $83 billion in sales, making it 5th in the "World's Most Admired Companies." P&G has about 130,000 employees globally (P&G Information, 2012). Bob McDonald is the current CEO, and worked for the company for 29 years prior to his promotion. His view is that P&G should touch and improve "the lives of the world's consumers through branded products of superior quality and value" (Dyer, D., et.al. 2004).
Mission Statement and Values
P&G's values focus on its people and the values with which these people live and work. P&G believes it attracts and recruits the finest people globally, builds its organization from within, and promotes and rewards its employees without…
Basdur, M & Gelade, G 2006, 'The Role of Knowledge Management in the Innovation Process', Creativity and Innovation Management, vol 15, no. 1, pp. 45-62.
Beer, M & Eisenstat, R 1996, 'Developing and Organization Capable of Implementing Strategy and Learning', Human Relations, vol 49, no. 5, pp. 597-618.
Business Wire 2012, Proctor and Gamble Received Golden Halo Award, viewed December 2012, .
Children's Safe Drinking Water 2012, viewed December 2012, .
All other Ultra Gain products are not recommended for High-Efficiency machines
Source: Ultra Gain (2008) at http://www.gainlaundry.com/static/products.asp.
Marketing application and analysis
The "release the hounds" reference used to promote Gain "Outdoor Sunshine" is reflective of the company's past marketing efforts for this product that have equated doing laundry with going to war while remaining "ladylike" in the process. According to Harris (2000), "Throughout the twentieth century, the aesthetic of cleanness has been simultaneously militaristic and ladylike. The rhetoric of germ warfare infuses descriptions of cleaning products, which depict housewives as soldiers on the front lines, 'killing dirt,' 'cutting through stains,' or 'getting brutal with soiled clothing,' as in an advertisement for Gain detergent that shows a laundress in a boxing glove clutching a pair of men's underwear ('Give your boxers some punch')" (p. 250). A common theme that recurs through this marketing copy, with the sole exception of 2X Ultra…
Gain. (2008). Proctor & Gamble. [Online]. Available: http://www.gainlaundry.com/static/laundrytips.asp .
Harris, D. (2000). Cute, quaint, hungry, and romantic: The aesthetics of consumerism. New York: Basic Books.
Proctor & Gamble. (2008). Yahoo! Finance. [Online]. Available: http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=PG .
Describe the organization (Proctor and Gamble)
What is the product or service?
Proctor and Gamble (P&G) is a U.S. based multinational consumer Products Company. It offers products such as cleaning agents, pet foods, and personal care items. Before selling Pringles to Kellogg Company, P&G offered products in the line of food and beverages.
What is the ownership structure?
The ownership structure of P&G is multi-divisional because simple structures are used in small companies where the owner works as the management and makes all the big decisions for the organization. In such a case, the owner and the manager must be in the workplace every day. P&G is a relative giant company, with businesses spread across the world; therefore, the company uses a multidivisional structure. This structure entails operating divisions, where single divisions represent independent businesses where the top manager assigns responsibilities of daily operations. Every division signifies a…
Moreover, the organization will have to consider prioritizing consumers waiting in the line based on various factors. For example, the organization will have to use first-come, first-serve method, considering the age of the consumer, and other factors such as the health status, as in the case of physical disabilities. From the waiting line, managers acquire insights into the level of service and quality of products to provide their consumers. For example, low-service line of service delivery will be inexpensive to the organization, but can cost the organization significant costs due to customer dissatisfaction. Similarly, a high-level line of service delivery will result in low consumer dissatisfaction costs. Therefore, considering the above waiting line factors will influence the performance of the company significantly (Anderson, 2008).
The organization uses total quality management to ensure quality of the products and services it offers to its consumers. Total quality management facilitates the creation of organizational culture that aims at strengthening organizational efforts of improving quality and delivering of high-quality services and products to the consumers. Total quality management ensures the success of organizational activities through the provision of services and products that aims at satisfying consumer needs and participation of organizational stakeholders in activities contributes to its success. The collective efforts of the organizational stakeholders result in the creation of the desired organizational culture focused at success and competitiveness of the company. The company uses various strategies to
At the time of Organization 2005, P&G did not have the ability to report to this specific level, and instead focused purely on geographies first, product area second, and functional areas the last. This clearly made execution of marketing strategies extremely difficult, as in the old organizational structure, country-based marketing managers could decline to sell a specific product or an entire brand.
Jager, who had extensive experience in Asia-pacific prior to taking on the CEO role, had seen through many of his product introductions how having a strong geographical focus was actually a disadvantage for P&G. His work on the SKII market definition and planning in Japan was a case in point (Bartlett 2004).
What is troubling however in the definition of Organization 2005 is the high level of prioritization on process standardization, over and above the finely tuned execution of regional marketing campaigns and the ability to measure results…
AMR Research (2001) - Building a Case for the Private Trading Exchange. AMR Research Report. Boston, MA. Accessed with permission from the publisher.
Asgekar, Fontanella and Swanton (2004). AMR Research (2004, January 22) Demand Driven Supply Network: Striving for Supply Chain Transparency. (Report) Boston, MA
Bartlett, Christopher a. (2004), "P&G Japan: The SK-II Globalization Project," HBS No. 303-003 (Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2004), p. 2, 6 Available for purchase online at http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard.edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml;jsessionid=PR4RKMCC3QT3UAKRGWDSELQBKE0YIISW?id=303003&referral=2341
Columbus (2001) - Integrating E-Commerce into Exchanges: Risks and Rewards April 6, 2001. Sam's Publishing Company. Accessed from the Internet on August 22, 2007 at http://www.informit.com/articles/article.asp?p=21094&rl=1
Proctor & Gamble entered foreign markets early in its existence, and relied on semi-autonomous foreign subsidiaries to manufacture market and distribute products that were developed in the United States. This tactic relied on P&G owning the subsidiary, but giving the subsidiary considerable operational leeway, so that the arrangement almost worked more like a licensing deal. This strategy persisted for P&G through the 1980s.
In the 1990s, this strategy became less viable, at least relative to the alternatives. The strategy had arisen and persisted in an era where barriers to trade between nations were high, and by the 1980s these barriers were beginning to fall -- it was the beginning of the modern era of globalization. National markets were becoming regional markets -- for example with the common market in Europe and the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement. In addition, P&G's retail partners were becoming global in scale, something that demanded…
Tambrands becoming part of Proctor & Gamble was a wise move, overall, but it was not without its risks. P&G has a huge following, and is a company that virtually everyone in the world has heard of and recognizes. Because P&G is so very popular all over the world, it is very likely that the Tambrands product will be seen as more significant and more respected because it is associated with the P&G name and brand. Of course, it is possible that Tambrands will still fail for other reasons that have more to do with culture and less to do with branding, but that is a risk that has nothing to do with whether Tambrands merged with another company or stayed on its own. What matters most with Tambrands is that it saw the problems it was facing by trying to market to other countries. It was not possible for…
Bhagwati, J. (2004). In defense of globalization. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.
Cateora, P.R., & Graham, J.L., (2002). International marketing, 11th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill
Coughlan, R., & Connolly, T. (2001). Predicting affective responses to unexpected outcomes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 85(2), 211-225
McCarthy, K., Perreault J., & Saphiro, M. (2002). Basic marketing: A global-managerial approach. New York: McGraw-Hill
Strategy for Innovation at Proctor & Gamble
It may seem self-apparent to speak of Innovation as an aspect of a business process or of business process re-engineering. Indeed, it is perhaps a common misconception that innovation is a standard part of every business organization's internal structure and approach to its goals. However, patterns of innovation suggest this to be a specialized approach to business, reserved only for those organizations that are structurally and culturally suited to the adoption of new approaches, whether through technology, philosophical orientation, customer service or employee treatment. Indeed, some organizations may be better suited to improving existing models or finding ways to make existing models function at lower costs to the consumer. However, in the manufacturing, retail and service industries, there is a distinct movement toward innovation amongst many organizations seeking to remain abreast of changing patterns relating to global trade, technology and corporate…
Huston, L. & Sakkab, N. (2006). P&G's New Innovation Model. Harvard Business School: Working Knowledge.
Leipnik, D. (2008). Energy Efficient Companies To Be Rewarded With New 'Green Leader' Environmental Labeling Program. Green Leader. Online at http://www.greenleader.ca/press.htm
McKibben, B. (2007). Deep Economy: The Wealth of Communities and the Durable Future. MacMillan Press.
Proctor & Gamble (P&G). (2009). Innovation is P&G's Life Blood. PG.com.
Buying one brand of shampoo instead of another, for instance, is quite common. ivalry, therefore, is high.
Porter's value chain
Porter shows how firms such as Procter & Gamble can create competitive advantages for themselves. He categorizes a company's activities in the following way:
1. Primary activities: (a) Inbound logistics -- receiving the incoming material, including the handling and inventory of their material; (2) operations -- P&G's suppliers forming this material into their products; (3) Outbound logistics -- getting their products on their shelves and to the shelves of the different private stores and from thence to the customers; (5) marketing and sales -- P&G doing research on customer needs, satisfying their needs, communicating with consumers; (6) service -- fulfilling customers' needs after service has been completed, following up, and occasionally replacing products if need be. esearch too is ongoing in order to discover future trends and ways to best…
Quick MBA. The Value Chain. Strategic management www.quickmba.com/strategy/value-chain
Quick MBA. Porter's Five Forces. Strategic management www.quickmba.com/strategy/porter.shtml
P&G is looking to make the Supplier Environmental Sustainability Scorecard methodology a global standard (P&G, 2010). To support this effort to make the scorecard a global baseline of sustainability measurement, P&G freely distributes Microsoft Excel models of the methodology and baseline analysis tools from their website. The foundations of the methodology can be seen in Figure 2: Procter & Gamble's Supplier Environmental Sustainability Scorecard Methodology. The key metrics measured include energy, emissions, waste, water and an environmental management system performance ranking that can be used for evaluating supplier performance within and across product categories.
P&G has also differentiated this model by rewarding excellent business performance as measured by the key performance indicators (KPIs) first, while also using the methodology to evaluate areas where performance can be improved. The use of incentives and rewards for the top 400 suppliers at P&G have been announced and are actively being applied to supplier…
Jacobs, B., & Jordan, M. (2011). Green is the new color of the supply chain. Area Development Site and Facility Planning, 46(4), 29-31. Retrieved from http://www.areadevelopment.com/logisticsInfrastructure/July2011/collaboration-it-green-supply-chains-33638.shtml
Joseph, D. (2010, Score two for sustainability. Fast Company, (150), 54-54. Retrieved from http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/150/score-two-for-sustainability.html
Keyes, B.A., & Sykes, B. (2009). Sustainability's triple bottom line. Chief Executive, (243), 43-45,50. Retrieved from http://www.allbusiness.com/environment-natural-resources/pollution-monitoring/13877640-1.html
P&G launches supplier environmental sustainability scorecard. (2010a, May 12). PR Newswire, pp. n/a. Retrieved from http://news.pg.com/press-release/pg-corporate-announcements/pg-launches-supplier-environmental-sustainability-scorecard
The fit tool is a neat feature. It is a slightly different way from framing the issue, which is ensuring that the right person applies for the right jobs. You are refining the search, but they frame it in a different way. All the boxes have a Windows 10 sort of look, which I'm not into, but I like the feature overall because they ask basic questions about what sorts of things you are interested in. While people sometimes lack the self-awareness to answer this accurately, it's a good idea that makes the applicant feel as though they are empowered in the situation. But as a tool from a human resources perspective, where effectiveness is important, I am less sold, especially because the version of themselves that people sell is not necessarily the version that is true. Especially with college students, somebody might have a vision of themselves…
Uniform promotional messages for the products included in the same business unit can be translated by diminished costs. This aspect should not be underestimated, as promotional costs, in the form of TV, radio, paper or Internet advertisements represent an increasing share in the total marketing costs incurred by the company. By using the same promotion method, costs will be most likely cut down. Also, another important effect is the uniqueness character of the company's image throughout the world - consumers at global level could easily point out, indicate or recognize the unique characteristics of the P&G products, the features of the products that differentiate them from competition's items.
5. Innovation is the key to getting ahead of competitors. The development and launch of new products would allow the company to present their customers with higher quality and more innovative products. This way, P&G could obtain better market penetration facilities; improve…
Production in the corporation is undertaken through guidance on the market need analysis and the research and development aspects of the corporation. The perspective in place of production is to consider market needs and keep innovating products in a way to ensure higher prospect in customer loyalty and lager market share. In this venture the integration of production in product development in accordance to the market needs put the company at the fore front to attract higher level of revenues. Different divisions within the corporation undertake to develop product in line with the corporation core objectives and the market needs.
Axson, D.A.J. (2010). Best Practices in Planning and Performance Management: adically ethinking Management for a Volatile World. . United States: Wiley.
Hofstede, G., & Hofstede, G.J. (2009). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. London: McGraw Hill.
loLevin, I., P.,, & Levin, a., M.,. (2007). Modeling the ole…
Axson, D.A.J. (2010). Best Practices in Planning and Performance Management: Radically Rethinking Management for a Volatile World. . United States: Wiley.
Hofstede, G., & Hofstede, G.J. (2009). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. London: McGraw Hill.
loLevin, I., P.,, & Levin, a., M.,. (2007). Modeling the Role of Brand Alliances in the Assimilation of Product Evaluation. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 9(1), 43-52.
Loosemore, M.D., a. & Lingard, H. (2003). Human resource management in construction industry: strategic and operational approaches. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Proctor & Gamble- Milestone
Head & Shoulders remain one of the most celebrated and recognized names in the hair care market for over fifty years. This renowned global brand was launched by Proctor & Gamble (P&G). The company is the leading producer of hair care products across the world, with their Head & Shoulders product securing over 20% market share. ecently, P&G's beauty unit made 30% in net sales and 30% of net earnings. esearch estimates that at least 50% of the world population is suffering from dandruff at least once in their lifetime. This renders it the most common type of scalp issue. Head & Shoulders has become one of the most widely known across the globe; selling a gigantic 150 bottles of the anti-dandruff formula each minute. Head & Shoulders are excelling regarding their marketing strategy. For a new product to penetrate, brand endorsements with powerful and related…
FAQ. (2015). Head and Shoulders. Retrieved from http://www.headandshoulders.com/en-us/about/faq
Head and Shoulders: World Leaders in Dandruff and Scalp Care. (2015). Head and Shoulders. Retrieved from http://www.headandshoulders.com/en-us/about/about-head-and-shoulders
Bhushan, R., Malviya, S. (2012). Grocery prices rise by up to 15% despite weak
Consumer demand. IndiaTimes. Retrieved from http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2012-12-17/news/35869037_1_price-hikes-surf-excel-quickwash-minimum-support-price
A major weakness that can be mitigated for P&G is that of copycat and "me too" products that erode the prestige of the brand. When margins are high competitors tend to enter the market. The industry that P&G operates in is fairly easy to enter. There are many substitutes for Tide as there are many substitutes for Coke. P&G must be very careful to maintain the prestige and quality of the brand so that competitors can not erode its influence on consumers.
Compare the strengths and weaknesses of P&G's resources and capabilities to that of Eastman Kodak (Case 7). These companies are in very different industries. How does this affect strategic analysis of resources and capabilities?
The first major strength of P&G relative to Kodak is its margins and cost structure. P&G has the benefit of increasing earnings without having a corresponding increase in capital expenditures. Eastman Kodak however, as…
1) "P&G 2010 Annual Report." P&G 2010 AR Letter: Brand Building, Competitive Advantage. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. .
2) "Procter & Gamble Co. (PG) | Statement of Financial Position, Assets." Stock Analysis on Net. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. .
3) Stempel, Jonathan, and Liana B. Baker. "Photography Pioneer Kodak Files for Bankruptcy." Reuters. Thomson Reuters, 19 Jan. 2012. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. .
Proctor and Gamble's Distribution System of Tide channel of distributing a product refers to the product's "sequence or marketing intermediaries" that begins after the product has been formulated and created that then pass on the product to the consumer. (Principles of Marketing, 2004, p.5) Proctor and Gamble as a company has recently been commended for using agent-based distribution system modeling. This system is credited with transforming the company. (Anthes, 2003)
According to the HIDC.NewsLetter of 5 May 2004, in an article on distribution systems entitled, "Intelligent Agents "as competition increases and product life cycles shorten" traditional distribution systems "are no longer sufficient for many companies today. Instead, more and more of them are turning to collaboration in supply chains and forming networks of organizations to ensure a competitive advantage. But in such organizational networks, dense and tightly coupled activities increase the difficulty and costs of coordination. Moreover, as the…
Anthes, Gary H. (January 27, 2003) "Agents of Change." Computer World. Retrieved on June 16, 2004 at WWW.COMPUTERWORLD.COM" (COMPUTERWORLD
Case Study: Proctor & Gamble. (20040 New Chain Solutions Newsletter. Retrieved on June 16, 2004 at http://nutechsolutions.com/newsletter/#a4
Happi.com. (May 2002) "The Laundry Detergent Market." Retrieved on June 16, 2004 at http://www.happi.com/current/Jan024.htm
Intelligent Agents." (May 5, 2004) HIDC. Newsletter.
com. You are aske to briefly aress each of the following issues. Be sure to substantiate your answers with reliable sources. See Moule Six -- " Ethical Business Practices on the Web to assist in you with your answers.
a. Describe any customer concerns that may affect the use of a website to purchase customize cosmetics.
The greatest concern customers have is if they can trust the quality an valiity of the personalize care proucts they buy online. Trust is the overriing an most critical issue there is when purchasing personal care prouct online (Lalisan, Rubio, et.al.). In conjunction with trust, many consumers want expert-level guiance when it comes to efining which ingreients to use on a cosmetic prouct (Groves, et.al.). A customize cosmetics website must also convince customers that the unique prouction processes use to prouce their proucts is safe, secure an reliable. The aspect of prouct personalization an…
d. What are the main lessons entrepreneurs can learn from the Reflect.com Internet venture?
First, it is critically important to design the entire value chain of a business to meet and exceed customer requirements (Porter, et.al.). Second, just concentrating on one aspect of the business that the consumers see, especially on a mass customization-based website, ignores the more important functional areas of managing one-off production and shipping in addition to customer data management (Gaffney, 1). Third, the demographics and psychographics of the customer base need to align with the purchasing process. In the case of Reflect.com, the ideal customer may be too busy with their job and life responsibilities to create designer make-up for himself or herself.
Question 3 in the summer of 2010 a company was formed to sell customized perfume online. The business targets primarily male gift givers and is designed to enable them to create a customized perfume based on the recipient's personality traits. They feel the business will be a huge success. The founder, Wendy Zhang has said, "This a one-of-a-kind gift. It will make the recipient feel special every time she puts it on. Because she will know that, it is perfectly formulated to accent her personality." In the future
bidder on a work contract may bid lower than what would maximize his/Her profit from the contract and the reason for that is to create goodwill
Ultimately, a contract is only as valuable as the signatures affixed to it. In other words, the risk of failing to gain a contract with a potentially valued partner is greater than the sum of revenue lost in the bid size. The best way to value the goodwill created by an amenable contract bid is by the length of the contract and the additional business that it generates with that client for clients referred by the present client.
From my personal experience attempting to gain contracts through an employment placement agency, providing an accessible starting bid for compensation can attract the attention of hiring companies. The goodwill and access generated by this kind of bid can ultimately lead to a more lucrative offer for…
..A third is to treat every intervention into knowledge work as an experiment-with measures, a control group, clear hypotheses about the result and so forth. Nothing happens or changes unless a manager makes it happen.
The cultural factors affecting organizational change have almost certainly been undervalued, and cultural/behavioristic implementations have shown some benefits. ut the cause-effect relationship between cultural strategy and business benefits is not clear, because we still can't make dependable predictions about systems as complex as knowledge-based business organizations. Positive results achieved by cultural/behavioristic strategies may not be sustainable, measurable, cumulative, or replicable, and employees thoroughly "Dilbertized" by yet another management strategy may roll their eyes. Time will tell.
ellinger, Gene. "Knowledge Management-Emerging Perspectives." 2004. June 17, 2005. http://www.systems-thinking.org/kmgmt/kmgmt.htm#tvokm.
Davenport, Tom. "The New Work Order: Retooling the Knowledge Worker." October 1, 2003. June 17, 2005. http://www.cio.com/archive/100103/order.html.
Dragoon, Alice. "Less for Success." October 15, 2004. June 17, 2005.…
Bellinger, Gene. "Knowledge Management-Emerging Perspectives." 2004. June 17, 2005. http://www.systems-thinking.org/kmgmt/kmgmt.htm#tvokm .
Davenport, Tom. "The New Work Order: Retooling the Knowledge Worker." October 1, 2003. June 17, 2005. http://www.cio.com/archive/100103/order.html .
Dragoon, Alice. "Less for Success." October 15, 2004. June 17, 2005. http://www.cio.com/archive/101504/km.html .
Moore, Cathleen. "Tapping Knowledge." Framingham: InfoWorld, October 15, 2001.
high tech global economy, market researchers are facing all new challenges and this case provided an insight into one of the major dilemmas. This case focused on the fact that marketers have been trying to get in touch with our current teen population. The objective of the case was to help differentiate between basic and applied research methods and to evaluate how ethical marketing approaches are being used by research companies. These teens are more culturally diverse and as a group out number their predecessor groups such as the baby boomers. As noted, teens have become one of the fastest growing segments of the population and they are expected to continue to grow. But, to differentiate this group from any other, these teens live in a world of X-Box, high definition satellite TV, internet ready personal computers, palms, cell phones and ATM's full of cash. In other words, they may…
Marketing and Branding
Discuss the history of brand and ways brands have evolve over time.
The history of brand has quickly evolved from a relatively simple approach taken by companies to differentiate their products and services by name or graphical representation alone to highly targeted, effective, emotive approaches to communicating value. Brands have evolved from fairly generic approaches to communicating the functional value of a product or service to evoking emotions customers attain when using them. An example of this is the progression of Proctor & Gamble (P&G) to communicate the utilitarian values of soap in the previous centuries of their branding to the psychographic benefits to parents of providing clean clothes for their children. P&G continues to excel on this progression from the utilitarian or functional value their products deliver to the psychographic and emotive nature of them. Today the branding and positioning from P&G and other consumer packaged…
Duracell batteries are a Proctor and Gamble company but one would not know from reading the labels. Some household products and toiletries -- like Secret deodorant and Tide detergent is clearly marked as a Proctor and Gamble company but others are not, such as Boss fragrance. I have many P&G products I would not have known about without visiting their Web site including the Swiffer cleaner, Charmin toilet paper, and Vicks cough drops.
4. The array of products in any given P&G category is stunning, proving how a successful corporation uses product positioning as a specific marketing strategy. Positioning is mainly established visually, via brand logos. Some brand logos are so familiar that the human eye need only glance briefly at it and the person will instantly know what the item is. Product descriptions attempt to verbally differentiate products from one another in the same category. For example, Era is…
International Development and Strategic Management at Proctor & Gamble
International Development and Strategic Management at Procter & Gamble
Every organization wishes to keep its operations on a continuous growing pace in its industry (Barnes, Blake, & Pinder 2009). As a part of its business expansion strategies, it can also aim to target international markets if it possesses the core competencies and financial resources to meet the requirements of this expansion (Bamford & Forrester 2010). International development strategies require business organizations to strategize their policies and procedures in such a way that they not only enable them to compete with the top level competitors, but also ensure a high sales volume and profitability (Kotler, Brown, Burton, Deans, & Armstrong 2010).
To do business in an international market successfully, an organization needs to analysis that market from all the environmental perspectives (yals 2008). A situational analysis can be…
Bamford, D., & Forrester, P., 2010. Essential Guide to Operations Management: Concepts and Case Notes. U.S.: John Wiley and Sons
Barnes, C., Blake, H., & Pinder, D., 2009. Creating & delivering your value proposition: managing customer experience for profit. Philadelphia: Kogan Page
Hill, C., & Jones, G., 2007. Strategic management: an integrated approach. U.S. Cengage Learning
Kotler, P., Brown, L., Burton, S., Deans, K., & Armstrong, G., 2010. Marketing. 8th Edition. U.S.: Prentice-Hall
A strategy is needed for P&G management to continue to compete in the market for one of against competitors. P & G. has a long history of success however there had been little change in their product lineup from the mid 1980s. This allowed competitors who listen to the voice of the customer to move ahead of P&G in the market. Competing companies have taken away market share from P&G. The competition has responded to the trend of using the nternet, inventory management systems, and Point of Sale systems, taking advantage of the latest technology to improve processes that reduce labor and supply chain costs. P & G. has remained stagnant by maintaining present product lines, and using outdated technology and managerial practices for its global operations. Brand management at P & G. begin realizing that in order to regain its market share it was essential to…
Inventory can be maintained through gathering POS data noting retail location and the quantity of product needed to replenish depleted inventories daily.
Maximizing profitability requires exploring opportunities to increase market share. Whether they are related to additional channels of distribution, research and development, restructuring the organization, or process improvement. In this case the second alternative of investing in technologies and restructuring the organization through category management increasing Volume or the number of units being sold by the various retailers that distribute P&G products to consumers. By working to automate business processes and category management P&G will have better tools, resources, and data to support leadership in making decisions.
Mckenney, J.L, and Clark, T.H. (1995). Procter and Gamble (A): improving Customer Value through Process Redesign. HBS.
Strategy to Implementation and Action Plans
Business Strategy Implementation
From Strategy to Implementation
The development of action plans is a process of putting the wheels on a strategic plan. Action plan development is crucial to implementation success as it outlines an overarching and a detailed map for achieving the goals and objectives outlined in the strategic plan. It is important for action plans to be comprehensive, providing both a macro and a micro approach. For example, action plans should address resource allocation, goal setting and the performance measures to determine if goals and objectives are being met -- in both formative and summative manner -- and the interlocking functions of operations, finances, marketing, and sales.
Turning Great Strategy into Great Performance
Companies that are looking for a roadmap to help them achieve their strategic performance benchmarks and move their business beyond the quality levels described in their strategic…
Moss Kanter, R. (2009, September 14). Inside Proctor & Gamble's New Values-Based Strategy. HBR Blog Network. Retrieved http://blogs.hbr.org/2009/09/fall-like-a-lehman-rise-like-a/
2 Brief History and Organization Background
2 Proctor & Gamble History
5 Situation Analysis
5 External Environment
5 Internal Sociotechnical Systems
6 Problem Diagnosis & Definition
7 Great Man Theory
7 Trait Theory
8 the Managerial Grid
8 theory X and Theory Y
9 Participative Leadership (Lewin's leadership styles)
9 Situational Leadership
9 Contingency Theory
10 Transactional Leadership
10 Transformational Leadership
10 Organizational Leadership Discussion
14 Practitioner Recommendations
15 Overall Research Approach
16 Site and Population Selection
24 Identifications and Evaluation of Alternative Interventions
25 Action Planning
26 Follow-up and Evaluation
28 ork Cited
An Analysis of Leadership Styles Utilized by Procter & Gamble and Colgate-Palmolive and their Role in Contributing to Effective Practices and Profitability
This research proposal will focus on two major competitors in the national and international market, Procter & Gamble and Colgate-Palmolive, and the types of leadership…
Ang, S. (2006). Personality Correlates of the Four-Factor Model of Cultural Intelligence. Group &Organization Management, 31(1), 100-123.
Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. (1999). Two decades in research and development in transformational leadership.
European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9-32.
Over its years of existence, the company has also created a large network for distribution, while building consumer trust in the process.
One of the weaknesses of the company is created by its competition with another significant brand, Clinic All Clear, whose creative campaign has put it in a favorable position as compared with Head & Shoulders. In countries like India, the product's popularity is lower in rural areas.
In terms of opportunities, the company has great potential to develop not only into untapped markets, but also in terms of product development and differentiation. Consumer loyalty towards this brand provides a good platform for future product development opportunities. Because of higher consumer awareness, there has also been a higher investment in shampoo research, providing an opportunity for further product development.
Threats include a high level of competition in the shampoo market across the world, and particularly in terms of anti-dandruff…
Dasgupta, S. (2011). Head and Shoulders. Retrieved from: http://www.slideshare.net/november2nd.1984/head-shoulders
Gold, G. (2011). Head & Shoulders Launches New Scalp Solution Shampoo Collections. StyleList. Retrieved from:
Tide Detergent and the Political Environment
According to Otto Bettmann's memorably titled book, The Good Old Days -- They Were Terrible, adulteration of soaps and foodstuffs were rife in the era of the 1910's and 1920's before Tide Detergent became a reality in the 1930's America. (Bettmann, 1974) Thus, the main legal consideration for Proctor & Gamble was not the safety of Tide or indeed any detergent as a product, rather it was forming a patent for its manufacture, to avoid the chemical process for manufacturing detergent becoming widely known. Today, the method of securing patents is so widely circulated that there are books written on the subject in the form of do-it-yourself guides. (Pressman, 2000) Also, there are sites on the Internet devoted to patent protection. But at the time, P&G's methodology of creating something to make whites truly whiter was a hotly contested patented product. After all, "for…
U.S. Water News Online (November 1998) "Science, not politics, should determine environmental regulations, scientist tells detergent industry."
Tide Liquid Detergent: Technological Development detergent is "a synthetic chemical that acts as a soap." (Willet, 1998) Until the 20th century, "very few synthesized chemicals existed," and the widespread synthesizing of materials out of the hydrocarbons that compose detergents was not possible until after the Second World War, when Tide was invented. (Willet, 1998) But still, it is difficult from today's perspective to appreciate the full implications for the technical components of the wide synthesizing of hydrocarbons. Unlike soap, detergents do not react poorly with hard water and causes the mineral salts in the water to form an insoluble substance, leaving laundry gray after repeated washings. (Bellis, 2004).
This is one reason during Victorian times; laundry washing was such an arduous, to say nothing of an infrequent household event. (Flanders, 2004) At the time, the Procter & Gamble Company made ivory soap but knew soap's disadvantages regarding clothing, so "by the 1920s, P&G chemists had figured out a way to create chemicals with special two-part molecules, one end of which was attracted to water and the other end of which was attracted to grease and dirt. Using this chemical in water could loosen grime in clothes, holding it suspended until it could be washed away. They called these new molecules synthetic surface-active agents -- synthetic surfactants for short."
Macroeconomic Variables of Interest to Proctor & Gamble's Head & Shoulders Shampoo
Founded in the 1830s by William Procter and James Gamble, Proctor & Gamble (P&G) has become a global leader in the consumer products industry today (P&G history, 2016). One of this company's best-selling and well-known products is its anti-dandruff shampoo, Head and Shoulders. This paper reviews the relevant literature to identify three macroeconomic variables, the consumer price index (CPI), the gross domestic Ppoduct (GDP) and unemployment levels in the United States that impact the supply and/or demand of this product for the past 3 years to date. An evaluation concerning how these trends will likely impact the supply and demand of Head and Shoulders shampoo as well as the financial performance of P&G is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
Consumer Price Index
The U.S. CPI for the…
Blatt, Z. (2015, April 26). Why one shampoo brand is Head and Shoulders above the rest on the web. Internet Retailer. Retrieved from https://www.internetretailer.com / commentary/2015/04/26/why-one-shampoo-brand-head-and-shoulders-above-rest.
Consumer price index. (2016). Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls. gov/cpi/.
P&G history. (2016). Proctor & Gamble. Retrieved from http://us.pg.com/who_we_are/heritage / history_of_innovation.
Sharry, R Case
hat Specific Benefit does KM Software add to a global organization?
"In today's fast-paced society, an entity's knowledge base is quickly becoming its only sustainable competitive advantage. As such, this resource must be protected, cultivated and shared among entity members." (Answers to Frequently Asked Questions About Knowledge Management, 1998) For the global corporation Proctor & Gamble, Knowledge Sharing Software has created a common knowledge base amongst the diversity of international employees working for this entity. The consumer-products giant turned to Knowledge-Sharing Software to transform "departmental experts into tangible information resources for the whole company." (Moore, 2001)
In other words, Proctor & Gamble believes strongly in soliciting opinions from all experts working for the company, and wished to make the sharing of such expert knowledge a valuable and constant resource for all employees. It saw, in the potential accessibility that KM Software could bring, a way of making…
"Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Knowledge Management." (1 Feb 1998) Graduate School of Business: University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 12 Oct 2005 athttp://www.mccombs.utexas.edu/kman/answers.htm
Cameron, P.D. (May 2002) "Managing Knowledge Assets." CMA Management. New York: Hamilton.
Moore, Cathleen. (12 Oct 2001) "Tapping Knowledge." InfoWorld. Retrieved 12 Oct 2005 at http://www.askmecorp.com/pdf/InfoWorld_PG.pdf
Wood, B. (Jul 2001) "Sharing the Intellectual Wealth." Chief Executive.
Situation Analysis, Evaluation of Options and ecommendations
Situation Analysis of the Market
The Product Positioning
Options for the company
Unilever faces a critical strategic decision concerning its attempts to increase sales in the Northeastern regions of Brazil. The aspects of marketing that the company needs to decide are the creation of a new value proposition and the brand positioning of the new product, development of brand strategy for the new product or to continue with the old strategy, the characteristics of product so that it suits the needs of the customers, the need for suitable packaging for the new detergent to be launched in the new market, and the pricing strategy of the product. Unilever is trying to market the product in a market that is predominantly composed of customers from the low-income groups. Promotional strategies and selection of the most effective distribution channel need to…
Cadogan, J. (2009). Marketing strategy. London: SAGE.
Grewal, D. And Levy, M. (2010). Marketing. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Iacobucci, D. (2013). Marketing models. Mason, Ohio: South-Western, Cengage Learning.
Iacobucci, D. (n.d.). Marketing management.
P&G Branding Strategy and Advertising
ecently installed Proctor & Gamble (P&G) CEO Bob McDonald spoke to shareholders recently and articulated the vision of the company, "to touch and improve lives" (Leader's Interviews. N.D.). In this context the indefatigable CEO has set out a bold initiative of adding one billion consumers of its products within five years, adding to the existing four billion customers who already are P&G customers (Sewell, D. March 6, 2010). Accomplishing this goal however, requires a carefully crafted mix of marketing strategy which allows for reaching a differential of customers across demographic variances including: socioeconomic, age, technological awareness, and geography. McDonald, points to the "hundreds of millions of people who have yet to buy their first bottle of Tide, their first Pampers diaper or a Gillette shaver" (Sewell, D. March 6, 2010). In implementing this global strategy of reaching existing and new consumers, P&G utilizes a diverse…
Leaders Magazine (October 2010). Leaders Interviews. The Power of Purpose: An
Interview with Bob McDonald. Leaders Magazine. Retrieved December 29, 2010 from http://www.leadersmag.com/issues/2010.4_Oct/ROB/LEADERS-Bob-McDonald-Procter-Gamble.html
NetMBA. (N.D.). Brand Equity. Retrieved December 29, 2010 from http://www.netmba.com/marketing/brand/equity/
P&G Case Study.
In Bulbul and Menon 169).
Other companies besides Proctor and Gamble have created advertising with emotional appeal. Consider, for example, print ads for McDonald's restaurants that show a mother and her young daughter taking time together for lunch. Think of ads that show a sleek car speeding through empty city streets or a teary-eyed young woman surprised with the gift of an engagement ring. ecent research validates the wisdom of these creative decisions. "Emotions dominate cognition and need to be considered as the most crucial factor in the advertising process. Emotional reactions function as the gatekeeper for further cognitive and behavioral reactions" (Poels and Dewitte 18).
Advertisers also use color to provoke emotional responses in consumers. Some research has been done, but the field is still wide open for further study. Lichtle noted that "despite its importance surprisingly little is known about the influence of colour in advertising," (37).
Baker, William E., Heather Honea & Cristal Antonia Russell. "Do Not Wait to Reveal the Brand Name." Journal of Advertising 33(3). Fall (2004): 77-85.
Bulbul, Cenk, and Geeta Menon. "The Power of Emotional Appeals in Advertising." Journal of Advertising Research 50(2) June (2010): 169-180.
Heath, Robert, & Pam Hyder. "Measuring the Hidden Power of Emotive Advertising." International Journal of Market Research 47(5) (2005): 467-486.
Lichtle, Marie-Christine. "The Effect of an Advertisement's Colour on Emotions Evoked by an Ad and Attitude Toward the Ad: The Moderating Role of the Optimal Stimulation Level." International Journal of Market Research 26(1) 2007: 37-62.
The Price-Sensitive Affluents, Wal-Mart has learned (Wal-Mart Annual eports) is more interested in finding an exceptionally good deal and not necessarily concerned about the shopping experience. This is particularly true as one of the strongest factors influencing the execution of their strategy, the emerging global recession during this timeframe, takes hold. Again as with the Price Value Shopper and the paradoxical purchasing patterns of the Brand Aspirational segment show, the cost savings, accuracy, and quality of products delivered with the Wal-Mart supply chain are much more important in the long run relative to store accoutrements and improvements. Admittedly nearly two dozen superstores are very dated in their decor and layout and do need to be re-vamped (Frazier, 38). Yet as this analysis of the customer segments shows based on Wal-Marts' filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission over time (Wal-Mart Annual eports), the far greater contributing factor to growing same-store…
Richard Appelbaum, Nelson Lichtenstein. "A New World of Retail Supremacy: Supply Chains and Workers' Chains in the Age of Wal-Mart. " International Labor and Working Class History 70.1 (2006): 106-125.
Tom Belden. . "Big-Box Retailers Target, Wal-Mart Strike Early, Deftly in Toy Price War. " Knight Ridder Tribune Business News 10 December 2003 1.
Dave Blanchard. "RFID is off and running at Wal-Mart. " Logistics Today 1
Cherie Blanchard, Clare L. Comm, Dennis F.X. Mathaisel. "Adding value to service providers: benchmarking Wal-Mart. " Benchmarking 15.2 (2008): 166-177.
As the largest mass merchandiser in the world, Wal-Mart's work in supply chain execution, research, and policies defines best practices for the broader high volume retailing industry worldwide. Wal-Mart is comprised of three operating segments including the Wal-Mart stores, Sam's lub and the International Stores. The typical Wal-Mart discount store as 50 departments or more and a few are offering groceries in addition to apparel, fabrics, stationery and books, shoes, house wares, hardware, electronics, home furnishings, small appliances, automotive accessories, gardening accessories, sporting goods, toys, and pet food. Wal-Mart moved into the Superenter retailing concept in the 1990s and has at this point 1,700 of these Superenters worldwide (Sampson, 2008).
These Superenters range in size from slightly over 90,000 square feet to 260,000 square feet. These are substantially larger than its normal stores, ranging in size from 90,000 square feet to 261,000 square feet. Wal-Mart also runs smaller…
Concentrating on supply chain efficiencies to support is primary messaging of its Low Price Everyday (LPED) value proposition, Wal-mart is differentiating itself by concentrating on the two most critical aspects that consumers consider when purchasing more commodity like products, which are price and availability. The general marketing strategy is to concentrate on what Wal-Mart calls the price value shopper, which comprises 16% of its total customer base, followed by brand Aspirational (29%) and price-Sensitive Affluents (15%). This segmentation strategy is how the company defines its strategic objectives for creating a demand-driven supply chain as well.
The value chain for Wal-Mart is integral to its overarching marketing strategy. Only by having a high enough level of inventory turns and logistics, supply chain and operational efficiencies can Wal-Mart support is LPED value proposition. Further, the role of each SuperCenter as a Distribution Center (DC) in the supply chain also underscores the other critical elements of the LPED strategy, which is to focus on price and availability over premium product or pricing positioning. Strategic marketing planning at Wal-Mart centers on the Price Value Shopper Segment, the majority of which are women who shop for their families whose household income (HH) is $40,000 or less per year (Birchall, 2008). Wal-Mart has successfully defined itself as a shopping strategy for making ends meet in the Value-Shopper segment and as a result has been able to sustain strong customer loyalty. In the customer segmentation discussion Wal-Mart's specific approaches to managing each segments' unique requirements is discussed. Market Strategy
The Wal-Mart market strategy concentrates on the Price Value Shopper segment as its top priority followed by the Brand Aspirationals who comprise 29% of their total sales. With the primary
Wal-Mart specifically is pioneering the development of adio Frequency Identification (FID) projects with up to two thousand of its key suppliers today (Kumar, 2007). The goal of this pilot is to enable food and beverage suppliers to coordinate more effectively with Wal-Mart on mixed pallet mode shipping of products (Kumar, 2007). This is critical for Wal-Mart from the standpoint of supporting their expansion strategies into smaller, more diverse stores in terms of selection. The focus of Wal-Mart going forward will be on smaller stores in urban and suburban locations in the U.S., and smaller stores throughout their most successful global locations as well. The use of FID as a technology to enable greater logistics and supply chain performance is already showing signs of supporting much greater levels of shipping accuracy and cost control. FID tags can be read on pallets traveling at 40 miles per hour through warehouses and from…
R Cigolini, & T. Rossi. (2006). A note on supply risk and inventory outsourcing. Production Planning & Control, 17(4), 424.
Joanna Cosgrove. (2003, February). Riding the retail wave. Beverage Industry, 94(2), 35-46.
Sameer Kumar. (2007). Connective technology as a strategic tool for building effective supply chain. International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management, 10(1), 41.
Liao, C.. (2009). Consumers' behavior in the food and beverage industry through data mining. Journal of Information & Optimization Sciences, 30(4), 855.
Proctor & Gamble, Unilever and other companies have esearch & Development (&D) labs in the nations where the market size and potential for sales can substantiate an investment (Shahhosseini, Ardahaey, 2011). This gives these companies insights and market intelligence they can use in designing next-generation products that closely align with their target customers' unique needs. This strategy of also allowing the product, promotion and place or distribution aspects of the marketing mix to be controlled locally has shown significant value over time in generating brand loyalty (osenbloom, Dimitrova, 2011). This can be attributed to how effectively these &D centers get at matching the unmet needs of prospects with the products being developed by companies known for their marketing expertise, for example Proctor & Gamble.
The globalization drivers that would most affect which aspects of the marketing mix are centralized vs. distributed across regional and country offices are first the economics…
Czinkota, M.. (2011). Why international marketing? Marketing Management, 20(2), 14.
Bert Rosenbloom, & Boryana Dimitrova. (2011). The marketing mix paradigm and the Dixonian systems perspective of marketing. Journal of Historic Research in Marketing, 3(1), 53-66.
Shahhosseini, A., & Ardahaey, F.. (2011). Marketing Mix Practices in the Cultural
Industry. International Journal of Business and Management, 6(8), 230-234.
Instead, these revenues may be invested in their question mark business units, which include their international expansion of these same industries into the Western economies.
Using the Ansoff Matrix one can see the alternative corporate growth strategies Kao may consider. Kao is seeking market development into Western markets with existing products. They are also seeking diversification into these new markets with new products that fit the unique needs of these consumers.
ecommendations on what the Organization should do to Improve its Competitive Position:
To improve its competitive position, Kao should continue to pursue expansion into Western markets. To do this, they may decide to expand by acquisition, as they have with the Jergens company. However, the Kao's unique way of doing business could give it a powerful advantage in the Western world. As such, they should utilize their acquisitions, such as Jergens, to learn as much as possible…
Ghoshal, S. & Butler, C. 2004, "KAO Corporation," in Strategy: Process, content, context, International Thomson Business Press, London, pp. 721-737.
For example, in the early 1990's the 'Intel Inside' of computers was great for computer sales. That is until the Intel brand name took a major hit for allowing a faulty chip to make its way to the market. The internet-based Word-of-Mouth made the 'Intel Inside' a marketing nightmare.
The Word-of-Mouth and Buzz marketing approach coupled with the internet are more effective than any available print or television ad currently used because consumers are too overly saturated by those mediums. This new approach of the future was recently used and studied for the popular film 'Fahrenheit 911' and the blockbuster results in revenues clearly show that this new approach is the wave of the next generation.
In conclusion, the world of marketing has changed and our more global and technologically advanced social and business environment will make marketers reevaluate their approach. Marketing executives can no longer go about in…
Bianco, Anthony, Lowry, Tom, Berner, Robert, & Arndt, Michael (2004). The Vanishing Mass Market. Business Week, July 12, 60-68.
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The Impact of Outsourcing on Information Technology in the U.S.
The greatest impact of outsourcing has been the decrease in the number of jobs in U.S. And this is only a continuation of the process that had begun earlier with the contracting of jobs by the large companies to small suppliers. Only now the jobs are going overseas and this is hurting the chances of certain categories of Americans from getting jobs. In the case of Information Technology jobs, this is a recent development, and even in 2003, the state of Ohio had forecast the career of IT as certain to succeed sort of a career. According to the Department of Job and Family Services in that state had said that the number of computer support specialists would grow by a certain 87% or a total of 1,682 persons a year throughout the next ten years. Following this group…
Brunelli, Mark. Report: Offshore outsourcing helps U.S. job market. (15 April, 2004)
Accessed 15 May, 2005. Available from http://searchcio.techtarget.com/originalContent/0,289142,sid19_gci959840,00.html
Gambling with the Health of the U.S. Economy? Accessed 15 May, 2005. Available from http://www.royalforum.com/article.php?id=59
Griswold, Daniel. Foreign Outsourcing Invigorates U.S. Economy. Accessed 15 May, 2005.
As has been mentioned throughout this thesis, the entire aspect of mass customization as it relates to the development of a stable quote-to-order process throughout manufacturing is critical. In this specific area is where many manufacturers face the dilemma of being entirely project-based in their manufacturing and business strategy approach or move more towards functional manufacturing with the exception being mass customization and a more fluid, agile, quote-to-order process. Figure 1 shows this dilemma graphically.
Source: LWC esearch
Figure 1: Manufacturer's dilemma regarding mass customization and channel implications of integration
Underscoring the synchronization of ESB hubs and accompanying use of state engines to unify channels and ensure complex processes including order-to-cash, inquiry-to-order, inquiry-to-cash, and many others. The span of integration that manufacturers are achieving with ESB platform integration in support of these core business processes is also illustrated in Figure 2, an example of a Brokered ESB Pattern Model, from…
Abrahams (2005) - Regulatory Compliance: Business Opportunity/Technical Challenge. Bloor Research.
Northamptonshire, United Kingdom
IBM Workplace for Business Strategy Execution (2006) - From the book of the same name. Authors Philip Monson, Katinka Kantor, Lee Barnes, Suzanne Minassian, Jennifer Bloom. IBM Corporation Redbooks Publishing. June, 2006. IBM Corporation.
IBM Developer Roadmap (2006) - Part of the working series of BPEL Programming Standards and a specific roadmap on the technology of BPEL4WS as it relates to SOA:
Now, the last one involves the balancing competitiveness with internal alignment through the use of ranges, flat rates, and/or bands. This is very important because a company would want to know who they are competing against and what they have to offer that will be able to go against them in the marketplace. Other things mentioned in this chapter, involve chapter talks about market pay survey (Salvador & Garcia-Menendez, 2001). There are three matters to look at before using pay surveys. One of those things is figuring out which employers will need to be included in the survey because clearly, everyone does not need to be involved. The second thing is to find out which jobs are will need to be included in the survey because obviously the proper ones need to be selected. It is not really necessary to use all of them. If multiple surveys are used, how…
Altman, M. (1995). Labor market discrimination, pay inequality, and effort variability: An alternative to the neoclassical model. Eastern Economic Journal, 21(2), 157-157.
Bosompra, K., Ashikaga, T., Flynn, B.S., Worden, J.K., & Solomon, L.J. (2001). Psychosocial factors associated with the public's willingness to pay for genetic testing for cancer risk: A structural equations model. Health Education Research, 16(2), 157-157.
Buescher, B.C. (2000). ABA model rule 7.6: The ABA pleases the SEC, but does not solve pay to play. The Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics, 14(1), 139-157.
Huang, C.L., Kan, K., & Tsu-Tan, F. (1999). Consumer willingness-to-pay for food safety in taiwan: A binary-ordinal probit model of analysis. The Journal of Consumer Affairs, 33(1), 76-91.
Human Resources -- Skill-Based Pay…Has it Caught on?
The skill-based pay structure sharply differs from the traditional job-based pay structure. Compensating an employee according to skill set, skill-based pay focuses on developing multi-skilled employees with an eye toward greater flexibility and productivity. Presenting both benefits and drawbacks, skill-based pay has developed to become one of the dominant compensation systems.
Compare and contrast a skill-based pay structure with a traditional job-based pay structure.
A traditional job-based pay structure compensates an employee according to the job he/she holds, sometimes with modifications dependent on the market (Mitra, Gupta, & Shaw, 2011). In contrast, a skill-based pay structure compensates an employee according to the employee's skill set: an employee with a greater skill set will receive higher compensation than another employee performing the same job but having a lesser skill set (Mitra, Gupta, & Shaw, 2011, p. 55). One strategic goal of the skill-based…
Byers, L.L., & Rue, L.W. (n.d.). Human Resource Management, Ninth Edition, Chapter 13: Base wage and salary systems. Retrieved September 1, 2013 from www.google.com Web site: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=byers%20and%20rue%20wage%20and%20salary%20ch.%2013&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDgQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.midlandstech.com%2Fbusiness%2Fbcox%2FMGT%2520201%2Fbyars%2520rue%2520ppt%2FChap013.ppt&ei=vLGnUZbbK8HqrQH2
Daly, D. (2008). The effectiveness of skill-based pay systems. Retrieved September 1, 2013 from www.degarmogroup.com Web site: https://www.degarmogroup.com/index.php/the-effectiveness-of-skill-based-pay-systems / de Silva, S. (n.d.). An introduction to performance and skill-based pay systems. Retrieved September 1, 2013 from www.ilo.org Web site: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/actemp/downloads/publications/srspaysy.pdf
Lawler, I.E., & Ledford, J.G. (1986, Jan/Feb). Skill-based pay: A concept that's catching on. Retrieved September 1, 2013 from search.proquest.com Web site: http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.trident.edu:2048/docview/196758209
Ledford, Jr., G.E. (2011, June). Skill-based pay. Retrieved September 1, 2013 from www.siop.org Web site: http://www.siop.org/userfiles/image/SIOP_SHRM_Skill_Based_Pay.pdf
P&G is faced with the question of whethe they will be able to intoduce and maket SK-II, a beauty poduct developed in Japan, on a global scale. P&G has, in the past, successfully intoduced poducts developed in othe global egions to intenational makets successfully, howeve, with the intoduction of SK-II, it will be one of the fist times that they will attempt to intoduce a beauty poduct on a global scale and beak into new makets. In Japan, whee SK-II was developed, the beauty and cosmetics industy was a $10 billion industy; howeve, moe than 20% of the maket shae was taken by Shiseido while P&G's Max Facto held a 3% maket shae, making the company "a distant numbe-five competito" to Shiseido. Additionally, P&G must contend with thei desie to expand into emeging makets and develop a maketing and oganizational stategy that will allow them to do so successfully.
references are examined out of context; how does Kanter define the size of an enterprise and how would a medium or large enterprise be defined, especially in a global context? Kanter needs to further develop how these "pillars" impact enterprises at different levels within an organization/enterprise and how these levels influence networking and collaboration across enterprises/partnerships on a global scale.
Stereotypes and Diversity
Stereotypes are bad. Diversity is good. Such ideas seem to be truisms in today's American business climate, which is often broadly brushed with the label of being 'politically correct' to the detriment of productivity. However, it is easy to speak highly of the value of diversity. It is easy to say the cultural wars of the business world have been won. It is easy to engage in such rhetoric but far more difficult to achieve a truly harmonious and diverse workforce in a functional fashion. After all, stereotypes are one of the ways individuals apprehend the world -- making assumptions based on what they have been told about other people and past experiences.
Often this cognitive tendency towards stereotyping can work against creating a climate of positive diversity in the workplace. But being aware of possible differences between individuals is not necessarily an act of…
Civil Rights act of 1964 -- EEOC Website. (2004) Retrieved on June 6, 2004 at http://www.eeoc.gov/policy/vii.html
Microsoft. (2004). Official Website. Retrieved on June 6, 2004 at http://www.microsoft.com/
Proctor and Gamble. (2004) Official Website. Retrieved on June 6, 2004 at http://www.pg.com/jobs/sectionmain.jhtml;jsessionid=HR42HRANVSOSLQFIAJ1CZOWAVABHOLHC
Tannen, Deborah. (2001) Talking from 9 to 5. New paperback edition: New York: Quill, 2001
Unilever in Brazil
Situation Analysis, Evaluation of Options and ecommendations
Situation Analysis of the Market
The Product Positioning
Options for the company
While attempting to increase its market share in the Northeastern part of Brazil, Unilever is faced with the problem of deciding on the most appropriate strategy for product, branding and marketing. They must consider factors such as the creation of the value proposition, the brand positioning of the new product, whether to create a new brand strategy for the new product or to continue with the old strategy, product characteristics so that it suits the needs of the customers, appropriate packaging for the new detergent, the pricing strategy, the promotional mix and the distribution channels to be established are the issues of decision making for the executive management of the company. The target market is a new market that Unilever is trying to enter which is…
Cadogan, J. (2009). Marketing strategy. London: SAGE.
Can't, M. (2006). Marketing management. Cape Town, South Africa: Juta.
Cluley, R. (2014). Consumption and repression. Marketing Theory.
Getnet, K. (2008). From market liberalization to market development: The need for market institutions in Ethiopia. Economic Systems, 32(3), pp.239-252.
Marketing, Supply and Equilibrium: Head and Shoulders by Proctor and Gamble
The Head and Shoulders product of Proctor and Gamble is price inelastic for those who have brand loyalty and will buy the product no matter what the price is. For those who like the product but will go with a cheaper off-brand if the option is available, so long as the off-brand is as effective, will do so causing the product to be price elastic for this group of people.
Two non-price factors that impact the demand of Head and Shoulders are quality of the product and marketing of the product. Quality (effectiveness of the shampoo to stop dandruff) is the number one reason it is purchased, as it is a specialty shampoo that is used for this explicit purpose. If the quality is high, the demand increases. Marketing is the other factor: if it is marketed well, the…
FAQ. (2015). Head and Shoulders. Retrieved from http://www.headandshoulders.com/en-us/about/faq
Head and Shoulders: World Leaders in Dandruff and Scalp Care. (2015). Head and Shoulders. Retrieved from http://www.headandshoulders.com/en-us/about/about-head-and-shoulders
Arimount Marketing Plan
Marketing Plan: Situation Analysis
Segmentation & Target Market Analysis
Segmentation of the market encompasses aligning the different consumers of the company into segments or groups that have common interests and needs and will have the same reactions to actions in the market. This includes segmenting the consumers demographically, geographically, psychographically and also behaviorally (Warner, 2010). The target market for this new product to be unveiled by Arimount encompasses male individuals between the age of 18 and 30 years old. These are individuals who function for most part of the day and therefore sweat. This particular segment of employees is selected for the reason that the deodorant will last for a longer period and therefore letting the consumers feel more fresh and smelling great for a longer period.
The beauty and grooming industry is one that is immensely competitive. This is owing to the reason that…
Kotler, P., Keller, K. L., Brandy, M., Goodman, M. & Hansen, T. (2009). Marketing Management, 1st edition, New York: Pearson Education.
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Warner, A. (2010). Strategic Analysis and choice: A structured approach. New York: Business Expert Press, LLC.
com was not their home page instead it was Google.com, digg.com and YouTube. It is important for corporations to take the time to keep up on what is showing up in the new social sites and search engines. New ideas that have arisen out of social media include: 1. Fish where the fish are. Don't build new communities and micro sites. Go where the people already are and 2. Keep fans most important. Coke has developed a social media strategy that revolves around 4s:
1. eview -- listen to what's being said
2. espond -- what to respond to and who should respond.
3. ecord -- create more convincing video content. It has been found that people are 7 -- 10 times more likely to click on a video than text.
4. edirect. Search and SEO are very important. Make sure the right content is found when people search. User…
Eddy, Nathan. (2010). Xerox Mobile Print Solution Allows Procter and Gamble to Print from Smartphones. Retrieved August 21, 2010, from eWeek Web site:
HRM Environment. (2010). Retrieved August 21, 2010, from Docstoc Web site:
Playing to Win: How Strategy eally Works
Playing to Win is a book that is co-written by two individuals who have vast knowledge and expertise regarding management. A. G. Lafely is the former CEO of Procter & Gamble, while on the other hand, oger Martin has been the Dean of the otman School of Management at the University of Toronto. To be specific, the book employs Procter & Gamble as a full and comprehensive case study on strategy. Playing to Win clearly points out the strategic method that Lafely, in close affiliation with oger Martin, who acted as his strategic adviser, employed to increase the sales of P&G twice over, increasing the profits of the company fourfold and also the market value of the company by over $100 billion. This was when Lafely first became CEO of the company, as he led P&G between the years 2000 and 2009. Playing…
DeBois, P. (2013). "Playing to Win" Explains the 5 Strategy Mistakes Businesses Make. Small Business Trends. Retrieved 31 January, 2016 from: http://smallbiztrends.com/2013/03/playing-to-win-strategy-book-mistakes.html
Denning, S. (2013). Playing to Win: How Strategy Really Works. Forbes.
Lafley, A. G., Martin, R. L. (2013). Playing to Win: How Strategy Really Works. Massachusetts: Harvard Business Review Press.
Soundview. (2013). LEARN TO WIN FROM AN ALL-TIME GREAT CEO. Retrieved 31 January, 2016 from: http://www.summary.com/book-reviews/_/Playing-to-Win/
P&G has very strong technical expertise, can provide labels on the redesigned packaging of Facelle showing how it excels in biodegradability, and is good for the environment. Millennial consumers thrive on sustainability and eco-friendly labeling as well and this will increase sales in this segment (Furlow, Knott, 2009). P&G will need to be careful to not over-state the sustainability of eco-friendly nature of the brand or it could potentially lose credibility as well (Furlow, 2010). It will need to strive for honesty and truthfulness in this market position. In terms of distribution, P&G needs to get Facelle out of the stores where it is competing with generic brands and focus on higher value grocery chains and retailers.
Facelle needs to have a coordinated and significant change to its marketing mix to survive. Changing the packaging to concentrate on eco-friendly messaging, increasing the price to communicate a strong price/quality relationship,…
Gordon F. Brunner. (2001). The Tao of innovation. Research Technology Management, 44(1), 45-51.
Terry H. Deutscher. 2003. PROCTER & GAMBLE: FACELLE DIVISION FACIAL TISSUE. Richard Ivey School of Business Case Collection: 9A93A027: PROCTER & GAMBLE: FACELLE DIVISION FACIAL TISSUE February 17
Leila Hamzaoui Essoussi, & Jonathan D. Linton. (2010). New or recycled products: how much are consumers willing to pay? The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 27(5), 458-468.
Furlow, N., & Knott, C.. (2009). Who's Reading the Label? Millennials' Use of Environmental Product Labels. The Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 10(3), 1-12.
history of the 1920's, a colorful era of tycoons, gangsters, bohemians and inventors. Areas covered include the arts, news and politics, science and humanities, business and industry, society fads and sports. The bibliography includes fives sources, with five quotations from secondary sources, and footnotes.
The 1920's are commonly referred to as the 'Roaring Twenties', an appropriate title for a decade that did indeed roar out of the Victorian Era. Gone were the corsets and up went the skirt hems as flapper girls bared their legs and speakeasies with bathtub gin dominated the nightlife.
Tycoons became America's royalties while bohemian lifestyles bore the twentieth century's most influential era of art and literature. Inventions brought us into the modern age of convenience and history making events.
The twenties began with a serious but short-lived post-war recession, following World War 1.
Yet, by the mid-twenties, business and industry had created legends that have…
Bryer, Jackson R. Edited. F. Scott Fitzgerald: Novels and Stories 1920-1922.
Library of America. September 2000.
http://classiclit.about.com/library/weekly/aa100100a.htm . (accessed 02-14-2002).
L'Oreal Nederland B.V.
Identification of Alternative Solutions
Recommendation and Implementation
Exhibit 1. Alternatives Analysis
The managers of the Dutch subsidiary of the L'Oreal Group wrestled with a decision about whether to introduce additional products into the Netherlands market. L'Oreal, headquartered in Paris, was the largest cosmetics manufacturer in the world. With a heavy corporate investment in research and development, Paris expected each of the 100 country subsidiaries to distribute the new products; but the country managers were required to take the decision on whether to introduce each product based on the particular situation in their country. The French labs made unilateral decisions about all new product developments and the country managers had no input into the R&D process. Any new product line introduction had to be financed by the current operations of each subsidiary.
Some years earlier, L'Oreal had acquired a rival French company called Laboratoires…
STARBUCK'S STRATEGY AND INTERNAL INITIATIVES FOR PROFITABLE GROWTH
Stabuck's Stategy and Intenal Initiatives to Retun to Pofitable Gowth
Stabuck's Stategy and Intenal Initiatives to Retun to Pofitable Gowth
Michael Pote's 5 Foces Model
Theat of New Entants
Buye's Bagaining Powe
Bagaining Powe of Supplies
Fomulate Stategic Maketing
Impove Standing of Stock Maket
Stabuck's Stategy and Intenal Initiatives to Retun to Pofitable Gowth
As Stabucks was expanding, anothe emphasis was set on hiing talented leadeship in managing the huge momentum of the oganization. Significant amount of esouces was geaed towads developing an oganizational infastuctue, which would satisfactoy suppot the expected pospective size of Stabucks. Schultz accepted that numeous business visionaies failed by not making the coect systems and pocesses to guaantee a suitable establishment fo thei entepeneuial divisions to be actualized. Togethe with his patnes, he made the planning, legal logistics, accounting and financial impotant…
references are continually evolving. Subsequently economic situations likewise change. In this setting, Starbucks neglected to stay abreast of the changing market positions and consumer behavior. In the most recent months, Starbucks' performance is going on a downtrend. It is essential that the explanations for this downtrend must be recognized, and remedies must be invested. The remedies also need to be permanent and not just short-term.
Whilst transient activities are required to address strategic progressions, it is more imperative to set a strategic objective, or if fundamental, reform the present strategic objective to fit in with to the conditions in today's business environment and the future business. Hence, it was suggested that Starbucks might also concentrate on marketing while upgrading its operational adequacy. Marketing has been the missing segment in the Starbucks practice as of late. It is consequently imperative to emphasize on this area.
Thompson, A. & Shah, A. (2010). Starbuck's strategy and internal initiative to return to profitable growth. Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH.
Judo in Action
' The meaning of judo -- an offshoot of jujutsu -- translates to something like "the gentle or yielding way" (judoinfo.com). The founder of judo was Professor Jigoro Kano, who believed that an alternative for jujutsu should be developed so that when practiced, a person practicing judo could win a contest "without injury" to the other combatant (judoinfo.com). This paper reviews and critiques the competition between product manufacturing companies -- combatants in their own right -- that compete with their innovative products and advertising campaigns. Innovations in this paper's marketing stories are intended to help raise revenue without injury to a company's bottom line.
Innovations and Competitions
hen Robert Taylor came up with Softsoap, a liquid that was designed to go head-to-head with bar soap, he knew full well that companies like Proctor & Gamble and Armour-Dial would compete with their own liquid soap products. Taylor's gamble…
Corts, K.S., and Freier, D. (2003). Judo in Action. Harvard Business School. Retrieved September 16, 2015, from http://www.hbsp.harvard.edu .
Hodgekiss, A. (2014). Energy drinks 'increase the risk of mental health problems and drug and alcohol abuse.' Daily Mail, retrieved September 16, 2015, from http://www.dailymail.co.uk .
Judoinfo. (2015). What is Judo and Kodokan? Retrieved September 16, 2015, from http://judoinfo.com .
Siddique, H. (2014). Energy drinks could cause public health problems, says WHO study.
Uses of visualization in business analytics include market segmentation analysis and factor analysis to define new audience segments based on psychographics. Visualization is often also used for pricing analysis to determine how elasticity can vary by product and area being sold into.
6. What are the steps involved in effective decision making and how can business intelligence assist in helping executive and managers make better strategic and operational decisions?
Effective decision making inherently must take into account many factors that range from the highly quantifiable to the qualitative if risk is to be minimized and the best possible alternative chosen. BI-based applications, tools and technologies have been designed specifically with these needs in mind of business decision makers. The steps involved in effective decision making include problem rationalization or the defining of the problem parameters, the definition of boundary conditions of the decision, selection of the alternative, execution of the…
Baker, R. (2009). Pricing on Purpose: How to Implement Value Pricing in Your Firm. Journal of Accountancy, 207(6), 62-67,12
Jordan, J., & Ellen, C. (2009). Business need, data and business intelligence. Journal of Digital Asset Management, 5(1), 10-20.
Liker, J (2003). The Toyota Way. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill .
Soumendra Mohanty. (2008). Measuring the Value of Intelligence in Business Intelligence. DM Review, 18(12), 20.
The implications of security payloads and overheads on the performance of optimized XML networks (Choi, Wong, 2009) are inherent in the continual design of XML standards and protocols attempting to compress these elements and optimize their performance. The integration of security into Business Reporting Language (XBRL) is having a minimal impact on overall performance of XML networks overall, as the features in this standard are compressed (Piechocki, Felden, Graning, Debreceny, 2009). Compression is also specifically used with the XML key management specification to increase performance (Ekelhart, Fenz, Goluch, Steinkellner, Weippl, 2008). Compression algorithms are used for shrinking the contents of data containers, packets and messages so they are more compact, which increases transmission speed and accuracy. The development and continual support for XML within Web Services has transformed transactional workflows from being simplistic to be multifaceted, supporting the development of trading networks (Kangasharju, Lindholm, Tarkoma, 2008). As a result of…
For product management professionals in the B2C market, the challenges are even greater as the competition and speed in their markets is magnitudes greater than their B2B counterparts. Often consumer-oriented products have a high degree of seasonality to them, substitutes abound, and product lifecycles can be very short (Thorpe, Morgan, 2007). Determining the best possible market segments, defining customers as accurately as possible and monitoring the performance of go-to-market strategies is critical for a new business to succeed in consumer-based or B2C-oriented markets (Van Fleet, Van Fleet, Flint, 2010). Considering how competitive the consumer packaged goods (CPG) market is and the level of investment required for any new product to be successful, the need for accurate customer information becomes central to innovation (Kannan, Yim, 2001). The success of Proctor & Gamble in the CPG markets they compete in is evidence of how thoroughly customer insight, intelligence and market segment analysis…
David W. Crain, & Stan Abraham. (2008). Using value-chain analysis to discover customers' strategic needs. Strategy & Leadership, 36(4), 29-39.
George Crocker, & Yi-Chung Tay. (2004, July). WHAT it TAKES to CREATE a SUCCESSFUL BRAND. The China Business Review, 31(4), 10-16.
Paul Hughes, Robert E. Morgan, & Yiannis Kouropalatis. (2008). Market knowledge diffusion and business performance. European Journal of Marketing, 42(11/12), 1372-1395.
PK Kannan, & Chi Kin (Bennett) Yim. (2001). An investigation of the impact of promotions on across-market competition. Journal of Business Research, 53(3), 137-149.
The public clinics have long queues
There is a family care trend with humane treatment in private clinics
More modern equipment even attracts lower wage earners
Small sized private clinics seem to be the wave of the future in Beijing
November 15, 2010: every child in Beijing schools received a dental checkup and a new toothbrush and paste with instructions for brushing
The annual health care event in Beijing last May cited pampered only children who are given sugary and fatty foods by indulgent parents and grandparents as reason that dental health is falling among youngsters.
Industry special: Pain relief toothpaste said to be a boon to one in three in China
Proctor and Gamble's statement that use of their dental products is increasing and private dental clinics shows increased awareness
Rural Areas Problematic
Too few practitioners
Less awareness due to literacy levels and education
Low income does…
Level 5 leadership is not enough
Company vision must be clear
Must be a belief in the future ( POW "Stockdale Paradox")
Change is often slow and incremental ("Flywheel")
Simplicity of direction and goals (hedgehogs, not foxes)
Judicious but forward-thinking use of new technology
Level 5 leaders have tremendous personal will combined with a lack of personal self-serving egotism
Abbot Labs: ending nepotism, by company insider and family heir George Cain. Risky, radical move but resulted in Abbot outperforming Merck and Pfizer
Cork Walgreen turning the modern Walgreen's into a pharmacy rather than a general store/soda shop
These leaders made necessary decisions and risked their personal popularity for the sake of their companies
Level 5 leadership is difficult to embody: Difficult to change a person's character
Selflessness seems, in many ways, innate in these leaders
Many had personal turning-points before becoming Level 5, such as Smith's battle with…
18). In this manner, the public and private sectors can ascertain that via reflection and debate, the appropriate issues are addressed, the product is truly what it is with no erroneous and misleading claims attached, and that consultation will be implemented in a manner equitable to all. This was the way, for instance that Pollard et al. (2001) and Roos et al. (2002) implemented food and nutrition policy schemes at the local, state, and national levels, for instance, in the case of Pollard et al. (2001), in child care centers.
Questions that involved in policy evaluation include:
Have the stated goals and performance indicators of the policy been achieved -- for instance, is corruption impeded and all foods truly styled for what they are including their potential negatives?
Are there changes in the area that the policy was supposed to be influencing?
Has the policy really caused the claimed change…
Alma Ata Declaration of Health for All (1978) http://www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/declaration_almaata.pdf ,
Bridgeman, P., & Davis, G. (2002). A policy cycle. In the Australian policy handbook (pp. 23-33). Canberra: AGPS.
Busch, L. (2002). The homiletics of risk. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 15, 17-29.
Cummins, S., & Macintyre, S. (2002). "Food deserts" -- evidence and assumption in health policy making. British Medical Journal, 325, 436-438.