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The disadvantages typically relate to the cost of the infrastructure -- arenas and stadiums cost hundreds of millions of dollars, and in some cases even roadways and offramps to the facilities are built at public expense. The worst-case scenario is when a city builds an arena to attract a team, but fails to do so. Kansas City is an example, having built for an NHL/NBA team that has never arrived. Hamilton, Ontario built an NHL arena in the 1980s but has only attracted minor league hockey. There is the potential, then, that major investments can result in little more than a white elephant.
The benefits differ between leagues as well. The NFL scores high for exposure but has fewer games, whereas MLB has a large number of games. The NHL is only a driver of substantial revenue for hockey markets, so it works better in Columbus than it has in…
deMause, N. (2010). Memphis chamber: Grizzlies arena is grrrr-eat! Field of Schemes. Retrieved February 14, 2011 from http://www.fieldofschemes.com/news/archives/nba/memphis_grizzlies/
Morgan, M. (2010). Net gain for Memphis: Study finds Grizzlies, FedEx Forum more than pulling their weight at making sizeable financial impact on area. Commercial Appeal. Retrieved February 14, 2011 from http://www.commercialappeal.com/news/2010/oct/04/net-gain-for-memphis/
Thompson, L. (2009). Glenn School study finds big economic boost from Columbus Blue Jackets and arena district. John Glenn School of Public Affairs, Ohio State University. Retrieved February 14, 2011 from http://glennschool.osu.edu/news/bluejackets.html
Sports-elated Concussion and Statistical Study
Performance and game management
Advantages and disadvantages
Importance of statistical study within professional sports
The importance of quantitative data has assumed much importance in the professional sports environment during the last few years. To obtain meaningful forms of raw data that represents underlying patterns and trends, it is important to extract the data by using methods that are statistically and mathematically valid. Professional sports are also an area where statistical methods are in wide practice. Use of statistical methods involve collection of quantitative data, management of data, and analysis using different statistical tools such as Chi-squared test, factor analysis, correlation, time series analysis, and many other tests. Management of professional sports such as basketball, football, baseball, and racing tournaments uses statistical tools to increase performance capacity of sportsmen, redesigning playfields, and preparing effective…
Belanger, H.G., & Vanderploeg, R.D. (2005). The neuropsychological impact of sports-related concussion: a meta-analysis. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11(4), 345-357.
Broglio, S.P., Macciocchi, S.N., & Ferrara, M.S. (2007). Neurocognitive performance of concussed athletes when symptom free. Journal of athletic training, 42(4), 504.
Di Salvo, V., Baron, R., Tschan, H., Calderon Montero, F.J., Bachl, N., & Pigozzi, F. (2007). Performance characteristics according to playing position in elite soccer. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 28(3), 222.
Sampaio, J., Janeira, M., Ibanez, S., & Lorenzo, A. (2006). Discriminant analysis of game-related statistics between basketball guards forwards and centers in three professional leagues. European Journal of Sport Science, 6(3), 173-178.
NFL & PLAYE MOBILITY ESTICTIONS
National Football League (NFL) free agency and player mobility restrictions
Sports have managed to become gradually a lucrative business, which has seen to the interest by investors to protect this business. Team owners, who are the main stakeholders, have imposed rather extreme measures or approaches to protect their teams from supposed manipulation from their players. Through the NFL, team owners have imposed the mobility restrictions on the players to retain them and generate revenue from the players, and subsequently retain them in the team.
The intention of the study is to critique relevant literatures on the topic, and provide credible data about the aspects of NFL, free agency and mobility restrictions on players.
This study relied on prior literatures. The search strategy employed used terms such as "NFL and mobility restrictions on players" to find relevant studies. The main exclusion imposed in the studies…
Chalian, S.C. (2012). Fourth and goal: Player restraints in professional sports, a look back and a look ahead. St. John's Law Review, 3(7), 1-46.
Depken, C. (2000). Wage disparity and team productivity: Evidence from Major League baseball. Economic Letters 67:87 -- 92.
Depken, C.A. (2002). Free Agency and the Concentration of Player Talent in Major League baseball. Journal of Sports Economics, 3(4), pp. 335-353.
Eckard, E.W. (2001). Free Agency, Competitive Balance, and Diminishing Returns to Pennant contention. Economic Inquiry, 39(3), 430-443.
One of the most pressing problems with the doping incidents is that punishment is so lax in many arenas. The WADA recommends a two-year ban from the sport, but increasing the time could reduce the number of doping incidents. An athlete might be less likely to turn to performance enhancing drugs of any kind if they knew they could face a ban for life, or a five-year or more ban from their chosen sport. Laws regarding the use of banned substances should be reviewed and updated so they are the same for each sport, and so they increase the culpability of the players involved. Since many of these athletes serve as heroes and role models to the children of the world, they owe it to them to come clean, stay clean, and support stricter enforcement in their specific sports. Lance Armstrong, in his comeback maneuver, could serve as a catalyst…
Editors. "Anti-Doping Expert Promises to Test Armstrong for 'Everything'." ESPN.com. 2008. 26 Sept. 2008.
Murphy, Austin. "Armstrong Returns With a New Team and a Winning Cause." Sports Illustrated.com. Sept. 2008, 26 Sept. 2008.
The research suggests that sport psychology is useful to athletes because it provides them with the tools needed to fully exploit their physical talents by controlling their mental processes. The research found that here are several techniques associated with sports psychology. These techniques include MPSE, thought stopping, mental rehearsal (imagery) self-talk, visuo-motor behavior rehearsal (VMBR) and establishing goals. All of these techniques can be used to assist the athlete in focusing on the goal that they are attempting to accomplish.
Arvinen-Barrow M., Penny G.,Hemmings B., Corr S. (2010) UK chartered physiotherapists' personal experiences in using psychological interventions with injured athletes: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 11 (2010) 58 -- 66
"Careers in Sports Psychology." Retrieved February 16, 2010 from: http://www.wcupa.edu/_Academics/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Sports/Career07.htm
De Petrillo, L.A., Kaufman, K.A. Glass, C.R. And Arnkoff D.B. (2009) Mindfulness for Long-Distance Runners: An Open Trial Using Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE).…
Arvinen-Barrow M., Penny G.,Hemmings B., Corr S. (2010) UK chartered physiotherapists' personal experiences in using psychological interventions with injured athletes: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 11 (2010) 58 -- 66
"Careers in Sports Psychology." Retrieved February 16, 2010 from: http://www.wcupa.edu/_Academics/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Sports/Career07.htm
De Petrillo, L.A., Kaufman, K.A. Glass, C.R. And Arnkoff D.B. (2009) Mindfulness for Long-Distance Runners: An Open Trial Using Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE). Journal of Clinical Sports Psychology, 2009, 4, 357-376
Dreyer, D. (2004). ChiRunning: A revolutionary approach to effortless, injury-free running. Retrieved February 16, 2009 from: http://www.chirunning.com .
But despite these strides, the negative as well as the positive legacy of sports in American culture cannot be ignored.
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). unning through Kenya. Slate.com. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
Johnson, Jenna. (2010). NCAA graduation rates. The Washington Post. etrieved September 20,
2010 at http://voices.washingtonpost.com/campus-overload/2010/03/another_ncaa_bracket_player_gr.html
Lehrer, Jonah. (2010, August 24). How to raise a superstar. Wired Science. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/08/how-to-raise-a-superstar/#ixzz107NwUSGh
Lovett, C. (1997). The fight to establish the women's Olympic marathon race. Olympic Marathon, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., Westport, CT. etrieved September 21,
2010 at http://www.marathonguide.com/history/olympicmarathons/chapter25.cfm
Williams, Kam. (2006). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves. AALBC.
etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://aalbc.com/reviews/forty_million_dollar_slaves.htm
Witt, Jon. (2006). The…
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutRE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). Running through Kenya. Slate.com. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). Review of William C. Rhoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
In many cases, the sports that are largely ignored in the U.S. are equally deserving of national exposure and coverage, because they demand the same level of natural talent, skill, and expertise as those high-profile sports that enjoy extensive national coverage.
Especially in the wake of recent revelations and scandals arising in the major American sports involving use of steroids, violent assaults on women, driving under the influence of alcohol, and federal convictions for those types of crimes as well as for cruelty to animals have undermined the traditional reputation of professional athletes as role models in modern American society. To date, no such controversies have plagued any of the lesser-appreciated sports in the U.S. In that regard, surfing in particular is associated with health, vitality, and natural physical fitness that is not at all likely to fall prey to illegal or performance-enhancing drug use in the sport. Furthermore, unlike…
Anti-discrimination laws are enforced and companies are rated by their policies of tolerance. Homophobia is gradually being extricated from the American consciousness and so is sexism. The media plays a major role in how the American consciousness changes and those changes have an indelible impact on the character of the American Dream.
Thomspon also notes that Thrice was well-loved by his teammates. The community rallied in support of Thrice and there was a general outcry after he died. Being American has always entailed appreciation for grassroots movements. The social and political realities that evolve depend on grassroots movements. Grassroots movements precede legislation and policy changes. America becomes more of a real democracy as grassroots movements offer a voice for the most disenfranchised elements of society. Grassroots movements prevent tyrannnies of the majority and enable minority opinions to make their way into public policy. The American government remains a government of…
The Declaration of Independence." Indiana University School of Law. Retrieved April 1, 2007 at http://www.law.indiana.edu/uslawdocs/declaration.html
Library of Congress (2002). What is the American Dream? Retrieved April 1, 2007 at http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/lessons/97/dream/thedream.html
United States Constitution: Fourteenth Amendment. Retrieved April 1, 2007 at
athletic coach I have garnered a wide variety of skills, as well as an extensive understanding of the standard practices and procedures an individual in the field of exercise science should possess. My past experiences have provided me with substantial knowledge of the principles involved in the prevention and care of athletic injuries. With the following, I hope to illustrate that my experiences and subsequent research have provided me with a broad awareness of typical athletic injuries and treatments as they apply to exercise science.
When a member of my dance squad sprained her ankle it became necessary for me to tape it as to provide additional support. I employed the traditional Gibney basket weave procedure. This consists of an interwoven network of stirrup strips "which cover the plantar surface of the hindfoot and extend proximally on both the medial and lateral aspects of the leg, and horseshoe strips, which…
Boyle, Daniel J.M.D. Sports Medicine for Parents and Coaches. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1999.
Brown, Lee E. And Vance A. Ferrigno. Training for Speed, Agility, and Quickness. New York: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, 2000.
Garrick, James G.M.D. And Peter Radetsky, Ph.D. Anybody's Sports Medicine Book. Toronto: Ten Speed Press, 2000.
Levy, Allan M.M.D. And Mark L. Fuerst. Sports Injury Handbook. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993.
sports betting. Discussed are the problems with the betting, players getting gifts from betting agents, and effect of sports betting on the economy. Seven sources are used.
Sports and Betting
More Americans play more sports than in any other country in the world. Moreover, we watch more sports than anyone else on earth. Football and figure skating, two sports that could not be more different have drawn the biggest TV audiences in history. Sports bind us together as Americans. It has the ability more than just about anything else to tear down the barriers of race, class, gender, politics and geography (McDonald 1998). Sports is part of our national culture. It's part of our national conversation. A waitress at the local cafe talks Friday-night football with the cop and the banker. A Democratic gardener, trimming the greens at the country club, discusses golf swings or last week's tournament with a…
Davies, Dick. Spotlight Pofile. http://www.unr.edu/alumni/profile.asp?ID=5 .
A accessed 05-12-2002).
Gopal, Arun; Pettypiece, Shannon. "Michigan considers possibility of NCAA sanctions."
University Wire. March 25, 2002. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=University_Wire&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.uwire.com&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Arun+Gopal+%26amp&title=Michigan+considers+possibility+of+NCAA+sanctions++&date=03%2D25%2D2002&query=athletes+and+gifts+from+agents&maxdoc=50&idx=31.(accessed05-12-2002).
career of an athletic trainer, including the background necessary for the career, the necessary education, and job opportunities for athletic trainers. Athletic trainers form a necessary backbone of most professional sports organizations, and many private organizations. A professional athletic trainer can make the difference between a life-changing injury, or returning to the game. Athletic trainers are an essential and integral part of modern sports medicine, and as sports and athletics increase in importance in our society, they will continue to play an important part in our healthy lives.
Athletic trainers have been around for centuries, but today, most trainers are certified, and not only work with sports clubs or educational facilities, they can work in gyms and fitness centers, and even corporate workout centers.
Certified athletic trainers (ATCs) are medical experts in preventing, recognizing, managing and rehabilitating injuries that result from physical activity. Athletic trainers can help you avoid unnecessary…
Author not Available. "Athletic Trainer." NortheastAHEC.org. 2003. 25 Sept. 2003. http://www.neahec.org/hc/HealthCareerPgs/AthleticTrainer.html
Editors. "What Does a Certified Athletic Trainer Do?" NATA.org. 2003. 25 Sept. 2003. http://www.nata.org/downloads/documents/306CareerInfoBrochure.htm
Hibberts, Rob. "How to Start Your Career." Cerro Coso Community College. 1998. 25 Sept. 2003. http://athletics.cerrocoso.edu/sportsmedicine/how_to_start_your_career.htm
Kornspan, Alan S., et al. "Career Opportunities in Sport and Exercise Among College Students." College Student Journal 36.3 (2002): 367+.
minimum academic references, text. Integrate literature essay. Remember introduction a conclusion. Avoid casual language, informal language, biased language. rite academic style.
Leadership in sports
Professional sport has experienced much progress across time, as individuals involved in the domain got actively engaged in implementing reform processes meant to improve it in general. Many people are likely to think about one thing when coming across the idea of leadership in sport: coach. Coaches have been traditionally accustomed to performing all sorts of activities related to sport, regardless of their complexity. Even with this, as the world of sport also experienced advancements, society came to observe the need for a series of other professionals that would deal with leadership in sport.
Taking into account the magnitude of the contemporary sport industry, it would be safe to say it is one of the most successful domains. In the past sports were provided with lesser…
Borland, J.F., & Burton, L.J. "Sport Leadership in the 21st Century," (Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 3 Apr 2014).
Pedersen, P.M., Miloch, K.S., & Laucella, P.C. "Strategic Sport Communication." (Human Kinetics, 2007).
Pietrusza, D. "Judge and Jury: The Life and Times of Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis." (Taylor Trade Publications, 23 Oct 2001).
Zimbalist, A. "In the Best Interests of Baseball: The Revolutionary Reign of Bud Selig." (John Wiley & Sons, 22 Jun 2007).
Social Change Through omen's Sports
Promoting Social Change Through omen's Sports Leadership
The problems that cry out for social change solutions
No one who is intelligent, literate, and who is paying attention could avoid the fact that much of the world today is in need of fresh and creative ways to resolve cultural and social conflicts and to build better communities where families feel safe and futures seem secure. ar, bloodshed, racial rage, and mindless military carnage -- in addition to the disturbing, ongoing violence against women -- make up too much of the front pages of daily newspapers. Dramatic social changes are desperately needed, and the plans for those changes have yet to be drawn up by present political leadership in the United States and elsewhere.
Over the first week in October, for example: suicide bombers killed 19 innocent tourists in Bali; car bomb blasts killed numerous citizens and…
American Association of University Women. (2004). Report Card on Gender Equity. Retrieved October 5, 2005, from http://www.aauw.org .
Christofides, Nicola J.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Webster, Naomi; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Abrahams,
Naeema & Martin, Lorna J. (2005). "Other patients are really in need of medical attention" the quality of health care services for rape survivors in South Africa. Bulletin of the World
Health Organization, 83(7), 495-502.
Sports management is defined as a coordination of technologies, resources, personnel, processes, and situational contingencies to enhance efficient exchange and production of sports services. Typically, sports management is related to other business management that involves planning, organizing, evaluating and using managerial skills to achieve the organizational objectives. Chelladurai, (1993) classifies sports management with references to the services delivered, which include participant services, consumer services, professional services, spectator services, and sponsorship services. The author also points out that the sports management has overlapped the recreation and health administrations leading to the interrelationships with other disciplines. While Chelladurai, (1993) evaluates the taxonomy of sports management in the 80s and early 90s, however, sports management has changed in the last 20 years because it has integrated the sport merchandising services, and sport facilities services.
The objective of this paper is to explore the taxonomy of sports management over the last 20 years.
Aspara, J. (2009). Stock ownership as a motivation of brand-loyal and brand-supportive behaviors. Journal of Consumer Marketing. 26(6). Pp. 427-436. Retrieved from: http://www.yconomie.com/aspara/articles/aspara-2009_stock_ownership_brand_loyal_behaviors.pdf
In this work, Aspara investigates the psychological motivations underlying stock ownership and its influence on brand loyalty as well as finding empirical evidence to support the explication of these motivations. The author points out that, although consumption and investment psychologies, respectively, have been seen as separate realms, the study reveals that they can have a significant mutual influence. Indeed, the author has found that many individuals who become stockowners in a company also experience a positive and increased motivation towards brand loyalty for that company. Positive word-of-mouth has also been found among individuals becoming stock owners in a company.
What this means for the study to be conducted on brand loyalty among the youth in the United States and Kenya may not be considered in terms of…
Sports have graduated in the last half of the twentieth century from hobbies or pastimes into the pure, unadulterated pursuit of profit. In short, shorts have become a commodity to be exploited as far as the market will allow. The history of American sports has seen this process play out in a stepwise fashion; every several years developments come about that enable the enterprise to expand and increase profits. The latest changes in business that have allowed sports to enlarge have been globalization and communications technologies. Clearly, these two go hand in hand to some extent. Still, both have contributed to the acceleration of the commodification of sports; they have aided its degeneration from a pastime, into the form we see today.
If you were to ask the average American what they thought was wrong with professional sports today they would likely tell you that the amount of money athletes…
1. Calhoun, K., & Gorman, J. (1994). The Name of the Game. New York, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
2. Cosell, H., & Whitfield, S. (1991). What's Wrong with Sports. New York, New York: Simon & Schuster.
3. Dallas Morning News. "Steroids Readily Available." Dallas Morning News, Sunday, Feb. 6, 2005.
4. Kahn, Lawrence M. (2000). "The Sports Business as a Labor Market Laboratory." The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 3, 75-94.
Sports and Sexual Stereotypes
Anger and the WNA
Whatever women do they must do twice as well as men to be thought half as good. Luckily this is not difficult.
P.E. -- to me there was nothing closer to my seventh-grade conception of hell than that infernal class. There, wearing the requisite blue short-shorts and pulled up tube socks, facing forty-five long minutes of humiliating (to my adolescent sensibilities) sweat-inducing activities, I learned it would be better to be a lousy jump-roper, dodge-ball player, or atrocious relay racer, than to actually attempt excellence at these endeavors.
Even at such a young age, I already knew that it simply "isn't attractive," to exert oneself physically in front of the opposite sex, unless, that is, the exertion does not detract from culturally-accepted ideals of beauty -- after all, cheerleaders, gymnasts, and figure skaters could be pretty (perhaps because…
Cahn, S.K. (1993). From the 'Muscle Moll' to the 'Butch' Ballplayer: Mannishness, and homophobia in U.S. Women's Sports. Feminist Studies. 19, (343-368).
Martin, Chris. (2000). Arizona Daily Wildcat. "WNBA, what a joke!" Web site: http://www.wildcat.arizona.edu/papers/94/6/02_7_m.html .
Schlussel, Debbie. The Jewish World Reviewjewishworldreview.com taken at http://www.dadi.org/ds_wnba.htm .
Steinem, Gloria. The Revolution Within. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, (1992)
ports and popular culture (NFL/NBA)
Popular culture entails all forms of mass communication such as:
Books and Cartoons and comics
It is somewhat different compared to higher forms of cultural art such as:
In terms of mass communication, popular culture means messages which are intellectually and artistically limited primarily designed to entertain and humor the viewers (Hollander, 2014). Following the industrial revolution, the people had a lot of time to spare which led to a huge demand for entertainment and amusement and gave height to media. The increasing supply of goods also made it necessary for the advertisers to attract the consumers and mass media could reach a large number of audiences at the same time (Hollander, 2014).
The physical activities have always been in the life of human beings in the form of different leisure…
Sports have played a huge role in the American society on the whole as they have become a necessary part of the popular culture. American football is quite a popular game which brings NFL (National Football League) in limelight. NFL is same to same as other sports have an off season too when they are on a season break. Leagues such as NBA (National Basketball Association), MLB (Major League Baseball) and NHL (National Hockey League) follow the same pattern which builds the hype for them (Lee, 2012). It enables the public to forget all about sports for a while until it swings back in action again. The off season usually consists of training sessions, gym, trading players, NFL Combine and NFL Draft. These activities are heavily kept watch of by loyal fans followed by intense discussions (House, 2012).
Super Bowl is intensely popular in United States. Even the non-followers are somehow influenced by it as they hear news about it or by viewing it. The news channels mention regularly and social media is definitely on fire with news and updates. A famous band plays during halftime while a draw exists for watching the advertisements during the game and halftime (Lee, 2012). Companies are compelled to dish out loads of cash to display advertise themselves as the Super Bowl progresses. These ads are usually creative and funny and sometimes mixed. People for the sake of fun choose a particular team and cheer it till the end or otherwise friends pick a team and contend that it will win the title. It's sort of a public gathering event where food is enjoyed and drinks are taken in huge quantities. Tostitos and Doritos are chips found mostly at super Bowl parties while in case of drinks Coke, Pepsi and Budweiser. For the sports fans, it's their day off as they spend the entire day in front of a TV or mocking the opponent's team for fun. TV shows often give reference to Super Bowl just as Christmas and Halloween. Betting on a high level is also involved for the winning team, people are cut some slack from office, schools and colleges as it's the biggest event of the year (Hollander, 2014).
In 'Popular culture and the rituals of American Football' by Mark Axelrod, several cultural practices in America regarding football are mentioned. Before the ports went global, there were a lot of rituals and myths
Prizes have always been a part of contests, a tradition that can be traced back for centuries. In Homer's the Iliad, Achilles hosts a contest in honor of the fallen Patroclus, "The first prize he offered was for the Chariot races -- a woman skilled in all the useful arts, and a three legged cauldron that had ears for handles, and would hold twenty two measures. This was for the man who came first," (Iliad).
Modern day athletes continue to receive prizes for their successes. They receive monetary compensation through endorsements and contracts for their participation in professional programs. The compensation is much more than a useful woman and a cauldron in recent times. The 2006 Top National Football League salaries reached insane heights. According to USAToday.com, Richard Seymour from the NFL Patriots earned a whopping $24,691,160. Another New England Patriot who is a household name thanks to his quarter…
Homer. The Iliad. Book xxiii. Found at: http://classics.mit.edu/Homer/iliad.23.xxiii.html . On Friday September 21, 2007.
Murphy, Arthur. The Works of Cornelius Tacticus with Essay on His Life and Genius.
Oxford University Press. 1935.
Shakespeare, William. Troilus and Cressida. Penguin Books. New York. 2000.
These are the topics covered on this site.
Brief History Employment
Important Terms Learning More
A Typical Day Summary
Pros and Cons Acknowledgments
The Association for the Advancement of Applied Sports Psychology, on the other hand, is a regularly updated website for professionals in this field. It covers a number of different types of information, including an overview of what is Applied Sports Psychology and the different areas of specialization within the field, common questions and answers, and terminology.
Another area covered is learning about certified consultants and how to find one. There is also a list of suggested consultants' websites, and they are still up and running when linking to them. Since this is an organization for Sports Psychologists, the emphasis is on the conferences and services that the organization provides for members. What is missing here that was helpful on the previous website was…
Association for the Advancement of Applied Sports Psychology. Website retrieved June 12, 2007. http://www.aaasponline.org/asp/index.php
Careers in Sports Psychology. Website retrieved June 12, 2007 http://www.wcupa.edu/_academics/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Sports/Career07.htm
Figure 2: Comedy and Tragedy (iStock photo)
orks Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108245926
Beal, Becky, and Charlene ilson. "2 'Chicks Dig Scars'." Understanding Lifestyle Sport: Consumption, Identity, and Difference. London: Routledge, 2004. 31-54.
Drehs, ayne. (2007, Nov. 30).The Professional Athlete as Target: 'Am I Next?' abc NES. 4 Dec 2007 http://abcnews.go.com/Sports/story?id=3940887&page=1
Getting it rite; Athletes Maintain Personal Blogs to Break News, Express Opinions Connect with Their Loyal Fan Bases." The ashington Times 12 May 2007: C01.
A iStockphoto. (2007). 4 Dec 2007
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108245926
Beal, Becky, and Charlene Wilson. "2 'Chicks Dig Scars'." Understanding Lifestyle Sport: Consumption, Identity, and Difference. London: Routledge, 2004. 31-54.
Drehs, Wayne. (2007, Nov. 30).The Professional Athlete as Target: 'Am I Next?' abc NEWS. 4 Dec 2007 http://abcnews.go.com/Sports/story?id=3940887&page=1
Getting it Write; Athletes Maintain Personal Blogs to Break News, Express Opinions Connect with Their Loyal Fan Bases." The Washington Times 12 May 2007: C01.
A iStockphoto. (2007). 4 Dec 2007
Sports Center is a production of ESPN on cable television. It is a mixture of scores, game highlights, commentary, interviews and human interest feature stories. All of the people who are part of the ESPN broadcast team are, of course, intelligent, well-spoken, and attractive.
A lady by the name of Dana Jacobson was one of the primary anchors doing two of the three shows. She worked with one man named Mike Greenberg and another by the name of Dave Revasine. There were other females involved in the broadcasting, mostly as interviewers who also did a small amount of commentary related to what ever interview they did. There is, besides the gender mix, also an ethnic mix that is actually more diverse for women than men. There are Caucasian, African-American and Hispanic peoples represented by the women and Caucasian and African-American by the men. The gender ratio is approximately 3:1 males…
Although the coach may not work out with the client every session, he or she may be called upon to demonstrate many of the moves and to assist the client, depending on the nature of the session and the client's needs. For some coaches, the 'best' part of work -- the involvement with people committed to fitness -- may also be the worst part, because their schedules may make it difficult to find time to work out alone. Even then, the coach may be so exhausted from helping others he does not have the motivation to condition himself. But this is vital, so the coach can assist clients in an injury-free fashion.
A typical 'day in the life' of a sports and conditioning coach will vary depending upon the coach's practice setting. A private trainer might get up at 5:30am to go to the house of a busy executive he…
Kinesiology. (2011). University of Michigan. Retrieved November 16, 2011 at http://www.umich.edu/units_kines.php
Sports management. (2011). Syracuse University. Retrieved November 16, 2011 at http://falk.syr.edu/SportManagement/Default.aspx
Waehner, Paige. (2011). How to become a personal trainer. Retrieved November 16, 2011 at http://exercise.about.com/cs/forprofessionals/a/personaltrainer_2.htm
For members interested in political advocacy to improve the role of women in the workforce, the conference offers opportunities to learn about effective social advocacy techniques. The 2009 National College Conference for omen Student Leaders offers similar opportunities for college-age women. The only requirement for attending the NCCSL is that the student's institution must have an AAU branch and nominate the representative. The AAU's National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) tries to subsidize enrichment programs and act as an advocate for younger girls. The program known as Opening Opportunities for Girls in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) offers 'mini-grants' to local organizations with mentoring and enrichment opportunities for girls in the sciences. The AAU tries to connect with community groups to broaden its mission of educational advocacy and enrichment, as well as creates programs of its own.
The AAU provides some networking opportunities, as well as a venue of social…
American Association of University Women (AAUW). (2009). Official Website. Retrieved March 7, 2009 at http://www.aauw.org /index.cfm
A partnership firm would be the best choice for Lou and Jose sports bar and restaurant business. To form a partnership, four criteria must be fulfilled: partnership must have two or more persons; the same persons must be caring the business, business must be for profit, and all persons must be co-owners. Lou, Jose, and Miriam will be co-owners for-profit business and Lou and Jose will be caring daily duties of a sports bar and restaurant. However, in a partnership control is shared by all the partners. Every decision is made on the understanding and agreement between all the partners. Lou and Jose will have general partnership while Miriam as an investor partner will not control business activities.
The reason a partnership firm would be the best choice is because neither of them have much money and Miriam is willing to be the investor who will not participate…
Limited liability partnership. (n.d.). West's Encyclopedia of American Law. Retrieved June 16, 2012, from Answers.com Web site: http://www.answers.com/topic/limited-liability-partnership
Partnership. (n.d.). Encyclopedia of Small Business. Retrieved June 16, 2012, from Answers.com Web site: http://www.answers.com/topic/partnership
Cheeseman, H.R. (2010). The Legal Environment of Business and online Commerce: Business
Ethics, E-Commerce, Regulatory, and International Issues. 6th ed. Prentice Hall
Sports & Nbsp;(general)
Fund raising Critque
Info: • the format will be according to APA style (typed double spaced) and in four
• parts. Written out as a paper.
is the identification of the article. What is important here is that you provide the reader with enough information about your article so that they will be able to locate the article.
• A Summary. List the main points that the author has tried to establish, i.e. 1, 2, 3 or first, second, third. There normally will be 3 to 5 main points. If you are summarizing a court case you should discuss: What provision of the law was at issue? Briefly state the facts of the case. What legal tests were applied? Were there any unusual elements in the case? Include all major key points of the author. If the author addressed any major concepts or methodology this should be…
Staurowsky, Ellen J. (1996). Women and Athletic Fund Raising: Exploring the Connection
Between Gender and Giving. Journal of Sport Management,10, 401-416.
According to Carr, "It is good for the development of young people to undergo some dress discipline, and only right for teachers to set pupils an appropriate example in this respect" (emphasis added) (p. 218).
There are some common sense rules that can be followed by middle school teachers in determining what will be perceived as "professional attire" by others, especially their students. For example, in his essay, "Transition to Teaching: Putting Your Best Foot Forward," Senne (2004) recommends conservative attire and jewelry for both male and female middle school teachers. According to this author, "Female teachers should choose to wear a conservative dress (appropriate length), blouse and skirt, or blouse and dress slacks. Male teachers may opt for a dress shirt, dress slacks, tie, and suit coat. Shoes should be consistent with selected attire" (p. 46). While these are the typical choices for professional attire, they certainly do not…
Bryant, L.E. (2003). Becoming a better teacher: Learning from our mistakes. Communication Studies, 54(2), 130.
Carr, D. (2000). Professionalism and ethics in teaching. London: Routledge.
Cooper, P.M. (2003). Effective white teachers of black children: Teaching within a Community. Journal of Teacher Education, 54(5), 413.
Diez, M.E. (2007). Looking back and moving forward: Three tensions in the teacher dispositions discourse. Journal of Teacher Education, 58(5), 388.
Professional Interview Analysis
This is in an interview of a lead teacher with extensive experience in public relation, administration and educating. She oversees the formulation and implementation of standards and policies in her school. Since she works in management, per of her job is ensuring that educators working in the school are sufficiently motivated to work. This interview gives a glimpse of all it takes to run a school. It gives insights into the challenges educators might face as they seek to impart knowledge on their students. It presented a great opportunity to also learn about the necessary qualities a lead educator needs to adopt to ensure that the institution they work in is a success.
The lead teacher, Gladys -- not her real name, is a very accomplished professional. She has extensive experience in education, school systems and student issues. She holds a bachelor's degree in education and has…
Arends, R. (2014). Learning to teach. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Danielewicz, J. (2014). Teaching selves: Identity, pedagogy, and teacher education. SUNY Press.
Matthews, M. R. (2012). Changing the focus: From nature of science (NOS) to features of science (FOS). In Advances in nature of science research (pp. 3-26). Springer Netherlands.
Moran, R. T., Abramson, N. R., & Moran, S. V. (2014). Managing cultural differences. Routledge.
Given that people engage in sporting events for a wide range of reasons, the authors assert that it is time for athletes to develop a moral code that embraces higher standards of conduct that will help reverse these recent trends and once again provide American sports with a sense of fair play and respect.
Fredenburg, Karen, Rafer Lutz, Glenn Miller et al. (2005). "Dismissals and Perceptions of Pressure in Coaching in Texas High Schools: Similarities and Differences with Previous Studies Show the Contemporary Face of Coaching Pressure." JOPERD-- The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 76(1):29.
In this essay, the authors report that there have been a number of recent studies and reports that suggest that the pressure in high school sports is growing, rather than declining. The authors cite an article in Sports Illustrated that described the alarming trends of parental misbehavior at youth sport events. The president…
sports leadership. The writer explores what it takes to be an effective leader in the world of sports. Terms are defined and literature is examined to present the most important characteristics in the role of coach. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
Sports can be the foundation for building a successful life. Whether the participant plays childhood league sports, school sports, or goes on to become a professional player the skills and traits that are developed during that time help shape the total person. Because of the important impact that sports can have on a person's total development the way a team is handled becomes a key factor in the sports industry. Most people who have had children participate in sports leagues have either experienced or witnessed both good coaches and bad coaches. On the school level teams coaches quickly develop reputations based on how they lead…
Planning a Preseason Team Meeting
Leadership: what does it take? (Special Feature: Leadership Training).
NZ Business; July 1, 2002; Baker, Glenn
234). Culturally, trainers may simply be paying more attention to girls' injuries due to our culture's tendency to protect females more than males (Tierney, et al., 2005, p. 278) and/or boys may simply under-report concussions due to "macho" tendencies to play through pain in order to continue playing (Covassin, et al., 2012, p. 926). Hormones may contribute to the greater incidence of concussions among female high school athletes because researchers have found that estrogen protects male rats from brain trauma but actually makes female rats more vulnerable to brain trauma (Makdissi, et al., 2013, p. 319). Whether caused anatomically, culturally, hormonally or for some other reason, the fact remains that girls are reportedly highly more likely to sustain concussions in sports such as soccer and basketball. Consequently, gender matters in the sports injury of concussion.
Development of a masculine identity is psychologically fundamental for males and particularly for…
Allan, E.J., Gordon, S.P. & Iverson, S.V., Fall 2006. Re/thinking Practices of Power: The Discursive Framing of Leadership in the Chronicle of Higher Education. Review of Higher Education, 30(1), pp. 41-68.
Bourdieu, P., 1978. 'Sport and Social Class,' Social Science Information, 17(6): 819-840. [Online]
Available at: http://ssi.sagepub.com/content/17/6/819.ciatation [Accessed 21 May 2013].
Chesebro, J.W. & Fuse, K., Summer 2001. The Development of a Perceived Masculinity Scale. Communication Quarterly, 49(3), pp. 203-278.
The sports center at the newly opened high school has to employ at least the following:
Two coaches, preferably one male and one female, each to manage the same gender teams. This measure is to be implemented in order to reduce the chances of immoral conduct on school premises, but no discriminations would be committed during the selection and hiring processes.
One medic is required to be easily reachable and assist sports injuries or otherwise medical necessities. Hiring a new medical professional would be redundant and meaningless, coming as such to a conclusion that the already hired school medic would also assist the medical needs of the sports center.
One counselor. Similar to the school medic, it could initially be stated that the role of sports counselor would be played by the already hired school counselor. However, such a solution is not the most viable one in the…
Conrad, M., 2006, the business of sports: a primer for journalists, Routledge
Delaney, T., Madigan, T., 2009, the sociology of sports: an introduction, McFarland
Mac, B., 2010, Code of ethics and conduct for sports coaches, BrainMac, http://www.brianmac.co.uk/ethics.htm last accessed on July 6, 2010
2010, Sports and exercise safety, Kids Health, http://kidshealth.org/teen/safety/safebasics/sport_safety.html# last accessed on July 6, 2010
Competitive sports participation opportunities for children continue to grow. Nowadays, children begin their regular sport participation between the ages of 4 to 8 years. Most children enjoy sports and show great enthusiasm for participation. However, the situation changes when young athletes get involved in the elite-level championships organized and directed by adults. Children's play becomes transformed from informal playground games to highly organized sporting events that mirror adult professional sports.
The effects of such intensive training and participation in elite-level competition on young athletes have been investigated. However, most of the research has been devoted to athletes above 10 years of age who are involved in individual sports. Little has been done to explore the impact of the elite-level competition on children under 10 years old participating in team sports.
Indeed, the idea that organized, supervised athletic competition benefits pre-pubertal children is very controversial. However, since more and…
AAP. "Organized Athletics for Preadolescent Children." Pediatrics 84, 1989:583-4.
Ad Hoc Committee on Sports and Children of the FIMS Education Commission. Sports and children. Position stand of the International Federation of Sports Medicine and World Health Organization on "Organized Sport for Children." Olympic Coach, Summer 1997: 6-8.
Backx, F. "Injuries in persons and high-risk sports; a longitudinal study of 1,818 school
Children." The American Journal of Sports Medicine 19, 1991:124-30.
American football is a professional sport that was derived from the game of Rugby by Walter Camp in 1879 (ellis). Walter played football at Yale University where he attended college. He was involved in developing the football rules as we know them today. The rules of football were taken from the sports of Rugby and Soccer. Football has grown into a sport that is widely viewed and attended in the American society. Today, people go to football games at middle schools, high schools, and college stadiums. The college games have become professional games that are attended and viewed through media by millions of fans across the American nation.
The rules that were adopted and changed included; one side, or team, retained the undisputed possession of the ball until that side gives up the ball as a result of violations. The line of scrimmage was also created. The number of…
Bellis, M. (n.d.). History of Football. Retrieved from About.com Inventors: http://inventors.about.com/fstartinventions/a/HistoryFootball.htm
Ormeland, B. (2012, July 10). NFL Dynasties and Hall of Famers. Retrieved from Sports Central: http://www.sports-central.org/sports/2012/07/10/nfl_dynasties_and_hall_of_famers.php
Viability of Community Sports Programs
There has been raging debate on whether or not sports projects are wise municipal investments. Experts have raised concern that although such programs may appear very attractive at face value, they end up delivering very little returns in the long-term owing to the incremental nature of the associated hidden costs. This has prompted researchers to shift from studying the benefits of community sport projects as tools of investment to analyzing how the benefits of such investment compare with the costs. The research questions below have been derived from multiple studies seeking to establish the economic impact of community sporting programs on the overall economy by comparing the real costs and benefits of the same.
Q1: Do sporting projects help in tackling the problem of youth crimes?
In this case, we can define sports projects, the independent variable, in terms of the proportion of the budget…
Black, K. (2011). Business Statistics: For Contemporary Decision-Making (7th ed.). Danvers, MA: John Wiley & Sons.
Huck, S.W. (2012). Reading Statistics and Research (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson
Johnson, R. & Kuby, P. (2011). STAT 2. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning
Multi-Use Sports Venue
The trend in modern-day professional sports is for teams to make their mark -- to brand themselves into giants with millions of fans and followers wearing the jerseys of the athletes they love. Part and parcel with this devotion is the concept of a sports team having its own arena or stadium -- just like a god or goddess in ancient Athens would have had its own temple dedicated just to their worship. Indeed, of the 30 Major League Baseball teams, 22 of them have their own publicly-owned single-purpose stadiums. In the NFL, a similar ratio is found. Among pro-sports clubs where arenas can be shared in cities that host NBA and NHL, multi-purpose venues are not uncommon -- but when it comes to strict observance of devotion -- the lone stadium designated specifically for 8 games a year -- such as the Cincinnati Bengals' Paul Brown…
Strum Feature Story
Phil Strum, sports reporter for the Poughkeepsie Journal, is not the sort of reporter you meet over a cup of coffee. he affable Strum is easier to track down where the sports are -- in this case at a high school softball game between Spackenkill and Rhineback, played at Nassau Elementary School. Yankee Stadium, it is not, but that hardly matters to Strum. "here's nothing about sport that says the stadium has to be huge or the players celebrities. It's not about that," he argues, displaying his passion.
As the sports reported for the Journal, he covers everything. High school, college and professional sports. Pro-wrestling. Local athletes who have made the big time. he story of Poughkeepsie sports flows through Strum's keyboard, and that's just the way he likes it. "I wake up every day looking forward to my work. I'm at the rink in the winter,…
That hard work has also included the adoption of technology. "I like reading a newspaper, personally," he says, "but maybe I'm a little biased. But at the end of the day, it's all about the audience, and you have to go where the audience is. So I do a lot of social media, I do videos for the web. You are more connected today than you were in the past. In a way, it's empowering. I can do work while I'm watching this game. But it's distracting, too, so you have to be disciplined. I was raised to be disciplined, so that helps."
Even though Strum makes use of modern technology, he still likes pens and notepads. He laughs about that. "I'm not trying to be old-fashioned, I just think it's more efficient. I use whatever tool is necessary to write better." The proof is in the pudding. Strum's writing is strong, descriptive, and his human stories have resonance.
Phil Strum's work can be read almost every day in the Poughkeepsie Journal, and online at http://www.poughkeepsiejournal.com . He also maintains a Twitter account, for blow-by-blow accounts of major sporting events.
Scandal/Controversy in Sports
The following will take a look to see if scandal and controversy benefit sports.
Background of Sports Industry and Scandals
Sports in the U.S. is a multi-billion-dollar industry. Companies try to engage with clients by aligning the services and products they offer with this well-known industry via sports funding and endorsement. The benefit of this involvement has been well-recorded in the sports marketing literature (Hughes and Shank, 2005). The effect on business brands in case a scandal surfaces regarding an athletic supporter like a player, coach, or a team however, is less well-known. Several sports scandals, for instance, the rape case surrounding Kobe Bryant and the University of Colorado recruitment scandal raise very serious questions regarding the effect of sports scandals on amateur and professional athletic institutions, participants, sponsors, as well as other stakeholders.
Whereas conventional corporate sports supporters like Nike maintain omnipresence, several other different kinds…
Alessi. (2014). TheRichest - The World's Most Entertaining Site. Top 10 Sports Betting Scandals and Controversies - TheRichest. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.therichest.com/sports/top-10-sports-betting-scandals-and-controversies/
Doorty, A. (2016). Odyssey. Is Scandal Good for Baseball? Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.theodysseyonline.com/are-scandals-good-for-baseball
Fisher, R., & Wakefield, K. (1998). Factors leading to group identification: A field study of winners and losers. Psychology & Marketing, 15(1). Retrieved, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199801)15:1%3C23::AID-MAR3%3E3.0.CO;2-P/abstract
Garg. (2010). The Hoya. Scandals Show Need to Pay College Athletes. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.thehoya.com/scandals-show-need-to-pay-college-athletes/
According to Smoll and Smith, there are two basic attitudes toward competition; an ego attitude and a mastery attitude. Parents who have an ego attitude toward their own competition -that is, they compete to win and to be better than others - are especially likely to be competitive with other parents about their child's achievements. Essentially, the parent goes from being proud to being boastful.
These, then, are the four psychological factors that must be recognized as we try to understand the youth sports experience of families: the identification of the parent with the child, the tendency of parents to fantasize about their child's potential, the sense of youth sport as an investment, and competitiveness between parents. Combined, these factors drive many parents to push their child to excel, and to take action when they feel that their child's potential is being ignored or inhibited. The unfortunate result is children…
Smoll, F.L., & Smith, R.E. (2002) Children and Youth in Sport: a Biopsychosocial Perspective 2nd ed. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co.
The concept of dividing a mass market into homogeneous segments and targeting one or more with a distinct product offering and unique marketing communication is a fundamental precept of marketing theory. Market segmentation recognizes that different customer groups have different wants and needs that justify the development and offering of different products and services. The process of segmentation theoretically results in a much better understanding of users' needs, their decision criteria, and their approaches. Although much of the theory of market segmentation is appreciated and understood by sport marketers, it remains one of the more difficult marketing concepts to turn into profitable reality.
Consumer segmentation can help the sport marketer in the following areas. First, it allows an analysis of the marketplace, including a knowledge of competitors as well as how and why customers buy. Second, it can contribute to the strategic management of an organization in that it allows…
Wann, D.L., Hamlet, M.A., Wilson, T.M., & Hodges, J.A. (1995). Basking in reflected glory, cutting off reflected failure, and cutting off future failure: The importance of group identification. The Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 23, 377-388.
Zimbalist, A. (1992). Baseball and Billions. New York: Basic Books.
Upward Mobility Through Sports
Stanley Eitzen's article "Upward Mobility Through Sports" is an analysis of the ability of individuals to raise themselves upward through the social stratification that currently exists in America. Sports are often seen by those on the lower end of the social strata as a means of rising up and becoming economically successful. However, Eitzen points out that the chances of rising socially and economically through a career in professional sports is not likely. This article fits in with the readings from our textbook as they discuss the existence of social stratification and the effects on an individual of their position within that society.
Chapter 7 in our textbook opens with Murray Milner's theories on high school social structure as a means to begin a discussion on social stratification; or the inequalities among individuals and groups within society. This leads to a listing of the three characteristics…
Eitzen, Stanley. "Upward Mobility Through Sports? The myths and realities."
Z Magazine, March 1999. Web. 26 Oct. 2013.
First, all efforts should be made toward reducing our reliance on fossil fuels instead of encouraging continued reliance on automobiles in the future. Therefore, the available funds should be used to develop alternate transportation methods such as modernized rail systems and even traditional public transportation systems that damage the environment and consume gasoline less than private automobiles on a per-passenger basis.
Second, we should be striving to reduce the trend of working in urban areas and living in suburban areas that developed throughout the 20th century in the United States. That is one of the reasons we became so dependent on automobiles as a nation in the first place. Therefore, the money should be spent on developing better, cleaner, and more efficient public transportation systems and on maintaining existing infrastructure such as bridges and tunnels that are in tremendous states of disrepair across the nation. Conversely, developing new highways is…
Personal Values in Sports
As with most dimensions of life, personal values and beliefs have a demonstrable effect on what is rendered in the form of behavior on the sports field of play and with the activities that surround the same. Beyond that, this paradigm is clear and visible irrespective of whether one is talking about the athletes, the coaches or even the parents of child (or sometimes college) athletes in some instances. This research report shall focus on the factors that most significantly engage and affect people when they are operating within the sports realm. The work of Donghun Lee (2011) will be a major focal point of this report but other sources will be looped in as well. While there are many factors and things that can influence somebody when it comes to sports, it is the free will and moral fortitude of an individual and the resolve…
Baby, B. (2016). Art Briles, Baylor officially part ways in wake of sexual assault scandal --
SportsDay. SportsDay. Retrieved 25 June 2016, from http://sportsday.dallasnews.com/college-sports/collegesports/2016/06/24/art-briles-baylor-officially-part-ways-wake-sexual-assault-scandal
Biography. (2016). Tim Duncan Biography. Biography.com. Retrieved 25 June 2016, from http://www.biography.com/people/tim-duncan-40996
CBS. (2016). The Penn State Scandal - CBS News. CBSNews.com. Retrieved 25 June 2016,
D., What is Altitude Training section). The Website promoting products that Hypoxico Altitude Training Systems offers, reports that when a person is exposed to hypoxia, oxygen reduced environments, his/her body "struggles to produce required amounts of energy with less available oxygen. This struggle triggers the onset of a range of physiological adaptations geared towards enhancing the efficiency of the body's respiratory, cardiovascular and oxygen utilization systems" (Hypoxico Altitude Training, N.D., Why it Works section). In consideration of controversial perceptions regarding ethical conclusions relating to hypoxico, Lippi, Guides and Franchini stress that the "spirit of sport" needs to be developed to include the notion of ethics and authenticity. Lippi, Guides and Franchini, nevertheless, report that they do not entirely agree with the assumption that teleologically, no evidence suggests that more harm than good comes from these particular devices. They note that a universal ban on passive training regimens, such as hypoxic,…
Avans, D.E. (2007). Youth and ethical dilemmas in sport. Research Quarterly for Exercise
and Sport. American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.
Retrieved June 04, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1160166064.html
Bach, G. (2006). The Parents association for youth sports: A proactive method of spectator behavior management. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 77(6), 16+. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5017424445' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
career in sports nutrition, including the background necessary for the career, the necessary education, and job opportunities for sports nutritionists. Sports nutritionists can help people from every way of life lead healthier, happier lives. A professional sports nutritionist studies nutritional needs, weight maintenance, and even eating disorders so they can understand the nutritional problems American's face, and help them make the right eating decisions for their own specific needs. ith the growing problem of obesity in America, it is clear sports nutritionists will become even more valuable in the future. Today, they are an essential and integral part of modern sports exercise, and as the nutritional needs of our society continue to alter, nutritionists will play an even more important role in our healthy lives.
Sports nutrition is a relatively new field, and so many professionals are creating their own opportunities in many areas of exercise science and related sports…
Author not Available. (2003). Sports Nutrition. Retrieved from the SCANpg.org Web Site: http://www.scandpg.org/page.asp?id=career_sports_nutrition4 Nov. 2003.
Author not Available. (27 Nov. 2000). Nutrition/Nutrition Science Career Information. Retrieved from the University of Minnesota Web Site: http://www.che.umn.edu/career/infosheets/nutritionprogram.htm#53a4 Nov. 2003.
Editors. (2003). Nutrition & Dietetics Department: Sports Nutrition. Retrieved from the Marywood University Web Site: http://www.marywood.edu/departments/nutr_diet/sports.htm4 Nov. 2003.
Kornspan, A.S., Duve, M.A., Maccracken, M.J., & Buckenmeyer, P.J. (2002). Career opportunities in sport and exercise among college students. College Student Journal, 36(3), 367+.
Nike apparel company is a steadfast company in the minds of most athletic gear and apparel consumers and in the industry as a whole, with substantial earnings growth even in the last few years of recession it has still managed to record substantial growth. The company has even coined household phrases like "Just Do It" a mark of American influence over the global market. Much of this success has long been attributed to the solid nature of its upper management, namely its long time CEO and co-founder Phillip H. Knight. Nike recently made international news when it announced the retirement of Knight to the press, which in the business world can mean at least short-term trouble. The announcement was made with less than sixty days to pass before what would call a revolutionary change for the company. Though Knight will stay on as Chairman of the board, his intention is…
Brown, Carolyn M. "Serena Williams Aces Nike Deal Worth Approximately $40 Million." Black Enterprise Apr. 2004: 26. Questia. 8 Dec. 2004 .
Dionne, E.J. "A Victory over Nike: And a Win for Sweatshop Workers." Commonweal 5 June 1998: 7. Questia. 8 Dec. 2004 .
Hage, J.T. "Organizational Innovation and Organizational Change." Annual Review of Sociology (1999): 597. Questia. 8 Dec. 2004 .
Haley, Eric. "Exploring the Construct of Organization as Source: Consumers' Understandings of Organizational Sponsorship of Advocacy Advertising." Journal of Advertising 25.2 (1996): 19+. Questia. 8 Dec. 2004 .
Sales and Promotion
Blue Mountain Community College has been experiencing some difficulty in the area of developing a sales and promotion plan for the athletic department. The purpose of this discussion is to resolve this problem through the development of a detailed plan for promotion and sales of its teams. The plan will be inclusive of the five teams the community college has including football, baseball, softball, and men's and women's basketball.
Regardless of the sport being discussed in terms of promotion and sales, one of the key components in improving sales is associated with relationship marketing (Parvatiyar & Sheth 2001). According to Bee & Kahle (2006)
"Relationship marketing is important because it can be effective. It facilitates role enactment by providing definitions for types of influence and communication strategies that should characterize two participants in a relationship. Teams, leagues, athletes, marketing corporations, and fans have relationships with…
Bee C.C., Kahle, L.R.. (2006) Relationship Marketing in Sports: A Functional Approach. Sport Marketing Quarterly. 15, 102-110
Fink, J.S., Trail, G.T., & Anderson, D.F. (2002). Environmental factors associated with attendance and sport consumption behavior: Gender and team differences. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 11, 8-19
Fullerton S., Merz, G.R. (2008) The Four Domains of Sports Marketing: A Conceptual Framework. Sport Marketing Quarterly,, 17, 90-108
Irwin, R.L., Sutton W.A., McCarthy, L.M. (2008) Sport promotion and sales management. Human Kinetics
ABSTACT OF THE DISCLOSUE
A flat, transparent cover for protecting laptop computers from damage caused by dust and other air-borne contaminants, or from liquids splashed or spilled directly onto the computer keyboard. The protective cover conforms in height and width to the corresponding dimensions of the laptop computer keyboard and is provided in a thin, flat, rectangular section, or panel, fashioned of a material such as vinyl, which is impermeable to liquids and air-borne contaminants, and which is sufficiently soft or deformable that it does not impede typing or interfere with normal laptop computer use and keyboard access when laid on top of the notebook computer keyboard.
Fukami. (1999). U.S. Patent No. 5,975,780 "Keyboard Cover." etrieved September 20,
2011 from the USPTO at:
Weill, et al. (1999). U.S. Patent No.
Cover." etrieved September 20, 2011 from the USPTO at:
Fukami. (1999). U.S. Patent No. 5,975,780 "Keyboard Cover." Retrieved September 20,
2011 from the USPTO at:
Weill, et al. (1999). U.S. Patent No.
Educator Coach Resume
6335 La Mirada Way -- Long Beach, CA 92042
ATHLETIC DIRECTOR -- COACH -- ADMINISTRATOR -- TEACHER
Professional, experiences, articulate and student-focused professional with proven expertise in motivating you to achieve appropriate goals. Prioritizing strategies for wining school athletic programs without losing sight of team-building, social, and sportsmanship training. Holds students, parents, staff in high-esteem while ensuring that students of all levels are accountable for their performance and attitude, on and off the field. Interacts with colleagues and administrators with a high degree of professionalism and personal integrity. Background includes pedagogical leadership and business. Extremely dedicated to student and staff development. Proficient with athletic scheduling software. Adept at training programs for all levels.
LONG BEACH HIGH SCHOOL, Long Beach, CA
2002 -- Present
Athletic Director, Boys Football and Basketball Coach
Reorganized football and basketball programs and exceeded California Athletic Association Standards
Created new policies and…
The professional athletes shows that winning is not the only reason to play, they play the game for entertainment, sportsmanship and to keep the people united. They don't show any bitterness or hate for the rival team they are having a match with. This helps the community to realize that its always not about win (e.g. there is a practice followed in the games today in which the rivals shake hands before the game starts, which shows that they are not enemies and this promotes the value of peace and harmony).
The athletes not even build a sense of unity in their team but they also try to show it to the community that team work can lead to success. When the event of Olympics takes place athletes and sports officials from over 200 countries join hands and come together for the cause of sports.
It's an event in which…
Dyreson, Mark. Making the American Team: Sport, Culture, and the Olympic Experience. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1998
Games and Empires: Modern Sports and Cultural Imperialism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.
Young, David C. The Olympic Myth of Greek Amateur Athletics. Chicago: Ares, 1984.
Baker, William J. Sports in the Western World. Rev. ed. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988.
message to people in our society that professional baseball players and other athletes make more than soldiers in combat. This message must be fundamentally questioned, given the disproportionate degree of significance we give to the careers of athletes. Big name athletes are touted as role models, while ordinary soldiers are largely ignored, or at best given a few words in print if they distinguish themselves heroically in combat. The discrepancy between the utility of certain occupations such as soldiers and nurses, versus occupations such as professional baseball players and entertainers, and the disproportionate salaries made by the latter have caused many to question the fairness of how salaries are allocated within our society. Many of the arguments cited in favor of professional athletes' salaries could easily apply to other high-risk professions. This paper argues in favor of reducing baseball players' salaries through more aggressive salary caps as a way of…
Donovan, John. "Soldiers say it is hard to return to civilian life." Talk of The Nation. NPR.
10 Oct 2011. [20 Feb 2013]
Johnson, Catlin. "Why do baseball players make so much money?" CBS News. 11 Feb 2009.
" Meanwhile the networks have critics cornered; if a reviewer says attractive women are on the sidelines to stimulate libidos in male viewers, those critics are sexist. Although it is obvious in a brutally violent game, an attractive, well-spoken female brightens up the broadcast aesthetically, it is also sexist to assume beautiful women don't understand football. As Andrew writes, "I love it when my wife talks about zone defense."
Meanwhile a research article ("College students' attitudes toward the sexualization of professional women") reported two experiments that examined "how tawdry media sexualizations of… women athletes influence the perceived gender-role orientation of athletes" (Harrison, et al., 2010). The findings revealed that when female basketball players were presented to 85 students (64 women, 24 men) in "tawdry sexualization" scenes, the perception was that they were "feminine" (read that heterosexual). However, female athletes that are beautiful and sexy "violate traditional expectations that athletes have…
Harrison, Lisa a, and Secarea, Ashley M. (2010). College Students' attitudes toward the sexualization of professional women athletes. Journal of Sport Behavior, 33(4), 403-427.
Levitt, Steven D., and Dubner, Stephen J. (2010). Why Are Most of Football's Sideline
Reporters Women? Freakonomics. The New York Times. Retrieved Dec. 17, 2010, from http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com .
business world, many strategies have been devised to gain and retain customers. Phenomena such as globalization, market saturation, and better information technology have driven strategies such as customer awareness and long-term customer relationships to be favored above relatively short-term strategies to gain new customers, such as product price and quality (Kinuthai et al., 2012, p. 223). Indeed, creating brand loyalty in order to retain customers in the long-term has played a key role in long-term business success. To accomplish this, brands such as those operating within sportswear have emphasized strategies to appeal to consumers responding to products at the individual level. As such, customer loyalty is a significant determinant in the amount of product being bought and the frequency of repeat purchases.
On the basis of this, the dissertation will aim to examine brand loyalty among the youth of a developing country (Kenya) as compared to the same phenomenon in…
Aspara, J. (2009). Stock ownership as a motivation of brand-loyal and brand-supportive behaviors. Journal of Consumer Marketing. 26(6). Pp. 427-436. Retrieved from: http://www.yconomie.com/aspara/articles/aspara-2009_stock_ownership_brand_loyal_behaviors.pdf
Ayuk, A. And Nyaseda, C. (2008, Spring). CFC Model. The Appropriateness of Celebrity Endorsement in Developing African Nations: A study of Cameroon and Kenya. IBA 8010. Retrieved from: iba8010kelly.alliant.wikispaces.net
Baker, M., Sterenberg, G., and Taylor, E. (n.d.) Managing Global Brands to Meet Consumer Expectations. Retrieved from: http://www.brsgroup.com/PDFs/Managing_Global_Brands.pdf
Haig, M. (2004). Brand Royalty: How the World's Top 100 Brands Thrive and Survive. London and Sterling VA: Kogan Page Ltd. Retrieved from: http://www.untag-smd.ac.id/files/Perpustakaan_Digital_1/BRAND%20NAME%20PRODUCTS%20Brand%20royalty%20%20how%20the%20world%92s%20top%20100%20brands%20thrive%20and%20survive.pdf
Football players can be evaluated using a player evaluation form like the one appearing in American Football Monthly:http://www.americanfootballmonthly.com/Subaccess/Magazine/2013/May/images/04_Loney_Nichols_EvaluationForm.jpg
This form can be used in a formal evaluation process, either on intake or during considerations for lineup changes, as well as providing ongoing feedback and assessment for players on the roster. While this form is actually quite thorough, providing both psychological and physical feedback, it lacks a few skills that could be important for receivers. For example, the form could be improved on by simply adding an assessment box for how high the player can jump from a standing position. There would also be some need to specialized skills. Otherwise, the form provides for the breadth of skills a player will need to succeed, including attitude, work ethic, and leadership ability. Any additional comments can be placed in the "notes" section or in the side bars related to player's best quality…
Social and Behavioral Intelligence: Professional Attire
Were the individuals professional?
In considering the images of the individuals in the business professional slides, several things become apparent. The first image is professional as the men are wearing suits and ties which is considered professional attire. For the women, the corresponding attire is wearing button down shirts with one wearing a vest over the shirt. In the second image it is clear that the man is professionally dressed as he is wearing a suit. The other five people are wearing button down shirts which are considered professional. However, it would also be important to know in what color these shirts are, as well as what they are paired with, to consider their attires professional. The third image reveals unprofessional business attire as sweaters are worn. In some settings, this may be acceptable but in a strictly business professional setting, they are not…
Business Attire. (n.d.). Retrieved January 11, 2016, from http://www.mccombs.utexas.edu/~/media/Files/MSB/Student-Orgs/Diversity Council/F12 Instructional_Guide_-_Business_Attire.pdf
A Quick Guide to Professional Dress for Men and Women. (n.d.). Retrieved January 11,
2016, from http://www.sph.emory.edu/careers/documents/ProfessionalDressforSuccess.pdf
Campbell, S. (2015, February 12). 7 Characteristics of Exceptional Business Professionals.
professional VAT (value added tax) advice for the managing director of the Grape Limited. The Grape Limited is a U.S. multinational company and decides to incorporate new companies that provide supply management services, management company, manufacturing company and marketing companies. The management company will deliver supply management services to foreign services providers. On the other hand, the manufacturing company will focus on the electronic parts, and marketing company will deliver marketing services for the parts manufactured by the manufacturing company.
The VAT (value-added tax) is a government levy on any goods or services produced in the epublic of Ireland. The first condition that must be fulfilled before Grape Limited demands for the VAT numbers is to incorporate its businesses in the epublic of Ireland. After the company registrations, the next step is to apply for the VAT number. To apply for the VAT registration number in the epublic…
Chattered Accountant (2014). Form VAT 56A. Ireland.
Department of Finance (2015).Summary of 2015 Budget Measures Policy Changes. Ireland.
O'Brien, C. (2014). Personal Tax. KPMG Ireland .
KPMG (2009). Ireland: Country Fact File. KPMG International.
Moortown Sports and Leisure Centre
The Moortown Sports and Leisure Centre (MSLC) has many challenges and obstacles to overcome to better serve the community in which it operates. In order for the organization to meet the needs of the local population, both now and into the future, MSLC will have to redesign and improve many of its operational processes to make more efficient and effective use of its current capabilities. The current facilities have unable to accommodate the local demand for their use however with a more efficient system of booking and facilities transfer the organization could meet more of the local demand. It is recommended that the organization build an IT system that can help manage scheduling of the facilities. This would effectively increase the capacity of the facilities through better management and communication.
Amazon Web Services, 2015. Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2). [Online]
Available at: http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/
[Accessed 30 March 2015].
Liew, A., 2007. Understanding Data, Information, Knowledge And Their Inter-Relationships. [Online]
career, professional development, professional goals relating completion MBA degree
At first I was not sure how to react to the question. I had just landed my first job after securing my undergraduate degree in business administration, and I was extremely excited about my prospects and the new place of employment. I had called my mentor, my professor from my introduction to business class during my undergraduate tenure, to thank him for his letter of recommendation and to celebrate the good news. To my surprise, the first thing he asked me was where I saw myself in five years.
Today, I am well prepared to answer that question, and my response is almost entirely predicated on my procuring a Master's of Business Administration degree from Shenandoah University. Talking with my mentor that afternoon helped me to realize the direction I wanted to take my career, and how valuable an MBA was…
Leader' by Warren Bennis
The classic book 'On Becoming a Leader' by Warren Bennis scrutinizes the dissimilarities between leaders and their followers. It details the processes that lead to the emergence of leaders and how they sustain themselves. In the chapter under the topic 'Knowing the World', Bennis studies the significance of studying to leaders, and differentiates between the three main types of learning: innovative, shock, and maintenance. He goes ahead to reveal the benefit of (1) looking back into one's childhood and adolescent years, and utilizing past experiences to influence present happenings; (2) deliberately searching for the types of experiences that can enlarge and improve an individual; (3) knowing the importance of risk-taking coupled with the knowledge that failure is both important and unavoidable; and,(4) bearing in mind that the future gives one the chance to do the things that ought to be done, rather than being a test…
Bennis, W.G. (2009). On Becoming a Leader. New York: Basic Books.
minimum sources... research 1920 sport write ... A thesis, attention catcher, topic sentence?
1920s sport: Swimming
The 1920s was called the 'Roaring 20s' in America. It was accompanied by expanded prosperity for many middle class Americans and the rise of the 'flapper,' the sexually liberated and independent young woman. The rise of the middle class and the larger percentage of Americans with considerable disposable income and leisure time also allowed greater participation in sports. "The 1920s has been called the Golden Age of American Sports. It also has been called the Age of the Spectator" (Summer 2004:1). Thanks to the strength of the U.S. economy, more stadiums for professional and recreational sports were constructed, and radio and newspapers enabled fans to keep abreast of the latest developments of professional teams. "Improvements in roads made it possible for fans to travel to athletic events in distant cities. For the first time,…
Carter, D. Robert. 1920s swimming craze captures Provo's heart. Daily Herald. 16 Jun 2007.
[5 February 2013].
Drowne, Kathleen & Patrick Luber. The 1920s: American popular culture through history.