Prohibition Essays (Examples)

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Conflicts Between Church and Gay Relationships

Words: 3049 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42135880

Homosexual Relationships Prohibited

In recent years a tide of change has swept across America. Gay marriage has been the focal point of many court battles and legislations. As a result, public opinions has shifted majorly towards a more lenient and accepting view of same-sex relationships. This change poses significant challenges towards Christian individuals who remain steadfast in conservative values. Churches, believers, and ministers all over the nation now face serious conflicts and questions with their beliefs and the public around them (1).

Christians are currently feeling overwhelming pressure to make changes in their own churches that will allow for homosexual couples to practice in their facilities. They are already being labeled socially as hateful, prejudiced, and ignorant, which is a trial to the Christian who seeks to follow the council of Christ and love all. On top of that, ministers are being asked to perform marriages against their personal beliefs,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1 Dallas, Joe.Equip.org. October 2013.  http://www.equip.org/article/now-what-same-sex-marriage-and-todays-church/#christian-books-3  (accessed April 10, 2015).

2 "Gay Marriage: Key Data Points from Pew Research," Pew Research Center, June 11, 2013, http://www.pewresearch.org/key-data-points/gay-marriage-key-data-points-from-pew- research/.

3 "Gallup Gay Marriage Poll Finds Majority of U.S. Citizens Would Support Nationwide Marriage Equality Law," The Huffington Post, July 31, 2013, .

4 "Gay Marriage: Key Data Points from Pew Research."
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Role Did Prohibtion Have in

Words: 3138 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68519701

Ethnic, racial and class minorities in the city of New York, as well as middle class and organized crime people enjoyed their fight against Prohibition in an amazing number of locals and nightclubs that summed up to more than thirty thousand. While many restaurant closed down in New York, speakeasies spread across the city. More and more of the middle class and the upper class "embraced the cosmopolitan culture and nightlife that flourished under the restrictions of Prohibition" (Lerner, 2007, p. 3) making this the first bottom-up social reaction in the recent history of the United States.

Prohibition marked the 1920s and 1930s in ways that were not seen by the makers of this law. It had profound effects of issues like work relations and wage policies, xenophobia and living conditions of immigrants, organized crime as well as popular culture. While regulations were set and enforced, a significant number of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Behr, Edward. Prohibition: thirteen years that changed America. Arcade Publishing, 1996

Burns, Eric. The Spirits of America: a social history of alcohol. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004

Lerner, Michael. Dry Manhattan. Prohibition in New York City. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007

Miron, Jeffrey and Jeffrey Zwiebel. Alcohol Consumption During Prohibition. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1991
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Legalization of Recreational Marijuana

Words: 2696 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57524887

Marijuana

ecently, Uruguay became the first country to legalize in its entirety and without qualification the marijuana trade. Uruguayan senators spent a total of twelve hours debating the issue, which was proposed by the country's President. The bill was described by its proponents as "an unavoidable response to reality, given that the 'war' on drugs had failed" (BBC, 2013, 1). The law allows registered citizens to buy up to 40g per month. The law is the first of what could be many as South American nations in particular are coming to the realization that drug prohibition, backed by American interests with the support of the United Nations, has left the continent with powerful and violent gangs that control the trade, while doing nothing to stem consumption (Ibid). Indeed, the UN has already weighed in by stating that Uruguay's legislation is in contravention of the international treaties that are enforced by…… [Read More]

References

BBC. (2013, 1). Uruguay becomes first nation to legalise marijuana trade. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved December 12, 2013 from  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-25328656 

BBC. (2013, 2). Uruguay marijuana move 'illegal' -- UN drugs watchdog. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved December 12, 2013 from  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-25340324 

Chaloupka, F. & Laixuthai, A. (1997). Do youths substitute alcohol and marijuana? Some econometric evidence. Eastern Economic Journal. Vol 23 (3) 253-275.

Chokshi, N. (2013). After legalizing marijuana, Washington and Colorado are starting to regulate it. Washington Post. Retrieved December 12, 2013 from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/govbeat/wp/2013/10/09/after-legalizing-marijuana-washington-and-colorado-are-starting-to-regulate-it/
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Have Stiff Drug Laws Helped or Hurt the Criminal Justice System

Words: 1901 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4814440

Drug Laws

The Shortcomings in our Current Drug Law Policy: Research Proposal

As a major policy issue in the United States, the ar on Drugs has been one of the most monumental failures on modern record. At a cost of billions of taxpayer dollars, thousands of lives lost and many thousands of others ruined by untreated addiction or incarceration, America's policy orientation concerning drug laws is due for reconsideration. Indeed, the very philosophical orientation of the ar on Drugs and of the current drug policy in the United States has been one of prosecution and imprisonment rather than one of decriminalization, treatment and rehabilitation. As our medical and scientific communities characterize addiction as a disease, the United States government continues to characterize this disease as a crime. And in doing so, it has created an unnecessary criminal class in the United States. The research proposal will set out to prove…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Debusmann, B. (2012). Obama and the failed war on drugs. Reuters.

DeMelo, D. (2005). Merton's Strain Theory. Criminological Theory.

DeMelo, D1. (2005). Cloward & Ohlin's Differential Opportunity Theory. Criminological Theory.

Eldredge, D.C. (1998). Ending the War on Drugs: A Solution for America. Bridgehampton, NY: Bridge Works.
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Legislating Morality in America

Words: 5191 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53073869

Legislating Morality

The ideas of Thomas Hobbes, the influential English philosopher who lived in the late 1500s to middle 1600s, are still considered important today. Hobbes is best remembered for his ideas on political philosophy. While Hobbes throughout his life championed the idea of absolutism for the sovereign he also is responsible for many of the fundamentals of Western political thought such as equality of men, individual rights, and the idea that all justifiable political power must be representative of the people (Edwards, 2002).

Hobbes also believed that human nature was such that people acted out of selfish-interests and if left to their own devices would do anything to get what they wanted or to acquire more power at the expense of others. Governments are then formed to shield people from their own selfishness; however he understood that even a King left unchecked would also act in a selfish manner…… [Read More]

References

Action in America. (2012). Drug war cost clock updated 2011. Retrieved on February 10, 2010

from  http://actionamerica.org/drugs/wodclock.shtml .

Appel, D. (2004). Why can immorality be legislated more easily than morality in America

Free Leadership Thoughts. Retrieved February 5, 2012, from http://authenticleadershipinc.com/free.html
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Foundationally Promising Research Discoveries of

Words: 5874 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95138553



For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."

Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.

Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002068015

Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+. Questia. 17 Jan. 2005 http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000634813

Balestra, Dominic J. "Toward Epistemic Justice." Fordham Urban Law Journal 30.1 (2002): 47+. Questia. 17 Jan. 2005 http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000831235

Bedford-Strohm, Heinrich. "Sacred Body? Stem Cell Research and Human Cloning." The Ecumenical Review 54.3 (2002): 240+. Questia. 17 Jan. 2005 http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000848513
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Drug Policies Major Policies History

Words: 3387 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8012701

14). Soon, Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act, which was signed into law in 1937. Like the Harrison Act, the Marijuana Tax Act placed marijuana into the same category as the cocaine and opium drugs. It was now illegal to import marijuana into the United States (McWilliams, 1991). However, this law was ineffective in curbing marijuana use (Brecher, 1986, p. 14).

By the early 1940s narcotic addiction had significantly reduced in the United States (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999). However, this was not the result of legislative initiatives. Instead, it was because World War II was cutting off the "supplies of opium from Asia and interrupt the trafficking routes from Europe" (Inciardi, 1992, p. 24).

Several other legislative efforts in the supply reduction department served to establish more severe penalties for violations of drug laws, and tighten controls and restrictions over legally manufactured narcotic drugs (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999).…… [Read More]

References

1999). Recreational Drug Information. History of Drug Use U.S. Retrieved from the Internet at www.a1b2c3.com/drugs/.

Brecher, E. (1986). Drug Laws and Drug Law Enforcement: A Review and Evaluation Based on 111 Years of Experience,' Drugs and Society 1:1.

Drucker, Ernest. (1999). Harm Reduction: A Public Health Strategy. Current Issues in Public Health, 1: pp. 64-70.

Drug Policy Alliance. (February 17, 2005). Harm Reduction: Options that Work. Retrieved from the Internet at  http://www.drugpolicy.org/news/021705harm.cfm .
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Legalizing Activities Such as Recreational Drug Use

Words: 592 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87368177

legalizing activities such as recreational drug use that do not affect anyone other than the person who chooses to engage in the activity. In the sense that one's actions and choices always affect one's family and loved ones, the decision to take drugs impacts on their lives, but that is outside the realm of government legislation. The decision to smoke cigarettes or to skydive can also be said to affect the lives of one's loved ones, yet neither is prohibited by legislation.

Recently, both individual states and the federal government have enacted laws intended to severely limit the rights of tobacco smoking in public areas, in rightful recognition of the distinction between choices to engage in certain behaviors privately and the rights of others not to be subjected to dangers or inconvenience posed by such choices. This is the essential issue that distinguishes justifiable and unjustifiable government paternalism.

Drunk driving…… [Read More]

On another level, paternalistic legislation might be drafted to disqualify those who engage in certain behaviors from government subsidized medical care, under the theory that one has no right to saddle the rest of society with the financial burden of paying for one's irresponsible choice to persist in behaviors known to be detrimental to health and longevity. Naturally, the same concept would apply equally to those suffering the long-term medical consequences of smoking tobacco, which currently constitutes the largest preventable cause of lung cancer, heart disease, and many other illnesses that drain public resources.

The spectrum of government paternalism spans from complete permissibility, allowing utterly reckless conduct that is injurious to others to comprehensive over- regulation, where legal penalties attach to eating junk food if one is above one's ideal weight. My first disagreement with the current illegal status of recreational drugs is that I believe it represents a position on the spectrum that is too close to over- regulation in that it prohibits activities that are (or that should be) purely matters of personal choice. In my opinion, mandatory seatbelt and motorcycle helmet laws infringe into issues of personal choice where there is no justification based on protecting the public at large. Conversely, I am in favor of prohibiting seemingly innocuous activities such as operating cellular phones while driving, precisely because it increases the risk of collision with innocent people. The difference is seatbelts and helmets protect only the individual who chooses to use them, whereas distracted drivers represent a potential risk to other people as well. I also reject any claim that legalizing recreational drugs would result in an increase in crimes associated with their use, because, as I suggested earlier, the same can be said (and has already been witnessed in this country) in connection with 1920's Prohibition.

Ultimately, my most fundamental objection to the current illegal status of recreational drugs is their unjustified inequality and incongruence, as compared to regulation of tobacco, alcohol, and for that matter, ropeless mountain climbing and junk food. Regardless of any argument as to the appropriate point for anti-drug laws on the legislative spectrum between absolute permissibility and over-legislation, government regulations must, in principle, reflect uniformity and a logical consistency.
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Designing a New Regulatory Framework

Words: 11210 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31823066

e., the company) that has technical control over telecommunications networks and thus technical ability to access communications, versus a party that is duly authorized to actually access those communications via a warrant (Mares, 2002). Although, as is consistent with the British model of legal evolution that relies heavily on interpretation of judicial action and precedent rather than overt legislative action, there have been no new statues issued in the intervening decade. The only other guiding document for law enforcement and judicial authorities to rely on regarding interception activity is a Code of Practice that was issued by the Home Secretary in 2002 (Interception of Communications: Code of Practice, 2002). This document provides more detailed procedural guidance and to some extent interpretation of the IPA.

The table below summarizes the key milestones in the evolution of the United Kingdoms' regulatory regime:

Milestones in the Evolution of the United Kingdom egulatory egime…… [Read More]

References

Brownstone, R.A., & Voglei, C.A., (2006). U.S.A PATRIOT Act Impasse: E-mail Interception Rules Need Congressional Attention, Too. The Privacy and Data Protection Legal Review, 1(2).

Calleja, R. (2000). RIP ACT 2000 -- U.K.. Computer Law & Security Report, 16(6), pp. 400-401

Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act, (1994). Pub. L. No. 103-414, 108 Stat. 4279, codified at 47 U.S.C 1001-1010

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, 1978. Public Law 95-511. Library of Congress
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History of Organized Crime in the US

Words: 4392 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65336839

Org Crime

Organized crime underwrites the bulk of political, social, and economic history in America. What has often been mentioned in passing as legitimate business activities can and often should be reframed as organized crime, such as the trans-Atlantic slave trade and the colonial mercantilism that it supported (Woodiwiss, 2003). When organized crime is taken out of its Hollywood context, which portrays organized crime as an immigrant problem, some patterns emerge that clarify the function and structure of organized crime in America. Organized crime tends to flourish in "societies that experience rapid and intense social change," (Albini et al. 1995, p. 213). This is why the United States has been a hot spring of organized crime in various manifestations throughout the nation's history. In only a few hundred years, the United States has gone from colonial outpost to global superpower. apid change and cultural transformation foment organized crime, as do…… [Read More]

References

Abadinsky, H. (2013). Organized Crime. Belmont: Wadsworth

Albanese, J.S. (2011). Organized Crime in Our Times. 6th Edition. Burlington: Elsevier.

Albini, J.L. et al. (1995). Russian organized crime: Its history, structure, and function. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 11(4), 213-243.

Cornell University Law School. (2014). 18 U.S. Code § 1961 -- Definitions. Retrieved online: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/1961
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American Drug Policy

Words: 3213 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17883284

Drug Policy

American Drug Policy: Marijuana

Marijuana is one of the most vilified drugs in history and it very difficult to see just why this is so. The United States used to have a thriving agricultural concern that consisted of hemp (marijuana) famers producing plants for their fibers and seeds. The fibers were used in products such as rope and paper and the seeds were used to make oil which served as a lubricant and a food additive. Unfortunately, people became aware of its psychotropic properties and growing marijuana for any reason was banned. This ban also coincided with the introduction of products that were superior to those made of hemp. The drug usage properties of marijuana had been known for centuries and it had been used in religious ceremonies and as an additive to medicines, but it could also be used in quantities that made the user completely incapacitated…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB). "Tax and Fee Rates." U.S. Department of Treasury, 2012. Web.

Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "No Rational Basis: The Pragmatic Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Virginia Journal of Social Policy & the Law 17.1 (2009): 43-82. Print.

Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "Liberty Lost: The Moral Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Indiana Law Journal 85.1 (2010): 279-299. Academic Search Complete. Web. 26 Oct. 2012.

Chilea, Dragos. "A Brief Overview of Drug Control Policy in the United States and It's Current Challenges." Judicial Current 14.3 (2011): 13-22. Print.
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Death Penalty and Mental Illness

Words: 2519 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15774261

Moreover, in Perry v. Louisiana, 498 U.S. 38 (1990), the Court used that decision to bolster Louisiana's attempts to forcibly medicate a prisoner in order to make him death-eligible. If one agrees that the death penalty is a just penalty for one who has committed a capital crime, and that the reason that mentally ill defendants should not be executed is because they lack competence, then it does not seem unethical to allow them to be forcibly medicated in order to be competent. After all, in that scenario, avoiding medication could be likened to any other attempt to avoid punishment. Moreover, an organic physical disorder that arose after conviction, but that would have prevented a defendant from committing a crime, would not be sufficient reason not to execute a person on death row.

However, forced medication, especially for court appearances, may violate a defendant's Fifth Amendment right to present a…… [Read More]

References

Bonnie, R. (2007). Panetti v. Quarterman: mental illness, the death penalty, and human dignity. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 5, 257-283.

Fentiman, L. (1986). Whose right is it anyway? Rethinking competency to stand trial in light of the synthetically sane insanity defense. University of Miami Law Review, 40, 1109-1127.

Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U.S. 399 (1986).

Panetti v. Quarterman, 127 S. Ct. 2842 (2007).
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Rio Linda Dist Recruiting &

Words: 1630 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18558428

A principal, for instance, will advertise on Ed Join for, say, a third grade, second grade or whatever opening he or she has, screen and hire the candidates, and then notify Personnel.

At the io Linda Union School District, job candidates still bring in their applications in person. They bring portfolios to interviews. Not nearly as much is done online, in the screening and hiring processes, as it is at within other districts nowadays. The io Linda Union School District's still-centralized hiring, according to Barker, allows for greater consistency in hiring. Barker also added, however, that unlike in the past, she now considers it best for principals to select their own new hires from a pool of recently hired candidates, in order to best meet the needs of, and have the best fit with, that principal's own school. This, Barker said, is because unlike in the past, schools today must…… [Read More]

References

Barker, B. (October 17, 2005). Interview. Rio Linda Union School District Office,

California.

Certificated Personnel BP 4112.2 CERTIFICATION. (October 30, 2005).

California school boards association. Retrieved October 30, 2005, at http://www.gamutonline.net/indexframes40.html.
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High Profile Murder Cases The

Words: 1276 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83484004

He admits that he killed her but he states that it was an accident. In an event in which the result is death the defense of involuntary manslaughter is available if the defense can show that it was not an intentional killing.

He also used a partial wrestling defense. He was not allowed to use a complete wrestling defense because the professional wrestlers who were asked to testify to the moves that Tate had seen on television and how they were done refused to testify. The judge did not order them to testify but did allow tapes to be shown of the moves that Tate said he performed on his friend.

Tate's attorneys could have also used a manslaughter defense. Manslaughter can be used when a death occurred, the defendant knew that his or her actions might cause injury but they were not anticipating a death.

In the case of…… [Read More]

References

Where it all began: 14-year-old gets life (accessed 08-06-06) (http://www.courttv.com/trials/wrestling/background.html)

Sons, family friend face life for murder (accessed 8-6-06) (http://www.courttv.com/trials/king/background.html)
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10th Amendment and How it Relates to

Words: 840 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6817383

10th Amendment and how it relates to the states being controlled by the Federal Govt. On the legalization of pot..

Marijuana in the context of the Tenth Amendment

There is much controversy regarding the Constitution and the power it has over the people, taking into account that many individuals believe that the federal government does not have the Constitutional authority to prevent cities and states from legalizing the use of marijuana (regardless of the purpose of the substance's use). The possession of Marijuana is banned under federal law. However, when considering that the prohibition era saw alcohol banned under a Constitutional amendment, it would appear that a federal law should not be considered enough to prevent states or cities to legalize the use of marijuana. A great deal of individuals (both smokers and non-smokers) believe that the federal government is wrong in trying to force individuals to take on particular…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Ducat, Craig, R. "Rights of the Individual," (Cengage Learning, 01.02.2008)

Mack, Alison, and Joy, Janet, "Marijuana As Medicine?: The Science Beyond the Controversy," (National Academies Press, 07.12.2000)

Rahtz, Howard, "Drugs, Crime and Violence: From Trafficking to Treatment," (Hamilton Books, 16.08.2012)

Sowell, Thomas, "Ever Wonder Why? And Other Controversial Essays," (Hoover Press, 09.11.2006)
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Idolatry How Some Object or Text Discovered

Words: 2628 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39807332

idolatry: How some object or text discovered by archeologists, or some other type of cultural or literary parallel, enhances our understanding of something in Exodus

Prospectus:

dolatry in the ancient Near East -- a non-Exodus Perspective

Over the course of the past several decades in modernity, numerous objects as well as the actual substances of texts discovered by archaeologists, have contributed to the modern understanding of the characterization of so-called 'idol worship' in Exodus as well as other Hebrew texts, texts that have come to have been canonized as 'The Hebrew Bible," as referred to by members of the Jewish religion, or 'The Old Testament,' as such books are frequently referred to by members of the Christian faith.

Up until this point in time, the way that ancient sraelites perceived idol worship held dominance how the people who worshipped idols saw idol worship. However, the Bible frequently mischaracterizes these other…… [Read More]

In Exodus 15:11, the song sung by the Israelites, asking who of "our Lord" is better" among the Gods" suggests a sense that there are other gods present in the world, albeit not superior to their own, liberating force. (Anderson, 273) "Although it does not rule out the theoretical possibility that other gods might exist, it asserts as a practical orientation the fact that only one god can be worshipped," (Anderson 276) and that god is to be worshipped in a special fashion. In stories of Baal, a storm-like God of the Canaanites who defeats the chaos of that eventually gives birth to humanity, some scholars believe that Psalm 29 was originally a hymn to that God that was later adapted by Israelites, changing the name of the god to their own. (Anderson, 274). This sense of closeness of other faiths and possible competition intensified the need to reject other religions of 'idolatry.'

At all times, "the study of Israelite religion should be distinguished from Biblical theology." (Anderson, 1993, 272). In other words, the history of Biblical Israel differs from the study of the Bible as a canonical text today. The intensity of the rejection of other religions should not be read as a condemnation of Israeli temple Judaism. Rather, it is an acknowledgement of the creative religious dynamic that existed at the time. The Israeli religion was to replace the sacred space of the idolized body with the body of the temple, and the ritual rhythms of investing the material substance of idols with the sacred space and temporal, seasonal rituals of sacrifice and the replacement of sacrifice with animal, rather than human offerings, is often taken to be the essential narrative of the Abraham myth.

Sacrifice has also provided, in a highly public manner, the ability to dramatize the service of a people to God. Perhaps, in contrast to such mouth-opening ceremonies, where the act of accessing the divine was willed, the sacrifice that the ancient Hebrews eventually adopted was a way of dramatizing subservience rather than dominance.
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Smokers Should Not Pay for Their Own Health Care Costs Incurred From Related Diseases

Words: 1786 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66917073

Smoking

Instead, much of the money is being spent on other pork-barrel projects. It is time that the government realize that prohibition did not work in the 1920s and 1930s and it will not work any better in the 21st century. Since the smokers pay taxes already, making them pay for other health care costs is simply adding insult to injury by the chief drug pusher of all -- the federal government. It is the contention of this author that smokers should not pay for their own health care costs incurred from related-diseases.

"Smoke 'em if you got 'em, bum 'em if you don't" used to be the saying in the military prior to every smoke break. However, today, even the United States military is down on smoking. In this short essay, the author will illustrate how criminalizing the behavior of smokers will not cure them of the habit. It…… [Read More]

References

Adda, J., & Cornaglia, F. (2005). Taxes, cigarette consumption and smoking intensity. Bonn, Germany:

Institute for the Study of Labor.

Auld, C. (2011). Smoking, health care costs, and imprisoning drug users because they cost us money to imprison. Retrieved from http://chrisauld.com/2011/10/27/smoking-health-care-costs-and-imprisoning-drug-users-because-they-cost-us-money-to-imprison/.

Cnossen, S. European Union, European Commission. (2006). Cesifo working paper no. 1718 tobacco taxation in the european union. Brussels, Belgium: European Union.
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Anti-Miscegnation Statutes in the United States Anti-Miscegenation

Words: 1432 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24745332

Anti-Miscegnation Statutes in the United States

Anti-Miscegenation Statutes in the United States

Previous to Loving v. Virginia, there were several cases on the subject of miscegenation. In Pace v. Alabama (1883), the Supreme Court made a ruling that the conviction of an Alabama couple for interracial sex, confirmed on the plea by the Alabama Supreme Court, did not disrupt the Fourteenth Amendment. Interracial marital sex was considered a felony, whereas adulterous sex ("infidelity or fornication") was just a misdemeanor. On plea, the United States Supreme Court made a ruling that the illegalization of interracial sex was not a defilement of the equal protection clause since whites and non-whites were penalized in equivalent amount for the wrongdoing of involving in interracial sex. The court did not see the need to sustain the constitutionality of the prohibition on interracial marriage that was likewise part of Alabama's anti-miscegenation law. After Pace v. Alabama,…… [Read More]

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Gambino Drug Family Their Entire Drig Business

Words: 1738 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63848743

Gambino Drug Family." Their entire drig business was based in New York City. This paper will mirror the Gambino's nationwide and international structure and operating techniques relating to the drug business. Likewise a contrast of the Gambino's from their past to present function in prohibition, drug nexus, political corruption, and various other criminal activities will be analyzed. Gradually, the Gambino household had different business interests that made them much more noteworthy in the Italian Mafia. The paper will also assess various law enforcement tools, which can be used to against this drug family.

National and international structure and operating approaches related to the drug business

The Gambino's drug business structure and operating approaches come from really sturdy links with the Sicilian Drug trade (Critchley, 2008). Till 1914, there were no genuine laws or borders against the drug market in the U.S. (Critchley, 2008). The Boylan anti-drug Law, enacted by the…… [Read More]

References

Bruno, A. (n.d). The Gambino Family. Retrieved May 18, 2013 from http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/gangsters_outlaws/family_epics/gambino/1.html

Buscaglia, E. (2003). Controlling Organized Crime and Corruption in the Public Sector. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from  http://www.unodc.org/pdf/crime/forum/forum3_Art1.pdf 

Critchley, D. (2008). The Origin of Organized Crime in America: the New York City Mafia, 1891-1931. London: Rutledge.

Find Law. (2011). Racketeering/RICO. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://criminal.findlaw.com/crimes/a-z/racketeering_rico.html
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Overcriminalization Some Modern Scholars Make

Words: 1355 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1845969



Before discussing crimes regarding sexuality, it is important to distinguish between those laws that are currently enforced and those that are not being actively enforced. For example, there are some laws that still punish engaging in consensual homosexual behavior, certain consensual sexual acts committed in privacy between adults in non-commercial transactions, or the use of sexual aids. While these laws exist, the fact is that there simply is not a push towards the investigation, prosecution, or punishment of these crimes. On the contrary, even challenges to the constitutionality of these laws often only arise after those who oppose such laws have arranged for an arrest and prosecution. Therefore, it is improper to consider this category of crime in a discussion of overcriminalization.

However, law enforcement, prosecution, and the judiciary do expend a tremendous amount of energy targeting commercial sexual transactions. Opponents of this cite the fact that many of those…… [Read More]

References

Luna, E. (2005). The overcriminalization phenomenon. American University Law Review, 54,

Richards, D. (1986). Sex, drugs, death, and the law: an essay on human rights and overcriminalization. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, Inc.
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Islamic Faith Islam Was Founded

Words: 1607 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11072982



The Sawm is the Fourth Pillar of Islam and it teaches Muslims in regard to fasting (refraining from eating or drinking). The Ramadan is the ninth month in the Islamic lunar year and is believed to be the most important period of the year in Muslim tradition. Muslims are not allowed to eat, drink, or engage in sexual intercourse throughout daylight hours every day during the Ramadan. The person who abstains from eating, drinking, and sex during daylight hours at Ramadan also has to be moral, as any sort of immorality makes the fasting pointless.

The Fifth Pillar is the Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca. People understand this pilgrimage as a physical and spiritual journey to the holiest place in Islam. The Islamic world promotes the belief that any person who is a Muslim and who is physically able to travel to Mecca should do so at least once in…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Boyd Jenkins, Orville, "MAJOR TYPES OF ISLAM," Retrieved September 10, 2011, from the Orville Jenkins website:  http://orvillejenkins.com/outlineintro/types.html 

Mason, Bethany, "Following the Prophet: A Comparison of Sunni and Shiite Muslims," Retrieved September 10, 2011, from the East Tennessee State University website: http://www.etsu.edu/writing/teaching&theory_s06/sunnis.htm

Penney, Sue, "Islam," Heinemann, 1999.

Ridenour, Fritz, "So What's the Difference?," Gospel Light, 2001.
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Islamaphobia Is One of the

Words: 1489 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46384391

Dhimmis (minorities of other religions) participated as equal citizens in this renaissance and Muslim scholars made more scientific discoveries during this time than in the whole of previously recorded history (Goldschmidt & Davidson, 2007). The break between the hiis (those who considered Ali to be legitimate ruler of the nation) and the unnis (those who revered Muhammad and all four rashidun) occurred during this period. Mystic Islam (best known as ufism), or esoteric groups were born during this period as well as Muslim philosophy.

Today, approximately 80-90% of Moslems are unnis whilst 10-20% are hiites. The key difference between unnis and hiites is that unnis believe that the first four caliphs were rightful successors to Mohamed and that caliphs should be chosen by the whole community. The alafi sect (otherwise notoriously known as Wahabbissm) is an extreme Islamic movement derived from unnism. hiites, on the other hand, believe in the…… [Read More]

Sources

Armstrong, K. (2000). Islam: A Short History The Modern Library: UK.

Brown, D. (1999). Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought Cambridge: Cambridge Univ,. Press

Goldschmidt, A. & Davidson, L. (2010) A concise history of the Middle East Boulder, CO: Westview Press

Hourani, A. (1991) A History of the Arab People London: Penguin
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Islamic Faith Religion Is a

Words: 1301 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77207585

In the city of Medina, Muhammad united the warring tribes. Following eight years of fighting Mecca tribes the Muslims conquered Mecca. In the year 632, after returning to Medina from a farewell pilgrimage to Mecca, Muhammad became ill and died. At the time of his death, almost all of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to the Islamic faith. He had united the Arabian tribes into a single Muslim religious polity hegemon (ibid, 34-40).

The revelations Muhammad reported receiving until his death in 632 form the body of the Qur'an, regarded by Muslims as the "ord of God" and around which the Muslim religion is built upon. In addition to the Qur'an, Muhammad's life and traditions are observed by Muslims. These stories discuss Muhammad and the other prophets with reverence, adding the phrase peace be upon him whenever his name is mentioned. His life and deeds have been debated and criticized…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Braswell, G. (2000). What you need to know about islam and muslims. New York, NY: B&H Book.

Goldschmidt, A., & Davidson, L. (2005). A concise history of the middle east. (9th

ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
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Email to My Friend to Help Her

Words: 587 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32004802

Email to my friend to help her establish a legal Internet site

Dear friend:

I understand that you want to set up a legal internet site, and I think your intentions are honorable. Setting up such a site can be a challenge not only in the technical sense of the word, but also in the legal sense since there are some legal strictures that must be met.

As see the example of the E-Bay / Bidder's Edge case, for instance, where Bidder's Edge was sued by E-Bay for having trespassed private property, Internet sites although apparently public can, from a certain aspect, be viewed as private too. Bidder's Edge ended up having to pay for its offense. It would certainly be beneficial, therefore, for us to examine relevant minutiae of its case and see how we can avoid similar problems.

Firstly: what did Bidder's Edge do that was different than…… [Read More]

Legal issues surrounding web sites can be quite complex, and BitLaw ('A resource on technology Law'), for instance, has quite a few pages devoted to this topic. Bitlaw's summary of these issues should be of help to you here. Its discussion of website legal issues are divided into five parts (copyright concerns; domain name concerns; trademark concerns; defamation; and linking and framing) and can be accessed on the following page:  http://www.bitlaw.com/internet/webpage.html 

Good luck to you in designing your website,

Your friend..
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Father's Death and Her Father Requesting That

Words: 1039 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80235024

father's death and her father requesting that treatment be accorded him so that he speedily is delivered from his pain, Ms. Wolf is faced with the dilemma of whether or not to accede. Always a staunch opponent of any euthanasia-assisted program, she realized that the choice was not so simple and that sometimes suicide or euthanasia exists in the gray zone.

Ultimately, nature, as she puts it, helped her out and her father lingered on long enough to enjoy his last remaining moments with her and die comfortably and at peace.

In those last few hours, she sang to him, reminisced about his time with her, they shared loving and tender recollections (he moved his jaw three times inferring that he loved her); the father had a chance to see his other loved ones and his death was more of a closure. More so, during that period of time, he…… [Read More]

Sources

Hare, R.M. Moral Thinking, U.K: Oxford, 1981.

Kant, I. Groundwork for the metaphysics of morals New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.

Sharon, G. Sharon: the life of a leader. New York: Harper, c2011.
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Business Ethics Issues a Company's

Words: 1800 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66593039

On the other hand, applicable laws do have authority and under the concept of moral relativism, it may be justified that any duly passed law be complied with (Svensson & Wood, 2008).

One lesson from this case might be that laws between entities in different sovereign nations can be much harder to enforce than laws between entities within the same nation. In the future, Pakistan and other nations might want to make sure that their contractual agreements contain mechanisms that make them enforceable across international borders. On a broader level, another lesson might be that ill-gotten gains should not be promoted by governments in the first place. Those who believe in the supremacy of divine law might consider the position in which Pakistan found herself to be an example of God's reminding us of the obligation to conduct ourselves ethically toward our fellow man.

eferences

Creffield, Lisa. "Why you can't…… [Read More]

References

Creffield, Lisa. "Why you can't block Skype." (August 14 -- 2006).

http://www.ameinfo.com/93716.html

Halbert, Terry and Ingulli, Elaine. (2009). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.

Cincinnati: West Legal Studies.
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Economics of Public Policy

Words: 4599 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40440193

Monopolies and Trusts:

Appropriate Areas for Government Intervention?

Capitalism is the economic system that has dominated the United States virtually since the day of its independence. A social and economic system based on the recognition of individual rights; capitalism demands that owners' rights to control, enjoy, and dispose of their own property must be respected. In a capitalist system, the purpose of government is to protect individual economic rights, and to make sure that no one individual, or group may employ physical or coercive force upon any other group or individual. The success of capitalism is well evident. The surpluses that this system produces have enabled individuals to experiment; to create new products, and market new ideas. These private surpluses are traded in a free market in direct competition with other buyers and sellers. Such competition is best represented by the efforts of two or more parties acting independently to…… [Read More]

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Official Legal Definition of Contradiction

Words: 4563 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55696657

This act enlarged the labels on the cigarettes, and required that the labels on cigarettes and cigarette ads say things like,."..Cause lung cancer...may complicate pregnancy...quitting smoking now greatly reduces hazards to your health... may result in low birth weight and fetal injury." Yet despite all these attempts to educate, all the package warnings and all the public service ads, we still see that despite the millions of dollars spent on smoking prevention each year, every year sees more and more people taking up the habit, until today death from cardiovascular disease remains the number one killer in the United States, contributed in a great part by smoking. And yet we keep legislating, when then proof shows that what we are doing is not working.

Our discussion of vice-based legislation now brings us to the subject of fattening foods. In 2002, a lawyer in New York filed suit against the four…… [Read More]

Reference:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking-Attributable Mortality and Years of Potential Life Lost-United States, 1984. MMWR 1997 46:444-51.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Reducing Tobacco Use: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Federal Trade Commission Request for Comments Concerning Regulations Implementing the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986. Accessed [March 7, 2000]. http://www.tobaccolaw.org/Documents/Events/HealthCanadaNewcigarettelabellingmeasures.htm" Health Canada New Cigarette labeling Measures.

National Cancer Institute. Cigars Health Effects and Trends. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 9. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. NIH Publication No. 98-4302, 1998.
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Euthanasia Is Illegal Euthanasia Otherwise Known as

Words: 1997 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38325739

Euthanasia Is Illegal

Euthanasia otherwise known as assisted suicide refers to the painless extermination of a patient suffering from terminal illnesses or painful or incurable disease. According to Cavan & Dolan, euthanasia is the practice or act of permitting the death of hopelessly injured or sick individuals in a painless means for the purpose of mercy (Cavan & Dolan 12). The techniques used in euthanasia induce numerous artifacts such as shifts in regional brain chemistry, liver metabolism and epinephrine levels causing death. Advocates of euthanasia trust that sparing a patient needless suffering or pain is a good thing. If an individual is hopelessly hurt or ill with no hope of ever getting well, if such a person is in an unending and unbearable pain and cannot experience the things that make life meaningful, the best option for such patients is euthanasia. Euthanasia raises questions on morals, legal and essence of…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Baird, R. Caring for the Dying: critical issues at the edge of life. New York: Prometeus Books 2003, pp.117

Cavan, Seasmus, Dolan, Sean. Euthanasia: The Debate over the right to die. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Oct 1, 2000.

Cohen-Almagor, R. Euthanasia in the Netherlands: The policy and practice of mercy killing. Netherlands: Springer, Aug 3, 2004.

Devettere, Raymond. Practical decision making in health care ethics: Cases and concepts. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press, 2009.
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Global Cultural Analysis Nigeria

Words: 5263 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25995575

Global Business Cultural Analysis

Nigeria

Nigerian History

Synopsis of Nigerian government

Nigerian monarchy to presidential system

The evolution of Nigeria from British control to a civilian democratic government

Nigerian major commodities

Oil

Food

The major elements and dimensions of culture in Nigeria

Cultural dimensions

Individualism

Power distance

Masculinity

Uncertainty

Model of culture

Universalism or Particularize

How is the integration of elements and dimensions that Nigerians doing business in the country?

The effects of governments on the prospects for its business around the world

How the elements and dimensions compared with the United States, culture, and business?

The role of women in the workplace

Business visitors must be dressed in an elegant and tie (for men!)

Cross-cultural business transactions between the United States and Nigeria

Conclusion

eferences

Abstract

Thurstan Shaw and Steve Daniels, who are the founder for archaeological research proved in their research that Nigeria has been developed since 9,000…… [Read More]

References

Afolayan, T.E. (2011). Coming To America: The Social and Economic Mobility of African Immigrants in the United States. Inquiry (University of New Hampshire), 6-11. Retrieved from EBSCO host.

http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=60705725&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Alutu, O.E., & Udhawuve, M.L. (2009). Unethical Practices in Nigerian Engineering Industries: Complications for Project Management. Journal of Management in Engineering, 25(1), 40-43. Doi: 10.1061 / (ASCE) 0742-597X (2009)25:1(40)

http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=35745908&site=ehost-live&scope=site
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American Civil Right Movement Compare and Contrast

Words: 1837 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56064499

American Civil ight Movement

Compare and contrast the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) on the basis of their leadership, philosophy, and tactics.

Philosophy

Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) was a civil rights organization that was initiated by African-Americans in 1957 (Fairclough, 2001). The movement was primarily aimed at ending the segregation and discrimination against the black African population in the U.S. The core philosophy of SCLC revolved around to seek civil rights and economic justice for the people of Southern States having majority of African-Americans.

Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) actually aimed achieving same objectives as those of SCLC but through non-violent sit-in and defiance of segregated dining and lunch services. The core philosophy of SNCC was also eliminating segregation but the mission statement was narrower compared to SCLC.

Leadership

The most prominent leader of SCLC was Martin Luther King, Jr. Other prominent…… [Read More]

References

Dyson, M.E. (2009). April 4, 1968: Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Death and how it Changed America. Basic Books.

Fairclough, A. (2001). To Redeem the Soul of America: The Southern Christian Leadership Conference and Martin Luther King, Jr. University of Georgia Press.

Johnson & Johnson (2013). Annual Report & Proxy Statements: J&J. Retrieved from: [http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/JNJ/2770950354x0x644760/85FD0CFF-2305-4A02-8294-2E47D0F31850/JNJ2012annualreport.pdf]

Sundquist, J.L. (1968). Politics and Policy: The Eisenhower, Kennedy and Johnson Years. Brookings Institution Press.
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Police Systems and Practices Question Set Discuss

Words: 856 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78880879

Police Systems and Practices Question Set

Discuss how temperament can impair communication?

The ability control one's temperament at all times while working as a police officer is crucial to the performance of daily duties, because there are many instances when law enforcement personnel may be provoked to reaction in a purposeful manner. If an officer is unable to refrain from responding to insults in kind, or begins to yell or otherwise express anger, the course of an investigation or civilian interaction will become irrevocably altered. Simply put, ordinary people are less willing to cooperate with police officers and other authority figures who are openly frustrated, angry, spiteful, impatient, or otherwise perturbed -- so it is imperative that maintaining an even-keeled temperament become both a departmental and personal priority.

Discuss how failure of supervisors to act can impede future communication from subordinates.

A police officer's locker room is like any other…… [Read More]

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Straus' on Liberalism

Words: 1742 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95887407

Strauss on Moral Relativism

The Shifting Sand of Moral Relativism

Current political and social thought which is built on the foundation of moral relativism can no more chart a path for a nation to follow out of confusion into an enlightened and orderly society any more than a blind man can describe an elephant, or a child can pilot a 777 airliner. The tools, talents, skills, and abilities of moral relativism are completely inadequate for leading a nation. As can be seen by the steady social and societal decay which has been evident in our county since political and moral relativism have become the dominantly accepted social understanding since the early 1960's, the fruit of such a philosophy pits one group against another, one segment of the population against another without giving them any shared basis to build upon. 'My rights' replace a shared vision of 'our well-being;' and 'my…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Connor, Ken. Fighting for a Virtuous Nation. Immigrants for America. 2003. Accessed 19 March 2004. http://www.immigrantsforamerica.com/john_adams.html.

Guerra, Marc. The Ambivalence of Classic Natural Right: Leo Strauss on Philosophy, Morality, and Statesmanship. Perspectives on Political Science, Vol. 28, 1999

Petrie, John. John Petrie's collection of Benjamine Franklin Quotes. 2003 Accessed 19 March 2004. http://www.arches.uga.edu/~jpetrie/

Strauss, Leo. Liberalism, ancient and modern. Cornell University Press. 1989.
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Jamaican Posse Violence Organized Crime Jamaican

Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61134848

Jamaican Posse Violence / Organized Crime

Jamaican Posse Violence

Violent Jamaican posses are not new. They have been around since shortly after Hurricane Charlie struck Jamaica, back in 1951 (Gunst, 1996). Jamaicans with gang violence in mind came to the United States in 1971, and began their activities in that country as early as 1976 (Gunst, 1996). Gun battles with police and drive-by shootings with rival gangs were common, generally based on arguments over drugs and territory. In 1984, the posses started to attract the attention of law enforcement. Southern Florida was one of the most common places to find them, with the Shower Posse and the Spangler Posse being the most notable of the gangs at that time (Gunst, 1996). Those two gangs are still the most prominent today, and they have a bitter rivalry with one another. Anyone who happens to get caught up in their violence, even…… [Read More]

References

Gunst, L. (1996). Born fi' dead: A journey through the Jamaican posse underworld. NY: Holt.

Schatzberg, R. & Kelly, R.J. (1997). African-American organized crime: A social history. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
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British Cannabis Policy Reform

Words: 11793 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41229071

Cannabis in the UK: De-Penalisation, Decriminalisation, or Legalisation?

In October of 2015, the Parliament of the United Kingdom was forced to debate whether the current prohibition on cannabis should end in some way. "Forced" is the correct word here, because Parliament seems otherwise unwilling to address the issue, but in this case it was obliged by its own policy, whereby any petition signed by at least one hundred thousand people must necessarily trigger a parliamentary debate. In the case of the issue of ending the prohibition on cannabis, the petition requesting that Parliament address the issue received well over the required number of signatures; it was, in the words of Smith (2015), "a petition signed by 220,000 people - the third most popular on Parliament's website." Therefore on 12 October 2015, Parliament was obliged to take up the matter for debate. Liberal Democrat MP Norman Lamb ultimately took up the…… [Read More]

References

Abel, EA. (1980) Marihuana: The first twelve thousand years. New York: Springer.

Adda, J, McConnell, B, Rasul, I. (2014). Crime and the depenalisation of cannabis possession: Evidence from a policing experiment. Journal of Political Economy 122:5.

Aoyagi, MT. (2006). Beyond punitive prohibition: Liberalizing the dialogue on international drug policy. International Law and Politics 37:3.

Atuesta-Becerra, LH. (2014) Internally displaced populations in Columbia and Mexico. In Quah, D, Collins, J, et al. (2014) Ending the drug wars: Report of the LSE Expert Group on the economics of drug policy. London: London School of Economics.
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Drug Legalization of Drugs Legalization

Words: 3087 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44577201

Economists are concerned with the impact that the sale of drugs has on both individual and economic freedoms and frame their argument from this perspective. Others argue that reliance on the criminal justice system has not produced significant results and that it is time to reframe the argument to focus on the education, prevention, and treatment of drugs.

From the economic perspective, there are apparent differences between government prohibition and legalization of drugs. It has been estimated that total government expenditures devoted to the enforcement of drug laws is well in excess of $26 billion. These figures are also significant in state and local law enforcement agencies with drug related incidents making up one fifth of the total investigative resources and drug enforcement activities. Approximately 25% of the total prison population, municipal, state and federal, is made up of drug law violators. In fact, ten percent of all arrests are…… [Read More]

References

Millhorn, M., Monoghan, M., Montero, D., Reyes, M., Roman, T., Tollasken, R., & Walls, B. (2009). North Americans' attitudes toward illegal drugs. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(2), 125-141.

Miron, J.A. (2001). The economics of drug prohibition and drug legalization. Social Research, 68(3), 835-855.

National Institute on Drug Abuse (1998). The economic cost of alcohol and drug abuse in the United States. National Institute of Health Publication, 98-4327.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2009, April). National household survey on drug abuse main findings, 1998.
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Environmental Policy Specifically Eis Statement

Words: 4542 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 458151

" (United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Services, 2000)

The draft environmental impact statement elicited over 1.1 million responses which the Forest Service identified and summarized into six major issue categories including:

1) Public access;

2) Identification of other unroaded areas;

3) Exemptions and exceptions

4) Environmental effects;

5) Local involvement; and 6) the effect on communities with strong natural resource affiliations. (United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Services, 2000)

These issues served to guide the process through:

1) Determining the scope of the proposal;

2) Development of a range of alternatives;

3) Direction of the analysis of potential environmental, social and economic effects;

3) Identification of possible mitigation and 4) Ensuring that the agency is operating within legal authorities. (United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Services, 2000)

Two sets of alternatives were developed:

Four alternatives, including a No Action Alterative that cover the range of possible…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Forest Service Roadless Area Conservation (2000) United States Department of Agriculture. Forest Service. Washington Office November 2000. Final Environmental Impact Statement Summary. Online available at http://roadless.fs.fed.us/documents/feis/documents/summarynb.pdf

NEPA Documentation Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)(2000) Project Development. U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. Online available at http://www.environment.fhwa.dot.gov/projdev/docueis.asp
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Legalizing Drugs

Words: 1008 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62692066

Drug Legalization

This week, Columbian drug smugglers surgically opened six Labrador retriever and Rottweiler puppies and stuffed packets of heroin inside their bellies. Countless human beings have willingly stuck packages of illegal substances into any available bodily orifice or swallowed unknown quantities only to pass them out later. These instances indicate the grimly extreme lengths drug smugglers are willing to go in order to circumvent American drug prohibition laws. Drug trafficking is one of the world's most dangerous businesses; trafficking is intimately connected to crimes ranging from theft to murder to terrorism. In an article in Canadian paper the National Post, Ted Carpenter notes that both leftist and rightist paramilitary groups have "been financed largely by that country's cocaine trade." Carpenter continues to state, "The harsh reality is that terrorist groups have been enriched by prohibitionist drug policies that drive up drug costs ... hat anti-drug crusaders refuse to acknowledge…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carpenter, Ted Galen. (4 Jan 2005). "Drug Prohibition is a terrorist's best friend." National Post.

'Heroine found hidden in puppies' bellies." (5 Jan 2005). MSNBC.com. < http://msnbc.msn.com/id/6791103/>.

Ostrowski, James (1989). "Thinking About Drug Legalization." CATO Institute. <  http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa121es.html >.

'Speaking Out Against Drug Legalization." United States Drug Enforcement Agency. < http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/demand/speakout/>.
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21st Amendment and Its Impact

Words: 1727 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15865460

S. Constitution began yet another short-lived experiment with prohibition, only this time it was on a national level. hen it went into effect in January 1920, efforts to repeal the 18th Amendment began almost immediately. In a whirlwind of legislative activity, the 21st Amendment was ratified by the requisite number of states in record time. In their haste to repeal the 18th Amendment, though, lawmakers failed to consider the impact of section two as it might apply to interstate commerce in the Age of Information, but given the heated nature of the debate at the time, they can perhaps be forgiven this legislative oversight in the 21st century. All in all, though, the research clearly showed that the U.S. Constitution remains a living document that is capable of responding to changes in American society.

orks Cited

Bryce, Jenny. (2000). "Prohibition in the United States." History Review, 37.

Eng, Gordon. (2003).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bryce, Jenny. (2000). "Prohibition in the United States." History Review, 37.

Eng, Gordon. (2003). "Old Whine in a New Battle: Pragmatic Approaches to Balancing the Twenty-First Amendment, the Dormant Commerce Clause, and the Direct Shipping of Wine." Fordham Urban Law Journal 30(6):1849.

Kyvig, David E. Law, Alcohol, and Order: Perspectives on National Prohibition. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1985.

Livingston, William S. Federalism and Constitutional Change. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1956.
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the drug war is a logical fallacy

Words: 2048 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38528914

California Proposition 64, the California Marijuana Legalization Initiative, would legalize marijuana/cannabis for adults over the age of 21. The legalization measure only applies to the state of California, as federal law continues on its war on drugs/prohibition path. Proposition 64 was on the ballot in the November 8, 2016 federal election. Prior to passing this Proposition, cannabis was illegal, and possession of cannabis was punishable by law. This proposition would not only decriminalize but fully legalize, which means that individuals 21 years of age or older can and should grow their own or purchase from a local and licensed distributor rather than using the black market. In addition to legalization, which impacts the criminal justice system and the powers of law enforcement, the California Proposition 64 created a tax and regulate method of controlling cannabis. There are two new taxes created with the new law. Those two taxes include a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Branson, R. War on drugs a trillion-dollar failure. CNN. 7 Dec, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.cnn.com/2012/12/06/opinion/branson-end-war-on-drugs/

"California Proposition 64, Marijuana Legalization (2016)" Ballotpedia. Retrieved online: https://ballotpedia.org/California_Proposition_64,_Marijuana_Legalization_(2016)

CAMH. Cannabis policy framework. Retrieved online: https://moodle.yorku.ca/moodle/pluginfile.php/2205714/mod_resource/content/1/CAMH%20Cannabis%20Policy%20Framework.pdf

Ingraham, C. (2015). Marijuana may be even safer than previously thought, researchers say. The Washington Post, 23 Feb, 2015. Retrieved online:  https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/02/23/marijuana-may-be-even-safer-than-previously-thought-researchers-say/?utm_term=.a66100be88db
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Ten Commandments

Words: 2608 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14762436

Ten Commandments, The Torah, And Judaism

When people speak of the Judeo-Christian tradition and the development of ethical values and mores, they frequently cite the Ten Commandments as an example of commonality between Judaism and Christian. In fact, the proponents of such an argument contend that the Ten Commandments represent one of the first attempts at codification of the law. As such, the argument continues, it is valid for those commandments to govern the behavior of people, whether they are Jews, Christians, or another religion. Such an argument fails to acknowledge that there is a significant difference in how the Ten Commandments are viewed by people in the two religions. To Christians, the Ten Commandments are a simple list of things to do or to avoid. Compliance with the Ten Commandments is necessary and sufficient to keep one within the grace of God. In contrast, to Jews, the Ten Commandments…… [Read More]

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Discrimination With Regard to the Death Penalty

Words: 5695 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83760219

adults have an episode or two from their youth of which they are not extremely proud. Perhaps it involved sneaking a beer (or several beers) at a social function, or lying about one's plans for the evening to get permission to attend a questionable event. Most kids have learned the hard way on at least a few experiences -- speeding, missing curfew, or cheating on a test. Younger children are taught that taking a pack of gum from the store without paying for it is wrong, and that there are certain words on television that they shouldn't repeat in school. e accept these facts of life fairly easily; minors aren't mentally or socially equipped to know how they should behave all of the time. Children have to be taught about social mores, and teenagers test authority without considering the consequences in a way that most adults would. Lawbreaking -- whether…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Primary

Atkins v. Virginia, 2004, 536 U.S. 304

Case 12-285, Inter-American Court on Human Rights Rep. No 3/87 (1987)

Domingues v. State, 961 P. 2d 1279,1280, Nev. 1989
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Drinking and Alcoholism

Words: 1990 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52270032

Etiology of Campus Binge Drinking

Drinking and Alcoholism

A Failed Experiment in Social Control

The consumption of alcohol has always been a focus of government efforts to limits its use, due to the potential for abuse, the financial burden imposed upon social programs, and its association with criminal activity. Between 1920 and 1934 the consumption of alcohol was outlawed in the United States, with the intention of addressing these social problems. During the first year following the enactment of Prohibition, alcohol-related deaths, psychosis, and arrests all declined by 20-40%, but between 1921 and 1927 these measures reveal a sharp increase to near pre-Prohibition levels (Miron and Zwiebel, 1991). By the end of Prohibition, which correlates with the start of the Great Depression, alcohol consumption leveled out at around 60-70% of pre-Prohibition levels despite costing three times as much for a drink. Given the infamous criminal activity that emerged around the…… [Read More]

References

Amethyst Initiative. (2008). Amethyst Initiative: Rethinking the drinking age. Retrieved July 15, 2011 from http://www.amethystinitiative.org/statement/

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" This is money that should be spent on (a) preventing and healing drug addiction and related issues; (b) more effective, and smarter, law enforcement. Legalizing marijuana would also generate much-needed tax revenues that can be spent on precisely those two things. From an economic or financial perspective, the legalization of marijuana will also help grow small businesses and thus can alleviate the problems associated with the current economic crisis. Low start-up costs for a marijuana grow operation also mean that low-income families and entrepreneurs can earn extra income in a legitimate way. Marijuana should be made legal because Americans value personal freedoms, too. It makes no sense for alcohol and Xanax to be legal but not marijuana. Marijuana, when made legal, can be regulated in the same way that alcohol and prescription drugs are. Police will not be wasting their time busting people for possessing a plant. Instead, pharmacists…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Armentano, Paul. "DEA Moves to Ban 'Fake Marijuana' Products." NORML. 24 Nov 2010. Retrieved Nov 25, 2010 from  http://norml.org/ 

Cooper, Charles and McCullagh, Declan. "America's Love-Hate History with Pot." CBS News. 13 July 2009. Retrieved Nov 25, 2010: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/07/13/national/main5154550.shtml

Drug Policy Alliance. Economic consequences of the war on drugs. Retrieved 25 Nov, 2010: http://www.drugpolicy.org/library/factsheets/economiccons/fact_economic.cfm

"Legalization of Marijuana." LegalizationOfMarijuana.com. Retrieved Nov 25, 2010 from  http://legalizationofmarijuana.com/