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As Hanson, Venturelli and Fleckenstein note, enforcement of prohibition in some parts of the U.S. was relatively strict (222).
Changing the Perception: Steps hich May Have Been Taken
Given the negative perception the general public had of law enforcement officers during the prohibition period, there was an existing need to undertake deliberate measures aimed at changing such a perception. In my opinion, such measures had a direct impact on winning public cooperation and compliance. As Miller, Hess and Orthmann note, the behavior of law enforcement officers "has a direct impact on their image" (42). In the opinion of the authors, the acceptance of gratuities is one of the behaviors that could impact negatively on police image. Some of the approaches that were undertaken to restore police image in our case was the express dismissal of officers who were found to be corrupt. Indeed, according to Hanson, Venturelli and Fleckenstein, "law…
Deitch, Robert. Hemp: American History Revisited: The Plant With a Divided History. Algora Publishing, 2003. Print.
Hanson, Glen R., Peter J. Venturelli and Annette E. Fleckenstein. Drugs and Society. London: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2011. Print.
Miller, Linda S., Karen M. Hess and Christine H. Orthmann. Community Policing: Partnerships for Problem Solving. New York: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
By 1925, half a dozen states, including New York, passed laws banning local police from investigating violations. Prohibition had little support in the cities of the Northeast and Midwest. (Mintz)
The issue most largely debated today regarding prohibition is that the social experiment did not improve conditions in the U.S. For anyone and in fact created massive violence and great deal more illegal activity that had been occurring before the 18th amendment.
Prohibition quickly produced bootleggers, speakeasies, moonshine, bathtub gin, and rum runners smuggling supplies of alcohol across state lines. In 1927, there were an estimated 30,000 illegal speakeasies -- twice the number of legal bars before Prohibition. Many people made beer and wine at home. It was relatively easy finding a doctor to sign a prescription for medicinal whiskey sold at drugstores. In 1919, a year before Prohibition went into effect, Cleveland had 1,200 legal bars. By 1923, the…
Auerhahn, Kathleen. "The Split Labor Market and the Origins of Antidrug Legislation in the United States." Law & Social Inquiry 24.2 (1999): 411-440.
Behr, Edward. Prohibition: thirteen years that changed America. New York, NY: Arcade Publishing, 1996.
Byer, Mark. Temperance and Prohibition: The Movement to Pass Anti-Liquor Laws in America. New York, NY: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2006.
Columbia University, Press. "Liquor Laws." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition (2010): 1 History Reference Center. EBSCO. Web. 23 Nov. 2010.
Lie the prohibition, religion also plays a role in this debate. Fundamentalist Christians for example believe that both gay marriage and abortion are wrong and should not be allowed in society. On the other hand, there are those who are raped, cannot afford another child, or would like to be married to make their love official, although they are both men or both women.
The problem with using Constitutional amendment to prohibit any form of human rights is that such legislation becomes self-contradictory. The Constitution guarantees human rights, while amendments to prohibit these are unconstitutional. Like the prohibition, it is more likely than not that problems will ensue when prohibiting the right of human beings to conduct their lives in a certain way. This is particularly true of gay marriage. Those who are against it generally hold their opinions for aesthetic or religious reasons, and certainly this is their right.…
Bash, Dana. Politics: Senate set to reject gay marriage ban. CNN.com, June 6, 2006. http://www.cnn.com/2006/POLITICS/06/06/same.sex.marriage/index.html
Jessup, Henry W. State Rights and Prohibition Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 109, Prohibition and Its Enforcement. (Sep., 1923), pp. 62-66. http://www.jstor.org/cgi-bin/jstor/printpage/00027162/ap030238/03a00070/0.pdf?backcontext=page&dowhat=Acrobat&config=jstor&userID=/01c0a8486600501041f2&0.pdf
Rovner, Julie and Inskeep, Steve. Election 2006: S.D. Rejects Abortion Ban, Missouric Backs Stem Cells. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=6454486
Prohibition Was Bound to Fail
As the culmination of the century-long temperance campaign in the United States by religious preachers, women's temperance advocates, abolitionists, and later industrial leaders, the Eighteenth Amendment was passed in 1919, outlawing the sale, production, and transportation of alcoholic beverages in the United States. While at the early stage of Prohibition, the new policy seemed to work and was not opposed by many, Prohibition's popularity began to dwindle later. Many Americans, labor unions, advocates of civil liberties, and industrial leaders fearing demoralization of workers began to oppose Prohibition, campaigning for the repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment. The idea then was picked up by Democratic Party leading to the passing of the Twenty-First Amendment which effectively lifted the ban on alcohol. There were many reasons why the Prohibition failed. It may be argued that it was bound to fail from the very beginning. The major reason for…
Jeffrey Miron and Jeffrey Zwiebel, "Alcohol Consumption During Prohibition." American Economic Review, Vol. 81, no. 2 (1991), p. 242.
Levine and Reinarman, "From Prohibition to Regulation," pp. 465-6.
Twenty-First Amendment to the Congress of the United States of America. National Archives online, available at (Accessed: April 13, 2012); "Prohibition Repeal is Ratified," New York Times, December 5, 1933, available at < http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1205.html > (Accessed: April 13, 2012).
Prohibition Impact American Authors F. Scott Fitzgerald Ernest Hemingway
Prohibition and the roaring 20s:
The novels of F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemmingway
The consumption of alcohol defines the works of both F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway. The quintessential Fitzgerald heroine is the flapper -- the short-haired, carefree, hard-drinking heroine of works such as Tender is the Night and the Great Gatsby. The iconic 'Hemingway man' of The Sun Also ises and A Farewell to Arms was a hard-drinking man. It is deeply ironic that both authors came of age as writers during the era of Prohibition and published their most famous novels when drinking was technically illegal in the United States. ('Technically' illegal, despite the fact that the law was widely ignored). However, this is no coincidence -- just as must as The Great War, Prohibition showed the corrupt nature of modern society in the view of these…
Decker, Jeffrey Louis. "Gatsby's Pristine Dream: The Diminishment of the Self-Made Man in the Tribal Twenties." NOVEL: A Forum on Fiction, 28. 1(1994): 52-71. [5 Jun 2012]
Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. eBook. [5 Jun 2012]
Prohibition in America and Why it Failed
To understand why prohibition failed, one must understand what it was meant to accomplish. Prohibition was not a plan to rid the United States of alcohol, but rather a movement to reform what was seen as a gradual moral decline of the country as a whole. The temperance movement had been alive and well in the U.S. from the days of the firsts American Colonies. Even the Puritans drank alcohol, considering it to be necessary to life, and not only in a medicinal manner. But alcohol was believed to be something that should only be used in moderation, and anyone who was felt to drink too much was considered to be morally corrupt and usually became an outcast in their community for their moral failing. The earliest laws surrounding the use and sale of alcohol were meant to control the use of liquor,…
conferences discussed prohibition movement culminated passage 18th Amendment Constitution supporting statutes call Prohibition. etween 1920-1935 sale alcoholic beverages heavily controlled.
This essay will explore the underlying factors that motivated temperance movements, subsequently, the Prohibition, in relation to alcohol consumption before and after the Civil War. It will address some earlier perceptions regarding alcohol and the shift in beliefs over its consumption. Ultimately, some short-term and long-term effects of the Prohibition will be revealed.
Key terms: alcohol, moderation, temperance, Prohibition, saloon, bootlegging.
Long before the start of colonization in the New World, alcohol had played a significant part in people's lives. Not only was it customary habit to drink on a regular and daily basis but alcohol generally was regarded as part of God's creation, thus "inherently good."
The colonies placed the foundation for the American legacy of alcohol consumption that was to be thoroughly moderated. Moderation was not merely religiously…
Blocker, Jack S. "Did Prohibition Really Work? Alcohol Prohibition as a Public Health Innovation." American Journal of Public Health 96 (2006): 233-243. Accessed November 16, 2013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1470475/pdf/0960233.pdf .
Gerstein, Dean R. "Alcohol Use and Consequences." In Alcohol and Public Policy: Beyond the Shadow of Prohibition, edited by Mark Harrison Moore and Dean R. Gerstein, 182-224. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1981.
Hanson, David J. Preventing Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol, Culture, and Control. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1995.
Hanson, David J. "National Prohibition of Alcohol in the U.S." Accessed November 16, 2013. http://www2.potsdam.edu/hansondj/Controversies/1091124904.html #.UodkItLxrR8' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Alcohol Prohibition in Canada in the 1920s
The campaign against the sale of alcohol had been carried out by groups in Canada for many years. The main idea behind prohibition in Canada was to reduce alcohol consumption by facilitating the abolishment of all entities that concerned themselves with the manufacture, distribution as well as the sale of alcohol. Significant gains were made towards this end and all the provinces ended up embracing prohibition laws with the last to do so being Quebec. It hence follows that the 1920s were the peak of the prohibition era. In this text, I concern myself with alcohol prohibition in Canada in the 1920s.
y definition, prohibition in Canada can be taken to denote a series of actions instituted to end the sale of alcohol at both the provincial as well as county levels. According to Robert Harrington, the main idea behind prohibition was to…
Amdt, Ruth. Prohibition in Canada. General Books LLC, 2010
Baldwin, Douglas and Patricia. The 1920s: Canada through the Decades Series. Weigl Educational Publishers, 2000
Heath, Dwight. International handbook on alcohol and culture. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1995
Harrington, Robert. Food and Wine Pairing: A Sensory Experience. John Willey and Sons, 2007
Alcohol Prohibition lead to crime?
Prohibition is an awful flo
We like it.
It can't stop what it's meant to stop.
We like it.
It's left a trail of graft and slime,
It don't prohibit worth a dime,
It's filled our land with vice and crime.
Nevertheless, we're for it."
The national prohibition of alcohol in the United States did the exact opposite of what it was designed to do. Instead of producing "clean living," alcohol-free Americans as supporters had hoped, prohibition gave birth to some of the country's largest crime syndicates and drinking grew in popularity. Syndicates were glamorized by the public that they provided a necessary service for. This glamorization resulted in a large upsurge of crime in the United States.
The Eighteenth Amendment to the constitution, known as The National Prohibition Act, was adopted in 1919 and ended in 1933. When it was first enacted, President Woodrow…
Barlow, Hugh D. Crime and Public Policy: Putting Theory to Work. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995.
Beman, Ian. Prohibition, Modification of the Volstead Law: A Supplement to the Volume of Same Title in the Handbook Series. New York: The W. Wilson Company, 1927.
Blocker, Jack S. Alcohol, Reform, and Society: The Liquor Issue in Social Context. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1979.
Cohen, Daniel. Prohibition: America Makes Alcohol Illegal (Spotlight on American History). New York: Millbrook Press, 1995.
There are over 700,000 annual arrests for marijuana charges in the United States each year. Eighty seven percent of marijuana charges are for simple possession. This is a charge which is costing the government billions of dollars each year in its enforcement and findings have shown that many Americans have had criminal records due to this charge. THC the active ingredient in marijuana is a natural substance that has far less side effects than its legal counterparts. However, the DEA has kept marijuana as a I substance for years. Other drugs included in this label are: heroin and LSD. This is one of the reasons that there can be harsh penalties resulting from marijuana arrests and prosecutions. Such penalties can include: deportation, suspension of driving privileges, prison, and the loss of federal educational loans. Stiff penalties can be issued for possession of marijuana.
The Mexican economy is tanking and so…
Dickenson, T. (June,2009) a Drug War Truce? Rolling Stone (1081) 45-48.
Miron, J. (2005) the Budgetary Implications of Marijuana Prohibition. Harvard University.
Nadelman, E. (2004, July 12). An End to Marijuana Prohibition. National Review.
Reinarman, C. (2000)the Dutch Example Shows that Liberal Drug laws Can Be Beneficial. Current Controversies: Drug Legalization.
Punitive Drug Prohibition
In contrast to the United States, many countries around the world are now using harm reduction instead of drug prohibition and are facing the facts that drug prohibition will not make drug use go away. This paper will discuss drug prohibition in the United States and in the rest of the world where it is permissive and where cannabis can be found in many cafes. It will compare drug polices and conclude which policy would best help the drug situation in the United States. It will also assess the economic affects of punitive drug prohibition.
This research is socially significant because drug use comes at a huge expense not only to the drug user, but also society as a whole. While most countries agree that drug use reduction should be a goal, there's a disagreement over the best way to accomplish this objective, punitive drug prohibition or…
Gray, Mike. Drug Crazy: How We Got into This Mess and How We Can Get Out. New York: Random House, 1998.
In Defense of Dutch Drug Policy." 8 Nov. 2003. Kuro5hin. 27 Nov. 2003. http://www.kuro5hin.org/story/2003/11/7/17557/6451 .
Levine, Harry G. And Reinarman, Craig. Crack in America: Demon Drugs and Social Justice. Berkeley, CA: U. California Press, 1997.
Levine, Harry G. "Drug Commissions, the Next Generation." The International Journal of Drug Policy, 1994, vol 5 no 4. Hereinstead.com. 27 Nov. 2003. http://www.hereinstead.com/sys-tmpl/drugcommissionswideforprinting/ .
Prohibition is a chapter in the history of the United States where the government implemented a nationwide ban on the consumption and sale of alcohol. Although it seems archaic and nonsensical now since most countries allow alcohol consumption, back then, for thirteen years it was considered illegal to buy, sell, and consume alcohol in the United States. A time of bootleggers and social 'Progressives' the Prohibition Era of the United Sates shocked the nation, revealing how important the need was for people to drink. It was a time for many to understand alcohol consumption and in retrospective, see what caused the activity to be outlawed in the first place.
The Prohibition Era: A Brief Background
The Prohibition Era of the United States lasted from 1920 to 1933. January 1, 1920 saw the start of national Prohibition that became effective via the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The driving…
Alcohol Prohibition from 1920 to 1933 did not work. There are many parallels from this failed effort and the current laws prohibiting drugs in the United States. Alcohol prohibition was undertaken to reduce crime and corruption, solve social problems, reduce the tax burden created by prisons and poorhouses, and improve the health of Americans. According to research, alcohol consumption of alcohol fell at the beginning of Prohibition, but then it subsequently increased. "Alcohol became more dangerous to consume; crime increased and became "organized"; the court and prison systems were stretched to the breaking point; and corruption of public officials was rampant." Instead of measurable gains in productivity or reduced absenteeism, Prohibition removed a significant source of tax revenue and greatly increased government spending. It led many drinkers to switch to more dangerous substances such as opium, marijuana, patent medicines and cocaine that they would have been unlikely to encounter in…
Harm Reduction in the U.S.: A Movement for Change." Canadian HIV / AIDS Policy & Law Newsletter. Vol 3 No 4 & Vol 4 No 1, Winter 1997/98. Canadian HIV / AIDS Legal Network, 11 May 2004. http://www.aidslaw.ca/Maincontent/otherdocs/Newsletter/Winter9798/20GREIGE.html
McDougall, Steven. "The War on Drugs." 03 June 2001. 10 May 2004. http://world.std.com/~swmcd/steven/rants/war.html
Overview of drug use in the United States. Retrieved May 10, 2004 from Web site: http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0880105.html
Nadelmann, Ethan, Cohen, Peter, Drucker, Ernest, Locher, Ueli, Stimson, Gerry, and Wodak, Alex. "The Harm Reduction Approach to Drug Control: International Progress." Apr. 1994. Lycaeum Drug Archives. 11 May 2004. http://paranoia.lycaeum.org/war.on.drugs/debate/harm-reduction.html
Drug Prohibition Causes More Problems Than it olves
This is a paper on drug prohibition and its disadvantages. It has 1 source.
During Prohibition, Americans discovered that making popular substances unlawful cause more problems than it solves. Like alcohol and tobacco, drugs should be legal in this country as most of the problems related to drug use arise from the fact that they are illegal and hence more tempting.
Imagine this: Your fifteen-year-old son is going out to a fast food store, suddenly two gangs start shooting at each other, your son gets shot and dies in a cross fire.
The government of the United tates spends more than $18 billion of tax payer's money on the drug war. The increased expenditure finances the Drug Enforcement Agency, Office of National Drug Control Policy and is used to build a new prison every week. Add to this the financial…
Lynch, Timothy. War no more: The folly and futility of drug prohibition. National Review, Feb 5, 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1282/2_53/69388682/p4/article.jhtml?term=Accessed 4/3/04
How effective has the legal prohibition of alcohol been in controlling crime? A recent Department of Justice Report (U.S. Department of Justice) said that alcohol was a factor in 40% of all violent crimes and accounted for 40.9% of all traffic fatalities in the U.S.A. In the last decade. ut these figures were 34% and 29%, respectively, lower than those of the previous decade. The Report further stated that arrests conducted for driving under the influence of alcohol correspondingly declined and attributed this to the establishment of the legal and uniform drinking age in the early 1980s.
Elucidating, the Report said that, approximately 3 million violent crimes occurred each year in that decade where the offenders were drinking at the time. And although arrests were made in every age group, those made on offenders below 21 notably decreased. The rate of intoxication in fatal accidents, it said, likewise went…
1. Abbe, Winfield. Toughening Liquor Laws Will Do Little to Sober Our Drunk Culture.
Athens Banner Herald, February 2002. (accessed 25:03:03). http://www.*****/stories/022202/let_letter4.shtml
2. Alcoholics Anonymous. Alcohol. (accessed 25:03:03). http://soc.qc.edu/aa/aager.html
3. Davis, George. Why Crime? Action Sunshine Coast Crime Prevention Program. Crime Prevention through Community Building, 2000. (accessed 25:03:03). http://www.suncoastcentral.com/crimeprevention
Most Americans value freedoms and liberties such as those protected in the United States Constitution. Those freedoms and liberties are violated when governments prevent access to drugs, which is why legalization may eventually happen on a state-by-state basis.
Marijuana has promising applications in health care, which is why states like California have recently permitted the sale and distribution of the drug to patients with prescriptions. The trend is spreading, and several other states also permit marijuana to be used for medical purposes. As more and more states follow suit, drugs will be effectively decriminalized. Law enforcement can divert its attention to violent crime, leaving ordinary citizens alone and leaving addicts in the care of trained psychological professionals. Consumers will purchase their pot from licensed dealers who they can trust, who carefully cultivate their strains to suit certain medical conditions, and who do not use chemical pesticides or any poison to…
Cermak, Timmen L. Marijuana: What's a Parent to Believe? Center City, MN: Hazelden, 2003.
Gerber, Rudolph J. Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy Reform and Prohibition Politics. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.
Jones, Paul and Mortin, John. Marijuana: Early Experiences with Four States' Laws that Allow Use for Medical Purposes. United States General Accounting Office, 2002.
Kleiman, Mark. Marijuana: Costs of Abuse, Costs of Control. Greenwood Press, 1989.
Register of Language, Affirmation, and Prohibition
Register of language defines the way native speakers divide the way they speak in different social settings. It spans over a spectrum beginning in the most casual of settings all the way into the most careful behavior of a formal setting. However, it does not come naturally as part of the language learned and depends heavily on what is observed early in life. Those never exposed to a formal setting may never truly understand the proper way to speak while in one, which denies the person opportunity to progress in situations such as job interviews, dates, and academic settings. Since formal settings are often reserved for the upper classes, the lower classes are never granted the exposure required to understand formal register. This inadequate exposure leads to a constant casual register, which naturally becomes the most comfortable way to speak and may make it…
Homosexual Relationships Prohibited
In recent years a tide of change has swept across America. Gay marriage has been the focal point of many court battles and legislations. As a result, public opinions has shifted majorly towards a more lenient and accepting view of same-sex relationships. This change poses significant challenges towards Christian individuals who remain steadfast in conservative values. Churches, believers, and ministers all over the nation now face serious conflicts and questions with their beliefs and the public around them (1).
Christians are currently feeling overwhelming pressure to make changes in their own churches that will allow for homosexual couples to practice in their facilities. They are already being labeled socially as hateful, prejudiced, and ignorant, which is a trial to the Christian who seeks to follow the council of Christ and love all. On top of that, ministers are being asked to perform marriages against their personal beliefs,…
1 Dallas, Joe.Equip.org. October 2013. http://www.equip.org/article/now-what-same-sex-marriage-and-todays-church/#christian-books-3 (accessed April 10, 2015).
2 "Gay Marriage: Key Data Points from Pew Research," Pew Research Center, June 11, 2013, http://www.pewresearch.org/key-data-points/gay-marriage-key-data-points-from-pew - research/.
3 "Gallup Gay Marriage Poll Finds Majority of U.S. Citizens Would Support Nationwide Marriage Equality Law," The Huffington Post, July 31, 2013, .
4 "Gay Marriage: Key Data Points from Pew Research."
Ethnic, racial and class minorities in the city of New York, as well as middle class and organized crime people enjoyed their fight against Prohibition in an amazing number of locals and nightclubs that summed up to more than thirty thousand. While many restaurant closed down in New York, speakeasies spread across the city. More and more of the middle class and the upper class "embraced the cosmopolitan culture and nightlife that flourished under the restrictions of Prohibition" (Lerner, 2007, p. 3) making this the first bottom-up social reaction in the recent history of the United States.
Prohibition marked the 1920s and 1930s in ways that were not seen by the makers of this law. It had profound effects of issues like work relations and wage policies, xenophobia and living conditions of immigrants, organized crime as well as popular culture. While regulations were set and enforced, a significant number of…
Behr, Edward. Prohibition: thirteen years that changed America. Arcade Publishing, 1996
Burns, Eric. The Spirits of America: a social history of alcohol. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004
Lerner, Michael. Dry Manhattan. Prohibition in New York City. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007
Miron, Jeffrey and Jeffrey Zwiebel. Alcohol Consumption During Prohibition. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1991
ecently, Uruguay became the first country to legalize in its entirety and without qualification the marijuana trade. Uruguayan senators spent a total of twelve hours debating the issue, which was proposed by the country's President. The bill was described by its proponents as "an unavoidable response to reality, given that the 'war' on drugs had failed" (BBC, 2013, 1). The law allows registered citizens to buy up to 40g per month. The law is the first of what could be many as South American nations in particular are coming to the realization that drug prohibition, backed by American interests with the support of the United Nations, has left the continent with powerful and violent gangs that control the trade, while doing nothing to stem consumption (Ibid). Indeed, the UN has already weighed in by stating that Uruguay's legislation is in contravention of the international treaties that are enforced by…
BBC. (2013, 1). Uruguay becomes first nation to legalise marijuana trade. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved December 12, 2013 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-25328656
BBC. (2013, 2). Uruguay marijuana move 'illegal' -- UN drugs watchdog. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved December 12, 2013 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-25340324
Chaloupka, F. & Laixuthai, A. (1997). Do youths substitute alcohol and marijuana? Some econometric evidence. Eastern Economic Journal. Vol 23 (3) 253-275.
Chokshi, N. (2013). After legalizing marijuana, Washington and Colorado are starting to regulate it. Washington Post. Retrieved December 12, 2013 from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/govbeat/wp/2013/10/09/after-legalizing-marijuana-washington-and-colorado-are-starting-to-regulate-it/
The Shortcomings in our Current Drug Law Policy: Research Proposal
As a major policy issue in the United States, the ar on Drugs has been one of the most monumental failures on modern record. At a cost of billions of taxpayer dollars, thousands of lives lost and many thousands of others ruined by untreated addiction or incarceration, America's policy orientation concerning drug laws is due for reconsideration. Indeed, the very philosophical orientation of the ar on Drugs and of the current drug policy in the United States has been one of prosecution and imprisonment rather than one of decriminalization, treatment and rehabilitation. As our medical and scientific communities characterize addiction as a disease, the United States government continues to characterize this disease as a crime. And in doing so, it has created an unnecessary criminal class in the United States. The research proposal will set out to prove…
Debusmann, B. (2012). Obama and the failed war on drugs. Reuters.
DeMelo, D. (2005). Merton's Strain Theory. Criminological Theory.
DeMelo, D1. (2005). Cloward & Ohlin's Differential Opportunity Theory. Criminological Theory.
Eldredge, D.C. (1998). Ending the War on Drugs: A Solution for America. Bridgehampton, NY: Bridge Works.
The ideas of Thomas Hobbes, the influential English philosopher who lived in the late 1500s to middle 1600s, are still considered important today. Hobbes is best remembered for his ideas on political philosophy. While Hobbes throughout his life championed the idea of absolutism for the sovereign he also is responsible for many of the fundamentals of Western political thought such as equality of men, individual rights, and the idea that all justifiable political power must be representative of the people (Edwards, 2002).
Hobbes also believed that human nature was such that people acted out of selfish-interests and if left to their own devices would do anything to get what they wanted or to acquire more power at the expense of others. Governments are then formed to shield people from their own selfishness; however he understood that even a King left unchecked would also act in a selfish manner…
Action in America. (2012). Drug war cost clock updated 2011. Retrieved on February 10, 2010
from http://actionamerica.org/drugs/wodclock.shtml .
Appel, D. (2004). Why can immorality be legislated more easily than morality in America
Free Leadership Thoughts. Retrieved February 5, 2012, from http://authenticleadershipinc.com/free.html
For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."
Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.
Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function.…
http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5002068015' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
14). Soon, Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act, which was signed into law in 1937. Like the Harrison Act, the Marijuana Tax Act placed marijuana into the same category as the cocaine and opium drugs. It was now illegal to import marijuana into the United States (McWilliams, 1991). However, this law was ineffective in curbing marijuana use (Brecher, 1986, p. 14).
By the early 1940s narcotic addiction had significantly reduced in the United States (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999). However, this was not the result of legislative initiatives. Instead, it was because World War II was cutting off the "supplies of opium from Asia and interrupt the trafficking routes from Europe" (Inciardi, 1992, p. 24).
Several other legislative efforts in the supply reduction department served to establish more severe penalties for violations of drug laws, and tighten controls and restrictions over legally manufactured narcotic drugs (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999).…
1999). Recreational Drug Information. History of Drug Use U.S. Retrieved from the Internet at www.a1b2c3.com/drugs/.
Brecher, E. (1986). Drug Laws and Drug Law Enforcement: A Review and Evaluation Based on 111 Years of Experience,' Drugs and Society 1:1.
Drucker, Ernest. (1999). Harm Reduction: A Public Health Strategy. Current Issues in Public Health, 1: pp. 64-70.
Drug Policy Alliance. (February 17, 2005). Harm Reduction: Options that Work. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.drugpolicy.org/news/021705harm.cfm .
legalizing activities such as recreational drug use that do not affect anyone other than the person who chooses to engage in the activity. In the sense that one's actions and choices always affect one's family and loved ones, the decision to take drugs impacts on their lives, but that is outside the realm of government legislation. The decision to smoke cigarettes or to skydive can also be said to affect the lives of one's loved ones, yet neither is prohibited by legislation.
Recently, both individual states and the federal government have enacted laws intended to severely limit the rights of tobacco smoking in public areas, in rightful recognition of the distinction between choices to engage in certain behaviors privately and the rights of others not to be subjected to dangers or inconvenience posed by such choices. This is the essential issue that distinguishes justifiable and unjustifiable government paternalism.
On another level, paternalistic legislation might be drafted to disqualify those who engage in certain behaviors from government subsidized medical care, under the theory that one has no right to saddle the rest of society with the financial burden of paying for one's irresponsible choice to persist in behaviors known to be detrimental to health and longevity. Naturally, the same concept would apply equally to those suffering the long-term medical consequences of smoking tobacco, which currently constitutes the largest preventable cause of lung cancer, heart disease, and many other illnesses that drain public resources.
The spectrum of government paternalism spans from complete permissibility, allowing utterly reckless conduct that is injurious to others to comprehensive over- regulation, where legal penalties attach to eating junk food if one is above one's ideal weight. My first disagreement with the current illegal status of recreational drugs is that I believe it represents a position on the spectrum that is too close to over- regulation in that it prohibits activities that are (or that should be) purely matters of personal choice. In my opinion, mandatory seatbelt and motorcycle helmet laws infringe into issues of personal choice where there is no justification based on protecting the public at large. Conversely, I am in favor of prohibiting seemingly innocuous activities such as operating cellular phones while driving, precisely because it increases the risk of collision with innocent people. The difference is seatbelts and helmets protect only the individual who chooses to use them, whereas distracted drivers represent a potential risk to other people as well. I also reject any claim that legalizing recreational drugs would result in an increase in crimes associated with their use, because, as I suggested earlier, the same can be said (and has already been witnessed in this country) in connection with 1920's Prohibition.
Ultimately, my most fundamental objection to the current illegal status of recreational drugs is their unjustified inequality and incongruence, as compared to regulation of tobacco, alcohol, and for that matter, ropeless mountain climbing and junk food. Regardless of any argument as to the appropriate point for anti-drug laws on the legislative spectrum between absolute permissibility and over-legislation, government regulations must, in principle, reflect uniformity and a logical consistency.
Organized crime underwrites the bulk of political, social, and economic history in America. What has often been mentioned in passing as legitimate business activities can and often should be reframed as organized crime, such as the trans-Atlantic slave trade and the colonial mercantilism that it supported (Woodiwiss, 2003). When organized crime is taken out of its Hollywood context, which portrays organized crime as an immigrant problem, some patterns emerge that clarify the function and structure of organized crime in America. Organized crime tends to flourish in "societies that experience rapid and intense social change," (Albini et al. 1995, p. 213). This is why the United States has been a hot spring of organized crime in various manifestations throughout the nation's history. In only a few hundred years, the United States has gone from colonial outpost to global superpower. apid change and cultural transformation foment organized crime, as do…
Abadinsky, H. (2013). Organized Crime. Belmont: Wadsworth
Albanese, J.S. (2011). Organized Crime in Our Times. 6th Edition. Burlington: Elsevier.
Albini, J.L. et al. (1995). Russian organized crime: Its history, structure, and function. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 11(4), 213-243.
Cornell University Law School. (2014). 18 U.S. Code § 1961 -- Definitions. Retrieved online: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/1961
American Drug Policy: Marijuana
Marijuana is one of the most vilified drugs in history and it very difficult to see just why this is so. The United States used to have a thriving agricultural concern that consisted of hemp (marijuana) famers producing plants for their fibers and seeds. The fibers were used in products such as rope and paper and the seeds were used to make oil which served as a lubricant and a food additive. Unfortunately, people became aware of its psychotropic properties and growing marijuana for any reason was banned. This ban also coincided with the introduction of products that were superior to those made of hemp. The drug usage properties of marijuana had been known for centuries and it had been used in religious ceremonies and as an additive to medicines, but it could also be used in quantities that made the user completely incapacitated…
Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB). "Tax and Fee Rates." U.S. Department of Treasury, 2012. Web.
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "No Rational Basis: The Pragmatic Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Virginia Journal of Social Policy & the Law 17.1 (2009): 43-82. Print.
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "Liberty Lost: The Moral Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Indiana Law Journal 85.1 (2010): 279-299. Academic Search Complete. Web. 26 Oct. 2012.
Chilea, Dragos. "A Brief Overview of Drug Control Policy in the United States and It's Current Challenges." Judicial Current 14.3 (2011): 13-22. Print.
Political Philosophy II: Theories of Freedom
John Stuart Mill's On Liberty is one of the foundational defenses of liberal, democratic government. According to Mill, there are certain core principles "that should regulate how governments and societies, whether democratic or not, can restrict individual liberties."[footnoteRef:1] Mill wrote that regardless of whether a monarch, dictator, or even a democratic majority governed, the only reason to deprive others of their liberties was what he called the harm principle, namely, that "a harm, an action must be injurious or set back important interests of particular people, interests in which they have rights" and "justifies restricting liberty to prevent harm to others."[footnoteRef:2] In defining the harm principle, Mill's intentions were clearly noble in that he wished to prevent the illegitimate use of power by the state to restrict free speech, sexual behavior, or other personal, private choices. However, since Mill wrote, even a number of…
Moreover, in Perry v. Louisiana, 498 U.S. 38 (1990), the Court used that decision to bolster Louisiana's attempts to forcibly medicate a prisoner in order to make him death-eligible. If one agrees that the death penalty is a just penalty for one who has committed a capital crime, and that the reason that mentally ill defendants should not be executed is because they lack competence, then it does not seem unethical to allow them to be forcibly medicated in order to be competent. After all, in that scenario, avoiding medication could be likened to any other attempt to avoid punishment. Moreover, an organic physical disorder that arose after conviction, but that would have prevented a defendant from committing a crime, would not be sufficient reason not to execute a person on death row.
However, forced medication, especially for court appearances, may violate a defendant's Fifth Amendment right to present a…
Bonnie, R. (2007). Panetti v. Quarterman: mental illness, the death penalty, and human dignity. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 5, 257-283.
Fentiman, L. (1986). Whose right is it anyway? Rethinking competency to stand trial in light of the synthetically sane insanity defense. University of Miami Law Review, 40, 1109-1127.
Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U.S. 399 (1986).
Panetti v. Quarterman, 127 S. Ct. 2842 (2007).
A principal, for instance, will advertise on Ed Join for, say, a third grade, second grade or whatever opening he or she has, screen and hire the candidates, and then notify Personnel.
At the io Linda Union School District, job candidates still bring in their applications in person. They bring portfolios to interviews. Not nearly as much is done online, in the screening and hiring processes, as it is at within other districts nowadays. The io Linda Union School District's still-centralized hiring, according to Barker, allows for greater consistency in hiring. Barker also added, however, that unlike in the past, she now considers it best for principals to select their own new hires from a pool of recently hired candidates, in order to best meet the needs of, and have the best fit with, that principal's own school. This, Barker said, is because unlike in the past, schools today must…
Barker, B. (October 17, 2005). Interview. Rio Linda Union School District Office,
Certificated Personnel BP 4112.2 CERTIFICATION. (October 30, 2005).
California school boards association. Retrieved October 30, 2005, at http://www.gamutonline.net/indexframes40.html.
He admits that he killed her but he states that it was an accident. In an event in which the result is death the defense of involuntary manslaughter is available if the defense can show that it was not an intentional killing.
He also used a partial wrestling defense. He was not allowed to use a complete wrestling defense because the professional wrestlers who were asked to testify to the moves that Tate had seen on television and how they were done refused to testify. The judge did not order them to testify but did allow tapes to be shown of the moves that Tate said he performed on his friend.
Tate's attorneys could have also used a manslaughter defense. Manslaughter can be used when a death occurred, the defendant knew that his or her actions might cause injury but they were not anticipating a death.
In the case of…
Where it all began: 14-year-old gets life (accessed 08-06-06) ( http://www.courttv.com/trials/wrestling/background.html )
Sons, family friend face life for murder (accessed 8-6-06) ( http://www.courttv.com/trials/king/background.html )
10th Amendment and how it relates to the states being controlled by the Federal Govt. On the legalization of pot..
Marijuana in the context of the Tenth Amendment
There is much controversy regarding the Constitution and the power it has over the people, taking into account that many individuals believe that the federal government does not have the Constitutional authority to prevent cities and states from legalizing the use of marijuana (regardless of the purpose of the substance's use). The possession of Marijuana is banned under federal law. However, when considering that the prohibition era saw alcohol banned under a Constitutional amendment, it would appear that a federal law should not be considered enough to prevent states or cities to legalize the use of marijuana. A great deal of individuals (both smokers and non-smokers) believe that the federal government is wrong in trying to force individuals to take on particular…
Ducat, Craig, R. "Rights of the Individual," (Cengage Learning, 01.02.2008)
Mack, Alison, and Joy, Janet, "Marijuana As Medicine?: The Science Beyond the Controversy," (National Academies Press, 07.12.2000)
Rahtz, Howard, "Drugs, Crime and Violence: From Trafficking to Treatment," (Hamilton Books, 16.08.2012)
Sowell, Thomas, "Ever Wonder Why? And Other Controversial Essays," (Hoover Press, 09.11.2006)
idolatry: How some object or text discovered by archeologists, or some other type of cultural or literary parallel, enhances our understanding of something in Exodus
dolatry in the ancient Near East -- a non-Exodus Perspective
Over the course of the past several decades in modernity, numerous objects as well as the actual substances of texts discovered by archaeologists, have contributed to the modern understanding of the characterization of so-called 'idol worship' in Exodus as well as other Hebrew texts, texts that have come to have been canonized as 'The Hebrew Bible," as referred to by members of the Jewish religion, or 'The Old Testament,' as such books are frequently referred to by members of the Christian faith.
Up until this point in time, the way that ancient sraelites perceived idol worship held dominance how the people who worshipped idols saw idol worship. However, the Bible frequently mischaracterizes these other…
In Exodus 15:11, the song sung by the Israelites, asking who of "our Lord" is better" among the Gods" suggests a sense that there are other gods present in the world, albeit not superior to their own, liberating force. (Anderson, 273) "Although it does not rule out the theoretical possibility that other gods might exist, it asserts as a practical orientation the fact that only one god can be worshipped," (Anderson 276) and that god is to be worshipped in a special fashion. In stories of Baal, a storm-like God of the Canaanites who defeats the chaos of that eventually gives birth to humanity, some scholars believe that Psalm 29 was originally a hymn to that God that was later adapted by Israelites, changing the name of the god to their own. (Anderson, 274). This sense of closeness of other faiths and possible competition intensified the need to reject other religions of 'idolatry.'
At all times, "the study of Israelite religion should be distinguished from Biblical theology." (Anderson, 1993, 272). In other words, the history of Biblical Israel differs from the study of the Bible as a canonical text today. The intensity of the rejection of other religions should not be read as a condemnation of Israeli temple Judaism. Rather, it is an acknowledgement of the creative religious dynamic that existed at the time. The Israeli religion was to replace the sacred space of the idolized body with the body of the temple, and the ritual rhythms of investing the material substance of idols with the sacred space and temporal, seasonal rituals of sacrifice and the replacement of sacrifice with animal, rather than human offerings, is often taken to be the essential narrative of the Abraham myth.
Sacrifice has also provided, in a highly public manner, the ability to dramatize the service of a people to God. Perhaps, in contrast to such mouth-opening ceremonies, where the act of accessing the divine was willed, the sacrifice that the ancient Hebrews eventually adopted was a way of dramatizing subservience rather than dominance.
Anti-Miscegnation Statutes in the United States
Anti-Miscegenation Statutes in the United States
Previous to Loving v. Virginia, there were several cases on the subject of miscegenation. In Pace v. Alabama (1883), the Supreme Court made a ruling that the conviction of an Alabama couple for interracial sex, confirmed on the plea by the Alabama Supreme Court, did not disrupt the Fourteenth Amendment. Interracial marital sex was considered a felony, whereas adulterous sex ("infidelity or fornication") was just a misdemeanor. On plea, the United States Supreme Court made a ruling that the illegalization of interracial sex was not a defilement of the equal protection clause since whites and non-whites were penalized in equivalent amount for the wrongdoing of involving in interracial sex. The court did not see the need to sustain the constitutionality of the prohibition on interracial marriage that was likewise part of Alabama's anti-miscegenation law. After Pace v. Alabama,…
Gambino Drug Family." Their entire drig business was based in New York City. This paper will mirror the Gambino's nationwide and international structure and operating techniques relating to the drug business. Likewise a contrast of the Gambino's from their past to present function in prohibition, drug nexus, political corruption, and various other criminal activities will be analyzed. Gradually, the Gambino household had different business interests that made them much more noteworthy in the Italian Mafia. The paper will also assess various law enforcement tools, which can be used to against this drug family.
National and international structure and operating approaches related to the drug business
The Gambino's drug business structure and operating approaches come from really sturdy links with the Sicilian Drug trade (Critchley, 2008). Till 1914, there were no genuine laws or borders against the drug market in the U.S. (Critchley, 2008). The Boylan anti-drug Law, enacted by the…
Bruno, A. (n.d). The Gambino Family. Retrieved May 18, 2013 from http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/gangsters_outlaws/family_epics/gambino/1.html
Buscaglia, E. (2003). Controlling Organized Crime and Corruption in the Public Sector. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.unodc.org/pdf/crime/forum/forum3_Art1.pdf
Critchley, D. (2008). The Origin of Organized Crime in America: the New York City Mafia, 1891-1931. London: Rutledge.
Find Law. (2011). Racketeering/RICO. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://criminal.findlaw.com/crimes/a-z/racketeering_rico.html
Prostitution and Feminism: Questions for a Modern Society
In answer to the question of whether prostitution is just another line of work, the most comprehensive and simplest answer is to say, no, it is not. The reason for this is that there are too many complexities associated with prostitution -- not just ethical and moral issues -- but also social, legal, economic, political, safety, and theoretical issues that color the sex industry. True, one could argue that any field of labor or industry could be discussed using the same terms, but the issue with prostitution is that it is a term that can be used without being properly defined. As Hallie Rose Liberto points out, when feminists discuss prostitution, they are discussing much more than the sex trade: they are discussing women's rights, women's alienation, women's health, and women's equality.[footnoteRef:1] Because the issue is those so charged with underlying meanings,…
Before discussing crimes regarding sexuality, it is important to distinguish between those laws that are currently enforced and those that are not being actively enforced. For example, there are some laws that still punish engaging in consensual homosexual behavior, certain consensual sexual acts committed in privacy between adults in non-commercial transactions, or the use of sexual aids. While these laws exist, the fact is that there simply is not a push towards the investigation, prosecution, or punishment of these crimes. On the contrary, even challenges to the constitutionality of these laws often only arise after those who oppose such laws have arranged for an arrest and prosecution. Therefore, it is improper to consider this category of crime in a discussion of overcriminalization.
However, law enforcement, prosecution, and the judiciary do expend a tremendous amount of energy targeting commercial sexual transactions. Opponents of this cite the fact that many of those…
Luna, E. (2005). The overcriminalization phenomenon. American University Law Review, 54,
Richards, D. (1986). Sex, drugs, death, and the law: an essay on human rights and overcriminalization. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, Inc.
The Sawm is the Fourth Pillar of Islam and it teaches Muslims in regard to fasting (refraining from eating or drinking). The Ramadan is the ninth month in the Islamic lunar year and is believed to be the most important period of the year in Muslim tradition. Muslims are not allowed to eat, drink, or engage in sexual intercourse throughout daylight hours every day during the Ramadan. The person who abstains from eating, drinking, and sex during daylight hours at Ramadan also has to be moral, as any sort of immorality makes the fasting pointless.
The Fifth Pillar is the Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca. People understand this pilgrimage as a physical and spiritual journey to the holiest place in Islam. The Islamic world promotes the belief that any person who is a Muslim and who is physically able to travel to Mecca should do so at least once in…
Boyd Jenkins, Orville, "MAJOR TYPES OF ISLAM," Retrieved September 10, 2011, from the Orville Jenkins website: http://orvillejenkins.com/outlineintro/types.html
Mason, Bethany, "Following the Prophet: A Comparison of Sunni and Shiite Muslims," Retrieved September 10, 2011, from the East Tennessee State University website: http://www.etsu.edu/writing/teaching&theory_s06/sunnis.htm
Penney, Sue, "Islam," Heinemann, 1999.
Ridenour, Fritz, "So What's the Difference?," Gospel Light, 2001.
Dhimmis (minorities of other religions) participated as equal citizens in this renaissance and Muslim scholars made more scientific discoveries during this time than in the whole of previously recorded history (Goldschmidt & Davidson, 2007). The break between the hiis (those who considered Ali to be legitimate ruler of the nation) and the unnis (those who revered Muhammad and all four rashidun) occurred during this period. Mystic Islam (best known as ufism), or esoteric groups were born during this period as well as Muslim philosophy.
Today, approximately 80-90% of Moslems are unnis whilst 10-20% are hiites. The key difference between unnis and hiites is that unnis believe that the first four caliphs were rightful successors to Mohamed and that caliphs should be chosen by the whole community. The alafi sect (otherwise notoriously known as Wahabbissm) is an extreme Islamic movement derived from unnism. hiites, on the other hand, believe in the…
Armstrong, K. (2000). Islam: A Short History The Modern Library: UK.
Brown, D. (1999). Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought Cambridge: Cambridge Univ,. Press
Goldschmidt, A. & Davidson, L. (2010) A concise history of the Middle East Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Hourani, A. (1991) A History of the Arab People London: Penguin
In the city of Medina, Muhammad united the warring tribes. Following eight years of fighting Mecca tribes the Muslims conquered Mecca. In the year 632, after returning to Medina from a farewell pilgrimage to Mecca, Muhammad became ill and died. At the time of his death, almost all of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to the Islamic faith. He had united the Arabian tribes into a single Muslim religious polity hegemon (ibid, 34-40).
The revelations Muhammad reported receiving until his death in 632 form the body of the Qur'an, regarded by Muslims as the "ord of God" and around which the Muslim religion is built upon. In addition to the Qur'an, Muhammad's life and traditions are observed by Muslims. These stories discuss Muhammad and the other prophets with reverence, adding the phrase peace be upon him whenever his name is mentioned. His life and deeds have been debated and criticized…
Braswell, G. (2000). What you need to know about islam and muslims. New York, NY: B&H Book.
Goldschmidt, A., & Davidson, L. (2005). A concise history of the middle east. (9th
ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Email to my friend to help her establish a legal Internet site
I understand that you want to set up a legal internet site, and I think your intentions are honorable. Setting up such a site can be a challenge not only in the technical sense of the word, but also in the legal sense since there are some legal strictures that must be met.
As see the example of the E-Bay / Bidder's Edge case, for instance, where Bidder's Edge was sued by E-Bay for having trespassed private property, Internet sites although apparently public can, from a certain aspect, be viewed as private too. Bidder's Edge ended up having to pay for its offense. It would certainly be beneficial, therefore, for us to examine relevant minutiae of its case and see how we can avoid similar problems.
Firstly: what did Bidder's Edge do that was different than…
Legal issues surrounding web sites can be quite complex, and BitLaw ('A resource on technology Law'), for instance, has quite a few pages devoted to this topic. Bitlaw's summary of these issues should be of help to you here. Its discussion of website legal issues are divided into five parts (copyright concerns; domain name concerns; trademark concerns; defamation; and linking and framing) and can be accessed on the following page: http://www.bitlaw.com/internet/webpage.html
Good luck to you in designing your website,
father's death and her father requesting that treatment be accorded him so that he speedily is delivered from his pain, Ms. Wolf is faced with the dilemma of whether or not to accede. Always a staunch opponent of any euthanasia-assisted program, she realized that the choice was not so simple and that sometimes suicide or euthanasia exists in the gray zone.
Ultimately, nature, as she puts it, helped her out and her father lingered on long enough to enjoy his last remaining moments with her and die comfortably and at peace.
In those last few hours, she sang to him, reminisced about his time with her, they shared loving and tender recollections (he moved his jaw three times inferring that he loved her); the father had a chance to see his other loved ones and his death was more of a closure. More so, during that period of time, he…
Hare, R.M. Moral Thinking, U.K: Oxford, 1981.
Kant, I. Groundwork for the metaphysics of morals New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.
Sharon, G. Sharon: the life of a leader. New York: Harper, c2011.
On the other hand, applicable laws do have authority and under the concept of moral relativism, it may be justified that any duly passed law be complied with (Svensson & Wood, 2008).
One lesson from this case might be that laws between entities in different sovereign nations can be much harder to enforce than laws between entities within the same nation. In the future, Pakistan and other nations might want to make sure that their contractual agreements contain mechanisms that make them enforceable across international borders. On a broader level, another lesson might be that ill-gotten gains should not be promoted by governments in the first place. Those who believe in the supremacy of divine law might consider the position in which Pakistan found herself to be an example of God's reminding us of the obligation to conduct ourselves ethically toward our fellow man.
Creffield, Lisa. "Why you can't…
Creffield, Lisa. "Why you can't block Skype." (August 14 -- 2006).
Halbert, Terry and Ingulli, Elaine. (2009). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Cincinnati: West Legal Studies.
Monopolies and Trusts:
Appropriate Areas for Government Intervention?
Capitalism is the economic system that has dominated the United States virtually since the day of its independence. A social and economic system based on the recognition of individual rights; capitalism demands that owners' rights to control, enjoy, and dispose of their own property must be respected. In a capitalist system, the purpose of government is to protect individual economic rights, and to make sure that no one individual, or group may employ physical or coercive force upon any other group or individual. The success of capitalism is well evident. The surpluses that this system produces have enabled individuals to experiment; to create new products, and market new ideas. These private surpluses are traded in a free market in direct competition with other buyers and sellers. Such competition is best represented by the efforts of two or more parties acting independently to…
This act enlarged the labels on the cigarettes, and required that the labels on cigarettes and cigarette ads say things like,."..Cause lung cancer...may complicate pregnancy...quitting smoking now greatly reduces hazards to your health... may result in low birth weight and fetal injury." Yet despite all these attempts to educate, all the package warnings and all the public service ads, we still see that despite the millions of dollars spent on smoking prevention each year, every year sees more and more people taking up the habit, until today death from cardiovascular disease remains the number one killer in the United States, contributed in a great part by smoking. And yet we keep legislating, when then proof shows that what we are doing is not working.
Our discussion of vice-based legislation now brings us to the subject of fattening foods. In 2002, a lawyer in New York filed suit against the four…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking-Attributable Mortality and Years of Potential Life Lost-United States, 1984. MMWR 1997 46:444-51.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Reducing Tobacco Use: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Federal Trade Commission Request for Comments Concerning Regulations Implementing the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986. Accessed [March 7, 2000]. http://www.tobaccolaw.org/Documents/Events/HealthCanadaNewcigarettelabellingmeasures.htm " Health Canada New Cigarette labeling Measures.
National Cancer Institute. Cigars Health Effects and Trends. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 9. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. NIH Publication No. 98-4302, 1998.
Euthanasia Is Illegal
Euthanasia otherwise known as assisted suicide refers to the painless extermination of a patient suffering from terminal illnesses or painful or incurable disease. According to Cavan & Dolan, euthanasia is the practice or act of permitting the death of hopelessly injured or sick individuals in a painless means for the purpose of mercy (Cavan & Dolan 12). The techniques used in euthanasia induce numerous artifacts such as shifts in regional brain chemistry, liver metabolism and epinephrine levels causing death. Advocates of euthanasia trust that sparing a patient needless suffering or pain is a good thing. If an individual is hopelessly hurt or ill with no hope of ever getting well, if such a person is in an unending and unbearable pain and cannot experience the things that make life meaningful, the best option for such patients is euthanasia. Euthanasia raises questions on morals, legal and essence of…
Baird, R. Caring for the Dying: critical issues at the edge of life. New York: Prometeus Books 2003, pp.117
Cavan, Seasmus, Dolan, Sean. Euthanasia: The Debate over the right to die. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Oct 1, 2000.
Cohen-Almagor, R. Euthanasia in the Netherlands: The policy and practice of mercy killing. Netherlands: Springer, Aug 3, 2004.
Devettere, Raymond. Practical decision making in health care ethics: Cases and concepts. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press, 2009.
Global Business Cultural Analysis
Synopsis of Nigerian government
Nigerian monarchy to presidential system
The evolution of Nigeria from British control to a civilian democratic government
Nigerian major commodities
The major elements and dimensions of culture in Nigeria
Model of culture
Universalism or Particularize
How is the integration of elements and dimensions that Nigerians doing business in the country?
The effects of governments on the prospects for its business around the world
How the elements and dimensions compared with the United States, culture, and business?
The role of women in the workplace
Business visitors must be dressed in an elegant and tie (for men!)
Cross-cultural business transactions between the United States and Nigeria
Thurstan Shaw and Steve Daniels, who are the founder for archaeological research proved in their research that Nigeria has been developed since 9,000…
Afolayan, T.E. (2011). Coming To America: The Social and Economic Mobility of African Immigrants in the United States. Inquiry (University of New Hampshire), 6-11. Retrieved from EBSCO host.
Alutu, O.E., & Udhawuve, M.L. (2009). Unethical Practices in Nigerian Engineering Industries: Complications for Project Management. Journal of Management in Engineering, 25(1), 40-43. Doi: 10.1061 / (ASCE) 0742-597X (2009)25:1(40)
American Civil ight Movement
Compare and contrast the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) on the basis of their leadership, philosophy, and tactics.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) was a civil rights organization that was initiated by African-Americans in 1957 (Fairclough, 2001). The movement was primarily aimed at ending the segregation and discrimination against the black African population in the U.S. The core philosophy of SCLC revolved around to seek civil rights and economic justice for the people of Southern States having majority of African-Americans.
Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) actually aimed achieving same objectives as those of SCLC but through non-violent sit-in and defiance of segregated dining and lunch services. The core philosophy of SNCC was also eliminating segregation but the mission statement was narrower compared to SCLC.
The most prominent leader of SCLC was Martin Luther King, Jr. Other prominent…
Dyson, M.E. (2009). April 4, 1968: Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Death and how it Changed America. Basic Books.
Fairclough, A. (2001). To Redeem the Soul of America: The Southern Christian Leadership Conference and Martin Luther King, Jr. University of Georgia Press.
Johnson & Johnson (2013). Annual Report & Proxy Statements: J&J. Retrieved from: [http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/JNJ/2770950354x0x644760/85FD0CFF-2305-4A02-8294-2E47D0F31850/JNJ2012annualreport.pdf]
Sundquist, J.L. (1968). Politics and Policy: The Eisenhower, Kennedy and Johnson Years. Brookings Institution Press.
Police Systems and Practices Question Set
Discuss how temperament can impair communication?
The ability control one's temperament at all times while working as a police officer is crucial to the performance of daily duties, because there are many instances when law enforcement personnel may be provoked to reaction in a purposeful manner. If an officer is unable to refrain from responding to insults in kind, or begins to yell or otherwise express anger, the course of an investigation or civilian interaction will become irrevocably altered. Simply put, ordinary people are less willing to cooperate with police officers and other authority figures who are openly frustrated, angry, spiteful, impatient, or otherwise perturbed -- so it is imperative that maintaining an even-keeled temperament become both a departmental and personal priority.
Discuss how failure of supervisors to act can impede future communication from subordinates.
A police officer's locker room is like any other…
Strauss on Moral Relativism
The Shifting Sand of Moral Relativism
Current political and social thought which is built on the foundation of moral relativism can no more chart a path for a nation to follow out of confusion into an enlightened and orderly society any more than a blind man can describe an elephant, or a child can pilot a 777 airliner. The tools, talents, skills, and abilities of moral relativism are completely inadequate for leading a nation. As can be seen by the steady social and societal decay which has been evident in our county since political and moral relativism have become the dominantly accepted social understanding since the early 1960's, the fruit of such a philosophy pits one group against another, one segment of the population against another without giving them any shared basis to build upon. 'My rights' replace a shared vision of 'our well-being;' and 'my…
Connor, Ken. Fighting for a Virtuous Nation. Immigrants for America. 2003. Accessed 19 March 2004. http://www.immigrantsforamerica.com/john_adams.html.
Guerra, Marc. The Ambivalence of Classic Natural Right: Leo Strauss on Philosophy, Morality, and Statesmanship. Perspectives on Political Science, Vol. 28, 1999
Petrie, John. John Petrie's collection of Benjamine Franklin Quotes. 2003 Accessed 19 March 2004. http://www.arches.uga.edu/~jpetrie/
Strauss, Leo. Liberalism, ancient and modern. Cornell University Press. 1989.
Jamaican Posse Violence / Organized Crime
Jamaican Posse Violence
Violent Jamaican posses are not new. They have been around since shortly after Hurricane Charlie struck Jamaica, back in 1951 (Gunst, 1996). Jamaicans with gang violence in mind came to the United States in 1971, and began their activities in that country as early as 1976 (Gunst, 1996). Gun battles with police and drive-by shootings with rival gangs were common, generally based on arguments over drugs and territory. In 1984, the posses started to attract the attention of law enforcement. Southern Florida was one of the most common places to find them, with the Shower Posse and the Spangler Posse being the most notable of the gangs at that time (Gunst, 1996). Those two gangs are still the most prominent today, and they have a bitter rivalry with one another. Anyone who happens to get caught up in their violence, even…
Gunst, L. (1996). Born fi' dead: A journey through the Jamaican posse underworld. NY: Holt.
Schatzberg, R. & Kelly, R.J. (1997). African-American organized crime: A social history. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Economists are concerned with the impact that the sale of drugs has on both individual and economic freedoms and frame their argument from this perspective. Others argue that reliance on the criminal justice system has not produced significant results and that it is time to reframe the argument to focus on the education, prevention, and treatment of drugs.
From the economic perspective, there are apparent differences between government prohibition and legalization of drugs. It has been estimated that total government expenditures devoted to the enforcement of drug laws is well in excess of $26 billion. These figures are also significant in state and local law enforcement agencies with drug related incidents making up one fifth of the total investigative resources and drug enforcement activities. Approximately 25% of the total prison population, municipal, state and federal, is made up of drug law violators. In fact, ten percent of all arrests are…
Millhorn, M., Monoghan, M., Montero, D., Reyes, M., Roman, T., Tollasken, R., & Walls, B. (2009). North Americans' attitudes toward illegal drugs. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(2), 125-141.
Miron, J.A. (2001). The economics of drug prohibition and drug legalization. Social Research, 68(3), 835-855.
National Institute on Drug Abuse (1998). The economic cost of alcohol and drug abuse in the United States. National Institute of Health Publication, 98-4327.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2009, April). National household survey on drug abuse main findings, 1998.
" (United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Services, 2000)
The draft environmental impact statement elicited over 1.1 million responses which the Forest Service identified and summarized into six major issue categories including:
1) Public access;
2) Identification of other unroaded areas;
3) Exemptions and exceptions
4) Environmental effects;
5) Local involvement; and 6) the effect on communities with strong natural resource affiliations. (United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Services, 2000)
These issues served to guide the process through:
1) Determining the scope of the proposal;
2) Development of a range of alternatives;
3) Direction of the analysis of potential environmental, social and economic effects;
3) Identification of possible mitigation and 4) Ensuring that the agency is operating within legal authorities. (United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Services, 2000)
Two sets of alternatives were developed:
Four alternatives, including a No Action Alterative that cover the range of possible…
Forest Service Roadless Area Conservation (2000) United States Department of Agriculture. Forest Service. Washington Office November 2000. Final Environmental Impact Statement Summary. Online available at http://roadless.fs.fed.us/documents/feis/documents/summarynb.pdf
NEPA Documentation Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)(2000) Project Development. U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. Online available at http://www.environment.fhwa.dot.gov/projdev/docueis.asp
This week, Columbian drug smugglers surgically opened six Labrador retriever and Rottweiler puppies and stuffed packets of heroin inside their bellies. Countless human beings have willingly stuck packages of illegal substances into any available bodily orifice or swallowed unknown quantities only to pass them out later. These instances indicate the grimly extreme lengths drug smugglers are willing to go in order to circumvent American drug prohibition laws. Drug trafficking is one of the world's most dangerous businesses; trafficking is intimately connected to crimes ranging from theft to murder to terrorism. In an article in Canadian paper the National Post, Ted Carpenter notes that both leftist and rightist paramilitary groups have "been financed largely by that country's cocaine trade." Carpenter continues to state, "The harsh reality is that terrorist groups have been enriched by prohibitionist drug policies that drive up drug costs ... hat anti-drug crusaders refuse to acknowledge…
Carpenter, Ted Galen. (4 Jan 2005). "Drug Prohibition is a terrorist's best friend." National Post.
'Heroine found hidden in puppies' bellies." (5 Jan 2005). MSNBC.com. < http://msnbc.msn.com/id/6791103/ >.
Ostrowski, James (1989). "Thinking About Drug Legalization." CATO Institute. < http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa121es.html >.
'Speaking Out Against Drug Legalization." United States Drug Enforcement Agency. < http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/demand/speakout/ >.
S. Constitution began yet another short-lived experiment with prohibition, only this time it was on a national level. hen it went into effect in January 1920, efforts to repeal the 18th Amendment began almost immediately. In a whirlwind of legislative activity, the 21st Amendment was ratified by the requisite number of states in record time. In their haste to repeal the 18th Amendment, though, lawmakers failed to consider the impact of section two as it might apply to interstate commerce in the Age of Information, but given the heated nature of the debate at the time, they can perhaps be forgiven this legislative oversight in the 21st century. All in all, though, the research clearly showed that the U.S. Constitution remains a living document that is capable of responding to changes in American society.
Bryce, Jenny. (2000). "Prohibition in the United States." History Review, 37.
Eng, Gordon. (2003).…
Bryce, Jenny. (2000). "Prohibition in the United States." History Review, 37.
Eng, Gordon. (2003). "Old Whine in a New Battle: Pragmatic Approaches to Balancing the Twenty-First Amendment, the Dormant Commerce Clause, and the Direct Shipping of Wine." Fordham Urban Law Journal 30(6):1849.
Kyvig, David E. Law, Alcohol, and Order: Perspectives on National Prohibition. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1985.
Livingston, William S. Federalism and Constitutional Change. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1956.
Ten Commandments, The Torah, And Judaism
When people speak of the Judeo-Christian tradition and the development of ethical values and mores, they frequently cite the Ten Commandments as an example of commonality between Judaism and Christian. In fact, the proponents of such an argument contend that the Ten Commandments represent one of the first attempts at codification of the law. As such, the argument continues, it is valid for those commandments to govern the behavior of people, whether they are Jews, Christians, or another religion. Such an argument fails to acknowledge that there is a significant difference in how the Ten Commandments are viewed by people in the two religions. To Christians, the Ten Commandments are a simple list of things to do or to avoid. Compliance with the Ten Commandments is necessary and sufficient to keep one within the grace of God. In contrast, to Jews, the Ten Commandments…
adults have an episode or two from their youth of which they are not extremely proud. Perhaps it involved sneaking a beer (or several beers) at a social function, or lying about one's plans for the evening to get permission to attend a questionable event. Most kids have learned the hard way on at least a few experiences -- speeding, missing curfew, or cheating on a test. Younger children are taught that taking a pack of gum from the store without paying for it is wrong, and that there are certain words on television that they shouldn't repeat in school. e accept these facts of life fairly easily; minors aren't mentally or socially equipped to know how they should behave all of the time. Children have to be taught about social mores, and teenagers test authority without considering the consequences in a way that most adults would. Lawbreaking -- whether…
Atkins v. Virginia, 2004, 536 U.S. 304
Case 12-285, Inter-American Court on Human Rights Rep. No 3/87 (1987)
Domingues v. State, 961 P. 2d 1279,1280, Nev. 1989
Etiology of Campus Binge Drinking
Drinking and Alcoholism
A Failed Experiment in Social Control
The consumption of alcohol has always been a focus of government efforts to limits its use, due to the potential for abuse, the financial burden imposed upon social programs, and its association with criminal activity. Between 1920 and 1934 the consumption of alcohol was outlawed in the United States, with the intention of addressing these social problems. During the first year following the enactment of Prohibition, alcohol-related deaths, psychosis, and arrests all declined by 20-40%, but between 1921 and 1927 these measures reveal a sharp increase to near pre-Prohibition levels (Miron and Zwiebel, 1991). By the end of Prohibition, which correlates with the start of the Great Depression, alcohol consumption leveled out at around 60-70% of pre-Prohibition levels despite costing three times as much for a drink. Given the infamous criminal activity that emerged around the…
Amethyst Initiative. (2008). Amethyst Initiative: Rethinking the drinking age. Retrieved July 15, 2011 from http://www.amethystinitiative.org/statement/
Beseler, Cheryl L., Taylor, Laura A., Leeman, Robert F. (2010). Alcohol-Use Disorder criteria and "binge" drinking in undergraduates. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71, 418-423.
Grucza, Richard A., Norberg, Karen E., and Beirut, Laura J. (2009). Binge drinking among youths and young adults in the United States: 1979-2006. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 692-702.
Leppel, Karen. (2006). College binge drinking: Deviant vs. mainstream behavior. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 32, 519-525.
" This is money that should be spent on (a) preventing and healing drug addiction and related issues; (b) more effective, and smarter, law enforcement. Legalizing marijuana would also generate much-needed tax revenues that can be spent on precisely those two things. From an economic or financial perspective, the legalization of marijuana will also help grow small businesses and thus can alleviate the problems associated with the current economic crisis. Low start-up costs for a marijuana grow operation also mean that low-income families and entrepreneurs can earn extra income in a legitimate way. Marijuana should be made legal because Americans value personal freedoms, too. It makes no sense for alcohol and Xanax to be legal but not marijuana. Marijuana, when made legal, can be regulated in the same way that alcohol and prescription drugs are. Police will not be wasting their time busting people for possessing a plant. Instead, pharmacists…
Armentano, Paul. "DEA Moves to Ban 'Fake Marijuana' Products." NORML. 24 Nov 2010. Retrieved Nov 25, 2010 from http://norml.org/
Cooper, Charles and McCullagh, Declan. "America's Love-Hate History with Pot." CBS News. 13 July 2009. Retrieved Nov 25, 2010: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/07/13/national/main5154550.shtml
Drug Policy Alliance. Economic consequences of the war on drugs. Retrieved 25 Nov, 2010: http://www.drugpolicy.org/library/factsheets/economiccons/fact_economic.cfm
"Legalization of Marijuana." LegalizationOfMarijuana.com. Retrieved Nov 25, 2010 from http://legalizationofmarijuana.com/
Participants are also protected by prohibiting employers from deducting costs from their tax liability of not complying with ERIA6.
Both ERIA and the Prudent Investor Rule prohibit certain types of transactions. According to Laura Jordan6, the U.. labor secretary has the power to grand exemptions from prohibitive rules under ERIA. When such exemption is not granted and fiduciaries engage in prohibitive activities regardless, the result could be liability to repay losses, return profits, and IR penalty taxes.
ERIA includes considerably more prohibitive rules than the Prudent Investor Rule. ome of these include a prohibition from engaging in transactions that are a direct sale of property between the plan and interested party; a loan or credit extension; furnishing of goods, services or facilities; or a transfer to a party of interest that will result in benefit to such a party. Among others, further prohibitions include any form of self-interest in the…
Aalberts, Robert J. & Poon, Percy S. 2006. Derivatives and the Modern Prudent Investor Rule: Too Risky or Too Necessary? Ohio State Law Journal, Vol 67, No. 3. http://moritzlaw.osu.edu/lawjournal/issues/volume67/number3/aalberts.doc
Jordan, Laura. 1999. Comparison of ERISA and State Pension Protection Provisions. OLR Research Report, Dec. 10. http://www.cga.ct.gov/ps99/rpt/olr/htm/99-r-1131.htm
Poon, Percy S. 1996. The New Prudent Investor Rule and the modern portfolio theory: a new direction for fiduciaries. American Business Law Journal, Sept 22. http://www.allbusiness.com/personal-finance/investing-financial-advisor/582147-1.html
Prudent Investor Act. http://www.nysl.nysed.gov/libdev/excerpts/ept11-23.htm