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Muhammad and Islam
The Prophet Muhammad was born in Makkah, a city in the present-day Saudi Arabia in 570 C.E. Muhammad received divine revelations (The Holy Quran) over a period of 23 years in the seventh century of the Christian Era and he developed the five pillars of Islam: the testimony of faith, which says there is no deity but God (Allah) and Muhammad is the Messenger (Prophet) of God; daily prayer at dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset and night; an annual payment of 2.5% of a Muslim's wealth which is distributed among the needy; fasting from dawn to sunset during the month of amadan; and Hajj, the annual pilgrimage to Makkah for those who are physically and financially able. Muslims believe that he is the last Messenger sent by God for the guidance of mankind until the Day of Judgment.
Known records of Muhammad's spiritual life begin when he was…
Muhammad." Retrieved October 4, 2004. Http://www.islam.com .
The Shi'is also believe in martyrdom, Hussayn's intended and benevolent sacrifice being their way to salvation just as Jesus' is for the Christians. The Shi'is believe that God's words were brought to the world only by means of the Prophet and his inheritors, the twelve divinely inspired Imams, starting with Ali. The last one will reveal himself at the end of the world to bring justice in a world that is unjust starting with the appointment of the first of Muhammad's successors and relieve its people from oppression and suffering.
So, the differences and the similarities between the Shi'is and the Sunnis rely on the issue of succession at the leadership of the ummah after Mohammned's death. Mohammed's life accounts and his words are not contested by the shi'is, they are putting under discussion the rightfulness of the decision in flavor of one leader or another to follow Mohammed. The…
Armstrong, K. Islam. A Short History. Phoenix Press. London.2003.
Fuller, G.I, Francke R.R. "Is Shi'ism Radical?" The Middle East Quarterly. March 2000. Volume VII: Number 1. Retrieved: Aug., 22, 2007. Available at http://www.meforum.org/article/35
Shanay, B. Shi'ism. Islam and Islamic Studies Resources. Copyright: 1997-2006.
Retrieved: Aug. 22, 2007. Available at http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/islam/shia/shia.html
Life of Muhammad and Islam History: Medina and the Emergence as the Prophet of Allah
Muhammad, the prophet of Allah, is considered the Muslims' direct link to the god of Islam. orn from the Quraysh tribe of Mecca and orphaned at an early age, Muhammad lived a life of comfort for the first 40 years of his life. However, at the age 40, it was indoctrinated that Muhammad had "experienced" Islam when angel Gabriel informed him that he was Allah's "chosen messenger" (Dallal, 2002). Indeed, with this new revelation sent to him, Muhammad had started preaching the news of Allah and Islam, spreading the new religion to lands and nations that will become the cradle of Islam nations (the present Middle Eastern Islamic nations).
One of the earliest followers of Muhammad to spread the new religion of Islam was his wife, Khadija, who was 15 years Muhammad's senior. However, Muhammad's…
Dallal, A. (2002). "Islam." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc.
Peters, F. (1994). Muhammad and the Origins of Islam. Albany: University of New York Press.
Tabari, F. (1997). The Victory of Islam. Albany: University of New York Press.
Life of Prophet Muhammed
There is an inherent degree of difficulty incurred in the life of a prophet. This fact is documented in a number of different texts, one of the most revealing of which is The Life of Muhammad. This book is valuable because it illustrates a multitude of events in the progression of Muhammad's life from his birth to his journey as a man. However, it does so by revealing the fact that during all stages of his life, he was favored by God -- rendering him worthy as a prophet of Allah. Furthermore, this book illustrates the fact that despite a plethora of burdensome situations, Muhammad always retained God's favor and acted in accordance with his role as a divine prophet. A close examination of the textual evidence in this manuscript reveals that as a prophet, Muhammad encountered a significant amount of austere trials, the results of…
Ishaq. The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1955.
When examining the Prophet Muhammad in a religious-historical context, it is helpful to compare him to another central religious figure in the history of the West in order to highlight how he is unique. For example, while Christ plays the role of God-Man in the Christian religion, Muhammad simply plays the role of man—though a very special one, of course.[footnoteRef:1] As the Qur’an notes: “Muhammad is no more than an apostle: many were the apostle that passed away before him.”[footnoteRef:2] However, Muhammad’s nature is unlike that of other men, for he is recognized in Islam as having the “most perfect nature” and as being “like a jewel among stones.”[footnoteRef:3] Similarly to the way in which Christ is beloved of the Father in Christianity, Muhammad is “the beloved of God (habib Allah), whom the Quran calls an excellent model (uswah hasanah) to emulate.”[footnoteRef:4] Another distinction that can be made is…
Medina Charter" Prophet Muhammed's reign 1948 "International Declaration Human Rights" in terms similarities differences. (Please essay simple eyes). Font: 14 times roman
Even with the fact that the masses have been accustomed to considering that human rights have not been a priority for most major powers from around the world until the second half of the twentieth century, the truth is that humanity has expressed great interest in the concept centuries before this moment. Muhammad founded the Medina Constitution in 622 A.D. with the purpose of having a complex community of Muslims, Jewish individuals, and pagans living together in harmony. It is very intriguing that this Charter was issued thirteen centuries earlier than the Universal Declaration of Human Rights when taking account that the latter contains a great deal of ideas present in the former.
hile the Medina Charter can be perceived as a rough and faulty draft of the…
Ramadan, Hisham R., "Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary," (Rowman Altamira, 2006)
"Human rights not coined in heaven," Retrieved October 14, 2012, from the Institute of Islamic Understanding Malaysia Website: http://e-kiosk.ikim.gov.my/downloadarticle.asp?id=251
"The Medina Charter," Retrieved October 14, 2012, from the MPAC Website: http://www.mpac-ng.org/specialtopic/386-the-medina-charter.html
Non- Muslim scholars have made speculations about the dates and authenticity of the Quran, accounts of Islamic history and the Sira literature. The literatures have elicited a wide range of responses from Muslims. Others dismiss the ideas as fantasies from unbelievers, whereas others view them as dangerous attacks from the enemy designed to undermine the true faith. Apart from literary sources, other historians have tried to make speculations using graffiti, abandoned settlements, coins, inscriptions, glassware, coins, pottery, and mile makers who used caravan routes to shed some light on Islamic history, especially through the religion's prophetic role among the selected; Prophet Muhammad. These sources depict a mythological perspective and truth based on the history, life and role of prophecy in completing the principles of Islam according to Prophet Muhammad.
According to Islamic sources, Muhammad's prophetic career started two decades prior; around the 610 when he was forty years…
Haleem, A.M.A.S. The Qu'ran: A New Translation. London: Oxford, 2005.
Hisham, I.A., Ishaq, I.M., Guillame, A. The Life Of Muhammad. Chicago: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Sells, M.A. Approaching The Quran. Virginia: White Clouds Press Virginia, 2007.
Shephard, W. Introducing Islam. New York: Routledge, 2009.
Mohammed Professional Values
In Hey. I a research paper "Professional Work Values life Prophet Mohammad" Your research answer questions 1.What values? 2.What impact values? Use business corporate evidence prove argument. 3.How values a foundation organizational culture unifies Human Capital a diverse nature a contemporary organization?.
Professional work values and leadership: The life of the prophet Mohammed
The founder of Islam, the prophet Mohammed, is mainly known as a spiritual leader. But many of the values he embodied in his life would also be instructive for the world of business. Mohammed was a man committed his vision and values, just like all business leaders must be, to ensure that their followers believe that the organization is delivering something unique to consumers. Mohammed's life as well as his words continues to inspire people of all faiths.
Even before he became a religious figure, Mohammed was famous for his honesty and trustworthiness. "When…
Five pillars of Islam. (2009). BBC. Retrieved:
Life of Mohammed. (2002). PBS. Retrieved:
God the Almighty bestowed on His Beloved Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) a miracle -- al- Israa' wal- Mi'raj (the Night Journey & Ascension) -- in order that his honor be increased and that he be revealed one of His grand signs. God the Almighty says in the Holy Qur'an:
"Holy is He Who carried His bondman by night from the Sacred Mosque to the Aqsa Mosque around which We have put blessings that We may show him Our grand signs; No doubt, He is the Hearing, the Seeing." [Qur'an. 17: 1] and: "By the lovely shining star Muhammad, when he descended from the Ascension (Meraj). Your companion neither went astray nor misled. And he speaks not of his own desire. That is not but the revelation that is revealed to him. He was taught by one possessing mighty powers. Possessor of strength. Then that splendid sight proceeded. And he was on…
Jewish and Islamic Philosophers and the Role of the Prophet in Their Political Visions
To divide the view of the role of the prophet in Islam and Jewish writers' sense of the political order throughout history by looking solely at religion would be to ignore crucial elements that made up the perspective of these writers. Al-Farabi, for instance, was an Islamic philosopher of the 10th century whose political outlook was based more on Aristotelian ethics than it was on Islam, though his view of prophecy was shaped by his sense of Muhammad and the prophet's significance in Islam. Or there is the 12th century philosopher Judah Halevi, who, like Al-Farabi, viewed the philosophical order as a whole system complete in and of itself, independent of other systems. Yet, while Al-Farabi accepted the Aristotelian concept that Happiness was the ultimate end of humanity (the goal to be worked towards by society,…
Al-Farabi. "The Political Regime." In Medieval Political Philosophy ed. by Joshua
Parens, Joseph Macfarland. London: Cornell University Press, 2011.
Averroes. "The Decisive Treatise." In Medieval Political Philosophy ed. by Joshua
Parens, Joseph Macfarland. London: Cornell University Press, 2011.
Jesus and Mohammed -- Their Lives & Legacies
Jesus Christ and Mohammed are thought of historically -- and today as well -- as the two individuals that have probably had the greatest impact on the world in a spiritual and religious context. hile other iconic spiritual and religious leaders have made their mark on history and society, Jesus (who founded Christianity; today there are an estimated 2.8 billion followers) and Mohammed (Islam's most holy figure; there are an estimated 2.2 billion Muslims), Jesus was believed to be the Son of God, who came to earth to offer humans an opportunity to have everlasting life. Mohammed, on the other hand, is believed to be the prophet who received the text of Islam from God and led the growth of Islam.
This paper traces the lives of Jesus and Mohammed, compares the impact that their deaths had on society, describes the way…
Biography. (2005). Jesus Christ Biography / Synopsis. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://www.biography.com .
Boff, Leonardo. (2011). Passion of Christ, Passion of the World. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books
History-Timelines. (2007). Timeline of Jesus. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://www.history-timelines.org.uk .
Public Broadcast Service. (2006). The Life of Mohammed. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://www.pbs.org .
lives Jesus Mohammed relation respective religion. The paper formatted APA guidelines, include research sources. Be complete steps paper: 1. Trace lives Jesus Mohammed historically.
Jesus and Mohammed
Standing as the two principal religions on the planet, Christianity and Islam are most recognized for the individuals who made it possible for them to exist. Jesus is the major figure in the world of Christianity while Mohamed is the central figure in the Islamic world. Given religion is presently one of the most debated topics, one of the best methods of understanding each of the two religious faiths would be to analyze the characters that stand at the base of each of them.
Although there is no exact evidence to demonstrate when Jesus was born, most sources point toward the belief that the act occurred somewhere before the death of King Herod the Great. There are a series of scholarly accounts meant…
Rausch, Thomas P. "Who is Jesus?: an introduction to Christolog." (Liturgical Press, 2003).
Sarker, Abraham. "Understand My Muslim People." (Barclay Press, 2004).
The impact each has had on their respective followers, as well as the millions of other individuals who choose not to follow their teachings is overwhelming in nature. For two individuals who lived so many centuries ago to still hold sway over such a large portion of the population is a testament to their influence. Currently both Mohammed and Jesus are honored on special days throughout the year, and more than that they are also venerated and revered every single day by millions of faithful followers of their respective teachings.
The teachings of Jesus are currently being presented through the Christian Bible and primarily through the four gospels of the New Testament. These four books were written approximately forty to sixty years after the death of Jesus and relate the stories of his life and times. "hat Christians believe about Jesus' life and teachings is based largely on biblical texts,…
Fisher, M.P. (2005) Living Religions (6th ed), New York: Prentice Hall
John the Disciple, (1979) the Bible: New Testament, Salt Lake City, Utah: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
As an adolescent, Mohamed managed to make use of his businessman nature and his remarkable communicational skills. At the age of twenty five he was entrusted with taking care of the caravans of a rich widow which he later married. Being very fond of religion, Mohamed paid a great interest to udaism and Christianity, but was quick to dispose of both of them as he didn't share the principles of the two. He often visited a temple in Mecca where people were worshiping three hundred and sixty Gods. Mohamed felt attracted by Allah, the moon God, and began to claim that the moon God had been the one true God people should worship. As a very religious man that he had been, Mohamed was known to dedicate several weeks to the divinity by praying in a cave near Mecca where he allegedly had numerous visions of God and of heaven.…
Jesus or Mohammed. Retrieved Aug. 29, 2008. Available at http://www.tftw2.org/Tracts/mohammed.html
Biography of Jesus Christ. Retrieved Aug. 29, 2008. Available at http://www.sacklunch.net/biography/J/JesusChrist.html
Religion Facts. Retrieved: Aug 29, 2008. Available at http://www.religionfacts.com
The Diet and Lifestyle of the Followers of Mohammed
People who lived during the time of Mohammed followed a specific dietary system and lifestyle which was modeled on that of the prophet. The diet was natural and holistic and the lifestyle was as well. For example, after morning prayers, the prophet would dissolve a spoonful of honey in water and drink this, and his followers would do the same. The purpose of this was that not only would the honey sweeten the water but also it would prepare the digestive tract for the breakfast that was soon to follow (Abdalshafy, 2014). This honey juice was especially important in the life of Mohammed and his followers in maintaining a healthy, regimental lifestyle. This paper shall discuss other aspects of the lifestyle and dietary system of the followers of Mohammed at this point in time.
Breakfast for the followers of…
Abdalshafy, M. (2014). Optimum health from the Food of the Prophet. Encyclopedia of Miracles in Coran and Sunnah. Available from http://www.quran-m.com/firas/en1/index.php/prophetical/458-optimum-health-from-the-food-of-the-prophet.html
Muir, W. (1861). Life of Mahomet. London: Smith, Elder.
Muslim Health Network. (2014). Islam and Health. MHN. Available from http://www.muslimhealthnetwork.org/islamandhealth.shtml
Nigosian, S. (2004). Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices. IN: Indiana
Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon
The film, documentaries and the last docudrama are exceptional production pieces by notable directors and producers. Crouching tiger-hidden dragon defies the usual mantra of strength only attributed to men. Jen effectively acts as person having higher morals. The martial arts performance was exceptional, an unusual feature in Hollywood. Islam, the empire of faith is another documentary made on the rise of Islamic empire and the life of Prophet Mohammad having a great impact on establishment of religion. 'Gandhi' also remains an unquestioned production classic that eloquently portrays Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the unquestioned leader of India. The film sheds light on Hinduism as a religion and its faith and dogmas. Lastly, Kundan is a docudrama based on life of Dalai Lama. 'Kundan' might not have justified the stature of Buddhism in history of mankind but the piece of production remains an earnest effort on part of Martin…
Bowker, J. & Bowker, D. (1997). World religions. Dorling Kindersley.
Chan, K. (2004). The Global Return of the Wu Xia Pian (Chinese Sword-Fighting Movie): Ang Lee's Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. Cinema Journal, 43(4), 3-17.
Conze, E. (2004). Buddhism: Its essence and development. Windhorse Publications.
Driver, M.W. & Ray, S. (2004). The medieval hero on screen: representations from Beowulf to Buffy (Vol. 56). McFarland & Company Incorporated Pub.
The association drawn between the leader's teachings and the principled disposition of his followers appeals to a modern Judeo-Christian vantage as well. As the documentary proceeds to its discussion on figures such as Jesus and Mohammed, the constancy of world religion becomes that much clearer. In many ways, Jesus and Muhammed may be perceived as twin pillars on a single continuum. Indeed, "Muhammed regarded himself as the last prophet of the Judaic-Christian tradition. He adopted aspects of these older religion's theologies while introducing new doctrines." (Katz, 1) Thus, it is not surprising that upon its inception into the world at around 570 CE, the Islamic religion produced a legal code which was monotheistic, centered on the prescription of ethical law and applicable in both the theocratic and civil arenas.
This law would likewise predispose the Muslim people to many rituals which echoed those of the Judeo Christian ethic. Like Jesus…
Films Media Group (FMG). (1998). Three Pillars: Confucius, Jesus and Mohammed. Films for the Humanities & Science.
Katz, J. (2001). The Prophet Mohammed. Eretz Yisroel.
Esposito finds that the premodernist revival movements of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries contributed to the pattern of Islamic politics that developed and left a legacy for the twentieth century. These movements were motivated primarily in response to internal decay rather than external, colonial threat (Esposito 40-41).
At the same time, many areas of the Islamic world experienced the impact of the economic and military challenge of an emerging and modernizing est beginning in the eighteenth century. Declining Muslim fortunes also reversed the relationship of the Islamic world to the est, from that of an expanding offensive movement to a defensive posture. Muslim responses to these changes ranged from rejection to adaptation, from Islamic withdrawal to acculturation and reform. Some responded by secular reform, and by the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Islamic modernist movements had also developed in an attempt to bridge the gap between tradition and modernity…
Ahmed, Leila. Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. New Haven: Yale University, 1992.
Islamic Liberalism. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1988.
Eickelman, Dale F. The Middle East: An Anthropological Approach. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1989.
The poems Catullus wrote to the woman Lesbia are among his best known. How would you characterize their affair?
Catallus describes a conflicted and stormy affair with the women of Lesbia. Sexual tension is evident in his poems, which have a strong erotic content. Therefore, his affairs were passionate and physical.
If the gender roles were reversed and the woman were the narrator, do you think this series of poems would read differently? Explain.
The poems would read differently not because their content would have changed but because they would subvert social norms. As a male, Catallus is allowed, almost expected to write such explicit details about his physical affairs including references to love and hatred. Females would have been more subtle because of the widespread social persecution they might suffer if they admitted to promiscuity or tumultuous romantic interludes especially with married people.
Catullus ends up calling his lady…
Byzantine Empire in the Eastern Mediterranean that extended from Syria, Egypt up to and across North Africa is seen to have made significant contact with the emerging Islamic world in the period from seventh and ninth Centuries. The seventh century saw the vast territories in these regions being ruled by the Byzantine Empire from Constantinople, the now Istanbul. These Southern provinces or territories were greatly influenced by the Greco-oman traditions and formed the home of Coptic, Orthodox and Syriac Christians and Jewish communities. These regions were critical to the wealth and the power of the empire. Great centers for pilgrimage saw large numbers of faithful visit the place coming from as far off as Yemen towards the East and Scandinavia towards the West. There were also major trade routes that extended all the way to India in the South that saw ferrying of silk and ivories into the region, commerce…
Cunningham & Reich, (n.d.: Pp 162). Byzantium.
Rosenberg K., (2012). Ornate Links Tethering Cultures in Flux. Retrieved June 6, 2014 from http://www.nytimes.com /2012/03/16/arts/design/byzantium-and-islam-age-of-transition-at-the-met.html?_r=1&
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, (2012). Byzantium and Islam Age of Transition. Retrieved June 6, 2014 from http://www.metmuseum.org/exhibitions/listings/2012/byzantium-and-islam
In the city of Medina, Muhammad united the warring tribes. Following eight years of fighting Mecca tribes the Muslims conquered Mecca. In the year 632, after returning to Medina from a farewell pilgrimage to Mecca, Muhammad became ill and died. At the time of his death, almost all of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to the Islamic faith. He had united the Arabian tribes into a single Muslim religious polity hegemon (ibid, 34-40).
The revelations Muhammad reported receiving until his death in 632 form the body of the Qur'an, regarded by Muslims as the "ord of God" and around which the Muslim religion is built upon. In addition to the Qur'an, Muhammad's life and traditions are observed by Muslims. These stories discuss Muhammad and the other prophets with reverence, adding the phrase peace be upon him whenever his name is mentioned. His life and deeds have been debated and criticized…
Braswell, G. (2000). What you need to know about islam and muslims. New York, NY: B&H Book.
Goldschmidt, A., & Davidson, L. (2005). A concise history of the middle east. (9th
ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
The Sawm is the Fourth Pillar of Islam and it teaches Muslims in regard to fasting (refraining from eating or drinking). The Ramadan is the ninth month in the Islamic lunar year and is believed to be the most important period of the year in Muslim tradition. Muslims are not allowed to eat, drink, or engage in sexual intercourse throughout daylight hours every day during the Ramadan. The person who abstains from eating, drinking, and sex during daylight hours at Ramadan also has to be moral, as any sort of immorality makes the fasting pointless.
The Fifth Pillar is the Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca. People understand this pilgrimage as a physical and spiritual journey to the holiest place in Islam. The Islamic world promotes the belief that any person who is a Muslim and who is physically able to travel to Mecca should do so at least once in…
Boyd Jenkins, Orville, "MAJOR TYPES OF ISLAM," Retrieved September 10, 2011, from the Orville Jenkins website: http://orvillejenkins.com/outlineintro/types.html
Mason, Bethany, "Following the Prophet: A Comparison of Sunni and Shiite Muslims," Retrieved September 10, 2011, from the East Tennessee State University website: http://www.etsu.edu/writing/teaching&theory_s06/sunnis.htm
Penney, Sue, "Islam," Heinemann, 1999.
Ridenour, Fritz, "So What's the Difference?," Gospel Light, 2001.
She is warm and straightforward, considerate and humble. She is not a hypocrite or a cheat, does not speak falsely and offers good advice in a prudent way and for the general welfare. She has a word and keeps it. She is modest in appearance and in manners. She respects others as she respects herself and keeps out of matters where she is not part of. She does not sow dissension or seek out hidden faults. No matter how achieved or excellent she may feel, she does not show off. She is not oppressive, but is, instead, fair and generous. She does not delight in the misfortune of another person but endeavors to help overcome it.
The bigots who put her down have ironically benefited the ideal Muslimah. They believe that the Muslim woman or any woman should keep her mouth shut as a result of her "original sin" in…
Ahmed, Leila. Women and Gender in Islam. Yale University Press, August 19, 1993
Al-Hashimi, Muhammad Ali. The Ideal Muslimah. International Islamic Publishing House, 1998. http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/humanrelations/womeninislam/idealmuslimah
Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf. The Voice of a Woman in Islam. Sister's Page, Islamic World Net. http://www.islamic-world.net/sister/the_voice.htm
Godlas, a. Women in Islam: Muslim Women. Islamic Studies, 2004. http://www.arches.uga.edu/~godlas/Islamwomen.html
Authors Donald Lively and ussell Weaver describe Hustler Magazine as Falwell's "antagonist (p. 79)," no doubt representing for Falwell abuses of our Constitutional freedoms.
"In 1983, Hustler Magazine decided to parody Falwell using a Campari Liqueur advertisement. The actual Campari ads portrayed interviews with various celebrities about their 'first times.' Although the advertisement actually focused on the first time that the celebrities had sampled Campari, the ads portrayed the double entendre of the first time that the interviewees had engaged in sex. Hustler mimicked the Campari format and created a fictional interview with Falwell in which he stated that his 'first time' was during a drunken incestuous rendezvous with his mother in an outhouse (p. 79)."
The Oregon Commentator, May, 2007
There is probably no limit to the outrage that was felt by Falwell, and by his support base, both of which would have been offended, first, by using Falwell…
Block, H. (Artist) (1979). Spiritual Leader, Washington Post, Field Newspaper
Syndicate, April 8, 1979. Found online at Pop Art Machine, http://popartmachine.com/item/pop_art/LOC+1158615/SPIRITUAL-LEADER-/-HERBLOCK.-UNPROCESSED-%5BITEM%5D-%5BP&P%5DREPRODUCTION ..., retrieved March 1, 2010.
Chunovic, L. (2000). One Foot on the Floor: The Curious Evolution of Sex on Television
From I Love Lucy to South Park. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Hebrew history, as told by the Hebrews, begins in Mesopotamia, in the cities of Ur in the south and Haran in the north. With Abraham, the story of the Hebrews begins, and it is clearly stated that Hebrew origins lay outside Canaan. The command to leave his ancestral home and journey to Canaan was accompanied by a promise (Gen. 12:2) The exact location of the nation-to-be is not specified but was, of course, known to those hearing or reading the account, Abraham journeyed to Canaan, Egypt, the Negeb, Hebron, Gezer, Beer-sheba and back to Hebron where he and his wife Sarah died.
The journey itself was more than a pilgrimage, for it represented the starting point of a continuing adventure in nationhood. Nor are the travelers without vicissitudes, but throughout famine, earthquake, fire and war, god protected them.
The close relationship between the Hebrews and…
There is an obvious contradiction between what we think of Muslim women and their actual life. In order to better understand them and their social and civil life, we need to understand their religion and the way of thinking for both men and women.
In the introductory chapter of the book "The war of Muslim Minds, Islam and the West," Gilles Kepel talks about the online article "Knights under the Prophet's anner," published on the Internet in December 2001 by Ayman al-Zawahiri, Al Qaeda's most valued ideologue and Osama bin Laden's mentor.
According to his statements, the explanation for the attack of September 11 on the World Trade Centre is a simple and rather nationalistic one. Jihad activists came to face the disappointing conclusion that wherever they would go, Afghanistan, osnia or Saudi Arabia, jihad activist were unable to motivate and gather up the masses in order to fight…
Gilles Kepel, "The War of Muslim Minds, Islam and the West," The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England, 2004
Bernard Lewis and Robin Wright, Laith Kubba, "Islam and Liberal Democracy: Recognizing Pluralism," Journal of Democracy 7.2 (1996) 86-89
Meria, Middle East Review of International Affairs, Journal, Volume 3, Number 1, March 1999, Article "Islam, Islamists and democracy," by Ali R. Abootalebi
Zuleyha Keskin, "Status of Women in Islam," 2005
Essentially, science utilizes the power of reason and logic in its search for the truth while religion depends almost wholly upon faith, being a belief in something without any evidence whatsoever to support it. In the realms of science, investigators seek to understand natural phenomena through direct observation and experimentation which makes it mandatory that all interpretations of the facts be provisional and testable. Statements made by any authority, revelation or appeal to the supernatural are not part of this process, due to the absence of supporting evidence.
Thus, in the eyes of religious scholars and authorities, all opposition to what science has uncovered is based on faith and mythological revelation which takes precedence over evidence. Also, the tenets of religion have not, for the most part, changed much over time and cannot be validated when subjected to the scientific method.
Like many others that study the natural world, scientists…
More recently, reports have begun coming from the Middle East that women will no longer be "expected" to participate in the pilgrimage to Mecca, thereby eliminating women from the holiest rite associated with Islam. Having once done that, it would then be easy to keep women physically, mentally, emotionally isolated within any Muslim society.
Of equal concern is the way in which the Koran is interpreted to facilitate and carry acts of terrorism. The Koran does call for the defense of Islam, that should Islam be threatened, it is the responsibility of every Muslim - presumably, women too - to rise to the defense of Islam."Islamic rulings of warfare are complex, appear to be contradictory and require careful analysis. The simplistic visions of paradise for suicide preached by militant jihadist clerics defy over 1,400 years of Islamic history and wisdom. Yet those like Osama bin Laden, yman al Zawahiri, or…
Aboul-Enein, Y. And Zuhur, S., p. 18.
Answers.com, Zahra Kazemi, found online at http://www.answers.com/topic/zahra-kazemi , retrieved 10 January 2007
Aboul-Enein, Y. And Zuhur, S., p. 19.
It was their right and duty as loyal followers, a way they could prove their faith and their commitment to God. This mindset is one reason the Muslims under Mohammed's leadership during his conquests were so successful, as described below.
Reasons for Success
Mohammed and his followers defeated migrants and other raiding parties in part because they decided to attack and defend their holy place during the holy month of Ramadan, something that was unexpected. Among those the Muslims following Mohammed opposed included a group named the Quraysh. During the infamous battle at adr Walls, Mohammed said to his followers about to engage in battle, that "no man will be slain this day fighting against them with steadfast courage, advancing and not retreating, but God will cause him to enter Paradise." Many Muslims following the messenger Mohammed believed that God sent to them 3,000 angels the day of the conquest…
Akbar, M.J. The Shade of Swords: Jihad and the Conflict between Islam and Christianity.
London: Routledge, 2002.
Ali, Ameer. The Spirit of Islam: A History of the Evolution and Ideals of Islam with a Life of the Prophet. London: Christophers. 1922.
Bainbridge, William Sims and Stark, Rodney. "The Rise of a New World Religion."
The lower part, which was created first, consisted originally of a single earth which God then split into seven. The seven earths are arranged one above another like a stack of plates; we inhabit the top one, and the devil the bottom one, which is hell. Above the earths God placed an analogous stack of heavens; the lowest heaven is our own sky, the topmost is Paradise. The scale is generous by terrestrial standards: the standard distance, that between any two neighbouring plates, takes five hundred years to traverse, and larger dimensions are encountered at the top and bottom (Cook, 26)."
Jacob Neusner, Bruce Chilton, and illiam Graham (2002) put the notion of Christian heaven into context by citing 1 Corinthians 15:45-49, which reads:
So also it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a living psyche; the last Adam is life-giving spirit. The spiritual is not first, but the…
Cook, Michael. Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University, 1996. Questia. 24 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=74431275 .
Cragg, Kenneth. Sandals at the Mosque: Christian Presence amid Islam. New York: Oxford University Press, 1959. Questia. 24 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9518917 .
Sunni Muslims argue that control of the community is not hereditary or a birthright, but a trust that must be earned and therefore can be given or taken away by the people themselves.
Another difference comes in the sanctity of religious texts. Shia Muslims have some resentment to some of the contemporaries of the Prophet Muhammad. This sprouts from their stands and deeds in the historical years of discord about leadership among the Muslim nations. It is said that Abu Bakr, Umar, Aisha, etc. (Sunnis) narrated much about the Prophet Muhammad's life and spiritual encounters, practice and journey. The Shia Muslims reject these Hadith do not take them as a basis for their religious practices. This accordingly informs divergence in religious practice between the Sunnis and Shias. The differences concern aspects of religious life: prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, and so on and so forth. For instance Shi'ites can condense the five…
Austine Cline. 'Sunni Islam vs. Shia Islam: Islam Cannot be Criticized as a Monolithic Faith.'
Web. 3 May 2010. http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/islam/blfaq_islam_sunni.htm
Huda. 'Introduction to Islam' About.Com. Web. 3 May 2010.
Holy books contain the prophets' teachings" (Douglass). Islam has the Qur'an and Christians have the Bible. Douglass points out that both texts teach about "Adam, and that Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and others" (Douglass). Christians also believe in prayer, fasting, and alms - just not in the same way that Muslims do. Christians pray whenever they like and while the Bible teaches that believers should tithe 10% of their earnings, it is not a strict recommendation. Christians can also fast but it not required of them to do so at any particular time of year. Both religions warn against false prophets and worshipping the creation as opposed to the creator. Both religions believe in angelic beings and both religions believe in some type of day of judgment. Furthermore, both religions adopt a version of hell and heaven in the afterlife.
Christianity and Islam share many difference as well. hile Muslims…
Philips, Abu Ameenah Bilal. "The True Religion." IslamWorld.net. Site Accessed September 03, 2008. http://islamworld.net/docs/true.html
Besancon, Alain. "What Kind of Religion Is Islam?" Commentary. May 2004. EBSCO Resource Database. Site Accessed September 03, 2008. http://search.epnet.com
Douglass, Susan. What is Islam? Faces. February 2008. EBSCO Resource Database. Site Accessed September 03, 2008.
Female circumcision, has been a point of contention for many years with regard to Islam, as Islam or more specifically the Quran and "secret" texts of it have often been used as the sited foundation of the practice. hat is abundantly clear is that this practice in its mildest to most extreme forms predates the Quran and the Prophet Mohamed. Once again this may be an example of a situation where Mohamed observed something that he believed was hurting women and he attempted to control the practice. Though there is also evidence that this is not something Mohamed would ever have observed, as it was a secluded practice, performed by women on women and that it was not prolific within the region, where he lived and traveled.
Leonard 168) the Quranic evidence associated with circumcision is limited to two passages. One Hadeeth discusses circumcision…
Abu-Hamdiyyah, Mohammad. The Qur'an: An Introduction. London: Routledge, 2000.
Badawi, Jamal. "Gender Equity in Islam" webpage at http://www.soundvision.com/info/gender/femalecircumcision.asp,2007 .
Cook, Michael a. The Koran: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Cragg, Kenneth. The Mind of the Quran: Chapters in Reflection. London: Allen & Unwin, 1973.
Prophet Mohammad understood the importance of implementing sharia and therefore as soon as any conquest was made, he and his companions would first focus on enforcing shariah. Shariah law was a way of uniting Muslims so they would all stand united under one system of law. There wouldn't be any difference in laws that existed in Iraq or in Spain.
Between about 800 and 900 the main trends of thought on legal matters hardened into schools or rather rites -- the latter word is preferable when referring to in practice rather than in theory. Some of these rites, such as the Zahirite which had a notable exponent in Spain, died out after a time. Among the Sunnites, or main body of Muslims, four rites came to be recognized as permissible variants -- the Hanafite, the Malikite, the Shafite and the Hanbalite. So far as al-Andalus is concerned the only one…
W. Montgomery Watt, a History of Islamic Spain (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1965)
Charles Reginald Haines. Christianity and Islam in Spain (756-1031) LONDON
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH & CO., PATERNOSTER SQUARE 1889
Teachings and Practice of Islam
The Teachings of Islam Around the World: Outline
Islam is an incredibly complex religion, where religious practices often differ depending on the cultural context of the region in which it is practices in.
Basic Teachings of Islam
History of Islam
Five Pillars: Prayer and Practices
How it is Practiced in the United States and Great Britain
Influx in Muslims
Facing Adversity and Stereotypes
Muslims as a Minority
Spread of Islam into India
Other Asian Nations
Islam as eacting Against a Growing Western Presence
The Middle East
Islamic Law as National Law
C. Gender Issues
The Teachings of Islam Around the World
No two Muslims are alike, just as any two persons of any other religion. Here in the West, we tend to lump categories of Muslims together, without understanding…
Ahmad, Ghulam. (2003). Teachings of Islam 1896. Kessinger Publishing.
Morgan, Diane. (2010). Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. ABC-CLIO.
Raatma, Lucia. (2009). World Religions: Islam. Capstone Publishing.
Shamsul, A.B. (2006). Convergence of interesting and sharing a future: Deepening the Understanding of Islam in Asia and Europe. ASIEN. 62-69. Web. http://www.asienkunde.de/content/zeitschrift_asien/archiv/pdf/A100_062_069.pdf
Shi'ism in the World & the Shiite Islamic Sect in Nigeria
Shi'ism in the World
History, Objectives & General Outlook
Shiite Muslims make up the second biggest denomination of Islam, with the biggest numbers being represented by the Sunnis. The Shiite Muslims form about fifteen percent of Muslims. However, they are dominant in the nations of Iran, Azerbaijan, Iraq and Bahrain. In addition, Muslims have a plurality in Yemen and Lebanon too (Cave, 2006). These two distinct groups within the Islam community first differed and deviated from each other following the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632. The divide arose from the fact that the followers were not able to come to an agreement as to whether it was right to select bloodline successors or able leaders most capable of following and propagating the tenets of the Muslim faith (Fuller and Francke, 2000).
The Shiite community commenced during the 650s,…
Akhavi, S. (1983). The ideology and praxis of Shi'ism in the Iranian revolution. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 25(02), 195-221.
Campbell, J. (2015). "Massacre" of Shia in Northern Nigeria an Opening for Iran. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 5 January 2016 from: http://blogs.cfr.org/campbell/2015/12/16/massacre-of-shia-in-northern-nigeria-an-opening-for-iran/
Cave, D. (2006). Telling Sunni from Shiite. The New York Times. Retrieved 5 January 2016 from:shttp://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/s/shiite_muslims/index.html
Center for Security Policy. (2014). Will Sunni-Shia tensions spread to Nigeria? Retrieved 5 January 2016 from: https://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/2014/11/03/will-sunni-shia-tensions-spread-to-nigeria/
Nor could a man repudiate the oath made by any of his female relatives." (Azeem, 1995)
VI. The ROLE of the MOTHER
Part two of the work entitled: "Women in Islam vs. Women in the Judaeo-Christian Tradition: The Myth and the Reality" states that in relation to 'mothers' from the viewpoint of the Old Testament, there are several commandments concerning the necessity for kind and considerate treatment of parents and a condemnation for those who dishonor their parents. In Islam, the mother holds a very special place and as described by the Prophet Muhammad as follows: "A man asked the Prophet: 'Whom should I honor most?' The Prophet replied: 'Your mother'. 'And who comes next?' asked the man. The Prophet replied: 'Your mother'. 'And who comes next?' asked the man. The Prophet replied: 'Your mother!'. 'And who comes next?' asked the man. The Prophet replied: 'Your father'" (ukhari and Muslim;…
Hughson, G., Johnston, S.A., Bisman, D. (nd) Understanding the Three Abrahamic Faiths: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The Dunedin Jewish, Christian and Muslim Community Liaison Group.
Q&a on Islam and Arab-Americans (2001) USA Today. 30 Sept 2001 Online available at http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/islam.htm
Azeem, Dr. Sherif Abdel (1995) Women in Islam vs. Women in the Judaeo-Christian Tradition: The Myth & the Reality. Part I. Online available at http://www.themodernreligion.com/women/w_comparison_full.htm
Kingston, SM (1995) Women in Islam vs. Women in the Judaeo-Christian Tradition: The Myth & the Reality. Part II. Online available at: 10 Feb 1995 Online available at http://www.themodernreligion.com/women/w_comparison_full2.htm
No doubt, such feelings are greatly exacerbated by the current hard-line policies of the U.S. government in the Middle East,
There is a general perception in the estern world that the religion of Islam is inherently incompatible with the ideals of democracy such as individual liberties and freedom of speech. The recent controversy over the cartoons of Prophet Muhammad, published by a Danish newspaper, and the violent reaction of Muslims has further solidified the impression. A deeper look at the basic Islamic beliefs and history indicates that such a perception may be misplaced. The apparent unbridgeable gulf between Islam and modern day democratic societies can be breached if the commonalities between the two instead of their differences are highlighted.
The Internal Jihad." BBC ebsite. 2006. November 12, 2006. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/beliefs/jihad_2.shtml
Is Islam Compatible with Democracy?" Oxford Analytica International. September 14, 2004. November 12, 2006. http://www.cmf.ch/transfert/_sCrans/press/INTERNATIONAL_%20Is%20Islam%20compatible%20with%20democracy_.pdf?PHPSESSID=a38d9661926c82c05cced11e8feee1a2
The Last ord:…
The Internal Jihad." BBC Website. 2006. November 12, 2006. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/beliefs/jihad_2.shtml
Is Islam Compatible with Democracy?" Oxford Analytica International. September 14, 2004. November 12, 2006. http://www.cmf.ch/transfert/_sCrans/press/INTERNATIONAL_%20Is%20Islam%20compatible%20with%20democracy_.pdf?PHPSESSID=a38d9661926c82c05cced11e8feee1a2
The Last Word: Flemming Rose." Newsweek International. February 13, 2006 issue. November 12, 2006. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/11179140/site/newsweek/
Mcnern, Ethan. "Holocaust Cartoons." The Scotsman. February 09, 2006. November 12, 2006. http://news.scotsman.com/international.cfm?id=204162006
Sunnis and Shiites
Shia and Sunni are two major sects of Islam. Shias or Shiites as commonly known share most of the fundamental beliefs with Sunnis but there are differences in practices, rituals and some beliefs as well, due to which they are considered two completely different sects. These differences are however not considered as major as probably with some other sects like Ahmedis, Bohras, and Ismailis but are still enough to keep the sects separate and usually people from one sect wouldn't want to marry a person from the other sect, even though it is not prohibited in Islam.
Differences begin with the kalma, the first and foremost declaration that brings a person into Islam. Kalma shahadat, explicitly declares that Allah is the only God to worship and Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) is His messenger.(Molloy) For Sunnis, the kalma states just this and nothing more. It is not altered and…
1. Hussein Abdul-waheed Amin, Editor of IslamForToday.com, The Origins of the Sunni/Shia split in Islam, accessed 28th April 2005: http://www.islamfortoday.com/shia.htm
2. What's the Difference Between Shia and Sunni Muslims? Accessed on 28th April 2005: http://islam.about.com/cs/divisions/f/shia_sunni.htm
3. Zafar Abbas, Pakistan's schisms spill into present, accessed on 28th April 2005: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/3724082.stm
4. Michael Molloy, Experiencing the world's religions; Tradition, Challenge, and Change, Second edition (Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company [McGraw Hill], 2002).
Select a eligion
eligion is considered to be belief and acts of worship, which concentrates on worshiping a deity and gives a detailed and comprehensive outline for the way of living. It teaches the difference between good and evil, right and wrong and morality and immorality. This paper has selected Islam as the religion to be discussed.
Analysis of Christianity
Analysis of Christianity
Analysis of Islam
eligion plays an essential role in providing spiritual, moral and ethical guidelines to individuals in order to apply it into their daily lives (Fisher, 2005). eligion is considered to be belief and acts of worship, which concentrates on worshiping a deity and gives a detailed and comprehensive outline for the way of living. It teaches the difference between good and evil, right and wrong and morality and immorality. There are several religions in the world, which includes Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism and Taoism.…
Fisher, M.P. (2005). Living religions (6th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
McInerney, W. (2003). Instructor's manual with tests: Living religions (5th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Religion of Islam.(2009). Minnesota State University. Retrieved from http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/religion/islam/beliefs.html
Hamzah Fansuri's Poems
In this poem, Hamzah reiterates the fundamentals of the Islamic belief, reminding Muslims of the importance of following the main precepts of the Qur'an and the Sunnah (the Prophetic tradition). The poem is also inspired by Sufi teachings of medieval Islamic scholars. For Hamzah, Sufi teachings do not contradict the orthodox fundamentals of Islam. On the contrary, Sufism helps a person to clean his or her heart and come closer to God. Hamzah starts the poem by warning the Adamites (children of Adam) against abandoning the first and foremost principle of Islam, that is faith in God. "Do not forsake the Ruler of the universe [Shahi Alam]," Hamzah writes. Then Hamzah makes another warning, which is related to the first: "Do not get drowned in the ocean of sin." The two warnings are mutually complementary since, according to Islamic tradition, the gravest sin is disbelief…
Finally some sects command their followers to perform ziyara, or what they consider to be minor pilgrimages, to the tombs of Imams in addition to the pilgramage to Mecca ("Shiism," 2005).
hile recognizing the two Islamic holidays Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha, Shi'ites incorporated additional festivals into their system, some of which will be described here. The first major festival is the Festival of Muharram and Ashura, in which Shi'ites observe the martyrdom of Husayn, the son of Ali. This festival is supposed to fall upon the 10th of the Islamic month Muharram. Sunnis observe fasting on this day for reasons completely different from the Shi'ites.
The second major festival is known as Milad-un-Nabi, which is supposed to commemorate the birthday of Prophet Muhammad. Shi'ites consider the 17th of the month Rabi al-Awwal as being the prophet's birthday. Sunnis place the day to be 12th of Rabi al-Awwal; they do not place…
Fact Sheet: The Shi'ites of Iraq" Fox News.Com-U.S. & World. Nov 13, 2005:
Gezari, Vanessa. "Religious resentment feeds flames in Iraq." St. Petersburg Times. December 21, 2004. Nov. 13, 2005:
The world's spiritual traditions and religious practices have major groupings. However, in these groupings there is no uniformity of practice. Various religions have different culture and ways of practice. This practice began in the 18th century as developing civilized societies. Different cultures of the world have had an influence on the religious beliefs of the people. For example, Hinduism borrows from the Indian culture, Islam from Muslim culture and Taoism from particular cultures in china. Traditionally, scholars of religion recognized the fact that, different religious beliefs have the same philosophy of searching for the truth. It may argue that religion is an act of worship given to God irrespective of religion.
Overview of Christianity and Islam
Christianity as a religion teaches salvation from sin. The religion also teaches issues of eternal life, physical death as well as the resurrection of Jesus Christ the messiah. The religion began as…
Van Voorst, R.E. (2006). Anthology of world scriptures. Belmont: Cengage Learning.
In addition, the Islam religion teaches that Jesus is both God's prophet and a servant and similarly, Muhammad holds similar positions as a prophet and a servant of God and Muhammad was the final prophet who came to save and preach to humanity. Contrary to this, Jesus as part of the Holy Trinity, and thus He is same as God according to Christianity (obinson, 2010).
On morals, the Islam religion, takes law and morality as one thing, and that whatever becomes legal according to Islamic region, it binds also the morals and if it is not a law, then it is not moral. This then indicates that Islamic law has control over morality and this remains unchanged irrespective of people or culture. According to Christianity, the laws that govern secular activities are different from morality (Gaudet, Mills, & Ali, n.d.). For example, abortion can be legalized by certain country constitutions,…
Gaudet, a.R., Mills, R., & Ali S.M. (n.d.). Islam and Christianity: Similarities and differences.
Muslim-canada.org. Retrieved from http://muslim-canada.org/islam_christianity.html
Robinson, B.A. (2010, January 9). Comparing Christianity and Islam: The world's two largest religions. Religioustolerance.org. Retrieved from http://www.religioustolerance.org/comp_isl_chr.htm
A view of this event captures an incredible sea of worshippers flowing like a human river in the footsteps of the prophet Mohammed, who it is said arrived at this spot some 1400 years ago to pay homage to Abraham.
The role of the woman as it is understood through the ritual reenactments are quite different from the unequal stance which is often assumed of Muslim women today, with Hagar and Ishmael given tribute as well. Exiled to the dessert valley that would become Mecca, Hagar would give birth to the numerous Arab peoples, and would be enabled to do so by the salvation of the angel Gabriel. In many ways, this story parallels the matriarchal role of the Madonna to Christianity, who was likewise guided by an angel in a time of crisis. Islam tells that Gabriel was sent down to bring water to Hagar in the desert in…
Pakistan: Hounour Killings of Girls and Women. Amnesty International.Online at http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/engASA330181999
Al-Uthaimeen, S.M.A. (2006). How to perform the ritiuals of Hajj and Umrah. Princeton University. Online at http://www.princeton.edu/~humcomp/hajjguide.html
BBC. (June 2003). Pakistan's Sharia Law Is Criticized. BBC News. Online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/2958316.stm .
Education of Abbasid
Today, the majority of high school students hope to finish college one day. This is a realistic dream for many, as there is an established education system that gives students a choice of career paths and training. The modern world if full of universities and training centers. However, the world was not always like this. Many centuries ago, education was limited to the privileged and even the privileged did not have many opportunities in learning. Today's existing modern educational system has been influenced by traditions of the past, particularly by the great advances that occurred during the Abbasid Dynasty in the Muslim world.
One of the achievements of Muslim culture during the Abbasid Dynasty was the widespread spread of literacy. Elementary education was almost universal, especially in the cities. Emphasis on the value of reading and writing stems from the very first revelations of the Qur'an, which…
In the lines of the Apostles, Bishops of particular Churches throughout the world in charge of particular diocese are part of the Church and form the College of Bishops when the College is united as a decision-making body under the leadership of the Pope. The College may exercise power over the Universal Church by coming together in an ecumenical council when the council is recognized by the Pope, the successor of St. Peter. Additionally, "certain bishops are granted special status and position within the Church by being elevated to the College of Cardinals. The primary role of the College of Cardinals is to act as special advisors to the Pope and to come together on the death of a Pope to vote for his successor" ("The Catholic Church Hierarchy," Catholic Pages, 2007). Finally, there is also a counsel, created after Vatican II known as the Synod of Bishops. This formal…
The Catholic Church Hierarchy." Catholic Pages. 2007. December 7, 2008. http://www.catholic-pages.com/church/hierarchy.asp
History and Development of the Papacy." Religion Facts. 2008
Murphy, Donald. "Islam's Sunni-Shiite Split." 2007. The Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0117/p25s01-wome.html
Many religions have different denominations and Islam is not an exception in this regard. The two primary denominations of Islam are Sunni Islam and Shia Islam. The majority of Muslims across the globe are Sunni, estimated to be roughly 85% to 90% of the Muslim population. The remaining smaller number of Muslims, say about 15%, are Shia. Further demarcations indicate that most Shias belong to the tradition known as Twelver with the rest of the Shia identifying with other traditions.
Twelver refers to the number of descendants of Muhammad that this sect of the Shia recognize. Another group is referred to as the Seveners, since they recognize only seven descendants who were official caliphs of Islam. This is further complicated by the concept of Occultation, which refers to a messianic figure, or Mahdi, who is born but goes into hiding (referred to as disappearing) in order to be…
Caliphate. (2015). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/89739/Caliphate
Hendawi, H., Abdul-Zahra, Q., and Yacoub, S.N. (2015, January 6). In Iraq's war against extremists, a quiet sectarian purge. AP. Retreived from http://news.yahoo.com/iraqs-war-against-extremists-quiet-sectarian-purge-174007712.html
Hazeton, L. (2010) After the Prophet: The epic story of the Shia-Sunni split in Islam. Aylett, VA: Anchor. Retrieved from Hazleton-after-the-prophet-shia-sunni-split.pdf
Pollack, K.M. (2015, February 4). ISIS is losing in Iraq. But what happens next? The Opinion Pages. A25. The New York Times.
They study the book of Jafaar al-Saadaq. They also believe Ali is the purpose of life and the divine knowledge of the prophet Mohammed, which actually rises him above the Prophet in their eyes. The religion is also very secretive, and they do not publish their texts or share them with other sects.
The Alawites recognize the Five Pillars of Islam, but do not believe that anyone can practice them because no soul is pure enough to practice them. They also do not believe in a back door entrance to heaven.
The evolution of political Islam actually began during the age of Imperialism, when there was widespread corruption and oppression in the Muslim world. The politicization of Islam was a result of Muslim fundamentalists and Islamic revolutionary movements rising up in protest over this treatment, along with protests against corrupt Muslim regimes in the region. These revolutionaries hoped to create…
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…
D., various rulers expanded the religion in what was known as the Golden Age of Islam. Muslims made huge advances in military might, the sciences, and the arts. However, the different factions of Islam haunted the religion, even in the Golden Age of its existence. Gregorian then goes to explore the territorial dispute which led to the centuries of fighting with Christian nations in what was known in the West as the Crusades. However, it was not the Christian Westerners who did the most damage to the Muslim strongholds but barbaric Mongols who eventually ended the Golden Age of Islam. The rise of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century revived the greatness of the Muslim tradition. The modern era, with the culmination of the Industrial Revolution, later diminished the grandeur and power of the various Muslim empires in the Middle East and Asia. With this decline many empires which,…
Shi'a and Sunna Islam
The early origins and history of Islam as a religious organization is unified under the teachings and leadership of Muhammad, who was considered the Prophet of Allah, the God of the Muslims. When Muhammad died, the problem of handing over the leadership of Muhammad became a problem, since there are many Muslims who had claimed leadership of the Muslim religion, many factions were created. Upon Muhammad's death, the Umayyad Yazid ruled the Muslim religious organization. However, Husayn, son of Ali, and Fatima, daughter of Muhammad, had refused to accept Umayyad's rule on Islam, and they planned to "rally" against the Umayyads. However, their plans were foiled since their plan to rally reached Umayyad Yazid, who then organized an army to fight against Husayn and Fatima. When Husayn and Fatima died because of the Umayyad army's sudden attack, some Muslims who favor Husayn as the ruler of…
Dallal, A. "Islam." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.
Islam, Shi'i." Religious Studies Homepage. 16 April 2003 http://www.northill.demon.co.uk/relstud/shiislam.htm#4.
Muslim Movements and Schisms." Answering Islam Homepage. 16 April 2003 http://answering-islam.org/Gilchrist/Vol1/9b.html .
Sectarianism: Sunnis and Shi'ites." University of Calgary Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/I_Transp/IO6_Shia.html .
Islam in the Age of Globalization
The three major religions in the 21st century are all Abrahamic in historical basis. These religions, Judaism, Islam and Christianity remain at the edge of political, social, and cultural issues, particularly now in that globalism has become so predominant. These religions are noted as Abrahamic because each uses the basic teachings of the Prophet Abraham in their general world view. All three faiths are monotheistic and together account for over half the world's population, or combined in excess of 4 billion people. Within these three religions, despite much public disagreement, there are many areas of commonality (The Top 10 Organized eligions in the World, 1998). From a non-religious perspective, however, globalism has brought about some change in the perception of these religions based not necessarily on religion, but on marketing and consumerism.
One of the consequences of globalism in the world is the availability…
The Top 10 Organized Religions in the World. (1998, August 4). The Christian Science Monitor, p. B2.
Islamic Consumer Protest Hits West Where it Hurts. (2002, November 7). Retrieved from The Guardian UK: http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2002/nov/07/internationalnews
Food, Fashion and Faith. (2007, August 2). Retrieved from The Economist: http://www.economist.com/node/9587818
How to Live According to the 5 Pillars of Islam: The Foundation of Islam Cannot be Laid in a Day. (2008). New York: Quick and Easy Guides.
Still another depicts him with a black patch over his eyes and he is carrying a machete. The fact that the cartoons mock the prophet is part of the reason for the anger in the Muslim world; but moreover, many Muslims despise estern values, estern politicians and the est in general (partly because of the est's support of Israel), and so Muslims are outraged that estern journalists would publish these cartoons. The angry Muslims believe estern values have crept into their culture already, and they resent it (Arab politician wearing estern-style suits and ties, for example). Now with the U.S. invasion of Iraq, and the est's support of the U.S., add derogatory cartoons into the mix and an explosion of rage occurs; it is a clash of principles and values.
My personal opinion: I agree with journalist Reza Aslan, that the conflict isn't just about "secular democratic freedoms" versus "arcane…
Aslan, Reza. (2006). Depicting Mohammed. Slate. Retrieved April 5, 2011, from http://www.slate.com .
Cohen, Patricia. (2009). Danish Cartoon Controversy. The New York Times. Retrieved April
5, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com .
The most egregious sins that can be committed by a Muslim include to deny the unity of God by ascribing divine status to any person or object. This sin is called shirk. Emphasizing the importance of shirk to Muslim morality, all iconography is strictly forbidden in Islam. Iconography in a mosque, the Muslim place of worship, would be akin to idol worship. The second major sin of Islam is kufr, or atheism.
The religious beliefs of Islam are based around a core set of tenets known as the Five Pillars. The first pillar is the Shahadah: there is only one God, and the prophet Mohammed is God's messenger. At the same time, Islam encourages respect of and unity with "all prophets" of God and "all revealed scriptures," (p. 381).
The Second Pillar is prayer, five times a day. Ritual washing is also integral to Muslim prayer. When praying, the…
Explain the differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims. here do the Shia geographically reside generally? Cite two examples of differences in theology and religious practices between Sunni and Shiites. Finally, are there differences in theology within Shiite Islam?
Each religion of the world has different interpretations and different religious denominations that have evolved over time. Islam is no different and the Sunni and Shia denominations of Islam represent the majority of its believers. The Sunni denomination is substantially larger in terms of population however the Shias also have widespread following. The roots of these ideologies can be traced back all the way to the death of Muhammad and the opinions that developed after his death about which way the religion should go. This analysis will introduce differences in the two denominations in terms of their population's geography and their theological differences.
Sunnism and Shia beliefs are spread throughout…
BBC. (2014, June 20). Sunnis and Shias: Islam's ancient schism. Retrieved from BBC Middle East: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-16047709
Fisher, M. (2014, January 22). Why Sunnis and Shiites are fighting, explained in two minutes. Retrieved from The Washington Post: http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2014/01/22/why-sunnis-and-shias-are-fighting-explained-in-two-minutes/
Religion Facts. (N.d.). Comparison of Sunni and Shia Islam. Retrieved from Religion Facts: http://www.religionfacts.com /islam/comparison_charts/islamic_sects.htm
Sick, G. (2011, May 17). Map of religion in the Middle East. Retrieved from The Gulf Blog: http://thegulfblog.com/tag/sunni-shia-middle-east-map/
According to the author, the elements of architecture found within the Dome, such as the interior double colonnades and the wooden dome are echoed in the Cathedral.
Gray concedes that one might argue for the Islamic nature of the mosaic decorations. However, even this element adheres more to the Hellenistic tradition before the Islamic synthesis than to Islam itself. Elements of Islam that are included are the fact that there is no representation of men or animals in the mosaic, as well as the syncretic vocabulary.
Myriam Rosen-Ayalon more closely examines both the iconography and the concomitant purpose of creating the Dome of the Rock. he appears to agree with Gray, that a number of non-Islam influences were at work when the Dome was created. More specifically, she addresses the interaction of the mosaic images with the text inscriptions of the Dome. In this way, the author attempts to find…
Associates for Scriptural Knowledge. The Secret key to the Dome of the Rock. Oct 1, 1999. http://www.askelm.com/temple/t991001.htm
Ettinghausen, Richard and Grabar, Oleg. Extract from the Art and Architecture of Islam 650-1250 (pp. 28-34). New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1994. http://www.thehope.org/domerock.htm
Garaudy, Roger. The Dome of the Rock. American Muslim Council, 1997. http://www.cyberistan.org/islamic/domerock.htm
Gray, Martin. Places of Peace and Power: Jarusalem, Israel. 1983-2006. http://www.sacredsites.com/middle_east/israel/jerusalem.html
Ashraf": Its meaning, history, origin, and significance in the Koran
Its exact national or tribal origin remains uncertain. However, it is likely to have its beginnings in the ancient Near East. The name of Ashraf is not common in America, except in the Muslim community. However, it is common in the Muslim world. It is often given to boys in conjunction with another name. This is because, in Arabic, the name Ashraf means "most honorable." (Zelo, 2004)
Thus, the name is also an honorific, or a title given to honor a man as well as simply a name or label. The name Ashraf can also be used as an adjective in its language of origin. This may be contrasted to other male names with more specific mythic references, or that refer to nouns or famous figures in the Koran who were helpful to the Prophet. Zelo, 2004) In contrast, interestingly…
Hirshfield, Richard & Gottheil. (2002) "Ka'b Al-Ashraf." The Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 11 November 2004 at http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view_friendly.jsp?artid=3& letter=K
Zelo. (2004) "First Names and What They Mean." Retrieved 11 November 2004 at http://www.zelo.com/firstnames/findresults.asp?name=ashraf
This ritual takes place on the eighth day after birth and the ceremony itself involves both religious and surgical elements and may be performed by a surgeon of a specially-trained Mohel who has both surgical and religious knowledge. After the circumcision is performed, a festive meal almost always follows as a symbol of thanks to God and to the prophet Abraham.
One of the most complicated religious rituals of Judaism is the ar Mitzvah for boys and less frequently, the at Mitzvah for girls. These words mean "the son or the daughter of the commandment and mark the coming of age of a male or female child" (Harvey, 325) who is then seen as an adult and is responsible for observing the commandments set down by Moses and to fill adult roles in the congregation of the synagogue. This ritual traditionally occurs on the Sabbath following the child's thirteenth birthday…
Grissom, Harold J. "Ritual Practice in American Religious Sects." The Journal of Religion. (April 2006): 239-48.
Hall, Manley P. The Psychology of Religious Ritual. Los Angeles: Philosophical
Research Society, 2003.
Harvey, Graham. Ritual and Religious Belief. UK: Equinox Publishing, Ltd., 2005.
The education system of the Byzantine region spread through to the other nations, with them adopting new words from the Arab language, hence enriching their language. The social status of the slaves improved, whereas that of the elite and those who fought against the invasion deteriorated as they lost control over their territories.
The effects on Arab society
The interactions between the Arabs and the non-Arab community resulted in several changes within the Arab society. At the time of the conquest, the Arab received support from the Christians of the Syrian and Egypt territories because the Arabs promised them less taxation as compared to that of the Byzentine (Rogan 157). Therefore, the Arabs, after the conquest was over, feared that the interactions between the Muslim and the non-Muslim community would lead to undesirable results. For this reason, the Umayyad sought to keep the Muslim worriers concentrated in the garrison towns…
Bagnall, Roger S. Egypt in the Byzantine World, 300-700. Cambridge [u.a.: Cambridge Univ.
Press, 2007. Print.
Brownworth, Lars. Lost to the West: The Forgotten Byzantine Empire That Rescued Western
Civilization. New York: Crown Publishers, 2010. Print.