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A report about pornography and prostitution indicated that females in prostitution hold a mortality rate forty times higher compared to the national average (Dianne 28).People who gets involved in prostitution by consent engage in unhealthy activities. Melinda confirmed that when she was in the business of prostitution, she was raped both anally and orally.
Most clients who consume services of prostitutes are ill minded and have interests in violating human rights through transmission of infectious diseases. hether or not pornographic materials prompt the fantasies of men who buy the services of prostitutes, some of these clients are ill minded and have interests in violating human rights through transmission of infectious diseases. According to Cameron and Collins, the greatest challenge in the prostitution trade is fear of contraction of HIV / AIDS (275). This is doubtless because some of the clients hold in mind other ill intentions besides using the services…
Barry, Kathleen. The prostitution of sexuality. New York: NYU Press, 1995.
Bishakha, Datta, Dianne, Post. Should prostitution be legalized. New Internationalists,
Cameron Samuel and Alan Collins. Estimates of a Model of Male Participation in the Market
"The world's oldest profession" is alive and well in Mexico. Prostitution is legal in Mexico, and not regulated by individual states or the federal government. This has led to widespread prostitution rings that foment the problem of human trafficking. According to the United Nations, Mexico is the biggest exporter of young children to the United States and Canada (Hughes, Sporcic, Mendelsohn & Chirgwin, n.d.). Some of those children are sent up north to be adopted by willing families; but unfortunately the majority of these children end up in vast prostitution rings (Hughes et al., n.d.). The prostitution organizations are international and transnational, making the black market a widespread phenomenon difficult for law enforcement to address in the target countries or in Mexico itself. Therefore, the problem with prostitution in Mexico is two-pronged. There is the problem of internal prostitution, which includes the proliferation of street crime, sex tourism,…
Bliss, K.E. (2002). Compromised Positions. Penn State Press.
Brumback, K. & Stevenson, M. (2010). Pimps force Mexican women into prostitution in U.S. NBC News. Retrieved online: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/38615156/ns/world_news-americas/t/pimps-force-mexican-women-prostitution-us/#.UKEUmePreII
Hughes, D.M., Sporcic, L.J., Mendelsohn, N.Z. & Chirgwin, V. (n.d.). Mexico. Factbook on Global Sexual Exploitation. Retrieved online: http://www.uri.edu/artsci/wms/hughes/mexico.htm
Penick, T. (2009). Prostitution. Retrieved online: http://www.tomzap.com/ladiesbar.html
In fact, the article states that "health data for child prostitution are extremely restricted because studies are not published; published studies are difficult to access and tend to report qualitative, rather than quantitative, health data; and funding for large quantitative studies is difficult to obtain" (Willis & Levy 2). Subsequently, there are only a limited number of useful empirical studies that can be drawn upon to help shape public policies and inform the public about the gross human rights violations many of these children are forced to endure. Thus, researchers often can not say with statistical certainty the impact the sex industry has on the health and mortality rates of the children within it.
Still, ultimately Willis and Levy's conclusion echoes Day's earlier article. Despite the slight differences in population explored and the foundation of prior research present to situate the author's claim, both Day and Willis and Levy expose…
Day, Shelagh. Prostitution: Violating the Human Rights of Poor Women. Action Ontarienne Contre la Violence Faite Aux Femmes. 2008. Web. http://aocvf.ca/documents/Prostitution-v.angl_FINALE_WEB.pdf
Willis, Brian & Levy, Barry S. "Child Prostitution: Global Health Burden, Research Needs, and Interventions." The Lancet. Vol. 359. 2002. Web. http://www.aidseducation.org/documents/ChildProstitution.pdf
About 80% of them say they attempt to leave the trade. About 70% of them have children, 89% of whom are without custody. Most street prostitutes are children of dysfunctional parents or homes. In these homes, they experience violence, drugs and sexual assault. Their childhood was tumultuous and unstable with parents either absent, in jail or deceased. More then 40% of them are compelled to enter the trade to fund their drug habit. Other reasons are influence and the need for money. The psychiatric unit of the Los Angeles County jail is now considered the largest local mental health facility (eyond 2000 Committee).
Part II: Recommendations and Solutions
The Legalization Option
National surveys showed that 94% of American citizens perceived the police as not promptly responding to calls for help (ovard, 1998). One reason was their endless pursuit of prostitutes. Prostitution has remained illegal in most of the United States.…
Bayswan (2010). Prostitution in the United States -- the Statistics. Prostitutes Education
Network: Bayswan.org. Retrieved on March 10, 2010 from http://www.bayswan.org/stats.html
Beyond 2000 Committee (2004). Prostitution: an overview. Mary Magdalene Project:
The Mary Magdalene Project. Retrieved on March 11, 2010 from http://www.mmp.org/background/research.php
Prostitution Problem in Los Angeles
The problem of prostitution is one of the very old and difficult one to tackle. If left unattended this amoral practice will lead to a total social breakdown. Today the United States is being plagued badly by the menace of prostitution. Los Angeles in particular is affected the most and prostitution has assumed grave proportions. The various initiatives and new laws implemented by the government have not succeeded in improving the problem. Let us analyze the problem in a little detail so that we can have a better perspective of the issue and propose effective measures to eliminate this evil from the society.
In the United States the problem of prostitution is on the rise despite the strict laws that were passed in many of the states to rule prostitution as an illegal profession. It is virtually impossible to figure out the actual…
1) Advocacy Committee for Women's Concerns, "Prostitution in the United States." Accessed on December 11th 2002, http://horeb.pcusa.org/oga/diversity/advocom.htm
2) Gina Keating, "Anti-Prostitution Law Targets Men's Cars," Accessed on December 11th, 2002, http://news.excite.com/odd/article/id/125116%7Coddlyenough%7C08-15-2002::09:03%7Creuters.html
3) "Author not Available," "Florida Laws," Accessed on December 11th, 2002 (http://home.nycap.rr.com/beast/statelaws.html (Fl)
4) Designed by "CAST," "Fact Sheet on Trafficking," Accessed on December 11th, 2002
here a recent history of moral hygienic emphasis has dominated the discussion on prostitution and the law, evolving understanding of public health issues is today producing a more realistic approach to the sex profession. Accordingly, "supporters of Himel's decision point to a wealth of data demonstrating that regulating the sex industry improves the health and well-being of its workers. Barbara Brents and Crystal Jackson, both sociologists from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas and co-authors of The State of Sex: Tourism, Sex and Sin in the New American Heartland, have studied the legal prostitution trade in their city, and enumerated the ways in which it is safer for workers than in places where the industry remains illegal." (p. 1)
The article denotes that the measure has naturally raised the fury of many conservative opponents in the Canadian government and society. Extensive debate is now underway, with studies citing the various…
Melnick, M. (2010). Legal Sex Work in Canada Just Became Easier, But Will It Be Safer? Time: Healthland.
People in America seem to be on some kind of moral crusade when it comes to making sure that prostitution is not legalized, yet we will sit by while football coaches molest and rape young boys. Bringing the topic back to ideology is important when considering this. When did it become okay for clergy and societal leaders to molest people and not okay for people two people to consent to having sex with each other if there is money involved? One is an act of coercion and one is not. The only difference is the exchanging of money from hand to hand.
Our government has decided that it is its responsibility to decide what is moral and decent in our society and what is not. The government has come to the conclusion that prostitution is indecent and anyone who engages in it is indecent and immoral or even amoral. The…
Arementano, P. (1993). The case for legalized prostitution. Future freedom foundation.
Retrieved from: http://www.fff.org/freedom/1293e.asp
Bernstein, E. (2007). Temporarily yours: Intimacy, authenticity, and the commerce of sex. (1st
edition). University of Chicago Press.
Fortunately, the story has a happy turning as we are presented in parallel with the actions of Adriana's brother who goes on a quest of saving his sister risking his own life. Adriana's brother, Jorge, played by Cesar Ramos, teams up with an American that is on the search of his own daughter, and they both attempt to rescue Adriana. The two manage to find out the internet site that Adriana is being auctioned to and they also manage to win the auction. Adriana is later saved as the police capture the criminals with the help of Jorge and his ally.
Trade presents the general picture of human trafficking, but at the same time it presents a story with a somewhat happy ending which usually does not exist in the cases of the other tens of thousands of women that are being kidnapped and then sold. The case of Adriana…
Ethics. Prostitution and Sexual Autonomy: Making Sense of the Prohibition of Prostitution. (pp. 748-780). The University of Chicago Press.
Egerman, M. (2008). Point: Prostitution Must Remain Criminalized. Retrieved September 15, 2008 from Harvard Law Record Web site: http://media.www.hlrecord.org/media/storage/paper609/news/2008/04/24/Opinion/Point.Prostitution.Must.Remain.Criminalized-3347353.shtml
Emmerich, R.(producer) Heller, R.(producer) & Kreuzpainter, M. (Director). (2007). Trade [Motion Picture]. Lions Gate Films, CA.
There is a certain stigma that surrounds sex work that has been present throughout history. However, there are also exceptions to such cultures that frame prostitution in an entirely different light. Despite your moral opinion about the legitimacy of prostitution, there are many significant benefits to be had by legalizing and regulating the profession. Not only would there be increased revenue for public funding generated from the taxation of such a practice, but it also can provide a safer environment for both the sex workers as well as sex consumers. Despite efforts to criminalize prostitution, the profession has not, or will ever, disappear. Rather, by forcing prostitutes to go underground, you subject the public to significant health and safety risks as well as endanger women in general. This brief paper will argue that there are many benefits to society that can be gained in the middle ground…
Although traditional Indian values promote the understanding that kidnapping and slavery are wrong, cultural motivations have been fueling the trade. First, the major reason that the trade continues is for monetary gain. Because the madams and pimps, those they bribe, and even the Indian government benefit from the cash that is generated by the crime, it has become nearly as unstoppable as mob activity or other kinds of organized crime. Of course, the trade could not continue if there was no one to provide the money. Thus, the other cultural motivation of the trade is the attitude of oppression toward sex that may be the psychological fuel behind the sex trade, in addition to the assumption that such practices are accepted in their proper milieu. Because of this, those who want to combat and prevent this issue must take into account the cultural background of the problem. Just as Kumar…
Buncombe, Andrew. "India's sex trade exposed." The UK Independent. 29 November
2008. 21 May 2009.
Donnelly, John. "For youngest girls enslaved in sex trade, more woe." The Boston Globe.
1 Aug. 2007. 21 May 2009.
prostitution with a specific focus on the Nevada prostitution situation. We mainly focus on the reasons as to why prostitution was illegalized, the public health concerns regarding prostitution, prostitution and STDs and STIs, the development of laws regarding prostitution, prostitutes and STD's, why prostitution is legal in Nevada, the use of body for sex as well as whether Illegal prostitution lowers STD's, AIDS, HIV. Also discussed is how illegalizing/legalizing prostitution helps in the creation of body integrity if incase such a thing is practical.
In the state of Nevada is noted by Levenkron (2007) to have developed during the 19th century during the period of Gold ush. During this time, the population was disproportionately male. As a result of the dearth of women, the availability of prostitutes and engagement in prostitution was considered to be a vital commodity. The residents of the state soon developed a tolerant attitude to the…
Altink, S. (1995). Stolen Lives: Trading Women into Sex and Slavery. London: Scarlet Press.
Brent, BG Hausbeck, K (2005).Violence and Legalized Brothel Prostitution in Nevada Examining Safety, Risk, and Prostitution Policy. JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, Vol. 20 No. 3, March 2005 270-295 DOI: 10.1177/0886260504270333
Budapest Group (1999). The Relationship Between Organized Crime and Trafficking in Aliens. Austria: International Centre for Migration Policy Development. June 1999.
Bureau NRM (2002). Trafficking in Human Beings: First Report of the Dutch National Rapporteur. The Hague. November 2002.
Prostitution Should Not Be Legalized:
According to statistics, it's stated that over one in every ten American adult males have paid for sex at a certain point in their lives. Actually, in 2005, nearly 84,000 people were arrested throughout the United States for prostitution-related offenses. Patty Kelly argues that prostitution is basically considered as part of the American culture which will not disappear any time soon. Kelly continues to argue that Eliot Spitzer's resignation after he paid a woman for sex and got caught was a move to help convince Americans that it was finally time for decriminalization of prostitution throughout the United States. Kelly's support for legalization of prostitution in America is also informed by his comparison to Mexico which has decriminalized prostitution.
In one-third of the states in Mexico, prostitution is legal, common and visible as many women sell sexual services do so due to some rational choice…
Due, Becky. "Why Prostitution Should Not Be Legalized." Becky Due. Becky Due. Web. 8 May 2011. .
Kelly, Patty. "Legalize Prostitution Paying for Sex Is Common. Mexico Has Decriminalized It. So Should the U.S." Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times, 13 Mar. 2008. Web. 8 May 2011. .
Raymond, Janice G. "10 Reasons for Not Legalizing Prostitution." Prostitution Research & Education. Prostitution Research & Education, 25 Mar. 2003. Web. 8 May 2011. .
Sullivan, Mary, and Sheila Jeffreys. "LEGALISING PROSTITUTION IS NOT THE ANSWER:
Is the government justified to regulate prostitution?
Is the government justified in banning prostitution?
Prostitution is often called a 'victimless crime.' This implies that in the sexual transaction of prostitution, 'no one gets hurt' thus the action should be legally permissible, The presumption is that actors have a fundamental right to autonomy over their own bodies and if a woman (or a man) wishes to 'sell sex,' she or he has a right to do so. However, in a patriarchal society in which there are still substantial inequalities between males and females in terms of their ability to exercise power, this presumption is extremely problematic. The issue of consent is obviously most vexing when it comes to the issue of child prostitution, but even for women who are technically 'of age,' the prostitute/John relationship is arguably anything but equal. The second problematic presumption with the argument that prostitution…
Prostitution. (2013). Illinois Law. Retrieved:
Raymond, J. (2012). The health effects of prostitution. Making the Harm Visible. Retrieved:
MYTH: Decriminalizing prostitution would save a lot of money because police wouldn't have to arrest prostitutes or johns or pimps.
FACT: Decriminalization of prostitution has resulted in expensive legal challenges because no one wants prostitution zoned into their neighborhood or near their kids' schools. Mustang Brothel was shut down because of tax evasion. Pimps are simply not going to hand over the massive profits that they make from the business of sexual exploitation.
MYTH: Prostitution is ugly, but we have to do something to make it a little better.
Legalization is better than nothing at all.
FACT: Prostitution can't be made "a little better" anymore than domestic violence can be made "a little better." Women in prostitution tell us clearly: they want the same options in life that others have: a decent job, safe housing, medical care and psychological counseling. They deserve that, not just an HIV test to make…
Andrews, S.K. (2004). U.S. Domestic Prosecution of the American International Sex Tourist: Efforts to Protect Children from Sexual Exploitation. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 94(2), 415+. Retrieved January 14, 2008, from Questia database:
These new views lead to a growing change in the status and aggressiveness of women in the nineteenth century.
Furthermore the belief that al of Victorian society was virtuous and unblemished has even come under more scrutiny. "...historians now use letters, diaries, marriage manuals, and even one survey of sexual attitudes to argue that the Victorians were in fact far less restrained.
The power of the Catholic Church meant that theological teaching was translated into dogma, and from dogma into policy and action. However, the contradictions presented by the potency of the sexual drive, the sanctity of marriage and the fear of damnation made the institution of prostitution inevitable. It became the 'lesser' or the 'necessary' evil permitted in order to safeguard more cherished institutions and to prevent men from committing graver sins. Justifications multiplied. 'If you eliminate prostitutes from society, ' declared St. Augustine, 'you disrupt everything with lust.…
19 th-Century Responses to Prostitution. Prostitution in maritime London." 2007. Port cities London http://www.portcities.org.uk/london/server/show/ConNarrative.111/chapterId/2347/Prostitution-in-maritime-London.html
Harris's List of Covent Garden Ladies, Prostitution in maritime London." 2007. Port cities London http://www.portcities.org.uk/london/server/show/ConNarrative.111/chapterId/2345/Prostitution-in-maritime-London.html
Prostitution, Then and Now." Women's Issues then and Now: a Feminist Overview of the Pat Two Centuries. 2002 University of Texas http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~ulrich/femhist/sex_work.shtml
Barret-Ducrocq, Franaoise. Love in the Time of Victoria: Sexuality, Class, and Gender in Nineteenth-Century London. Translated by Howe, John. London: Verso, 1991.
Speaking of the present day, it must be mentioned that in 1999 Sweden declared that the only criminal is the client. Taiwan does not consider prostitution to be against the law, while the majority of other countries does. (Prostitution. Procon.org)
It is obvious that the varying attitudes that societies have had towards the phenomenon under discussion were closely connected with the political and historical circumstances which most weighed upon people. While it is considered to be a victimless crime, reality suggests things are somewhat different. Women and girls are often forced into practicing this profession. Not only do they have to give the majority of their earnings to the men who force them to do it, but they often get abused by clients, "protectors" and corrupt members of the police.
It is true that a person ought to be free to dispose of her own body according to her wishes…
Hickenbottom, I.L., Prostitution, then and now. Women's issues then and now. A feminist overview of the past 2 centuries. Retrieved October 3, 2010 from http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~ulrich/femhist/sex_work.shtml
Historical Timeline of Prostitution, Procon.org, Retrieved October 3, 2010 from
elative to prostitution, "construction" would entail having great awareness of the way that propositions for law and policy reform make the most of or decrease the consensual capacities of sex workers. Paying attention to the issue would entail lobbying for "legal sex work" so that prostitutes had rights both as individual people and sex industry workers. Sex workers need to have a say and the legal capacity to organize in order to get their needs met. This would include bylaws and regulations that state their specific legal rights as workers. These worker rights would have to include clauses regarding safer working conditions and avenues of legal repercussions for those who physically harm and/or rape sex workers. Advocating for the legalization of prostitution should be viewed as another rape deterrence strategy; "legal" prostitutes would be less likely to be sexually assaulted (Sullivan, 2007). These objectives towards the protection, health, and safety…
Akers, R.L. (1997). Criminological Theories Introduction and Evaluation, second edition. Los Angeles, California: Roxbury Publishing Company.
Hagan, F.E. (2002). Introduction to Criminology. Theories, Methods, and Criminal Behavior, fifth edition. Belmont, California: Wadsworth/Thompson Learning.
Kendall-Raynor, P. (2007). Nurses demand safe zones for sex workers in vulnerable areas. Nursing Standard 21.17, 10 (1). Retrieved on 5 December 2007 at http://find.galegroup.com
Monet, V. (1997). Prostitution can benefit women. Opposing Viewpoints: Human Sexuality. San Diego, Greenhaven Press. Retrieved on 6 December 2007 at
According to research reported in the May 2003 issue of the Michigan Law Review, "ifeminists view the choice to become a prostitute in the same way as the choice to undertake any other profession, while the radical feminists' theories focus on men's dominance and women's victimization" (arnick Pp). Authors Jean Almodova and Martha Nussbaum advocate legalizing prostitution because, "like abortion, prostitution involves a woman's decision about what she will and will not do with her own body," and at root, "that decision is a choice and it should be the woman's choice, not the government's" (arnick Pp).
The futile fight against prostitution is a major drain on local law-enforcement resources and locking up prostitutes and their customers is especially irrational at a time when more than half the states are under court orders to reduce prison overcrowding (Bovard Pp). Gerald Arenberg, executive director of the National Association of the Chiefs…
Bovard, James. "Safeguard public health: legalize contractual sex." Insight on the News; 2/27/1995; Pp.
Warnick, Ashlie. "Liberty for Women: Freedom and Feminism in the Twenty-First
Century." Michigan Law Review; 5/1/2003; Pp.
Kuebelbeck, Amy. "Ventura says Minnesota should consider legalizing prostitution." AP Online; 10/22/1998; Pp.
Sexual Conduct and Prostitution in "A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man"
James Joyce novel entitled, "Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man" chronicles the life of Stephen Dedalus, as he struggles through the difficulty of the changes that he undergoes as his individuality experiences a transition from being a child to a young, adolescent man. Stephen's emergence as a 'young artist' and a person worthy for his own talents and characters is the focal point of Joyce's novel, and this is the primary theme that the novel evolves about. However, there are other themes present in the novel, particularly the sexual 'awakening' of Stephen as he tries to control his increasing need for sexual satisfaction. Thus, James Joyce's novel is a good study of how sexual conduct and prostitution is reflected in Stephen's society, as well as the character portrayal of Joyce's protagonist, Stephen Dedalus. Moreover,…
Jacobs, J. 2000. "Joyce's Epiphanic Mode: Material Language and the Representation of Sexuality in Stephen Hero and Portrait." Hofstra University Web site-Gale Group. 11 April 2003 http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0403/1_46/63591262/print.jhtml .
Joyce, J. "A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man." New York: Bantam Books. 1992.
As far back as 1959, the United Nations recognized the logic and benefits of decriminalizing prostitution, and organizations supporting this decriminalization include the "American Civil Liberties Union, the National Organization of Women, and various prostitute 'unions', the most famous of which is COYOTE (Call Off Your Old Tired Ethics)" (io, 1991, p. 206). And as far back as 1971, the San Francisco Committee on Crime considered the legalization of prostitution a "feasible" approach to the issues involved. In addition, in 1977, the California Senate Committee on the Judiciary gave their support for a legalized sex trade (io, 1991). So why, more than thirty years later, has no progress been made in this arena? Particularly from a criminal justice perspective, what is the current rationale for criminalizing this activity? If the point of criminal justice is to control and prevent crime and maintain justice (Gaines & Miller, 2008), how are attempts…
Archibald, G. (2000). U.S. Move regarding Sex Trade Draws Ire. The Washington Times, 1.
Berry, a. (2009, 05-15). http://www.jcnot4me.com/items/misc%20topics/legalize_prostitution.htm. Retrieved 12-21, 2010, from www.associatedcontent.com: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/1721630/criminal_justice_how_society_can_profit.html
Bovard, J. (1995). Safeguard Public Health: Legalize Contractual Sex. Insight on the News, 11 (9), 18+.
Cundiff, K. (2004, 04-08). Prostitution and Sex Crimes. Retrieved 12-21, 2010, from www.independent.org: http://www.independent.org/pdf/working_papers/50_prostitution.pdf
CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE ON WOMEN INVOLVED IN PROSTITUTION
Millions of children around the globe are sexually abused or exploited. This paper includes several descriptions of studies that relate sexual abuse during childhood to delinquency later in life. There are several difficulties with methodology and definitions that are inherent in the mentioned studies. These challenges make it somewhat difficult to compare and interpret the findings of the study. A framework is however provided to help in the understanding of how child abuse is correlated to delinquency later in life. This framework can also help to guide future studies into the issue. Two research tools were utilized for this study. They are questionnaires and interviews. The interviewers selected to help with the research were members of the Delancey Street Foundation -- a self-help group that is widely known for its work with drug addicts, criminals and sex workers. All the…
Yancy, P. (January 2005). Back from the Brothel, Christianity Today.
Young, A. M., Boyd, C. & Hubbell, A. (2000). Prostitution, drug use, and coping with psychological distress. Journal of Drug Issues, 30(4):789-800. (Web of Science)
Zapata, T.Q. (October 2002). Journey to a 'Developed' Country to Be Exploited, Discussion Paper of the Expert Group Meeting on Trafficking in Women and Girls, United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women..
There are a number of crimes that are commonly and often referred to as “victimless”. Just a few of these crimes include drug use, rough sex and prostitution. There are those that suggest that consenting adults should be allowed to do whatever they wish. There are others that suggest that the “victimless” tag is less than accurate and the so-called victimless crimes that occur are often comorbid with illegal or unethical outcomes or behavior. Prostitution can absolutely be included in this discussion. Indeed, if two consenting adults enter into a prostitution transaction and no other illegal behavior occurs, there are many that ask where the harm might be. While this may be a valid question to many people, the answer to the harm question is actually “quite a bit”.
Pros & Cons
On its face, there would not seem to be a lot of support or logic to…
Narizhnaya, K. (2017). Decriminalizing prostitution could be the key to closing Rikers Island.
New York Post. Retrieved 10 August 2017, from https://nypost.com/2017/04/02/
Tirado, L. (2017). Why We Should Decriminalize Prostitution. The Daily Beast. Retrieved 10
August 2017, from http://www.thedailybeast.com/why-we-should-decriminalize -
Prostitution: Causes and Consequences
Prostitution has been termed as one of the oldest professions, with its history going back to as early the ancient period. Indeed, records of most ancient societies -- from Greeks and omans to Jews, Hebrews, Asians, and Muslims -- point to the existence of prostitution several thousand years ago (Sanders, O'Neill & Pitcher, 2009). Today, though illegal in some jurisdictions, prostitution is a widespread practice, with virtually every major urban area across the globe having numerous brothels, escort services, and joints disguised as massage parlors. Prostitution is also practiced at the sex worker's or client's residence as well as in adult entertainment locations such as strip clubs. Emanating mainly from individual and socioeconomic factors, prostitution is associated with a number of dangers on the individuals involved, and may expose one to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). This paper describes the causes and consequences of prostitution, clearly demonstrating…
Elmes, J., Skovdal, M., Nhongo, K., et al. (2017). A reconfiguration of the sex trade: how social and structural changes in eastern Zimbabwe left women involved in sex work and transactional sex more vulnerable. PLoS ONE, 12(2): e0171916
Farrell, A., & Cronin, S. (2015). Policing prostitution in an era of human trafficking enforcement. Crime, Law, and Social Change, 64(4-5): 211-228.
Gorkoff, K., & Runner, J. (2003). Being head: the experiences of young women in prostitution. Winnipeg: Fernwood Publishing.
Jeffreys, S. (1997). The idea of prostitution. 1st ed. Melbourne: Spinifex Press.
Streetwalkers are generally the lowest-paid of all prostitutes. They are also in the most danger. As a result, those who work as streetwalkers are likely to be more desperate than other prostitutes, suggesting that, regardless of chosen profession, they would experience greater levels of mental distress than the normal population.
hat is fascinating is that when research does not look at streetwalkers, but at higher status prostitutes, prostitutes do not seem to suffer from a greater rate of mental health issues than women in other professions. Ine Vanwesenbeeck examined burnout levels of indoor sex workers in the Netherlands and compared them to nurses and to mental health patients. Her results suggested that prostitution did not necessarily lead to psychological issues. "Female indoor sex workers in the Netherlands do not exhibit a higher level of work-related emotional exhaustion or a lower level of work-related personal competence than a comparison group of…
Cundiff, Kirby. Prostitution and Sex Crimes. The Independent Institute. N.p. 8 Apr. 2004.
Web. 13 Nov. 2012.
Farley, Melissa. "Bad for the Body, Bad for the Heart: Prostitution Harms Women Even if
Legalized or Decriminalized." Violence Against Women 10.10 (2004), 1087-1125.
Even the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (2001), a worldwide organization opposed to prostitution, supports regular health checks, and governmental provisions for regular health checks, for prostitutes. Further, as Prorock (1999) states: "Legalizing prostitution nusually relies on monitoring practices, that decrease the transmission of STD's and unwanted pregnancies. Any way you look at it, STD's are a problem in almost any situation, but competent monitoring in a licensed service provides a certain measure of security" (p. 2). Liberator (2003, p. 12) concurs with: "There is a strong rationale for legalizing prostitution by regulating the industry, thereby monitoring sex workers and consequently the clients they serve. Allowing prostitution to remain invisible only perpetuates the spread of sometimes-deadly sexually transmitted diseases. A containment model based on managing the problem is better than an abolitionist model based on ignoring it, hoping it one day goes away all by itself."
Keeping prostitution Illegal Does…
Carlson, P. (2000). Opposing forces. Unification News for February 2000. Retrieved Dec. 13, 2004 at http://www.tparents.org.UNNews/unws0002/Carlson_OppForces_.htm.
Coalition Report (2001). The Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW). Retrieved Dec.12, 2004 at http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:3xGAJTSGO6sJ:action.web.ca/
Killingsworth, M. (2002). Column: Health, safety important reasons for legalization.
Thus the argument over whether prostitution should remain illegal or whether it should be decriminalized or made lawful, focuses principally on ethical and realistic considerations. Those opposed to legalized prostitution tend to underscore the horrors associated with the profession. They point to the trafficking in women and children, and the physical, sexual, and economic abuse of these same individuals. Prostitutes are thought to engage in a profession so reprehensible that no person would possibly choose to participate in it unless forced to do so by the most extremely adverse of circumstances. Law enforcement has failed to make much of a dent in prostitution despite an enormous amount of time, effort, and money. In fact, high-ranking officials, such as Governor Eliot Spitzer of New York have made their names breaking up prostitution rings while at the same time patronizing prostitutes themselves. The conflict reveals the very real conflict between desire and…
Davis, Nanette J., ed. Prostitution an International Handbook on Trends, Problems, and Policies. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.
Farley, Melissa; and Malarek, Victor. "The Myth of the Victimless Crime." New York Times. 12 March 2008. www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113069928
LEGALIZING PROSTITUTION IN THE U.S.A.
The topic I have chosen to discuss is the legalization of prostitution in the United States of America. y prostitution, I refer to an act where money is exchanged for rendering sexual services. Presently, 49 states out of 50 in the United States have banned prostitution withonly some forms of it allowed in a few areas of Nevada. This is not the case in all developed countries. Some places in Europe such as Holland, have legalized itand are regulating it through relevant legislature by the government.
My main stance on the topic is that these countries are not worse off than the U.S.A. In terms of the expected negative societal effects of prostitution such as human trafficking, rape etc.In fact on a closer introspection it may be that this ban is causing more harm to the community rather than benefits. For example, the number of…
Feingold, D. (2005). Human Trafficking.Foreign Policy.Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/30048506?uid=2&uid=4&sid=21101769414447
Langer, G. (2004). Poll: American Sex Survey. ABC News Online. Retrieved from: http://abcnews.go.com/Primetime/News/story?id=156921&page=1
O'Brien, E. (2011) Fuelling traffic: abolitionist claims of a causal nexus between legalized prostitution and trafficking. Crime, Law and Social Change. Retrieved from: http://eprints.qut.edu.au/48254/.
The Economist. ( 1998, Feb 12). Giving the customer what he wants. Retrieved from: http://www.economist.com/node/113208 .
The Acceptance of Prostitution in the US and Internationally
Sex is a topic very controversial because many communities consider it as a taboo to discuss it in public. The situation even worsens when the money equation is involved. Perhaps, this explains why commercial sex is considered as an illegal activity. In the past decade, prostitution has been contested as policies, laws, and enforcement practices are repressive because of the ascendancy of interest groups committed to abolishing the whole sex industry. At the same time, some nations have decriminalized the act of prostitution. The book “Legalizing Prostitution” has been able to map out the current terrain and the backdrop of the whole discussion in America. Moreover, Weitzer has also looked at cities like Antwerp, Amsterdam, and Frankfurt since they are popularly recognized as the long-standing red-light districts (Weitzer, 2012).
Acknowledgments by Weitzer concerning prostitution confirm that countries are trying to criminalizing…
Kingsley Davis, regard prostitution not only as a harmless service to society, but also a necessary one. However, when considering the criminal aspect of prostitution, there are many cases in which participants are indeed harmed, or run the risk of being harmed. This is the case for Lisa, who is at risk of both harming herself and her clients. First, her regular use of drugs is a significant risk factor in her own health. Second, her use of unprotected sex to procure these drugs puts both herself and her clients at risk of infection and death. For these reasons, The two main components of Lisa's actions -- her drug addiction and unprotected sex -- could be potentially criminal and should be discouraged by means of legal safeguards.
First, Lisa's drug addiction needs to be addressed by both legal and healthcare means. Rather than imprisoning her in already overcrowded facilities, which…
Establishment owners who have been interviewed say that most of these men are highly educated family men, who frequent the establishment by day and then return home to their families at night. Women who try to maintain legitimate relationships with men find more and more that their partners are visiting these brothels and sex establishments (aymond, 2003).
Legalization Does Not Protect Women's Health
The legalization of prostitution mandates that the women submit to health checks and certifications, but does not require this from male consumers. This makes no sense at all since women oftentimes contract the disease from the men. The women are not protected from contracting HIV, AIDS, or other STDs. This is not to support that both the prostitutes and male consumers be checked -- it simply points out the ridiculousness that the policy implies. "A regulated and decriminalized system of prostitution will promote safer sex and HIV…
Gerdes, L. (2007). Policies favoring legalization encourage prostitution and sex trafficking. At Issue: What are the causes of Prostitution? Detroit: Greenhaven Press. Opposing Viewpoints Resource.
Raymond, J. (2003). Ten Reasons for not Legalizing Prostitution. Journal of Trauma Practice. Haworth Press, Inc.
Roleff, T.L. (2006). Legalization and decriminalization of prostitution would not help prostitutes. Contemporary Issues Companion: Prostitution. Greenhaven Press. From Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center.
Criminalization occurs when women are treated like offenders rather than victims when they defend themselves against abusive males. Criminalized women are made to feel like they are the ones responsible for situations such as damage to property, child exposure to violence, immigration status issues, reputational damage, homelessness, and poverty occurring as a direct result of male violence. We have heard of numerous cases -- for instance, where women living with abusive partners are accused of failing to protect their children, and are held responsible in the unfortunate event that the children fall victim to, or witness disturbing episodes of domestic violence. The situation is no different in the prison system, where these women are incarcerated upon conviction. ather than strive to address the social injustices such as poverty, sexual and domestic abuse, and psychological issues that drive such women to commit crime, we dedicate our attention to making their lives…
Balfour, G. (2006). Introduction to Part III. In E. Comack & G. Balfour (Eds.), Criminalizing Women: Gender and (In)Justice in Neo-Liberal Times (pp. 157-76). Black Point, NS: Fernwood Publishing
Canadian Prostitution Related Laws as of December, 2014 ( URL Link XXX)
Casavant, L. & Valiquet, D. (2014). Bill C-36: An Act to Amend the Criminal Code in Response to the Supreme Court of Canada Decision in Attorney General of Canada vs. Benford and to make Consequential Amendments to Other Acts. Library of Parliament. (URL Link XXX)
Dell, C.A., Gardipy, J., Kirlin, N., Naytowhow, V. & Nicol, J.J. (2006). Enhancing the Well-Being of Criminalized, Indigenous Women. In E. Comack & G. Balfour (Eds.), Criminalizing Women: Gender and (In)Justice in Neo-Liberal Times (pp. 314 -329). Black Point, NS: Fernwood Publishing
Japanese Comfort Women
It is estimated that between one and two hundred thousand female sex slaves were forced to deliver sexual services to Japanese soldiers, both before and during World War II. These women were known as comfort women and the Imperial Conference, which was composed of the emperor, representatives from the armed forces and the main Cabinet ministers, approved their use by Japanese soldiers. (Walkom)
The term "comfort women" refers to the victims of a "premeditated systematic plan originated and implemented by the government of Japan to enslave women considered inferior and subject them to repeated mass rapes," said Michael D. ausefeld, one of over 35 lawyers in his firm representing the former sexual prisoners in a class action lawsuit currently pending against the Japanese government. (Eddy)
Since ancient times, prostitutes in Japan chose to sell their bodies either for family, poverty, or for saving her husband and her…
Henson, Maria. Comfort Woman: A Filipina's Story of Prostitution and Slavery Under the Japanese Military. Rowman & Littlefield, 1999.
Hicks, George. The comfort women: Japan's Brutal Regime of Enforced Prostitution in the Second World War," W.W. Norton, 1997.
The Comfort Women: Colonialism, War and Sex. Duke University, 1997.
In addition, she discusses some of the positive, socially constructive things that prostitutes brought to their locales, particularly in the developing West. In much of Colorado, the atmosphere was absolutely dominated by males, so that prostitutes might be the only female companionship a man could find.
MacKell ends her official coverage of prostitutes in 1930, although, throughout the book one finds references to brothels that continued to exist into the 1930s and 1940s. However, as prostitution became illegal throughout much of the state, the nature of prostitution changed. Women could no longer openly ply their trade in brothels. In 1909, oulder's red-light district closed down for good, and after 1910, one saw the same thing occur in a number of Colorado towns (MacKell, 2004, p.233). In 1930, a prostitute named Anna Ryan killed a former police officer Maurice Lyons, which was another death knell for the trade. Therefore, while brothels…
MacKell, Jan. Brothels, Bordellos, & Bad Girls: Prostitution in Colorado 1860-1930.
Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2004.
In its current form in the U.S., prostitution is associated with high rates of criminality, but that is likely a function of its illegal status more than of anything inherent in prostitution. Prostitution is also associated with high risks of STDs, but a closer examination of the specific factors to which that is attributable strongly suggest that legalizing prostitution can effectively eliminate that negative element. Ultimately, prevailing negative attitudes about legalized prostitution are much more reflective of the persistence of irrational social stigmas and antiquated definitions of social deviance that originated in the Victorian Age, if not even much earlier.
Ainsworth, M.. (2000). Breaking the Silence: Setting ealistic Priorities for AIDS Control in Less Developed Countries the Lancet (Vol. 367: 55-60) Baleta, a. (1998). Concern voiced over "dry sex" practices in Africa; the Lancet (Vol. 352:1292)
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:…
Ainsworth, M.. (2000). Breaking the Silence: Setting Realistic Priorities for AIDS Control in Less Developed Countries the Lancet (Vol. 367: 55-60) Baleta, a. (1998). Concern voiced over "dry sex" practices in Africa; the Lancet (Vol. 352:1292)
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Little Brown & Co.
Kaul, R., Kimani, J., Nagelkerk, N.J. (1997).Risk Factors for Genital Ulcerations in Kenyan Sex Workers Sexually Transmissible Diseases [Vol. 4: 24(7):387-392].
Career in Prostitution
'CHOOSING' A CAEE IN POSTITUTION
Criminality, Sex, and Work
'Choosing' a Career in Prostitution
'Choosing' a Career in Prostitution
The concept of 'career' has been defined by economists as "… the means through which human capital is accrued through experience and education" (Murphy and Venkatesh, 2006, p. 132). Sociologists on the other hand, propose that the definition of 'career' also includes nurturing a positive social role. Mainstream America would probably define 'career' using both these concepts, in addition to others. For example, most Americans would probably include a significant degree of choice and commitment to a specific type of occupation.
While most Americans would probably not imagine crime as a possible career choice, many of the same core concepts of 'career' seem to be present when speaking of drug dealers, thieves, and prostitutes, as they are depicted in the HBO television series The Wire (Simon, 2002-2008). On…
Bourgois, Philippe. (2003). In search of respect: Selling crack in El Barrio, Second Edition. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Egan, R. Danielle. (2003). I'll be your fantasy girl, if you'll be my money man: Mapping desire, fantasy and power in two exotic dance clubs. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society, 8, 109-120.
Murphy, Alexandra K. And Venkatesh, Sudhir Alladi. (2006). Vice careers: The changing contours of sex work in New York City. Qualitative Sociology, 29, 129-154.
Simon, D., Burns, E. Mills, D., Price, R., Lehane, D., Pelecanos, G. et al. (Writers), & Chappelle, J., Dickerson, E., Kecken, J., Kecken, S., Attias, D., Holland, A. et al. (Directors). (2002 to 2008). The Wire. [Television series]. In D. Simon, N.K. Noble, R.F. Colesberry, J. Chappelle, E. Burns, K.L. Thorson et al. (Producers). New York: Home Box Office, Inc.
These women make outcalls, where they visit the home of the client; or in-calls, where the clients visit their homes. At the second tier are women who work at established locations such as strip clubs, sex juice bars, brothels and massage parlors, where erotic services are also included following or during, what is an often a therapeutic massage. The third and lowest tier of prostitutes are the streetwalkers who roam certain areas, are picked up by customers and the sex acts are performed in motels that cater to this service, or cars or in back alleys. For each encounter, the prostitutes who belong to this third tier often charge only a few tens of dollars for their services. These lower tiers also include drug addicts who perform these acts in drug dens or at truck stops catering to long haul truck drivers.
Legalization of Prostitution
The term legalization can be…
Bazelon, Emily. Why Is Prostitution Illegal? 2008. Slate.com. Available:
BreakingFreeInc. Breaking Free Inc.: Sisters Helping Sisters Break Free. 2008. BreakingFreeInc.net. Available:
Prostitution and Feminism: Questions for a Modern Society
In answer to the question of whether prostitution is just another line of work, the most comprehensive and simplest answer is to say, no, it is not. The reason for this is that there are too many complexities associated with prostitution -- not just ethical and moral issues -- but also social, legal, economic, political, safety, and theoretical issues that color the sex industry. True, one could argue that any field of labor or industry could be discussed using the same terms, but the issue with prostitution is that it is a term that can be used without being properly defined. As Hallie Rose Liberto points out, when feminists discuss prostitution, they are discussing much more than the sex trade: they are discussing women's rights, women's alienation, women's health, and women's equality.[footnoteRef:1] Because the issue is those so charged with underlying meanings,…
Origin of the Topic
The most common origin of virginity is derived from Christianity. Christianity teaches that sex before marriage is wrong. Sex should only occur between a man and a woman who are married. Sex outside of marriage is considered an abomination to God. The Bible states that when a man leaves home, he should cleave unto his wife and they shall become one flesh.
Impact on Male and Female Sexuality
Phone sex, masturbation, and sensual massages are just a few activities in which couples can participate together without risking the loss of virginity. Sensual massages release endorphins that enhance moods so that the receiving individual is left satisfied with just being touched. Many people might find these activities embarrassing or unusual, but if you cannot engage in such activities with your partner, why would you commit to having a sexual relationship or marriage? It would take a…
Lewis, Jone Johnson. (1999). Roe v. Wade Supreme Court Decision. Retrieved April 22, 2013, from http://womenshistory.about.com/od/abortionuslegal/p/roe_v_wade.html
Springhouse Corporation. (1989). Abortion. Professional Guide to Diseases 3rd Edition,
This memorandum is an analysis of the P&E issues raised by proposed legislative changes regarding criminal sexual behavior, as well as so-called "vices" and other related conduct. The purpose of this analysis is to define a coherent set of public policy objectives characterizing all legislative changes supported by the Fictitious State Governor's Office.
Upgrading penal classification of Solicitation/Prostitution misdemeanors and increasing sentences and fines associated with all Solicitation/Prostitution felonies.
This committee does not recommend enacting any of the proposed penal upgrades across the board as set forth. We recommend re-evaluating current "vice" policy regarding violations of existing
Solicitation/Prostitution statutes in order that funds for law enforcement and prosecution efforts be redirected and channeled more specifically toward violations that most affect "quality of life" issues for lawful citizens of Fictitious State.
Both anecdotal evidence and documented statistical information available from the seventeen counties in Nevada where prostitution…
In addition to that sex tourism occurs in a manner that is generally difficult to legitimately police efficiently. Tourist will come to a country on business and while there they engage the locals in any number of activities.
Economically both sex and romance tourism provides income for the persons engaged in the practice. In Jamaica where the "rent a dread" practice is dominant many young men depend on the largess of foreign women for their successful living. Many also tie their future fortunes to the women falling in love with them and taking them back to Europe or America. In depressed areas sex is a major income earner for persons who have nothing else to trade.
The sex trade in its multiple manifestations provides income for some and pleasure for others. The immediate challenge is that it represents the bankruptcy of the individual and the country when the last resort…
What is Project HOPE and what are the goals of the program?
In basic terms, Project HOPE according to the OPPAGA eport (2004) was "a pilot program in Hillsborough and Pinellas counties intended to break the cycle of prostitution and solicitation." The project was created by the Laws of Florida -- Chapter 2002-297. Made up of two components, i.e. prostitutes and johns (individuals soliciting prostitutes), those who participated in the program were requested to enroll into the same by "judges, state attorneys, public defenders, probation officers, and jail staff" (OPPAGA eport, 2004). It should be noted that as provided for by the law under which it was created, the program had its doors open to any individual convicted of prostitution. As the OPPAGA eport (2004) further points out, the program was mandated to "provide intake and screening, drug screening and urinalysis tests, psychosocial assessments, case management, short-term counseling,…
Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability -- OPPAGA (August, 2004). Project HOPE Helped Break the Cycle of Prostitution and Solicitation, But Had Implementation Problems (Report No. 04-50). Florida: The Florida Legislature.
Psychological abuse and psychological neglect: Neglect is the "failure to protect a child from exposure to any kind of danger," according to Sneddon, et al., in Child Abuse Review (2010). Emotional / psychological neglect involves the persistent emotional "ill-treatment or rejection of a child," Sneddon explains. It involves the "…failure to provide for a child's needs" by, for example, being "emotionally unresponsive or passive in the presence of a child" (Sneddon, 41). Psychological / emotional abuse on the other hand is the rejection of a child, or the emotional ill-treatment of a child, carried out in "the sustained repetitive, inappropriate emotional response to the child's experience" (Sneddon, 41). A child that is being psychologically abused is told things like, "you're stupid" and "you're lazy and no good" and "you are ugly"; that same child may also be subjected to a "withdrawal of affection" and experience "humiliation" and "degradation" psychologically (Sneddon,…
Lillywhite, Ralph, and Skidmore, Paula. (2006). Boys Are Not Sexually Exploited? A Challenge
to Practitioners. Child Abuse Review, 15(5), 351-361.
Public Broadcasting Service. (2009). NOW / Fighting Child Prostitution. Retrieved January 21
2012, from http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/422/index.html .
Child Sex Trafficking
Human Trafficking is occurring all around the world and also in the United States. This is not just a crime that is committed in other countries. There have been cases reported by the authorities in every single state. Those victimized are at every age from adults to young children of both genders. Based on federal reporting it is estimated that the number of persons exploited sexually for money or trafficked are in the thousands (DOJ, 2007). Some are brought into the U.S. from other countries and the number of citizens that are trafficked in the U.S. are unknown officially. The primary sex crimes being includes child exploitation, prostitution, and pornography (Keane, 2006).
The age range of children involved in sexual trafficking is as early as 12 years old. Those of school age that do not live with their biological parents are often targeted. Children are often targeted…
Carr, B. (2009). Sex trafficking: an American problem too. CNN. Nov 25. TBS.
Department of Justice DOJ (2005). Report on state human rights. Retrieved April 20, 2012 from http://www.humantrafficking.org/countries/united_states_of_america
Eisenmenger, L. (2011). Sex trafficking in the U.S., What really goes on. Retrieved April 20, 2012 from http://goodmenproject.com/ethics-values/child-sex-trafficking-in-the-usa-what-really-goes-on/
Freyd, J.J, Putnam, F.W, Lyon, T.D, BeckerBlease, K. A, Cheit, R.E, Siegel, N.B, and Pezdek, K. (2005). The science of child sexual abuse. Science, pp. 501.
Victorian Period Literature- Status of Women
Women in English literature have always found a subservient place akin to that of a second-class citizen. It was more pronounced in the Victorian period when it was believed that marriage was the only possible career for women. They were expected to prepare themselves for courtship, make themselves skillful enough to be liked by men and finally land themselves a good husband. That was the be-all and end-all of their lives. However not everyone subscribed to that viewpoint and some tried to raise a voice against the status of women in the society and how it was contributing to their poor standard of lives and deteriorating lot. Interestingly one such person was Elizabeth Barrett Browning whose ballad "Lord Walter's Wife" was refused publication in 1861 on the grounds that it could lead to public outcry since it talked of man's love for a woman.…
Henry Mayhew "Prostitution among the needlewomen." Found in Voices of the Poor: Selections from the Morning Chronicle. 1971
Barrett, Browning, Elizabeth. The Poetical Works. Ed. Ruth M. Adams. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974.
Browning. Letters. Vol. II. Ed. Frederic G. Kenyon. New York: Macmillan, 1897.
ithin these transactions, however, the relationship of women towards males in their lives is often reinforced in advertising, either by the woman's desire to buy products to beautify herself or her home, or to cook and clean the home.
In contemporary life, it seems more difficult to trace the architectural genealogy of suburban and urban malls and shopping locations in as clear and in as sexually defined a fashion as the Burlington Arcade. Like the arcade, however, malls and other stores are public places where everyone is free to come in, but must behave according to the rules of the store, or else the shoppers are forced to leave by security guards. The exchanges are impersonal, like in any store, or in prostitution, and are governed by financial transactions, even though the employee may be forced to tell the customer to have a nice day, or behave according to a…
Rendell, Jane. "Industrious Females' and 'Professional Beauties." In Strangely Familiar: Narratives of Architecture in the City. Ed. Lain Borden et al. London and New York: Routledge, 1996. 32-6.
Trafficking and Prostitution in the Developing orld
The world can be a harsh place, especially if you live in a developing nation, and especially if you are a woman. Lack of food and adequate housing, lack of access to good educational and medical facilities, an oppressive, often male-dominated social system - these are just some of the problems faced by millions of women each and every day of their lives. For most there is no hope of escape. Each new dawn brings with it the same sense of despair; the same feeling that one is a prisoner of one's fate. Change is slow in the developing world. Progress, if it comes at all, comes only very gradually, painfully, and often at a high price. Many of the nations of the Third orld were only recently communist, or colonies of the estern powers. Many still have one foot in…
1. Binder, David. "Country Report: Albania - Country Sends Its Own to Europe and Beyond." MSNBC News. MSNBC.com, 2002. URL: http://www.msnbc.com/news/736680.asp
2. Binder, David. "Country report: Bosnia - In a Post-War Zone the Sex trade Flourishes." MSNBC News. MSNBC.com, 2002. URL: http://www.msnbc.com/news/736679.asp
3. Binder, David. "Country Report: Yugoslavia - After Milosevic, Country Still Mired in Crime." MSNBC News. MSNBC.com, 2002. URL: http://www.msnbc.com/news/736678.asp .
4. Binder, David and Mendenhall, Preston. "Sex, Drugs, and Guns in the Balkans." MSNBC News. MSNBC.com, 2002. URL:
But though the distaste might be the same on both sides, the degree and vehemence with which the two sides are opposed to these two ills are quite different. Both the ACLU and the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom appear to be against the practice of prostitution. Especially in areas where it is illegal (i.e. most of the country, but they also protest against police crackdowns on suspected prostitution areas and harsh punishments for convicted prostitutes (ACLU, 2009; NCSF, 2008). The stated conservative view is far more clear cut: both the epublicans for Family Values website and the American Family Association simply contain no reference to it, ignoring the problem completely (FV, 2009; AFA, 2007). Teen pregnancy is more equally frowned upon, though there are drastic differences in the allowable methods of handling and preventing such situations.
Sexual education is a major area of difference,; many conservatives advocate abstinence-only education,…
ACLU. (2009). Accessed 6 April 2009. http://www.aclu.org/index.html
American Family Association. (2007). Accessed 6 April 2009. http://www.afa.net
National Coalition for Sexual Freedom. (2008). Accessed 6 April 2009. http://www.ncsfreedom.org/index.php
Republicans for Family Values. (2009). Accessed 6 April 2009. http://republicansforfamilyvalues.com/
Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.
Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…
Bureau of justice statistics- drug use and crime. (2009, October). Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=352
Crime. (2011, June). Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/crime
Freud, S. (1961). The Complete Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19). London: Hogarth.
Lerner, L., Lerner, B.L., & Cengage, G. (2006). Criminology. World of forensic science, Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/criminology
Federal and State Court Systems in George
The federal and state court system in the United States is tasked with providing timely adjudication of all cases within their jurisdiction. Each of the several states, including Georgia, is part of a larger federal system of district courts and courts of appeal, and their courts have their state-level counterparts, each of which is responsible for hearing cases of certain types. To determine which courts are responsible for what in the State of Georgia today, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning the federal and state court systems in place in Georgia today in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
The Federal Court Structure in the Southern District of Georgia
The U.S. Courts of Appeals for the Eleventh District for the Southern District form part of the overall adjudicative coverage of…
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Federal Courts of Appeal. (2013). Georgia Institute of Technology. Retrieved from http://www.
Georgia Small Claims Court. (2013). Nolo. Retrieved from: http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/georgia-small-claims-court-31687.html .
Mildred tries to imitate the economical management in her own family. Like in Faye's case, whose marriage had been a "business arrangement," her own marriage to Monty has the same business character: Mildred chooses Monty for his relations that could help her daughter to make the most of her musical talent. Also, Mildred's other attempt in getting a husband for money is telling for the way she is constantly selling or trying to sell herself, and not only her prettiness, but also her cooking talents. The analogy between her career as a waitress, and then a restaurant manager, trying to sell food and the way Mildred tries to sell herself as a wife to ally Burgan, using the same cooking talents as a weapon, is striking. It is here that we most clearly detect the parallel between private life and mass economy. Love, like in est's book, is nothing else…
Cain, James. Mildred Pierce. New York: Alfred A Knopf Inc., 1941
Jurca, Catherine White Diaspora: The Suburb and the Twentieth Century American Novel. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001
West, Nathanael. The Day of the Locust. New York: New Directions, 1950
" In this sense, the geisha business has nothing to do with the paid sex business and, as previously stated, may only come as geisha's personal choice. Geisha should be first viewed as an artist and performer, someone who trains the entire life into committing to artistic entertainment, much like kabuki artists, for example. However, given the ambiguous status often related to them, one can often wonder to what degree prostitution also intervenes in the business.
It is also interesting to refer to the relationship to Japanese wives. Again, we previously need to refer to some of the characteristics of Japanese society. Until not so long ago, the main role of the Japanese wife was to take care of the household, everything ranging from raising the children to taking care of the family's finances. Their mission was not to entertain, but to manage. From this point-of-view, this is where the…
1. http://forums.allaboutjazz.com/showthread.php?t=6738& ; page=6& pp=15
2. Liza Dalby's Geisha. Comment on the book at http://www.lizadalby.com/
3. Geisha by Liza Dalby -- book report at http://www.bookcrossing.com/journal/2232134/perfect-circle/book_-Geisha-Liza-Dalby
On the Internet at
Dutch Culture "Typical Dutch?"
The history of the Netherlands is demonstratie of a unique situation both socially and politically as the leel of Dutch tolerance has been duly noted on countless issues. The historical underpinnings of this are clearly defined in the brief document History in an Nutshell clearly details the liberal nature of the formation of the nation and its political system as well as the many times that this liberal/tolerant policy stance has been challenged, from abroad and now from within. Another interesting aspect of the history of the Netherlands is that up to the end of French occupation the region was actually a Republic and the only after the end of the French occupation did the nation become a monarchy. Yet despite its liberal and tolerant demeanor and een in the wake of many European reolutions that resulted in the end of monarchies the Dutch hae remained…
van Voss, Lex Heerma "Dilemmas of the Welfare State." 1-11.
Shouf shouf habibi! (2004) Motion Picture IMDb plot summary http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0341578/plotsummary
Simon (2004) Motion Picture IMDb plot summary http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0393775/plotsummary
U.S. has not Signed the U.N. Convention Treaty on the ights of Children
This paper presents a detailed examination of the Treaty on the United Nations Convention on the ights of Children. The writer explores the treaty and the nations that have signed it. The writer than delves into some of the reasons the United States has not signed it. This paper is written from a legal standpoint therefore there are discussions about jurisdictional issues as well as other legal points of interest. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
Why the U.S. hasn't signed the U.N. Convention treaty on the ights of the Child
Worldwide globalization efforts are moving forward in almost all aspects of society. There are better communications abilities; more integrated business dealings and nations are beginning to embrace the traditions and cultures of those across the ocean. As the walls of difference come down…
Robert Dennis, U.S. should ratify children's treaty., The Dallas Morning News, 12-29-1997, pp 13A.
NICOLE WINFIELD, Associated Press Writer, UN Debates Childrens' Plight in War., AP Online, 08-25-1999.
Author not available, The world's children / / Why won't the U.S. sign their treaty?., Minneapolis Star Tribune, 11-20-1999, pp 26A.
colorful period in America's remarkable early history is the gold rush era. In the late 1800's the discovery of gold triggered a flood of immigrants into the country, all intent on making their fortune. These miners shaped the early history of America, and created a great deal of the legend that surrounds the era of the "ild est." hile some of the legends of lawlessness and debauchery are clearly exaggerated, life in the mining towns of the gold rush era was clearly rough and ready.
This paper will examine life in the mining camps of the gold rush era. This will include a look at the people who made up the camps, the general atmosphere, as well as prostitution, gambling, general lawlessness, and the role of religion within the mining camps. The demise of the mining camps will be examined in the context of the development of the railroad and…
Arizona's Ghost Towns. 02 December 2003. http://www.carizona.com/ghosttowns.html
Baumgart, Don. Some Mining Camps Faded Others Grew To Be Cities. Nevada County Gold Online Magazine. 02 December 2003. http://www.ncgold.com/History/BecomingCA_Archive22.html
CmdrMark. Travels in the American Southwest. 02 December 2003. http://www.cmdrmark.com/ghosttowns.html
Koeppel, Elliot H. The California Gold Country: Highway 49 Revisited. Malakoff & Co.
Women in 20th Century Canadian Society: Social Conventions and Change
20th century society placed Canadian women within restrictive conventions and norms. There was a very pronounced domestic expectation placed upon women that they would have jobs or careers, but only until they married. Once married, the expectation was that they would abandon their careers to be housewives, working within the domestic sphere of the home, cooking and cleaning and tending to the general needs of the family. During this period, the expectation was that the husband and father was the man of the house and the sole financial provider or “breadwinner” for the family. Given the narrowness of existence for these women, and how limited their choices were, their reactions to this type of domestic captivity were all very diverse. Some women responded to the limiting social conventions by conforming to the expectations placed upon them, while others made great…
The British created a well-educated, English-speaking Indian elite middle class d. new jobs were created for millions of Indian hand-spinner and hand-weavers
The Indian National Congress can best be described in which of the following ways:
a. An Indian Civil Service that administered British rule.
b. A group of upper-caste professionals seeking independence from Britain.
c. white settlers who administered British rule.
d. anglicized Indians who were the social equals of white rulers.
Under the Culture System, Indonesian peasants had to Answer:
a. learn to speak and read Dutch b. plant one-fifth of their land in export crops to be turned over to the Dutch colonial government c. convert to the Dutch Reformed Church d. join large state-run farms.
Modern Vietnamese nationalism traced much of its inspiration to Answer:
a. Japanese modernization.
b. China's "Hundred Days" Reform program.
c. The U.S. Declaration of Independence.
d. British Fabian socialism.
Thus, many shipments go to another destination before the United States or Europe in order to throw law enforcement off of the trail. For cocaine coming out of Colombia, West Africa and Venezuela, home to rogue states and dictatorships, have become popular transit hubs.
The increased transportation of goods accompanying globalization has increased opportunities for maritime piracy. Organized crime is exploiting the increasingly dense international flow of commercial vessels. Maritime piracy consists not only of hijacking of goods, but also kidnapping of passengers for ransom. (UNODC, 2010, p. 11)
OC groups engaged in pirating do not often begin as OC groups. Pirates off the cost of Somalia started as local Somali fishermen who formed vigilante groups to protect their territorial waters. These armed ships eventually exceeded their mandate of mere protection and began to hijack commercial ships for goods. These activities have proved so profitable that these groups are now…
Lyman, M.D. & Potter, G.W. (2007). Organized Crime. New York: Prentice Hall
Abadinsky, H. (2010). Organized crime. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Mallory, S.L. (2007). Understanding organized crime. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
Kaplan, D.E., & Dubro, A. (2003). Yakuza: Japan's criminal underworld. Berkeley: University of California Press.
The fact that a novel in the sentimental and seduction genre attained such heights of popularity is, in the first instance, evidence its impact and effect on the psyche and minds of the female readers of the novel. As one critic cogently notes:
hy a book which barely climbs above the lower limits of literacy, and which handles, without psychological acuteness or dramatic power, a handful of stereotyped characters in a situation already hopelessly banal by 1790, should have had more than two hundred editions and have survived among certain readers for a hundred and fifty years is a question that cannot be ignored.
The initial question that obviously arises therefore is what made this book so popular and in what way does this novel speak to the feelings and aspirations of the readers to make it such a perennial favorite. As Fudge ( 1996) notes,
Barton, Paul. "Narrative Intrusion in Charlotte Temple: A Closet Feminist's Strategy in an American Novel." Women and Language 23.1 (2000): 26. Questia. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.
Fiedler, Leslie A. Love and Death in the American Novel. Rev. ed. New York: Stein and Day, 1966. Questia. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.
Fudge, Keith. "Sisterhood Born from Seduction: Susanna Rowson's Charlotte Temple, and Stephen Crane's Maggie Johnson." Journal of American Culture 19.1 (1996): 43+. Questia. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.
Greeson, Jennifer Rae. "'Ruse It Well": Reading, Power, and the Seduction Plot in the Curse of Caste." African-American Review 40.4 (2006): 769+. Questia. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.
C. Mayor Adrian Fenty made HIV / AIDS the most important public health priority (Greenberg et al., 2009). Funding from the CDC allowed for a partnership between the D.C. Department of Health's HIV / AIDS Administration and the George Washington University School of Public Health and Healthy Services, which was responsible for the Epidemiology Annual eport for 2007 -- the first to be published for D.C. since 2002 (Greenberg et al., 2009). The Department of Health also initiated a routine HIV screening campaign to help provide testing resources and lower stigma, titled "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" (Greenberg et al., 2009).
Efforts to address the epidemic in D.C. included a combination of increased resource availability and educational services as offered by public health departments. The "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" campaign provided approximately 73,000 tests in 2008, which was a 70% testing increase from…
Brown, M., & Henriquez, E. (2008). Socio-demographic predictors of attitudes towards gays and lesbians. Individual Differences Research, 6(3), 193-202.
CDC HIV Fact sheet. (2011, November 07). HIV in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/us.htm
CDC Fact sheet. (2011, September). HIV and AIDS among gay and bisexual men. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/docs/fastfacts-msm-final508comp.pdf
Greenberg, A., Hader, S., Masur, H., Young, A., Skillicorn, J., & Dieffenbach, C. (2009). Fighting HIV / AIDS in washington, d.c. Health Affairs, 28(6), 1677-1687.
Person: Single mom, who lost custody over her children, has sex with multiple male partners, asks for money afterwards, and denies that she is prostitute because she doesn't charge money up front. The mother is hypercritical and unloving and her father has been an absent figure in her life. Her stepfather abused her.
Cognitive self-regulation theory, fashioned by Bandura, believes that human behavior is motivated and regulated by the influence that one has over the self. This self-influence works through three key mechanisms: monitoring one's behavior, causes of one's behavior, and the effects of that behavior; judging one's behavior in contrast to personal standards; and regulating the feelings / moods (affect) of one's conduct / behavior. Higher goals lead to enhanced behavior and this results in a certain mindset. Self-regulation is continuous and never-ending. And is also effectuated by self-reinforcement that result in self-efficacy. It is intentional and…