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Psychoanalytic Theory and Behavioral Theory
There are numerous types of psychological theories and with them approaches for modifying human happiness and behavior. Psychoanalytic theory and behavioral theory are two of the most overwhelming and notable theories in this field. Exploring them adequately not only illuminates the field of mental health, but the truly endless possibilities for treatment approaches for a professional in this field.
"This is one of the oldest theories of psychology in which patients are viewed within a model of illness or 'what is lacking'" (Grohol, 2004). Each person is viewed as being composed of a particular dynamic that starts when they are extremely young and then proceeds throughout life; this theory focuses on the idea that all problems or issues which adults face can find their origins in one's childhood (Grohol, 2004). This type of therapy is so traditional and widely considered extremely "old school,"…
Cherry, K. (2013). What Is Behavioral Therapy? Retrieved from About.com: http://psychology.about.com /od/typesofpsychotherapy/a/behavioral-therapy.htm
Corey, G. (2011). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. Belmont: Brooks/Cole.
Grohol, J. (2004). Types of Therapies. Retrieved from Psychcentral.com: http://psychcentral.com/therapy.htm
Herkov, M. (2006). About Behavior Therapy. Retrieved from Psychcentral.com: http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/about-behavior-therapy/
Classical psychoanalysis is the most challenging of all the psychotherapies in terms of time, cost and effort. It is usually conducted with the patient lying on a couch and with the analyst seated out of his/her sight, to hear what the patient has to say. The treatment sessions last about 50 minutes and are normally held four or five times a week for at least three years. The primary technique used in psychoanalysis, as well as in other dynamic psychotherapies, which consists in permitting the unconscious material to enter the consciousness of the patient, is called "free association."
According to Freud, the patient "is to tell us not only what he can say intentionally and willingly, what will give him relief like a confession, but everything else as well that his self observation yields him, everything that comes into his head, even if it is disagreeable for him to…
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Mulvey and the Cinema
Laura Mulvey uses psychoanalytic theory to discuss the appeal of the erotic in narrative cinema and how the images projected on screen play upon "pre-existing patterns of fascination" within the audience (6). The point of reading is that such images have a political use, which has been appropriated by studios, which a feminist audience can readily identify as a "phallocentric order" (6). From the feminist perspective, the psychoanalytic theory offers a substantial insight into the social constructs that are used to engineer films for mass audiences, already saturated by a form of social-engineering from the various socio-political platforms erected on televisions, personal computers, phones, etc.
The reading continues with a run-down the of the different pleasures that cinema affords the viewer -- whether "scopophilia" or narcissism (10). The cinema projects images of superstars but at the same time allows the viewer to project an image of…
Mulvey, Laura. "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema." Screen, vol. 16, no. 3 (Autumn
Psychoanalytic theory started off with the work of Sigmund Freud. Throughout his clinical work with people suffering from mental illness, Freud came to believe that childhood experiences and unaware desires contributed to a person's behavior. Based on his observations, he developed a theory that described development in terms of a series of psychosexual stages. According to Freud, disagreements that take place during each of these stages can have a lasting influence on one's character and actions (Cherry, 2011).
Psychoanalytic theory was an extremely influential force throughout the first half of the twentieth century. Those enthused and influenced by Freud have gone on to expand upon Freud's ideas and develop theories of their own. Of these neo-Freudians, Erik Erikson's ideas have become possibly the best known. Erikson's eight-stage theory of psychosocial development describes growth and change all through the lifetime, centering on social dealings and disagreements that take place…
A Brief Outline of Psychoanalytic Theory. (2009). Retrieved from http://homepage.newschool.edu/~quigleyt/vcs/psychoanalysis-intro.pdf
American Psychoanalytic Association. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.apsa.org/
Beystehner, K.M. (2001). Psychoanalysis: Freud's Revolutionary Approach to Human
Personality. Retrieved from http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/beystehner.html
Genital Stage (from puberty on into life) is a time when sexual urges are having an impact on the person. Adolescents begin to direct their desires on members of the opposite sex (www.AllPsych.com).
Defense Mechanisms -- Freud. Arthur Clark writes that Freud listed a total of 17 defense mechanisms; some of those include "conversion, displacement, isolation, projection, repression, and retreat or withdrawal from reality" (Clark, 1998). "Unconscious processing" means that when threatened a person is not consciously thinking about the threat; "subjective distortion" means putting the onus on the counselor or someone else rather than absorb the threat. "Denial" is probably the most obvious defense mechanism and intellectualization is another one. A woman I know cheated on her boyfriend and when a friend told the boyfriend that she was seen having lunch with another man, she denied it was romantic and claimed it was a job interview. The boyfriend was…
All Psych Online. (2008). Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development / Psychology 101.
Retrieved April 8, 2012, from http://allpsych.com/psychology101/sexual_development.html .
Cherry, Kendra. (2010). Freud & Women: Freud's Perspective on Women. About.com.
Psychology. Retrieved April 7, 2012, from http://psychology.about.com .
Personality Psych Analysis of Tony Soprano
Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality
Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality makes the argument that human behavior is resultant of the interrelations amongst three constituent parts of the mind including the id, ego, and superego (Petocz, 1999). This theory of personality lays substantial significance of the manner in which conflict, more often than not unconscious, amongst the areas of the mind end up shaping an individual’s behavior and personality. The Id deals with instantaneous satisfaction of basic physical needs and desires and it functions completely unconsciously. The Superego takes into account social rules and morals, and is largely referred to as a person’s conscience. The Superego develops as a child progressively learns what is deemed to be right or wrong. Lastly, the ego, unlike the instinctive Id and the ethical superego, the Ego is the sensible, realistic part of an individual’s personality…
Psychoanalytic Approach to Personality
The three major psychoanalytic theories and approaches to personality could not be more different. Freud, who focuses on early childhood and sexual urges, differs from Jung who focuses on the unconscious, who differs from Adler who focuses on human motivation and superiority (Weiten, 2005). Of course, what they all have in common is trying to tease out an understanding of human personality. This paper will compare and contrast each of Freud's, Jung's, and Adler's psychoanalytic approaches, as well as two characteristics in which this author agrees or disagrees with the theories presented. Then the focus will mainly be on Freud and his structure to personality, and finally using real world examples for his defense mechanisms. Overall, this paper strives to present a well-rounded view of Freud's theory, and the theories of his time.
The structural model for Freud's psychoanalytic theory is based on three different levels…
Burger, J.M. (2008). Personality. (7th ed., pp. 40-107). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Weiten, W. (2005). Psychology themes and variations. (6th ed., pp. 329-336). Belmont, CA:
Psychoanalytic Model (Object elations)
In this paper, the object relations psychoanalytic model will be employed for solving a family issue; the family in question is taken from movie. The paper will further delineate key object relations concepts, the theory's assumptions, and its application to the aforementioned movie.
The chosen model
The object relations concept is a variant of the psychoanalytic theory, which deviates from the idea held by Sigmund Freud that mankind is driven by acts of aggression and that of sexual drives. Instead, psychoanalytic theory proposes the notion that man is primarily driven by a need to forge relationships with others (i.e. contact). Object relations therapists aim to aid clients in uncovering early mental pictures that can further any current problems in their associations with other people, and adapt them to improve interpersonal performance.
Basic Concepts in Object elations
The word 'object' in the object relations concept does not…
Balk, D. (1996). Models for understanding adolescent coping with bereavement. Death Studies, 20: 367-387.
___. (1990). The self-concepts of bereaved adolescents: Sibling death and its aftermath. Journal of Adolescent Research, 5(1): 112-132.
Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.
Daniel, V. (2007, October). Object Relations Theory. Retrieved from Sonoma State University: https://www.sonoma.edu/users/d/daniels/objectrelations.html
Psychoanalytic Model (Object elations)
The object relations concept is a variant of the psychoanalytic theory, which deviates from the idea held by Sigmund Freud that mankind is driven by aggressive and sexual drives. Instead, psychoanalytic theory puts forward the notion that man is primarily driven by a need to forge relationships with others (i.e. contact). Object relations therapists aim to aid clients in uncovering early mental pictures that can further any current problems in their associations with other people, and adapt them so as to improve interpersonal performance.
Basic Concepts in Object elations
The word 'object' in the object relations concept does not denote inanimate things but rather, it refers to significant individuals with whom one relates -- often, one's father, mother, or a primary caregiver. This term is also sometimes employed in referring to some part of an individual (e.g., the mental depictions of the important people in life,…
Good therapy. (2016, May 9). Who Practices Object Relations? Retrieved from GoodTherapy.org: http://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/types/object-relations
IPI. (2016). Object Relations Therapy. Retrieved from International Psychotherapy Institute: http://www.theipi.org/about-ipi/teaching-philosophy/36-general/about-ipi/82-object-relations-therapy
Scharff, J., & Scharff, D. (1992). Scharff Notes: A Primer of Object Relations Therapy. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
In psychology, personality can be described as the "the patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion unique to an individual, and the ways they interact to help or hinder the adjustment of a person to other people and situations" ("personality," 2013). Psychologists may make use of idiographic or nomothetic techniques in order to study personality of an individual. Many characteristics of human behavior can be examined while studying one's personality. To put in simple words, personality theories are utilized for organizing what is known, stimulating new research, and specifying a view of personality in a formal way (Kasschau, 1985). Psychoanalytic theory, person-centered theory and existential theory are three such theories which have been developed in the precedent century and cover a lot of information regarding the pathology, health/wellness, treatment and the weight or significance of early life.
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
The Psychoanalytic Theory was put forwarded by Sigmund Freud…
Diem-Wille, G. (2011). The Early Years of Life: Psychoanalytical Development Theory According to Freud, Klein and Bion. London: Karnac.
Gurman, A.S., & Messer, S.B. (2003).Essential Psychotherapies: Theory and Practice. New York: Guilford Press.
Kasschau, R.A. (1985). Psychology: Exploring Behavior. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs. Print.
Kitano, M.K., & LeVine, E.S. (1987). Existential theory: Guidelines for practice in child therapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 24(3), 404-413. doi:10.1037/h0085732
andura's social cognitive theory is similar with Skinner's behaviorist theory, in so far as the role of the external environment on the individual is concerned. However, andura's theory differs from Skinner's in that the former extended the relationship between the individual and external environment to include, at the same time, the influence that the individual's behavior has on his/her external environment. andura's theory illustrates a seemingly 'reciprocal' relationship between the individual and the external environment: the latter affects the former in exchange for a positive outcome, while the former affects the latter as part of his/her continuous cycle of personality development (424).
From the discussion of these three perspectives of the psychology of human personality, significant differences that highlight the importance of each tradition emerge.
The humanistic tradition looks into the internal traits of the individual, positing that these internal traits are what ultimately shape the personality of a person.…
Buber, M. And C. Rogers. (1997). The Martin Buber-Carl Rogers Dialogue: A New Transcript with Commentary. Albany: University of New York Press.
Freedheim, D. And I. Weiner. (2003). Handbook of Psychology, Volume 1: History of Psychology. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill.
g. If one eats something salty it is possible to have a dream involving drinking water.
On the other hand, though Hobson and McCarley put forth a model that has been validated empirically to a certain extent, their theory gives a nonspecific explanation in that it refers to a general level of neural activation which generates dreams; the synthesis part involves the integration of disparate sensory, motor, and emotional elements by making use of memory integrated events which allow interpretation. Their model is too general and unspecific, while the Freudian theory suggest a complex process with several stages and different significance attached to them.
Freud's theory offers a deeper insight into the quality of dreams by reinforcing their meaningfulness, their role (they are the manifestation of repressed wishes), and, most importantly, Freud emphasizes that dreams are a particular condition of thinking, fact that was taken into consideration by his followers.…
& #8230; in its heyday there was elitism and arrogance among psychoanalysts, a sense of having superior knowledge that set us up for a fall" (Altman, ¶ 3). In a field that claims to possess knowledge of the unconscious, Altman asserts, this constitutes an occupational hazard. To counter the temptation to feel more knowledgeable than others, whether patients or the public in general, therapists who practice psychoanalytic therapy, need to remember that the depths of their own unconscious realms are as unfathomable as those they treat.
Psychoanalysis, nevertheless, possesses particularly valuable offerings, despite numerous attacks on meaning. Due to the fact that people currently, continuing to move faster and faster as they pursue success and security. Consequently, "thoughtfulness and self-reflection get crowded out. People are instrumentalized, working around the clock, on their cell phones and e-mail and Blackberries, allowing themselves to be exploited in the service of the corporate bottom…
Altman. N. (2007). Renewing psychoanalysis for the 21st century. Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy. Heldref Publications. Retrieved October 01, 2009 from HighBeam
Bacal, H.A. (2007). Discussion of Judy Pickles's case presentation from the perspective of psychoanalytic specificity theory. Psychoanalytic Inquiry. The Analytic Press, Inc.
Retrieved October 01, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.
For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.
What is Winnicott's elational Model Theory?
What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?
How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for…
American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.
Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.
Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic
When one thinks about Freud's theory one has to presume Freud's conscious thoughts or his theory regarding an Oedipus complex represents not his real thoughts but his defensive condensations, displacements, reversals, omissions, and distortions of his real thoughts. If one wishes to look inside his real thoughts regarding an Oedipus complex, one has to analyze and interpret the manifest content of his thought with these defenses in mind. According to Freud, a person must use this method of analysis to overcome such defenses and resistances. The first rule of Freud's technique was to reject the manifest content or the apparent meaning of the dream, symptom, or activity as merely a distorted substitute for one's real thoughts (Freud's Theory Analyzed -- a eport on esearch n.d).
Freud thought that one's conscious thoughts would be unconsciously determined and distorted by what one had censored. One's conscious thoughts condensed, displaced, reversed, omitted, covertly…
A Brief Outline of Psychoanalytic Theory, n.d., Available at:
Bridle, S. And Edelstein, a., 2009, Was ist "das Ich"?, Available at:
Freud's Psychosocial Development Theory Presumes That Adult Character Is Established By Age 5
Freud finds that we humans are extremely symbolic creatures; we have a common set of symbols that provide us a very effective language for our shared wishes. What case does he make that we are accustomed to symbolic experience and that we talk about these symbols in the bigger society of humankind? Freud's theory presumes that adult character is established by age 5, with the resolution of the Oedipus issue. Hence, it only explains character growth into adolescence. On the other hand, Jung regarded that character continued to develop across the lifespan and explains levels of mature growth not regarded by Freud. Both theorists highlighted the subconscious, but Erickson went beyond to talk about the significance of the combined unconscious; an idea Freud particularly refused. Both had little actual physical proof to back up their speculation. However,…
These three seminal perspectives may possess a lot of similarities, yet each of them has contributed novel ideas that are consistent with its theoretical underpinnings. In many of the substance abuse treatment arenas, the significant aspects of all these three approaches are blended to provide for a cognitive-behavioral model that gives the best result in terms of all the other therapies. (Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy)
Three theorists who have influenced the behaviorist theories are:
1. Watson J.B. - One of the originators of behaviorism and a proponent of the reductionist approach to the study of human behavior.
2. Skinner B.F. - He was the one most responsible for the spread of the behaviorist philosophy.
3. Wolpe, Joseph. The method of systematic desensitization to deal with fear was created by him. (Theories and Theorists)
Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." NIDA. etrieved at http://www.addictionalternatives.com/philosophy/briefcbtherapy.htm. Accessed on February 15, 2005
Bush, Winston John. (December 22,…
Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." NIDA. Retrieved at http://www.addictionalternatives.com/philosophy/briefcbtherapy.htm. Accessed on February 15, 2005
Bush, Winston John. (December 22, 2003) "Learning theory: A fuller-fuller explanation of CBT" Retrieved at http://www.cognitivetherapy.com/learning.html Accessed on February 15, 2005
Cognitive Therapy for Depression" Retrieved at http://www.psychologyinfo.com/depression/cognitive.htm . Accessed on February 15, 2005
Grohol, John M. (July 21, 1995) "Theoretical Orientations and Practices of Therapists"
Gerard John Schaefer
Theories based upon biology, psychology, sociology, and socio-psychological observations and analyses have been formulated with the hopes are identifying factors that may influence and individual's behavior. In the case of prolific serial murderer Gerard John Schaefer, a psychological analysis of his behavior may be the best approach to better understanding factors that influenced his actions.
Gerard John Schaefer was tried and convicted for the murders of Susan Place and Georgia Jessup who were last seen on September 27, 1972. The remains of Place and Jessup were found in April 1973 and gave investigators cause to issue a search warrant to look for evidence tying Schaefer to their disappearance. The murders of Place and Jessup occurred while Schaefer was free on bond after being charged with false imprisonment and two charges of aggravated assault after he kidnapped, bound, and tortured/tormented Pamela Sue Wells and Nancy Ellen Trotter (Newton,…
Arrigo, B. (2006). Criminal Behavior: A Systems Approach. Upper Saddle Creek: Pearson
Newton, M. (n.d.). "Gerard Schaefer." TruTV.com. Accessed 25 June 2011, from http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/predators/gerard_schaefer/1.html
Stone, M. (2009). The Anatomy of Evil. Amherst: Prometheus Books.
converging points of similarity between psychoanalytic, sociocultural, and trait theories for the development of personality, each of these theories largely concentrates on a different approach. For example, the psychoanalytic theory of personality -- which was largely popularized by Sigmund Freud's work in this field -- tends to focus on mental processes as being those most pertinent to the development of personality. Essentially, the great psychologist posited the notion that there were a number of unconscious factors that could result in a repression of these events that would generally cause noxious effects to the mind. The strength of this particular approach is it utilizes mental effects as one of the chief determinants in personality, as they certainly are. Implicit in this approach is that physical interactions or occurrences actually contribute to the unconscious mind and repression (Gerson, 2003, p. 2). However, the general weakness with this theory is its emphasis on…
Barkhuus, L. (1999). "Allport's theory of traits." Concordia University. Retrieved from http://www.itu.dk/~barkhuus/allport.pdf
Gerson, M.J. (1993). "Psychoanalytic theories of personality." Institute of Advanced Psychological Studies. Retrieved from http://psychstudies.net/Psychoanalytic%20Theories%20of%20Personality.pdf
Multicultural Theories of Psychology
Multicultural Theories of Psychotherapy
Diagnosis, treatment and care of patient and their conditions are greatly influenced by cultural considerations. These actors determine beliefs and values related to health. Yet, these widespread claims about the real value of cultural role in healthcare do not come with sufficient research basis. Psychotherapists have, for a long time emphasized the need to provide multicultural psychotherapy so as to manage and reduce the ethnic and racial disparities in dealing with mental health issues. How multicultural competencies relate with other clinical process measures and treatment results has demonstrated heterogeneity it effect, though (Karen W. Tao & Jesse Owen, 2015). A famous quote by Slavoj Zizek on multi-culturalism deserves a mention here. "For the multiculturalist, white Anglo-Saxon Protestants are prohibited, Italians and Irish get a little respect, blacks are good, native Americans are even better. The further away we go, the more they…
FIVE IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF MULTICULTURAL COUNSELING COMPETENCIES. (2014, July 29). Retrieved from Delaware Valley University: http://www.delval.edu/blog/five-important-aspects-of-multicultural-counseling-competencies
Jairo N. Fuertes, Peggy Brady-Amoon, Navneet Thind, & Tiffany Chang. (2015). The Therapy Relationship in Multicultural Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy Bulletin.
Jesse Owen, Mark M. Leach, & Bruce Wampold. (2011). Multicultural Approaches in Psychotherapy: A Rejoinder. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 22-26.
Karen W. Tao, & Jesse Owen. (2015). A Meta-Analysis of Multicultural Competencies and Psychotherapy Process and Outcome. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 337-350.
Psychologists have described personality as specific way of feeling, thinking and self-conduct (Mcleod, 2014) of an individual. Personality is the constantly changing system in the minds of individuals and made up of specific psychological traits that influence their specific self-conduct and thinking. Personality is the combination of behavior that distinguishes a person. The personality of a person is affected by genetic and biological factors as well as factors such as upbringing, environment etc.
Personality theories are broken down into two classes:
• Trait theories of personality that believe that personality depends more on biological factors
• State theories, which see upbringing and societal factors as the major determinants of personality
This paper will be exploring two personality theories: Hans Eysenck's Personality Theory and Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory.
Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
This theory of personality believes that our differing personalities arise from the communication between what Sigmund Freud…
Boundless. (2016, August 17). Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality. Retrieved December 14, 2016, from Boundless Psychology: https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/personality-16/psychodynamic-perspectives-on-personality-77/freudian-psychoanalytic-theory-of-personality-304-12839/
McLeod, S. (2014). Theories of Personality. Retrieved December 14, 2016, from Simply Psychology: http://www.simplypsychology.org/personality-theories.html
Limitations of Great Theories
The psychoanalytic theory (Saul Mcleod, 2007)
ejection of the free will
Lack of scientific support
Samples were biased. For instance, only Austrian women were considered in proving the theory
Case studies were subjective
Cognitive Theory (Saul Mcleod, Cognitive Psychology, 2007)
Does not consider biology
The section on humanism dismisses scientific approaches
The ecological validity of the experiments is low
There is subjective introspection
Behavioral Theory (Saul Mcleod, Cognitive Psychology, 2007)
It is misplaced to compare humans and animals
It ignores the role of biology such as testosterone effects
There is little free will
Dismisses meditational process
The Surprises from Harlow's experiments
Harlow noted that that the existence of systems of affection that could fill in the gap for each other was sensible; from evolutionary standpoint. Indeed, compensations that were reciprocal presented a higher chance of social survival. According to Marga Vicedo (2010), diverse affectional…
Jake Edwards. (2009, Febraury 17). New Criticism. Retrieved from Reading Theory with Jolliffe: http://jolliffereadingtheory.blogspot.in/
KESSENICH, MAUREEN, MORRISON, FREDERICK J, & BISANZ, JEFFREY. (2002). Developmental Theory. The Gale Group Inc.
Marga Vicedo. (2010). The evolution of Harry Harlow: from the nature to the nurture of love. History of Psychiatry, 1-16.
Saul Mcleod. (2007). Psychodynamic Approach. Simplypsychology.
Personality Theory Blog
Personality Theories and Conducting Assessment
According to the humanistic psychologist's theory of personality, people in their endeavor, try to reach superior levels of mental functioning and personal growth that they also evaluate through objective measures and individual reflections. Even though objective measures are not biased, they do not offer a lot of information. An objective measure of personality is one that uses research to get results. For instance, a pen and paper pre-employment test is very likely an objective measure, other examples of which include: the Second Edition (MMPI-2), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and other major assessments of personality/intelligence (Heffner, 2015). Humanistic psychologists use objective tests to understand better how the patient views his/herself. In these tests, choices that when chosen by the patient will give a clear description of the patient are presented as compared to the unstructured and structured personal interviews…
Boeree, C. G. (2006). Personality Theories. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/persintro.html
Evans, R. (2012, November). Japan and blood types: Does it determine personality? Retrieved from BBC News Magazine: http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-20170787
Fletcher, R. (2014, August 21). Cross Cultural Personality Research. Retrieved from Randall Fletcher: https://randallnf.wordpress.com/2014/08/21/cross-cultural-personality-research/
Heffner, C. L. (2015, Novemeber 1). Assessment Theories. In AllPsych (Ed.), Personality Theory: An Introduction. AllPsych. Retrieved from All Psych: http://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/assessment_theories/#.VjZkw1TnUV4
Application of E. Kubler-oss Theory to eal Life Loss
Stages of Bereavement in relation to eal Life Loss
Elizabeth Kubler-oss posits a theory that the process of loss and grief can be measured in seven distinct steps - shock, denial, anger, negotiation, depression, acceptance, and hope. While these stages may be in any order and can amount to any length of time to progress and advance to the next level, its significance is shown in the application of this theory to a real-life situation concerning the death of a loved one. This paper endeavours to explore each of the seven stages as outlined in the E. Kubler-oss theory. Its application is also conducted on a real-life tragedy I experienced as a teenager when my childhood friend passed away. The stages of grief and loss in the E. Kubler-oss theory does much to convey that the whole process…
Coster, David R. (December 2000). The Grief Process and the Funeral Liturgy. http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:dt5b6yJVwLMC:www.schoolofministry.ac.nz/Files/David%2520Coster%2520Grief%2520and%2520Funerals.doc+E+Kubler+Ross+%22The+Grief+Process+and+the+Funeral%22&hl=en&lr=lang_en&ie=UTF-8
Drama Theoretic Technologies (April 2002). Mourning. http://www.dramatec.com/articles/library/a200204001/
Freeman, Steve. "Organizational Loss," in Identity Maintenance and Adaptation: a Multilevel Analysis of Response to Loss. http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:lRTKSR0lL0MC:imvp.mit.edu/papers/96/Freeman2.pdf+E+Kubler+Ross+Organizational+Loss&hl=en&lr=lang_en&ie=UTF-8
Kruger, Prof. Mariana. Translated from Afrikaans to English by van den Berg, Celia. Dying Children and Their Families. http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:SPv7MM_NLZwC:www.churchstreetfunerals.co.za/Mariana%2520Kruger.doc+%22Dying+Children+and+their+Families%22+E+Kubler-Ross&hl=en&lr=lang_en&ie=UTF-8
biological theories, sociological theories, and psychological theories of crime.
Biological explanations of criminal behavior
Lombroso's Theory dates back to the late 1800s, and is not widely accepted today. Lombroso believed that a person's body type and constitution can tell a researcher whether or not the person is "a born criminal" (Crossman, 2011). Lombroso believed that criminals inherited their deviance, and that the body type of a person, if it resembled "primitive men," meant that individual was a criminal through a biological connection.
Typically, Lombroso believed that if a person had five or more characteristics from this list (" ... large monkey-like ears, large lips, a twisted nose, excessive cheekbones, long arms, and excessive wrinkles on the skin") then that individual would likely be a "born criminal" (Crossman, p. 1). Females, according to Lombroso, needed just three of these characteristics to qualify as a "born criminal."
Another biological crime theory comes…
Crossman, A. (2011). Biological Explanations of Deviant Behavior. About.com.
Retrieved November 21, 2015, from http://sociology.about.com .
Jrank. (2010). Crime Causation: Sociological Theories -- Labeling Theory / Social Learning.
Theory. Retrieved November 21, 2015, from http://law.jrank.org .
attenuation theory which suggests that messages can be muted but not entirely ignored and people can perceive multiple messages at the same time.
Hypnosis significantly improved treatment efficacy, reducing both pre and post-intervention mood.
Psychoanalytic theory revolves around the concept of the 'unconscious.' However, one of the major criticisms of this theory is that it is difficult to 'prove' that the unconscious exists. However, according to the findings of Wikstrom, Lundh, and Westerlund (2003), masked words indicating violence can substantially increase anxiety and a sense of threat for anxious subjects, versus subjects without such an anxious profile. This suggests the presence of a subconscious impact of words. Other support for the existence of the unconscious lies in the 'Stroop' effect, or the ability to more easily identify colors when the written text of the word is in the color it refers to, versus another color.
When there was damage…
Integrative Approach to Counseling
The theories that the author will compare and contrast within this document include gestalt theory, choice theory and its practical application, reality therapy, and psychoanalytic therapy. There are definite points of similarity and variance between these theories. The natural starting point for comparison and contrasting lies with an analysis of gestalt theory and choice theory/reality therapy. Gestalt theory was largely founded by Frederick Perls (Wagner-Moore, 2004, p. 180) and Miriam and Erwing Polster (Jacobs, 2010, p. 25), whereas Glasser is widely credited with launching the notion of reality theory (Bradley, 2014, p. 6). A critical point of similarity between these theories is that they are unequivocally focused on the present, or the proverbial 'here and now' of the patient and his or her cognitive, emotional, and physical states. Interestingly enough, these theories take different perspectives for addressing those present needs of the individuals counseled. The primary…
Bornstein, R.F. (2010). Psychoanalytic theory as a unifying framework for 21st century personality assessment. Psychoanalytic psychology. 27(2), 133-152.
Bradley, E.L. (2014). Choice theory and reality theory: An overview. International Journal of Choice Theory and Reality Theory. 34(1), 6-13.
European Association for Gestalt Therapy. (2006). Code of ethics and professional practice. http://www.eagt.org / Retrieved from
Tenets of Traditional and Contemporary Psychodynamics
One of the founders of traditional psychodynamics is Sigmund Freud with his approach of psychoanalytic theory with which he attempted to explain the behavior of human beings by looking at the mind and the inner thinking process of individuals, right from the time of birth. Due to his work, Freud influenced several other scholars in the line of psychology who later on came up with various arguments around the mind and the aspects that influence human behavior. Firstly and significant here, the traditional psychodynamic theory argues that there are psychological energy within the individual that are related to the attachments, continuous conflict and the motivations that the individual has. The theory further indicates that the behavior of an individual at the adulthood is widely influenced by the early childhood experiences.
The traditional psychodynamics also gave an indication that the psychological development took…
Cherry K., (2015).Trait Theory of Personality. Retrieved July 11, 2015 from http://psychology.about.com /od/theoriesofpersonality/a/trait-theory.htm
Mullen W., (1996). Study Challenges Freud's Theory of Subconscious. Chicago Tribune. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1996-09-20/news/9609200240_1_subliminal-messages-popcorn-sales-anthony-greenwald
Sage Publications, (2008).Psychoanalysis in Theory and Practice. Retrieved July 11, 2015 from http://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/23240_Chapter_5.pdf
Theory Help You to Make Sense of Your Own Organization and the Management Practices in Your Organization?
Too often, individuals get an idea stuck in their heads and they cannot dislodge it no matter how hard they try. In actuality though, most people who can only contrive a particular system for working, whether that be managing or running an organization, and there is no interest in change. I realize that falling back to a secure position is comforting, but it is also damaging from a growth standpoint. And, growth is the object in business; that is, aside from the fact that making money is probably the primary concern.
But making money has led to some troubling consequences in the world as businesses have grown greedy and managers have become overly authoritarian and sure of their stagnant methods. The reality is that "managing and organizing are not isolatable objects of study…
Akella, D., (2008). A reflection on critical management studies. Journal of Management and Organization, 14(1), 100-109.
Bourn, D. (2011). Global skills: From economic competitiveness to cultural understanding and critical pedagogy. Critical Literacy: Theory & Practice, 6(1), 3- 20.
Das, H., & Long, B.S., (2010). What makes management research interesting?: An exploratory study. Journal of Managerial Issues, 22(1), 127-140.
Delbecq, A.L., (1999). Rethinking management education. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 439-442.
It assumes a person is in control of their own fate and not a victim to it. Starting at an early age, a unique style of life is created by the person and that life-style stays relatively constant throughout the remainder of life. Working toward success, connectedness with others, and contributions to society are considered hallmarks of mental health, as well as being motivated by goals, dealing with the tasks faced in life, and social interest. Birth order is considered important in understanding a person's current personality, yet the therapy is future-minded, rather than retrospective. (Psyweb Pro, 2006)
In Adlerian therapy, the therapist will gather as much family history as possible. This data will be used to help set goals for the client and to get an idea of the clients' past performance. This will help ascertain whether the goal is too low or high, and if the client has…
Adlerian Psychology, Psyweb.com 2006, http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp (Retrieved August 20, 2006)
Corey, Gerald (1991) Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy
Carlson, Neil R. (1995) Foundations of Physiological Psychology
CTA: Cognitive Therapy Associates, http://www.cognitive-therapy-associates.com/therapy/adlerian-therapy.php
Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…
Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.
Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.
Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.
Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
Behaviorist and Cognitive Theory
Psychology took a center stage and significant change in the early 20th Century when the behaviorism school of thought became dominant. This was a major change from other theoretical perspectives that existed before hence rejecting emphasis on unconscious and conscious mind. Behaviorism strove to see that psychology becomes a more scientific discipline in that focus will be mainly on observable behavior. This approach to psychology whereby the elements of philosophy, methodology and theory are combined. The primary tenet of behaviorism as it was expressed by JohnB.Watson, B.F Skinner in writing is that the primary concern in psychology should be the behaviors that can be observed both in humans and animals and not the unobserved events which take place within the minds of individuals. This school of thought maintains that behaviors can easily be described scientifically without recourse either to any psychological events that occur internally or…
Leahey, T.H., Greer, S., Lefrancois, G.R., Reiner, T.W., Spencer, J.L., Wickramasekera, I.E., & Willmarth, E.K. (2014). History of Psychology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education. ISBN-13: 9781621785682
Fritscher, L. (2014). Cognitive Theory. Retrieved September 17, 2014 from http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/cognitivethedef.htm
Gonzalez-Prendes, A. & Resko, S. (2009). Cognitive-Behavioral Theory.
Culture Care Universality and Diversity
Leininger conceptualized the theory of care was developed in the 1950s and provided a way to bridge a culture and nursing care. "Leininger theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality" (Garmon 2011 p 1) is derived from the understanding the fields of culture and anthropology and is credited for her contribution to the nursing theory by establishing the transcultural concept in the nursing care. Typically, culture care is a holistic method of understanding, interpreting, explaining, and predicting care for the nursing practice. According to Leininger, culturally congruent care had been missing in the nursing practice and knowledge. Thus, a creative process of reformulation and integration of cultural practice is very critical for the development of nursing practice and knowledge. Leininger holds that a cultural care provides the most important and broadest means to explain, study and predict the nursing care practice. To discover patterns, and…
Department of Commerce (2010). U.S. Census 2010. U.S. Department of Commerce.
Fitzpatrick, J.J & Kazer, M. (2011). Encyclopedia of Nursing Research, Third Edition. Springer Publishing Company.
Garmon B. S. (2011). Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality. In J. Fitzpatrick, Encyclopedia of nursing research. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Leininger, M. (1988). Leininger's Theory of Nursing: Cultural Care Diversity and Universality. Nurs Sci Q.1 (4): 152-160
Phenomenology and Hermeneutics
Aside from positivism or quantitative research paradigm, two other paradigms are considered essential in the conduct of research or simply, knowing and understanding a particular event or phenomenon using a particular 'lens'or paradigm / perspective. These two (2) paradigms are qualitative in nature, namely the interpretive and critical paradigms. Critical paradigm is closely associated with the Marxist, feminist, and psychoanalytic schools of thought, while interpretive or symbolic interactionism paradigm is linked with hermeneutics and phenomenology. The focus of the discussions that follow will be on this second paradigm, interpretive paradigm, particularly exploring the hermeneutic and phenomenological schools of thought (Fossey, 2002, p. 719).
In order to understand these schools of thought, it is important to also understand the tradition from which these ideas emerged. Under the interpretive paradigm, truth is considered subjective and variable. In truth-seeking, the researcher recognizes that there are many "truths," and these…
Fossey, E., C. Harvey, F. McDermott, and L. Davidson. (2002). "Understanding and evaluating qualitative research." Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 36.
Laverty, S. (2003). "Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: a comparison of historical and methodological considerations." International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Vol. 2(3).
Snow hite has a low sense of self-efficacy. She dreams of a prince making her life better, not of making her life better through her own initiative She does not leave her cruel stepmother's home, rather she waits until she is literally forced out in a life or death situation, even though she was being abused and used as a scullery maid. This behavior may also tie into her strong superego as a character -- she does not openly disobey her stepmother, ever, and works hard to earn her keep for the dwarves. However, her superego's strength is inconsistent -- she breaks into a home rather than takes refuge somewhere else, and allows herself to eat an apple from a stranger.
Snow hite is the subject of her stepmother's projections -- all of the woman's fears about aging and her loss of beauty are projected onto the girl, and the…
Wagner, Kendra Van. (2009). Erikson's stages of psychosocial development. About.com
Retrieved June 7, 2009 at http://psychology.about.com /od/theoriesofpersonality/a/psychosocial.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Freud's theory of Grief and bereavement
Id, Ego and the Superego or the conscious and the unconscious mind are some of the terms which are well-known by almost every individual. These words not only point out to the field of Psychology but also to the man who coined them and proposed a new realm of theories behind each of it; Sigmund Freud. He is famous for being the father of psychoanalysis and the techniques of hypnosis, dream interpretation and free association which he has used to successfully treat his patients. Psychology is devoid without Freud. This is not only because of the theories which he proposed but also because of his followers and those who extended his basic concept with a new touch. Freud in all his theories talks about the past to be affecting the present. In other words, the unconscious mind which is the hidden…
Butler, J. (1997). The Psychic Life of Power: Theories in Subjection. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Freud, S. (1914). On narcissism: An introduction. Standard Edition. 14:73 -- 102.
Freud, S. (1917). Mourning and melancholia. Standard Edition 14:243 -- 258
Freud, S. (1923). The ego and the id. Standard Edition 19:12 -- 66.
Existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy all fall under the rubric of humanistic psychology. They share a considerable amount of theory, philosophy, and practice. Yet each of these practices is stemmed in its own theoretical framework; therefore, existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies differ in key ways. ecent scholarship on existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies builds on the rich canon of literature in these three core humanistic traditions, but is more than just summative. The following review of literature shows how existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy are practiced in the 21st century, and in so doing, reveals the similarities and differences between these three humanistic psychological frameworks.
Existential therapy has been called "a way of thinking rather than…a particular style of practicing," (Corey, 2008, p. 216). Corey (2008) claims that existential therapy is "not a separate school or a neatly defined, systematic model with…
Ceil, C. (2012). Person-centered therapy. Social Science Electronic Publishing. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2051484 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2051484
Corey, G. (2008). The existential approach to groups. Chapter 9 in Theory and Practice of Group Counseling. Cengage.
Crocker, S.F. & Philippson, P. (2005). Phenomenology, existentialism, and Eastern thought in gestalt therapy. Chapter 4 in Gestalt Therapy: History, Theory and Practice. Sage.
Geller, J.D. (2003). Self-disclosure in psychoanalytic-existential therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology 59(5): 541-554.
For a person working through a shadowy part of him- or herself, the goal can be as generic as better self-knowledge and self-management.
Working through must be recognized as a process, but also as a process with a certain goal in mind. To successfully work through any part of the self, it must also be recognized that certain unpleasant elements may be uncovered before the goal is reached. The therapist must be able to help the client adhere to the process.
Stages of Development
According to object relations theory, human development entails a lifelong effort to break away from the dependency established in early childhood in order to reach the adult states of mutuality and exchange. The goal is to break the limitations of dependency in order to reach the autonomy that might be expected from the stage of adulthood. If a person does not break away from these bonds,…
From the basis of psychoanalysis and existential therapy, I will then listen for any problems relating to attitudes that can be driven by repressed emotions. I will use dialogue in order to gain an understanding of how the clients see their problems, and what they think is needed to help.
In the dialogue session, I will provide the client with my own insight on how I believe the best progress will be made in future therapy, and also on how long I estimate such therapy to take. I will however emphasize that I will not terminate therapy if the clients feel in any way that they will not benefit from such termination. Dialogue and collaboration means that I should be able to modify my approach according to input from my clients. If a client for example disagrees with an approach I am using, we will discuss various options of changing…
Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders. Person-centered Therapy. http://www.minddisorders.com/Ob-Ps/Person-centered-therapy.html
Hoffman, Louis. 2004. Existential Psychotherapy. http://www.existential-therapy.com/General_Overview.htm
Psychological Schools of Thought. Psychoanalytical Psychology. http://www.webrenovators.com/psych/PsychoanalyticalPsychology.htm
Yontef, Gary. Gestalt Therapy: An Introduction. http://www.gestalt.org/yontef.htm
Criminology researchers usually draw on multiple sociological theories for understanding crime and offenders. Certain elements of serial-killing research continue to be a subject of speculation and exploration, on account of the numerous preconceptions and myths surrounding the crime. The significance of establishing a theoretic basis to explain sociological factors proves crucial to distinguishing between fact and fiction (Hickey, 2013).
Social Structure Theory
This class of theories concentrates on the socioeconomic status of a person and suggests that the poor perpetrate more offenses owing to their struggle to achieve social or monetary success. They are, particularly owing to their subcultural, racial, or ethnic status, restricted in several ways from lawfully attaining the great “American Dream\". Thus, they resort to deviant techniques to succeed. Structural theories provide convincing justifications for numerous offenses, with the exception of serial killing. Normally, serial killers lack financial or social motivation, and aren’t members of any specific…
William Glasser developed his theory of eality Therapy in the early 1960s. He is best known for his book eality Therapy: A New Approach to Psychiatry (1965), and for founding the Institute for eality Therapy, which is now called The William Glasser Institute. He has also developed supplements to reality therapy in the form of choice theory and control theory, which are all now aligned under the heading "new reality therapy" (Corey, 2009, p. 315).
eality Therapy has its roots in Adlerian Therapy. Both of these models place a strong focus on the interactions of people with others, and the development of relationships. While these theories overlap in terms of the interaction/relationship focus, they also complement each other in the sense that Alderian therapy centers mostly on how the client interprets events, whereas eality Therapy is more concerned with how the client attempts to control events (Corey, 2009).
Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks / Cole.
Glasser W. (1965). Reality therapy: A new approach to psychiatry. New York: Perennial / Harper & Row.
Murdock, N.L. (2004) Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: A case approach, University of Missouri-Kansas City
Discusses the foundations and components of psychoanalysis
People today are familiar with psychoanalysis after its wide rejection as well as adulation for years. Paradoxically, the success realized in the 5th decade, particularly in Europe, divorced it from its core principles. It spread widely but not because of the attention drawn for its therapy methods. It can be said that therapy was duly overshadowed due to its application in other fields. Psychoanalysis is used in sociology, literature, anthropology, mythology, religion and ethnology. Psychoanalysis is applied jointly in three areas: as a way of investigating the mind, particularly the unconscious mind; a neurosis therapy that is inspired by the method above; as an independent discipline which is based on knowledge gotten from the application of investigative methods as well as clinical experiences. Psychoanalytical science is highlighted by Freud in his study Totem and Taboo where he dives into anthropological and…
Abend, S.M. (1979), Unconscious fantasy and theories of cure. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 27:579-596.
Arlow, J.A. (198 1), Theories of pathogenesis. Psychoanal. Quart., 50:488-514.
Grossman, W.I. (1986). Freud and Horney: A Study of Psychoanalytic Models via the Analysis of a Controversy[. The Analytic Press. Retrieved from: http://internationalpsychoanalysis.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/FreudHorney1.pdf
(2008). Psychoanalysis in Theory and Practice. Retrieved from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/23240_Chapter_5.pdf
Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors. Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.
Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory. The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Nomothetic…
It also means that people don't have free will necessarily because behaviorism believes that feelings and thoughts don't cause people to behave in certain ways. Classical conditioning can be best understood by the example of Pavlov's dogs. Pavlov's dogs were discovered salivating by the mere sound of the people with food coming rather. In other words, they were reacting to a neutral stimulus. Operant conditioning, on the other hand, is more about reward and punishment (Donaldson 2008). Operant conditioning works because sometimes the subject is rewarded and sometimes not and this has found to be very successful (the most successful, in fact) in conditioning. For example, if one sometimes gives dogs food off their plate and sometimes not, the dog will be conditioned to wait always for the food because sometimes he gets it.
The term 'mental illness' is a culturally bound term. What is considered a mental illness in…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (4th edition).
Donaldson, J. (2008). Oh, behave!: Dogs from Pavlov to Premack to Pinker. Dogwise Publishing.
Mitchell, S.A. & Black, M.J. (1996). Freud and beyond: A history of modern psychoanalytic thought. Basic Books.
Piaget, J. (2001). The psychology of intelligence. (2nd edition). Routledge.
It is difficult to summarize psychodynamic theory without a brief discussion of Freud. Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalysis, the father of psychodynamic theory, and in effect the father of modern psychotherapy. Freud's notions retain quite a bit of popularity, especially his ideas that things are not what they seem on the surface. Because of his understanding of the mind and behavior, Freud considered that overt behaviors were not always self-explanatory (or perhaps "not often explanatory" would be the better term). Instead, these overt or manifest behaviors represent some hidden motive. Sigmund Freud was trained as a neurologist and specialized in the treatment of nervous disorders. His early training involved using hypnosis with the French neurologist Jean Charcot in the treatment of hysteria, the presentation of baffling physical symptoms (mostly in young women) that appeared to have no physical origin (Hall, Lindzey, & Campbell, 1998). Freud also partnered…
Barry, P. (2002). Mental health and mental illness. (7th ed.) New York: Lippincott.
Hall, C.S., Lindzey, G., & Campbell, J.B. (1998). Theories of personality. New York: John
Mcleod, S. (2007). Psychology perspectives. In Simply psychology. Retrieved December 2,
Compare and contrast 2 different behavioral theories/models of your choice.
Behaviorism vs. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)
The father of behaviorism is widely acknowledged to be B.F. Skinner. Skinner attempted to develop an 'experimental' approach to human psychology, and based many of his foundational theories upon experiments with rats rather than humans. Skinner believed that operant conditioning was the best way to motivate individuals to adopt new behaviors, or to extinguish existing behavior patterns. "When a particular Stimulus-esponse (S-) pattern is reinforced (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond" (Operant conditioning, 2012, Instructional Design). The focus of Skinner was upon externalities, rather than upon internal motivations of behavior.
For example, when dealing with someone who was a compulsive over-eater, rather than focusing on the psychological reasons the person felt compelled to overeat, Skinner instead would focus upon creating an environment that would reward healthy choices (such as buying a new…
Chin, Irene. (2012). An overview of behavioral theories. An Electronic Textbook on Instructional
Technology. Retrieved: http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/et-it/behavior.htm
Operant conditioning. (2012). Instructional Design. Retrieved:
Personality and Behavior: Changing for the Better
Hundreds of thousands of years of instinctive programming influence the behavior of modern humans in ways they do not fully understand, and in many cases, people may not even be aware of these influences on their behavior. This is not to say, of course, that modern humans are incapable of thoughtful and purposeful action, but it is to say that such unconscious influences on behavior can cause problems if they are not recognized and dealt with in a meaningful fashion. To gain additional insights in this area, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning personality and behavior, followed by a discussion concerning how behavior can be influenced by personality in ways that can cause individual problems such as risky behaviors that lead to substance abuse or unprotected premarital sex. Finally, an examination concerning how the interactionism view…
Aizen, I. (2005). Attitudes, personality and behavior. Maidenhead, England: Open University
Carver, C.S. & Sheier, M. (2004). Perspectives on personality, 6th ed.
Livesley, W.J. (2001). Handbook of personality disorders: Theory, research, and treatment.
The major criticisms of Freud's Theory thought that it was difficult to test and there was too much emphasis on Biology.
Humanistic Theory- was developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow and emphasizes the internal experiences such as feelings and thoughts and the individual's feelings of worth. It believes that humans are naturally good and have a positive drive towards their own self-fulfilment. Rogers was most interested in the interaction between mental health, self-concept and self-esteem. Maslow believed that every person has an in-born drive to develop all their talents and capacities and calls this self-actualization. The critics of this theory felt that it is naive to assume that all people are good and think it takes a narrow view of personality.
Social-Cognitive Theory- by Albert Bandura believes that personality comes from the person's history of interaction with the environment. He believes that self-efficacy comes from having a strong belief…
Lowenfeld's Stages Of Artistic Development
The artistic development theory that most pertains to the work I did with my student for this assignment is Lowenfeld's stages of artistic development. One of the things that was most interesting about applying this theory to the student I worked with is that she appeared to be between stages. Subsequently, my observations of her work, my interactions with her, and her expectations for her artistic prowess were different from any of the stages expressly identified by this theory. Nonetheless, by combining different aspects of two of those stages, I was able to influence this student's artistic expectations and understand exactly where she was in her process of artistic development.
Prior to explicating the relevance of Lowenfeld's stages of artistic development, it is necessary to provide some background information about the student with whom I worked. She is 11 years old, and is of both…
Blos, P. (1962). On adolescence: A psychoanalytic interpretation. New York: The Free Press.
Derman-Sparks, P.G. & Ramsey, J. (2006). What if all the kids are white? Anti-bias multicultural education with young children and families. New York: Teachers College Press.
Herman, J.L. (1992). Trauma and recovery. New York: Basic Books.
Hurwitz, A. & Day, M. (1995). Children and their art. New York: Harcort Brace.
The is also based on drive-defence model which was advanced by Freud.
The second topology one includes the less common dreams whose meaning are different and should therefore be treated and handled in the light of latest theoretical frameworks as advanced by Kohut Self-psychology. He referred to these dreams as "Self-state dreams" which are experienced when the patient's psychological structure stability is in jeopardy .Such crisis or threat usually occur in different pathological states, the states can however vary from being hyper-stimulation (maniacal), to tension reduction in approach of a depressed state. This might lead to a serious problem related to the of the psychic structure's disintegration .
Kohut in (1977) stated that the act of exhibiting the elements of a dream makes up the attempt by the unconscious to tackle the psychological dangers that are related to the actual processes portrayed in the visual images in the dream
Altman, L (1969).A dream in psychoanalysis.new York: INt Univ Press
Blum, H.P. (1976). The Changing Use of Dreams in Psychoanalytic Practice.Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 57:315-324.
Bonime, W. (1965). A Psychotherapeutic Approach to Depression. Contemp. Psychoanal., 2:48-53
Fosshage J.L. (1987) New vistas on dream interpretation. in: Dreams in New Perspective: the Royal Road Revisited, M. Glucksman, N.Y., Uman Sciences Press
(eysteher) This is significant, because it shows the impact that the ideas of Freud would have not only the world of psychology, but upon society. Where, these different ideas would become increasingly popular, as way of analyzing the different personalities. ("Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory")
How Freud is Viewed in Modern Times
In modern times, Freud is viewed with increasing amounts of controversy. This is because Freud himself was: known to create controversy when he was alive. With him, calling for people to accept his ideas as fact, those who disagreed with him were: viewed as out of touch with reality or blind to what is happening. This would shape how people would view his ideas in the future. As new forms of psychology developed, these views would create competing fields of study. Over the course of time, this would lead to divisions, as to which thinkers had the most correct analysis…
"The Dismal Theory of Freud's Psychoanalysis." UK Apologies. 2005. Web. 21 Jul 2010-
"Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory." Depression Guide. 2005. Web. 21 Jul. 2010
Beysteher, Kristan. "Psychoanalysis." Personality Research. 2001. Web. 21 Jul. 2010
Houser, Nancy. "Reflections on How Freud's Theories Standup.' Helium. 2010. Web. 21 Jul. 2010
Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.
Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…
Fall, K.A., Holden, J.M. & Marquis, A. (2004) Theoretical models of counseling and psychotherapy New York: Taylor and Francis.
Freud, Sigmund. (1926). Inhibitions, symptoms, and anxiety, SE, 20(14): 111-205.
Kohlenberg, R.J., Bolling, M.Y., Kanter, J.W. & Parker, C.R. (2002) Clinical behavior analysis: where it went wrong, how it was made good again, and why its future is so bright. Behavior Analyst Today. 3(3): 248-253
Martz, E (2002) Principles of Eastern philosophies viewed from the framework of Yalom's four existential concerns. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling. 24(1): 31-42
Such relationships in childhood begin with the parents, and for Asher, these early relationships are also significant later, as might be expected.
However, as Potok shows in this novel, for someone like Asher, the importance of childhood bonds and of later intimate bonds are themselves stressed by cultural conflicts between the Hasidic community in its isolation and the larger American society surrounding it. For Asher, the conflict is between the more controlled religious environment of the community and the more liberal environment of the art world he joins. What Potok shows about this particular conflict might seem very different from what others experience, others who are not part of such a strict religious background and who are not artists. However, children always find a conflict between the circumscribed world of their immediate family and the world they join as they strike out on their own. This conflict is often portrayed…
Belkin, L. (2004). The Lessons of Classroom 506. New York Times Magazine, 40-53.
Bowlby, J. (1988). Developmental psychiatry comes of age. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 1-10.
Erikson, E.H. (1963) Childhood and Society. New York: Free Press.
Kim, W.J., Kim, L. & Rue, D.S. (1997). Korean-American Children. In G. Johnson-Powell & J. Yamamoto (Ed.) Transcultural Child Development: Psychological Assessment and Treatment (pp. 183-207). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Freud and Psychoanalytic Theory
The seminal theorist selected from Chapter 7 of the Morgan (2006) text is Sigmund Freud. Freud was one of the early pioneers of psychoanalytic theory, which is still prevalent today and is associated with a psychodynamic perspective and its presence in contemporary organizations. There is a distinctive way in which psychoanalytic theory -- and many of the concepts advanced by Freud -- can influence functional cultural identity. By extension, there are a number of different ways cultural identity can pertain to a leader's influence on the perception of cultural identity and on organizational (and individual) performance.
Perhaps the core notion of psychoanalytic theory is that a person's past plays a substantial role in his or her present. The clinician utilizing this theory attempts to identify key elements in a person's past that are contributing to myriad manifestations in his or her present life, and change them…
Garcia, J.L. (1995). Freud's Psychosexual stage conception: a developmental metaphor for counselors. Journal of Counseling & Development. 73(5), 498-502.
Morgan, G. (2006). Images of organization. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Enron: The smartest guys in the room. (2005). Dir: Gibney, A. Feat: Lay, K., Skilling, J., Fastow, A.
Harry James Potter was born in 1980, the son of James and Lily Potter. Both of Harry's parents died when Harry was an infant. The murder of his parents literally left Harry Potter scarred for life: his lightening bolt-shaped scar is one of his most distinguishing physical features. The orphaned Harry was forced to live with a distant family relative. The relatives are Muggles, and culturally distinct from Harry, who is part wizard.
Harry Potter studies at the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Harry is aware that the Dark Lord Voldemort wants to kill him. However, Harry is about to face a serious crisis that will call into question his psychological resilience. The Ministry of Magic has undertaken a massive and coordinated attempt to undermine Harry's credibility. The Ministry's goal is sabotage of Harry's reputation, and his entire career as a wizard. Underlying the motivation of the Ministry…
Cherry, Kendra. "Trait Theory of Personality." About.com. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com /od/theoriesofpersonality/a/trait-theory.htm
"Resilience: An Integrative Mini-Chapter," Chapter 13 in Marianne Miserandino's Personality Psychology: Foundations and Findings (Boston: Pearson, 2012, pp. 373-392).
"Social Cognitive Theory." Retrieved online: http://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20Clusters/Health%20Communication/Social_cognitive_theory.doc/
Erikson also states that the development of personality continued through the entire life cycle, rather than just during childhood as Freud has postulated. Finally, Erikson believed that each stage of development had both positive and negative elements.
Erikson's departure from the Freudian school was not readily accepted, even by those who were close to him and admired his work. In each of Erikson's developmental stages there is conflict with bipolar outcomes, as previously described. In Erikson's belief, each individual must experience both sides of the conflict in order to incorporate them into life and to synthesize these into a higher level of functioning. This differs from Freud's theory in that each stage has a name, rather than relation to pleasure from a body zone (oral, anal, etc.). According to Erikson, when the conflict is worked through in a constructive manner, this positive experience then becomes the more dominant part of…
Chapman AJ, Foot HC, Smith JR. (1995) Friendship and Social Relations in Children. Transaction Publishers, New York.
Wallerstein, R.S. (1998). Erikson's Concept of Ego Identity Reconsidered. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 46:229-247
Leffert M. (2007) Postmodernism and its impact on psychoanalysis. Bull Menninger Clin. 71; 1:22-41.
Marzi a, Hautmann G, Maestro S. (2006) Critical reflections on intersubjectivity in psychoanalysis. Int J. Psychoanal 87; 1297-1314.
Psychoanalytic Theory Approach
The first step in determining the goals of any counselling is to determine whether the individual needs counselling or other forms of interventions and in this case study, it is apparent that the 24-year-old client whose origin is Guatemala needs counselling. There are several goals that are to be met in the counselling session, one of them being the enhancement of the coping skills of the new mother with a one-year-old son who just lost her job as a loan officer as well as the coping with the new life in the U.S.A. The intervention tat will be used here is strengthening the ties between the mother and the son through designing schedule of activities that will make the social life of the two more interactive and interdependent. This interdependency will make the mother develop close ties that she would not want to see the son suffer…
Hongu Nobuko et.al, (2015). Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss. Retrieved 12 September 2015 from http://www.joe.org/joe/2011february/tt5.php
Institute of Contemporary Psychoanalysis, (2015). Contemporary Psychoanalysis. Retrieved 12 September 2015 from http://icpla.edu/contemporary-psychoanalysis/
Karl Popper is arguably one of the greatest philosophers of the twentieth century because of his role as one of the pioneers of philosophy of science. Popper was a political and social philosopher of significant stature, a dedicated campaigner and strong defender of the Open Society, and a committed rival of all types of conventionalism, skepticism and relativism in human affairs and science (Thorton, n.d.). He considered one of the greatest philosophers of his time because of his remarkable extent of intellectual influence that contributed to his recognition by individuals within and outside the field of philosophy. In his early years, Popper displayed a wide range of interests including music and an inquiring mind that was characterized by examining the psychotherapeutic theories of Fred and Adler, participating in lectures by Einstein, and becoming a Marxist. The main motivation for Popper's scientific inquiry and discovery was the search for truth in…
Chaffee, J. (2012). The philosopher's way: thinking critically about profound ideas (4th ed.).
London, Greater London: Pearson.
Ormerod, R.J. (2009). The History and Ideas of Critical Rationalism: The Philosophy of Karl
Popper and Its Implications for OR. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 2009(60), 441-460.
Their cognitive and physical functioning naturally precludes children towards play. However, Piaget's theories of social and cognitive development will help me to create formal play-oriented lessons. Object manipulation, physical games, songs, and imaginary role-playing games will all be methods I use in the classroom.
Finally, theories of play form the foundation of my teaching philosophy as an early childhood educator. Lessons may vary but the underlying purpose of the playtime remains the same: to encourage age-appropriate physical, social, and cognitive growth. Play is one of the languages young children speak. Their verbal and analytical skills will be exercised in later grades but during their first few years of school play will be the main way children interact with each other, with their environment, and with their teachers.
hat are the three or four most important concerns for the psychoanalytic criticism theory?
One concern off the bat is that no matter how valid the field of psychoanalytic investigation is, and how much respect that Freud's theory has garnered over the years, in terms of the psychoanalytic criticism theory's contribution to understanding humans and society, there are doubts as to its validity. hen the psychoanalytic criticism theory it is used to look into the reasons that authors use certain conflicts, characters, themes and other literary tools, it can be seen as an inappropriate intrusion into literature. An author like Edgar Allen Poe, for example, has been deceased for many years, but 21st century critics can rip through his novels and short stories and conclude that his psychological makeup was twisted, that his mind was warped in the direction of hideousness. Obviously Poe had a dark imagination, and…
Delahoyde, M. (2011). Psychoanalytic Criticism. Washington State University. Retrieved March 5, 2016, from http://public.wsu.edu .
Feagin, S. L. (1996). Reading with Feeling: The Aesthetics of Appreciation. Ithaca, NY:
Roland, A. (2003). Dreams and Drama: Psychoanalytic Criticism. Creativity, and the Artist.
Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.