Psycholinguistics Essays (Examples)

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English and Spanish Language Learners

Words: 1191 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32139522

Psycholinguistics: A eview

Gamez, P., Lesaux, N., izzo, A. (2016). Narrative production skills of language

minority learners and their English-only classmates in early adolescence. Applied Psycholinguistics, 37: 933-961. DOI: http://dx.doi.org.proxy.tamuc.edu/10.1017/S0142716415000314

The study by Gamez, Lesaux and izzo (2016) compares early-adolescent Spanish language speakers to same-age English-only language speakers in terms of narrative production skills. The researchers provided the subjects with picture books and then asked them to produce a narrative based on the pictures. What the researchers found was that the Spanish language speakers and the English language speakers utilized the same story structure in the creation of their narratives. Both groups produced narratives that had a "goal -- action -- outcome framework" (p. 952). However, the Spanish language speakers had less grammatical diversity than the English-only speakers; they demonstrated a tendency to revise and to commit errors when using prepositions; also, their narratives were longer than those produced by…… [Read More]

References

Gamez, P., Lesaux, N., Rizzo, A. (2016). Narrative production skills of language

minority learners and their English-only classmates in early adolescence. Applied Psycholinguistics, 37: 933-961.
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Psycholinguistic Tools for Analyzing Advertising Text

Words: 1480 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73101287

advert employed psycholinguistics in its aim to manipulate readers to buy the product. The 'Fairy Soap' advertisement was used and investigated for the use of concrete imagery -- a strategy of psycholinguistics. Psycholinguistics says that concrete imagery not only forges associations but also makes imagery more vivid and helps reader comprehend and faster remember words. Analysis of the advert in terms of the concrete imagery used showed that all applied. Discussion sums up result and concludes that that readers can be more readily manipulated into buying the product -- unless they were aware that they are being deliberately manipulated by people who know how to make words sound psychologically appealing.

The Concrete Appeal of Soap

None of us wish to be manipulated, but unfortunately, advertisements -- the world of marketing -- uses techniques that indiscernibly manipulates us and influences us in certain way. People tend to think that is only…… [Read More]

References

SEMIOTICS AND IDEOLOGY

 http://www.generation-online.org/c/fcformalism.htm 

Larry Percy (1982), "Psycholinguistic Guidelines For Advertising Copy," in Advances in Consumer Research Volume 09, eds. Andrew Mitchell, Advances in Consumer Research Volume 09: Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 107-111

A Pictorial History of Fairy Soap Advertising
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Pedagogic Grammar Written and Spoken

Words: 3597 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92431990

e. cursing, swearing) and not using discriminatory language or language that is "racist, sexist, ageist" (Caldwell, 2004) or so forth. The concept of 'communicative competence" (Caldwell, 2004) is described as grammar that "relates to the nature of language teaching" in an approach." (Caldwell, 2004) that is fairly universally advocated in L2 teaching." (Caldwell, 2004) the mistakes that are made may either be in "form" due to lack of knowledge or through use of irregular past tense forms implying that grammar should be descriptive or mistakes in 'use" or knowing when the present perfect or the simple past tense should be used implying that grammar should be descriptive.

It is suggested by Tomlin (1994, pp. 141-42) that teaching communicative language in inclusive of (1) systematic attention to functional and structural aspects; (2) Situational and contextualized use of language in class; (3) Teaching and Learning being made transparent through representational support; (4)…… [Read More]

References

DeRolf, Judith D. (1995) English Communication Through Practical Experiences Kanto Gakuin Univeristy, Yokohama Japan 1995 March No. 24.

Brotoluzzi, Maria (2005) Blurring the Boundary Between Spoken and Written Language in EFL. Online available at http://iteslj.org/Lessons/Bortoluzzi-Boundary.htm.

Chou, Yen-Lin (nd) Promoting Learner's Speaking Ability by Socioaffective Strategies. Online available at http://iteslj.org/Articles/Chou-Socioaffective.html.

Greenbaum, S. (1996) the Oxford English Grammar, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
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Embedded Words There Have Been

Words: 1901 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84665911

90, pp 51-89

In this particular study, Salvarder studied the eye movements of a number of participants while they heard sentences and saw four pictured objects on a computer screen. The study concluded that, "our major finding, however, is that listeners can use the subphonemic acoustic cues often associated with the production of monosyllabic words, such as segmental lengthening, to bias their lexical interpretation of an utterance." (Salvarder 2003-page 82).

orks Cited

Andrews, Sally, Davis Colin, (1999) Interactive Activation Accounts of Morphological Decomposition: Finding the Trap in Mousetrap?, Brain and Language, Vol. 68, pp. 355-361

Bowers, Jeffrey S., Davis, Collin J. And Hanley, Derek a., (2004) Automatic Semantic Activation of Embedded ords: Is there a hat in that?, Journal of Memory and Language, Vol. 52, pp 131-143.

Culter, Anne, (1992) Phonological Cues to Open and Closed-Class ords in the Processing of Spoken Sentences, Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, Vol. 22, Issue…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dumay, Nicolas, Content, Alain, and Frauenfelder, Uli H., Acoustic - Phoentic Cues to Word Boundary Location: Evidence From Word Spotting

Gow, David Jr., Gordon, Peter C., (1995) Lexical and Pre-lexical Influences on Word Segmentation: Evidence from Priming, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, Vol. 21, Issue 2, pp. 344 -359

Isel, Frederic, Bacri, Nicole, (1999) Spoken-Word Recognition: the Access to Embedded Words, Brain and Language, Vol. 68, pp. 61-67

Norris, Dennis, Cutler, Anne, McQueen, James M. And Butterfield, Sally (2006) Phonological and Conceptual Activation in Speech Comprehension, Cognitive Psychology, Vol. 53, pp. 146-193
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Threatening Language and Its Link

Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20243523

For example law enforcement has been using what is called psycholinguistic theories to figure out levels of escalation and to determine criminal intent. Many theories exist and as we mentioned in our paper, there is a theory where sentence construction is carefully studied and analyzed to see how is meant by the threat. This is done with comparison to past communication between the aggressor and the target and other examples available in separate cases. For example if there exist four letters by the aggressor sent on various dates, law enforcement will study the language used in all four to see how and if the conflict has been escalating or if there is a sign of de-escalation. In a very recent case in Florida, a teenager sent threatening text messages to his former girlfriend' friend before coming to her school and almost beating her to death with spiked steel shoes. These…… [Read More]

Ratley tells Treacy he's to blame for her comment because of his remark about her father, who she claims is dead. Treacy says, "See, I didn't know ur father was dead. u knowingly took a shot at my deceased brother. Today, you die, [deletion]!" ]

These are the cases where law enforcement used psycholinguistics to determine criminal intent and premeditation involved. They found that text messages escalates into violence but no premeditated intent was involved and the teenager simply snapped because he was deeply disturbed by the suicide incident of his brother last year.

http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/37312533/ns/today-today_people/
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Cultural Intonation Cultural Differences in

Words: 3430 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73347025

2009). Othe studies had peviously concluded that English infants developed a pefeence fo tochaic wods, the dominant stess constuct of English wods, ove iambic stess pattens within the fist yea of life (Hohle et al. 2009). A compaison of Geman and Fecnh infants in fou distinct expeiments confims and even naows down the timefame in which this diffeentiation of pefeence occus, and also shows (though the Fench language expeiments) that the ability to distinguish the two opposing stess pattens does not necessaily esult in the development of pefeence, if the taget language itself lacks a dominant stess stuctue (Hohle et al. 2009). Even at six months, a specific language begins to mediate peception.

An ealie study suggests that the timing of stess and intonation pefeence development is even soone than six months. While citing evidence suggesting that language-independent phonetic contasts and melodic vaiations ae ecognized within the fist fou months…… [Read More]

references during the first half year of life: Evidence from German and French infants." Infant behavior and development 32(3), pp. 262-74.

Laroche, M.; Pons, F. & Richard, M. (2009). "The role of language in ethnic identity measurement: A multitrait-multimethod approach to construct validation." Journal of social psychology 149(4), pp. 513-40.

Nguyen, T.; Ingrahm, C. & Pensalfini, J. (2008). "Prosodic transfer in Vietnamese acquisition of English contrastive stress patterns." Journal of phonetics 36(1), pp. 158.

Turk, a. & Shattuck-Hufnagel, S. (2007). "Multiple targets of phrase-final lengthening in American English words." Journal of phonetics 35(4), pp. 445-72.

Wyatt, J. (2007). "Skinner 1, Chomsky 0." Behavior analysis digest 19(4), pp. 13-4.
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Language Impairment Phonological Memory Deficits

Words: 1733 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6488698

The focus of academics continues to focus on finding a cause and on developing reliable interventions for children suffering from this condition. It is important to begin intervention as early as possible so that incorrect speech patterns do not become ingrained. In addition, it is important to make certain that other learning complications do not develop as a result of SLI.

The research conducted by ice, Wexler, & Cleave (1995) helped to draw attention to SLI as being different from other language deficiencies. Their work helped to identify and define SLI as its own subset of language delay symptoms. This important step led the way for research that explored causality and intervention. SLI is typically associated with deficiencies in verbal skills. However, research into non-verbal skills was also suggested by these and other study results. This avenue will help to further define and distinguish SLI from other language delays.

eferences…… [Read More]

References

Bishop, D., Bright, P. & James, C. et al. (2000). Grammatical SLI: a distinct subtype of developmental language impairment? Applied Psycholinguistics. 21-92): 159-181.

O'Brien, E., Zhang, X., & Nishimura, C. et al. (2003). Association of specific language impairment (SLI) to the region of 7q31. American Journal of Human Genetics. 72 (6): 1536-1543.

Rice, M., Wexler, K., & Cleave, P. (1995). Specific Language Impairment as a Period of Extended Optional Infinitive. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research. 38: 850-863.

Sajanrimi, N., Suhonen, E., & Kontu, E. (2008). Verbal and non-verbal development in SLI children after early intervention. Early Child Development and Care. 02 May 2008. Abstract.
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Scientific Theory in Scientific Investigation

Words: 2513 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91974570

Once again, time is an indicator. When a significant amount of evidence for a theory is readily available, the theory tends to be older and concomitantly more accepted by the scientific community. If there are significant gaps in the evidence, the theory can benefit from further investigation.

The same is true of the complexity level of the theory is not very high. More components can then be added by further investigation.

A theory can also be evaluated according to its ability to serve as an indicator of future phenomena. This makes a theory applicable to further scientific investigation, and furthermore also allow for further development in the theory itself. If the theory is for example a consistently accurate predictor of future events or phenomena, it can be viewed as valid. If it however proves inaccurate in one or some of its predictions, further evidence and modifications will be necessary.

Furthermore,…… [Read More]

Sources

BBC. Science and Nature: What is psychology? Oct, 2008.  http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/articles/psychology/what_is_psychology.shtml 

Carter, J. Stein. The Scientific Method. Nov. 4, 2004. http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Courses/bio104/sci_meth.htm

Theory Evaluation. 2008.  http://arti.vub.ac.be/memos/AI-Memo-93-07/subsubsectionstar4_2_3.html 

Wilson, Jerry. Scientific Laws, Hypotheses, and Theories. 2007. http://www.wilstar.com/theories.htm
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Slips if IT's Not One

Words: 5007 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43071533

(apaport 1942: 149)

It is important here to have some framework with which to discuss parapraxes

Aitchison, as a psycholinguist blends both the disciplines of psychology and linguistics to give a more balanced view overall. She proposes first two broad definitions for type of parapraxis. (1998: 244) the first is when a wrong item or word is unintentionally chosen, these are generally referred to as slips of the tongue and an example would be, "Did you remember to buy some toothache?" eplacing the word toothpaste, which was intended, with toothache, which was unintended. She also refers to these more properly as slips of the brain. Secondly there is a classification of errors that are due to the faulty assemblages of the language within the statement. The word choice is usually correct but the grammatical assemblage of the statement is not. Here is an example she uses of this:, "Someone's been…… [Read More]

References

Aitchison, Jean. 1998. The Articulate Mammal: An Introduction to Psycholinguistics. London: Routledge.

Bear, Gordon. 1992. 'A Freudian Slip?.' Teaching of Psychology 19:174-175.

Coles, Robert (2000) Darwin, freud, and adam phillips. Raritan 19 (4), p1

De Chumaceiro, Cora L. D'az. 1997. 'Serendipity and Its Analogues in Runco's Problem Finding, Problem Solving, and Creativity.' Creativity Research Journal 10:87-89.
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Ape Speech Research Has Been

Words: 5500 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66875718



Another theorist with a different view is Chomsky (1988). Chomsky sees the acquisition of language as a process of input-output, what he calls a Cartesian view of language acquisition and language structure. He states: "We have an organism of which we know nothing. We know, or we can discover, what kind of data is available to it, and the first question we must try to answer is: what kind of mental structure does the organism develop when that evidence is presented to it?" (Chomsky, 1988, p. 102). Once we find an answer to this question, we can ask what sorts of processes have intervened leading form the data available to the knowledge that resulted. Chomsky explains:

The input-output situation is this: a child who initially does not have knowledge of a language constructs for himself knowledge of a language on the basis of a certain amount of data; the input…… [Read More]

References

Aitchison, J. (1998). The articulate mammal: An introduction to psycholinguistics. London:Routledge.

Appel, A. (2005) 'Dinner conversation' proof of ape speech? National Geographic News.

Brown, G. (1958). Words and things. New York: The Free Press.

Brain circuitry involved in language reveals differences in man, non-human primates (2001, September 5). Science Daily. Retrieved December 12, 2006 at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/09/010905071926.html.
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Weltanschauung of My Country Korea

Words: 1647 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88878939

The Modernization approach and industrial policy in the period of Park Chung-Hee were considered to be much influenced by the South Korean social learning and accepting of Japanese ideologies and institution. The colonial modernity, localization of division of labor, government assisted bilateral cooperation were considered detrimental to the strategic parameters of economic development and industrialization, modernization strategy and industrial policy replicated the emulation of Japanese ideologies and institution.

Most of the Koreans believe Japan to be a perennial evil. The colonial domination by Japan over the Korea have led to massive economic exploitation and also called upon the national dignity severely. However, ever since 1980 a revisionist thought was initiated to being formed around the concepts of the perspective of colonial continuity, the notion of horizontal division of labor, and the movement towards the export led growth. The influence of the ideology of 'Fokoku Kyohei' and the emerging Modernization strategy…… [Read More]

References

Between Learning and Policy Innovation: Japanese Economic Institutions and South Korea's

Economic Policy in the 1960s. Prepared for presentation at the annual convention of the International Studies Association. New Orleans Marriot Hotel. March 24-27, 2002. Retrieved at http://www.isanet.org/noarchive/moon_nishino.html. Accessed 16 September, 2005

Lee, Grace. The Political Philosophy of Juche. Retrieved at http://www.stanford.edu/group/sjeaa/journal3/korea1.pdf. Accessed 16 September, 2005

Sigmund Freud (1932): Lecture XXXV-Philosophy of Life. Retrieved at http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/at/freud.htm. Accessed 16 September, 2005
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Morphology and Vocabulary Acquisition Vocabulary

Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15952347



Also different cultures and different regions have their own peculiar requirements. For example, a method that works well in United States of America may not work that well in a country like Malaysia. "With regard to lexical ambiguity, the rich inflectional morphology of Italian makes it relatively easy to distinguish between nouns, verbs, and other grammatical classes. In contrast, the sparse grammatical morphology of English means that nouns, verbs, and other word classes often sound alike and must be disambiguated by context (the comb vs. To comb), or by prosodic cues (to record vs. The record)" (Bates, Devescovi & Wulfeck, 2001).

So the differences are stark. In Chinese context application of morphology becomes more difficult. In countries like Malaysia where different languages are spoken the application of just the method of morphology can not simply work In some countries where English is taught as a second language morphology is used…… [Read More]

References

Dixon, W. & Smith, H. (2000). Links between Early Temperament and Language Acquisition. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. Vol: 46. Issue: 3.

Bates, E., Devescovi, A., & Wulfeck, B. (2001). PSYCHOLINGUISTICS: A Cross-Language Perspective. Annual Review of Psychology.
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Language & Cognition the Relationship Between Language

Words: 1294 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40028872

Language & Cognition

The relationship between language and cognition continues to be an area of science that is heavily studied and for which research builds in exciting ways (Aitchison, 2007). New learnings about cognition and language are intimately tied to technological advances as neuropsychologists and others probe the human brain ever more deeply and meaningfully (Aitchison, 2007).

Language and lexicon. Language is understood to be the symbolic representation of human thought (Yule, 2005). Language is the most complex method of human communication, whether written or spoken, in that it uses words in a structured manner and in conventional ways that are understood by those who speak, read, and write a particular language (Yule, 2005). Language can also take the form of nonverbal communication through facial and gestural expressions (Yule, 2005). The concept of lexicon takes two general forms: A dictionary of a particular language, and the vocabulary associated with an…… [Read More]

References

Aitchison, J. (2007) The Articulate Mammal: An Introduction to Psycholinguistics (5 rev edn) London: Routledge.

Bock, J.K. (1982, January). Toward a cognitive psychology of syntax: Information processing contributions to sentence formulation. Psychological Review, 89 (1), 1-47.

Williamson, G. (2009, October 13). Key properties of language. Speech Therapy Information and Services (STIR). Retrieved http://www.speech-therapy-information-and-resources.com/key-properties-of-language.html

Yule, G. (2005) The Study of Language (3 rev edn) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Language and Memory

Words: 1018 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1036112

Memory and Language

Semantic memory is part of a larger division of memory known as declarative memory which refers to items in memory that can be consciously retrieved or recalled such as factual information, memories of events, and other types of knowledge (Tulving, 1972). Semantic memory is the memory of meanings and concept-based knowledge that can be consciously recollected such as facts about the world, word meanings, and other related information, whereas the other component of declarative memory, episodic memory, refers to the memory of biographical and event-related information (Tulving, 1972). Semantic memory functions as a storehouse of knowledge that can be consciously retrieved and applied when needed in specific situations and comprises a large amount of what we learn about the world and out relations in it (Tulving, 1972). Semantic memories are language based.

Human language is a different form of communication that used by other species of animals.…… [Read More]

References

Bock, J.K. & Levelt, W.J.M. (1994.) Language production: Grammatical encoding. In Gernsbacher, M.A. (ed.) Handbook of psycholinguistics (pp. 945 -- 84). New York:

Academic Press.

Dudai, Y. (2007) Memory: It's all about representations. In: Roediger, H.L., Dudai, Y. & Fitzpatrick S.M., (eds.) Science of memory: Concepts (pp 13-16). New York: Oxford

Jakobson, R. (1963). Implications of language universals for linguistics. In Greenberg, J. (ed.)
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Chomsky and His Theory of Universal Grammar

Words: 2891 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68495998

Chomsky

Noam Chomsky and His Theory of Universal Grammar

Noam Chomsky name is not unknown to the world. Though he is not a psychologist or a psychiatrist but his contributions in the fields of psychology and linguistics has a great impact. His theory of generative grammar has been regarded as one of the most considerable contributions to the field of theoretical linguistics (Berger, 2005).

As a Person

Noam Chomsky, a well-known politician and an exceptional linguist, was born on December 7, 1928 in the state of Philadelphia in the home of a Hebrew scholar (Berger, 2005). He got his early education in Philadelphia while he went to study linguistics, mathematics and philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania. There, he also achieved his PhD degree though he completed most of his PhD work at Harvard University during early 1950s. Chomsky has been associated with Massachusetts Institute of Technology since 1955. He…… [Read More]

References

Berger, V. (2005). Famous Psychologist: Noam Chomsky. Retrieved January 2, 2012 from  http://www.psychologistanywhereanytime.com/famous_psychologist_and_psychologists/psychologist_famous_noam_chomsky.htm 

Cowie, F. (1999). What's Within?: Nativism Reconsidered. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved January 2, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=54457478

Lechte, J. (1994). Fifty Key Contemporary Thinkers: From Structuralism to Postmodernity. London: Routledge. Retrieved January 1, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103622027

Language Acquisition. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved January 4, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117028793
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Russian Psychologist Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory With Input

Words: 482 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67610274

Russian psychologist ygotsky's Sociocultural Theory, with Input and Interaction Theory. Beginning with a definition of both theories the paper will then note how the two theories differ and where they are similar in their approach as well as how they are applied to everyday issues such as teaching language.

Sociocultural Theory

Sociocultural theory was first conceived and developed by Russian psychologist Lev Semyonovich ygotsky's, (1896-1934). His most productive years were at the Institute of Psychology in Moscow (1924-34), where he expanded his ideas on cognitive development, particularly the relationship between language and thinking. His writings emphasized the roles of historical, cultural, and social factors in cognition and argued that language was the most important symbolic tool provided by society. His book, "Thought and Language" is a classic text in psycholinguistics' theoretical contributions to the development of curricula and teaching strategies. (Forman, Minick, Stone 1993)

ygotsky was interested in applying Marxist…… [Read More]

Vygotsky was interested in applying Marxist social theory to individual psychology. The approach he took to cognitive development is sociocultural, working on the assumption that 'action is mediated and cannot be separated from the milieu in which it is carried out' (Wertsch, 1991) He devised the sociocultural theory that subsequently influenced the development of the constructivist movement. (Jaramillo, 1996) Vygotsky's sociocultural theory of learning contends that intelligence in humans has its origins from within our society of culture. Individual cognitive advancement thus occurs first as interaction with one's social environment followed by interaction within oneself, e.g. internalization. (Brown, 1996) These two phases observed in classroom settings shows that the first phase of the cognitive process for students is when students encourage, support and guide each other while learning. This is followed by students forming their own conclusions based on the evidence they have observed and then resolve conflict by articulating their arguments. (Wertsch).

An important concept in Vygotsky's theory is that the potential for cognitive development is limited to a certain time span which he calls the 'zone of proximal development (Kearsley 1994). The zone of proximal development is defined as having four learning stages. These stages range from the lower limit of what the student knows and the upper limits of what the student has the potential of accomplishing. This seems to be very roughly analogous to concepts of intelligent quotients and testing in modern education.

Vygotsky's zone of proximal development is the zone in which students can solve problems collaboratively and learn from one another. Or stated a different way, students may be able to complete some tasks independently; never the less, in order for them to increase their level of potential development, students need to work with others. This collaborative zone stems from the idea that learning is social and happens when speech and activity come together. Knowledge does not originate from within us, according to Vygotsky, but instead we learn from our environment: when a student learns arithmetic or writing, he or she is internalizing external knowledge (Brown).
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History and Links of Social Psychology

Words: 1320 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89246979

History Of Social Psychology

According to Kruglanski and Stroebe (2012) social psychology is defined as the scientific study of how a person's feelings, behaviors, and thoughts are influenced by the implied, imagined, or real presence of other people. Social psychology will analyze various social topics including social perception, behavior leadership, conformity, prejudice, nonverbal behavior, and aggression. It attempts to understand a person's behavior in a social context. Therefore, social psychology will look at human behavior as other people and the social setting that this occurs shape it. Social psychologists will deal with the factors that lead a person to behave in a given way in front of others, and it looks at the conditions in which some behaviors and feelings will occur. Social psychology is a young field that began in the 20th century. Around 90% of all social psychologists are believed to be alive. The early influencers of this…… [Read More]

References

Baumeister, R.F., & Finkel, E.J. (2010). Advanced social psychology: The state of the science. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Fiske, S.T., Gilbert, D.T., & Lindzey, G. (2010). Handbook of social psychology (Vol. 2). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Kruglanski, A.W., & Stroebe, W. (2012). Handbook of the history of social psychology. Church Rd, Hove: Psychology Press.
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Comprehensive Reading in Middle Classes

Words: 3433 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20112352

eading Comprehension in the Middle Grades

eading comprehension refers to a complex, active process that incorporates reader-related (linguistic awareness), activity-related (studying for the purpose of keeping information in mind for retrieval in future) and text-related (high-level vocabulary) variables, all of which are correlated in a broader socio-cultural context. However, studies on development of reading comprehension have, thus far, been typified by focus on student traits and/or specified instructional systems (Carnegie Council on Advancing Adolescent Literacy [CCAAL], 2010). This comprehensive literature base clearly demonstrates that oral language proficiency (such as vocabulary, print-independent aspects, and listening comprehension) and decoding abilities (print- dependent aspects) are significantly linked with reading comprehension. This link is proven through strong theoretical as well as practical evidence (Ouellette & Beers, 2010). Furthermore, although decoding abilities continue to account for unique reading comprehension variations, even in cases of adults, oral language proficiencies assume a more predictive role as children…… [Read More]

References

Al-Haba, M.A.M. (2013). Reader Response Theory in the Phenomenology of Reading with the text and the reader as its focal point. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), Volume 8, Issue 6, P 83-86

Carnegie Council on Advancing Adolescent Literacy. (2010). Time to act: An agenda for advancing adolescent literacy for college and career success. New York, NY: Carnegie Corporation of New York.

Corrigan, R. (2011). Effects of pre-service teachers' receptive vocabulary knowledge on their interactive read-alouds with elementary school students. Reading and Writing, 24, 749 -- 771. doi.org/10.1007/s11145-009-9223-5

Gamez, P.B., & Lesaux, N.K. (2015). Early-adolescents' reading comprehension and the stability of the middle school classroom-language environment. Developmental Psychology, 51(4), 447-458. Doi:10.1037/a0038868
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Looking Into Ells and Matching Books

Words: 1386 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73936442

Matching Books with ELLs

Description of the Chosen Book

pages book Titles Barenstain Bears (fiction)

It is the classic story of Barenstain Bears. Lots of children love it. They particularly pick out the little bear that creeps into a box.

Interestingly, this adventure is told from a set of vocabulary of only twenty three words.

Berenstain S, Berenstain, J. (2007), Inside, Outside, Upside Down. London: HarperCollins Children's.

Contextualize the ELLs you intend to use the book with: Who are they? You can discuss their age/grade, cultural backgrounds, background knowledge, language proficiency levels, interests, etc.

I intend to use this book with kindergarten learners. These learners are at their critical period (3 to 5 years). During this period they can best acquire language skills and therefore it is very important to prepare them adequately for the task. Additionally, these children have not experienced language from many users apart from their family…… [Read More]

References

Berenstain S, Berenstain, J. (2007), Inside, Outside, Upside Down. London: HarperCollins Children's.

Goodman, K. S. (1986). Linguistics, psycholinguistics and the teaching of reading. International Reading Ass.

Lado, A. (2012). Teaching beginner ELLs using picture books: Tellability. Thousand Oaks, CA, Corwin Press.

Nessel, D. D., & Dixon, C. N. (2008). Using the Language Experience Approach with English Language Learners: Strategies for Engaging Students and Developing Literacy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
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Case Study of a Learning Disability Student ESL

Words: 1990 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31103051

Learning Disability Student ESL

There is an urgent necessity to help reading-disabled pupils read, since weak reading skills are linked to serious consequences. Children who fail at reading properly will be prone to dropping out of school and facing pervasive scholastic issues. To add to this scenario's urgency, standard instruction does not aid most pupils who fail to grasp adequate reading skills during their early elementary years even till they complete school. Further, premature basic reading issues often lead to limited time devoted to text reading, on account of which decoding issues can ultimately grow into a generalized deficiency in reading marked by poor proficiency, general knowledge and vocabulary, which further impair reading comprehension in pupils (Otaiba & Denton, 2015). eading/writing issues resemble dyslexia symptoms. That is, dyslexics can't be told apart from pupils suffering from general reading issues. The present age recognizes literacy skills and considers them crucial to…… [Read More]

References

Born, M., & Curtis, R. (2013). (Re)Discovering Retrospective Miscue Analysis: An Action Research Exploration using Recorded Readings to Improve Third-grade Students Reading Fluency. i.e.: inquiry in education.

Bus, A., Takacs, Z., & Kegal, C. (2015). Affordances and limitations of electronic storybooks for young children's emergent literacy. Developmental Review - Elsevier, 79-97.

Connor, C., Alberto, P., Compton, D., & O'Connor, R. (2014). Improving Reading Outcomes for Students with or at Risk for Reading Disabilities. Natioanl Center for Special Education Research - U.S. Department of Education.

Hamilton, S., & Glascoe, F. (2016). Evaluation of Children with Reading Difficulties. Retrieved from American Familyt Pysician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1215/p2079.html
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Individual to Develop the First

Words: 1922 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1247283

Of these, twenty were of different first languages learning Hungarian and thirteen were of Hungarian as first language learning English." (P 8).

Based on this argument, age is not only the intrinsic factor that influences language acquisition. Typically, educational and maturational factors contribute to the language acquisition. With this claim, there could be a new hypothesis that reveal young= better and adult =better. Singleton (2005) conclusion on CPH is that

"Critical Period Hypothesis is misleading, since there is a vast amount of variation in the way in which the critical period for language acquisition is understood -- affecting all the parameters deemed to be theoretically significant and indeed also relating to the ways in which the purported critical period is interpreted in terms of its implications for L2 instruction."(P 269).

Conclusion

The study summarizes a research paper titled "The Critical Period Hypothesis: A coat of many colors" (Singleton, 2005). The…… [Read More]

References

Hyltenstam, K & Abrahamsson, N. (2003). Maturational constraints in SLA. In the

Handbook of Second Language Acquisition, Catherine Doughty and Michael H. Long (eds.),

539 -- 588. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Johnston, R. (2002). Addressing the age factor: Some Implication for Language policy: University of Stirling, Scotland
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Elt in the Expanding Circle

Words: 4023 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22374568



The confidence of non-native speaker teachers is expected to be strengthened by better, more direct, access to the way native speakers use the language. ut an option not on offer so far (and, of course, a task impossible for a corpus called the ritish National Corpus) is to give these non-native speaker teachers access to a corpus capturing the successful use of English among non-native speakers, as a lingua franca, thus offering supremely relevant models for many learners wishing to use the language for similar purposes. So when Aston and urnard refer to ?the political implications of changing the basis on which assessments of correctness or appropriateness of usage are made? what has changed about the "basis" is how it can be accessed, not how it is defined. There is also another problem that operates at a deeper and unrecognized level: the language attitudes of those who, paradoxically, are themselves…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Aston, Guy, & Lou Burnard 1998, the BNC Handbook: Exploring the British National Corpus with SARA Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP.

Ayo Banjo & Andrew Thomas, ed. 1995,. New Englishes: A West African Perspective Ibadan: Mosuro and the British Council.

Graddol, David 1997, the Future of English London: British Council.

Greenbaum, Sidney, ed. 1996, Comparing English Worldwide: The International Corpus of English Oxford: Clarendon.
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Juvenile Delinquency the Phenomenon of

Words: 538 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7843045



Finally, for the purposes of this research proposal we will refer to a third study that suggests education could be at the heart of reducing juvenile delinquency statistics but the conditions in which the child is raised impacts their ability to choose between right and wrong (Hindelang, 1981).

Method and design

The goal of this study is to add to the literature that demonstrates that there is a correlation between poverty and juvenile delinquency. This researcher will begin by reviewing the available statistics provided by the state judicial system related specifically to the number of juveniles currently incarcerated at state facilities as well as the youths' offenses. Once this information has been compiled the next step will be to chart the level of income brought in by the adults within each home as well as to determine if the families live rely on welfare or government assistance for their daily…… [Read More]

References

Hindelang, M; Measuring Deliquency. Sage Library of social research; Vol. 123.

Lewis, D; Violent Juvenile Delinquents: Psychiatric, Neurological, Psychological, and Abuse Factors. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry. Vol 18, Issue 2

Loeber, R.; Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review. Vol. 10, p. 1-41. 1990.