e. cursing, swearing) and not using discriminatory language or language that is "racist, sexist, ageist" (Caldwell, 2004) or so forth. The concept of 'communicative competence" (Caldwell, 2004) is described as grammar that "relates to the nature of language teaching" in an approach." (Caldwell, 2004) that is fairly universally advocated in L2 teaching." (Caldwell, 2004) the mistakes that are made may either be in "form" due to lack of knowledge or through use of irregular past tense forms implying that grammar should be descriptive or mistakes in 'use" or knowing when the present perfect or the simple past tense should be used implying that grammar should be descriptive.
It is suggested by Tomlin (1994, pp. 141-42) that teaching communicative language in inclusive of (1) systematic attention to functional and structural aspects; (2) Situational and contextualized use of language in class; (3) Teaching and Learning being made transparent through representational support; (4) Focus on Information Transfer; and (5) Focus on quantity of input/output plus risk-taking based on multiple personal language hypotheses being formed by the learner.
Written and Spoken Discourse for English Language Teaching/Linguistic Grammars - Pedagogical Grammars: Differentiation
Linguistic grammars may be defined as descriptions of language forms "cast in a coherent, constrained and self-contained meta-language" according to Greenbaum (1996) p. 32. Pedagogical grammars are characterized by being written primarily for teachers and those associated such as prospective teachers, students and teacher educators. It is a type of translation of linguistic descriptions of grammatical structure in a simple way. Tomlin and Greenbaum have made suggested of that which is inclusive of:
1) the necessity of the teacher to makes explanation of structure and function in a clear and accurate manner based on that which is principles instead of the common rule knowledge and most particularly in areas that present problems for the students;
2) the necessity for teachers to understand the relation between form and fiction in structuring activities in learning specifically where problems and mistakes are common;
3) the necessity to verify and clarify theories that are emerging and that are developing via the students;
4) the student's ability in making the adjustment of their languaging to contexts that are characterized by differentiation in understanding standard English expectations especially in writing;
5) the move toward basics and standards in forms and in discipline adherence;
6) an awareness of the general nature of the tool that assists "living, earning and learning."
Tomlin (1994, pp. 141-142) makes the suggestion that teaching communicative language is inclusive of:
1) Systematic attention to functional and structural aspects;
2) Situational and contextualized use of language in class (what sort of language forms are used where and when, through communicative engagement);
3)Teaching and learning being made transparent through representational support (pictures, diagrams etc. - again, use in real contexts that all parties understand);
4) Focus on information transfer
5) (language in use); and 6) Focus on quantity of input/output plus risk-taking based on multiple personal language hypotheses being formed by the learner (which can be supported, clarified and verified by grammar input).
In the work entitled, "Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Pedagogical Grammar: The English Prepositions of Verticality" written by Evans and Tyler (2005) state that applying insights from cognitive Linguistics to pedagogical grammar has its merits. The insights offered are stated to be:
1) the concepts encoded by prepositions are image-schematic in nature and thus have an embodied basis. In other words, prepositions are not appropriately modeled as constituting linguistic propositions or semantic feature bundles (the received view in formal linguistics)
2) an English preposition encodes an abstract mental idealization of a spatial relation, derived from more specific spatial scenes. This forms the primary meaning components of a semantic network;
3) the idealized spatial relation, also encodes a functional element, which derives from the way spatial relations are salient and relevant for human function and interaction with the physical environment; and 4) the additional sense in the semantic network have been extended in systematic, constrained way. Two key principles of extension: ways of viewing a spatial scene and experiential correlation." (Evans & Tyler, 2005)
It has been argued that conceptual structure is shaped by our views and humans and real world interactions, and (2) human cognitive structure is that which reflects upon language there by the world we inhabiting our bodies humanness are that which give rise to meaning. These are described as being a concept characterized from the derivation from sensorimotor interactions with the world in "imagistic terms." Teachers and researchers have historically noted that in English language acquisition the aspect of prepositions pose major challenges of second language learners. The difference exists in the 'spatial meanings' in that 'prepositions do not match up well from language to language." (Freeman, 1998 pp. 401 as cited by Evans & Tyler, 2005) the process is stated by Tyler & Evans (2005) to be one that is of an arbitrary nature in the inherent conflict in prescribed meaning colloquially and linguistically speaking.
Two Cognitive Principles
Two cognitive principles stated by Evans & Tyler (2005) which "act in conjunction with the proto-scene to account for the uses of individual prepositions are:
Spatial scenes can be construed in a number of ways.
The Basic meaning element associated with the proto-scene can be extended through reoccurring patterns in human experience with the spatio-physical world."
This is termed to be experiential correlation by Grady (1997). These types of experiential correlations are historically known to be reflected in the languaging of mankind. The association between a noted increase in elevation is compared with a liquid added to a container raising the liquid to elevation. When these two altogether separate yet distinct experiences co-occur and are in the nature of recurring everyday worldly observations and yet give rise to systematic meaning extensions from the proto0scene associated with a specific preposition then they are known to be well grounded in a semantic network associated with the preposition. In other words the preposition may be used to encode for extended and no-spatial meaning.
Form-based: The Structuralist Theory
Within functional grammars are basic characteristics which are referred to as form-based or the theory purported by those called 'Structuralist' which is inclusive of the ideas of Tomlin that "Forms serve functions: Successful employment of 'grammar knowledge in pragmatically and socially acceptable ways are the goal of language learning. Competence and performance are constrained by non-linguistic factors which are stated to be:
First the underlying performance is constrained by cognitive capacities and at the same time complementation can be infinite in repetition and the constraints of memory and processing bind restrictions on the use of grammar that would become impossible for the listener and possibly the speaker as well.
Secondly, in relation to active passive use, there is general psychological evidence that a decision on the subject of a sentence is dependent upon the focus of the speaker's attention explaining why the subject becomes the theme or the referent due to the speaker's focus. These constraints of a cognitive nature are determinative of the linguistic forms utilized.
Form selection is stated to be based on Discourse although not at the level of the word or sentence but at the discourse (i.e. whole text, spoken or written) level. There is noted correlation of specific grammatical forms within the text of a contextual nature in the features of the text. In the realm of descriptive levels, the identification of functions and specification of syntactic forms that accompany them are the focus due to the belief that correlations between function and syntactic forms are not merely chance but that the relationships between forms and functions are caused because they make it easier for the production or comprehension of language to occur.
Concepts and Factors for Consideration in Analysis
The major concepts of functional analysis as proposed by Stern are inclusive of the following:
3) Ends, which includes (a) transactional; (b) Interactional; and performative
4) Speech events
5) Norms and Variation
The setting of the languaging that takes place is made to be or in essence "becomes meaningful in the context or within the experiential setting. An example is that the meaning making between two professionals may take on a different meaning than the same words spoken, yet with vested differentiation of meanings between two laborers or educators or farmers.
Ends: Transnational, Interactional and Performative
The participant's interactions as well as changes in roles or status of the learners in the L2 environment are also affectants of the languaging used and whether that language is formal or informal in nature. Goals are identified with language when viewed as a purposeful activity and may be practical or factual referred to as transactional language.
Language may also be Interactioanl or personal, emotional and social. Finally language may be performative demonstrated by speech that that has intentions toward some action such as persuading, convincing, questioning, warning, etc.