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Psychological and Socio-Cultural Theories of Risk
Words: 4457 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67940104
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Psychological and Socio-Cultural Theories of isk

Definition of isk

The term "risk" is often defined differently depending on the particular paradigm. For example, risk is economics is typically defined in terms of differences in possible monetary outcomes and individuals/corporations involved in risk -- seeking behavior are typically seeking higher monetary payoffs (Markowitz 1952). When clinical psychologists, sociologists, law enforcement officials, and lay individuals identify "risky behaviors" they are referring to a broader meaning of the term "risk." In this context behaviors and involve risk are typically defined as behaviors that can be of potential harm to the person performing them or to other people (Steinberg 2008). In this sense the term "risk" is typically viewed in terms of possible negative outcomes as opposed to some other positive outcome such as the potential monetary gain.

This particular paper will assume that the definition of risky behavior includes some type of a…

References

Aristotle .1998. Aristotle: The Nicomachean ethics. In Ackrill J. et al. eds. Oxford World' s

Classics. York: Oxford, pp. 229-301.

Beck, U. 1992. Risk society: Towards a new modernity. New Delhi: Sage.

Boholm, A. 1996. Risk perception and social anthropology: Critique of cultural Theory. Ethnos 61, pp. 64-84.

Psychological Study of Personality Psychoanalytic
Words: 1813 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60715447
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andura's social cognitive theory is similar with Skinner's behaviorist theory, in so far as the role of the external environment on the individual is concerned. However, andura's theory differs from Skinner's in that the former extended the relationship between the individual and external environment to include, at the same time, the influence that the individual's behavior has on his/her external environment. andura's theory illustrates a seemingly 'reciprocal' relationship between the individual and the external environment: the latter affects the former in exchange for a positive outcome, while the former affects the latter as part of his/her continuous cycle of personality development (424).

From the discussion of these three perspectives of the psychology of human personality, significant differences that highlight the importance of each tradition emerge.

The humanistic tradition looks into the internal traits of the individual, positing that these internal traits are what ultimately shape the personality of a person.…

Bibliography

Buber, M. And C. Rogers. (1997). The Martin Buber-Carl Rogers Dialogue: A New Transcript with Commentary. Albany: University of New York Press.

Freedheim, D. And I. Weiner. (2003). Handbook of Psychology, Volume 1: History of Psychology. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill.

Theory the Objective of This
Words: 2202 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10371204
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I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, and this sometimes scares people away. (Fraley, 2004)

Fraley relates that it was found in the study of Hazan and Shaver "...based on this three-category measure...that the distribution of categories was similar to that observed in infancy. In other words, about 60% of adults classified themselves as secure; about 20% described themselves as avoidant; and about 20% described themselves as anxious-resistant." (2004) While measurement in this manner was "a useful way to study the association between attachment styles and relationship functioning, it didn't allow a full test of the hypothesis in the same kinds of individual differences observed in infants might be manifest among adults." (Fraley, 2004) Fraley states that the findings of rennan "suggested that there are two fundamental dimensions with respect to…

Bibliography

Borelli, Jessica L.; and David, Daryn H. (2003-2004) Imagination, Cognition and Personality. Volume 23, Number 4 / 2003-2004. Attachment Theory and Research as a Guide to Psychotherapy Practice. Yale University. Online Baywood Publishing Company, Inc. Amityville, NY. Online available at  http://baywood.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,2,6;journal,14,102;linkingpublicationresults,1:300311,1 

Tuovila, Pirjo (2007)What Are Fathers for? Attachment Theory and the Significance of Fathers. European Centennial Conference to Celebrate the Birth of Dr. John Bowlby, the Founder of Attachment Theory. Tampere Hall, Finland, 1-2 February 2007.

Levine, Robert a. (2002) Attachment Research as an Ideological Movement: Preliminary Statement. Revised from presentation at the ISSBD, 2002, Ottawa. Harvard University.

Blizard, Ruth a. (1997) the origins of Disassociate Identity Disorder from an Object Relations and Attachment Theory Perspective. Journal of Dissociation. Vol. X No. 4, December, 1997.

Depression Theories

Various Theories on Depression, and Respective Treatments

Depression is a complex mood disorder that is characterized by various emotions, including sadness, self-blame, absence of pleasure and an overall sense of worthlessness, and by physical responses relating to sleep, appetite and motor symptoms. According to statistics, one in four adults will suffer from a depressive episode at some point in life. With a quarter of the population affected by depression, it is no wonder that one sees so many advertisements both on television and on billboards relating to the disorder. It is also understandable that many intellectual fields of study would give an opinion on what depression truly means and how it can be treated. This paper will thus examine psychological, sociological, cultural and biological theories on depression and will describe various treatments that take into account expertise from these various areas of study to better understand this complex…

Lastly, with respect to biological theory-based treatments, scientific research is vital. A study conducted in 2010 states that the finding of "various structural and chemical abnormalities in the brain through neuroimaging" has been the foundation in depression research in the last year. This study further states that the research combines various brain areas to arise specific symptoms, and that the new data could contribute to further understanding and treating depression. Specific treatments are not given as part of this study, but "biological" treatments will usually include medication, such as anti-depressants. [20: Papageorgiou, G. (2010). Biological theory of depression in the light of new evidence. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from  http://www.annals-general-psychiatry.com/content/9/S1/S47 . ]

Conclusion

This paper has discussed various theories of depression and has expanded upon treatments that take into account these theories. Some treatments have been proven effective, and others have been illustrated simply as examples or as evidence of much needed field research. Depression has been shown to be a complex illness explained by various intelligent minds in different ways, yet in order to treat this disorder, one must take into account all this knowledge, and hope that advances in scientific research, such as that illustrated above, will provide for better treatments and, finally, more effective relief from depressive symptoms.

Theories Emphasize Mainly on Student Activity as
Words: 707 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: A2 Coursework Paper #: 80470073
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theories emphasize mainly on student activity as opposed to teachers teaching. The argument is that a student's experiences coupled with study are areas where learning begins. This is closely associated with the change in psychological theories with regard to learning from behaviorism to constructivism. I use active teaching as opposed to passive teaching. Passive learning takes place when the student only takes in whatever the tutor avails. This form of learning is considered less effective compared to active learning, in which the student seeks out whatever he or she needs to understand. Thus, passive learning seems to promote surface learning instead of deep learning. Since deep learning entails the search for meaning in whatever is learnt, it is insightful (oberts, 2001).

I rely mostly on constructivism in my teaching. In constructivism, learners are considered sense-makers since they not only record the given information but also interpret it. This understanding of…

References

Roberts A. (2001). ABC of Learning. Retrieved 26 August 2015 from  http://studymore.org.uk/glolea.htm 

Smith, M.K. (2003). Learning Theory. The Informal Encyclopedia of Education. Retrieved 26 August 2015 from  http://www.infed.org/biblio/b-learn.htm 

UNESCO (n.d). Most influential theories of learning. Retrieved 26 August 2015 from http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/strengthening-education-systems/quality-framework/technical-notes/influential-theories-of-learning/

NDT Resource center. (n.d.). Teaching with the Constructivist Learning Theory. Retrieved 26 August 2015 from https://www.nde-ed.org/TeachingResources/ClassroomTips/Constructivist%20_Learning.htm

Theories of Human Development
Words: 665 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69465517
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Piagetian, Ericksonian, And Freudian Stages of Development

Human beings progress gradually from childhood to adulthood, going through stages that are distinct, continuous, and improving. Developmental psychologists like Freud, Piaget, and Erickson came up with different theories concerning the stages that people often undergo as they grow from childhood. This study discusses the similarities and the differences between the three theories with examples of the stages mentioned by each given. The contrast and comparison will make people appreciate the importance of the three theories of human development

Similarities

Erickson's theory had the highest number of stages of development compared to the other two. His theory covered eight main stages from birth to death of an individual. According to Erickson, the successful completion of a stage marked a good beginning of the next stage. Failure to fully exhibit and live a stage exhaustively will recur in the future through habits that will…

Psychological Testing Psychological Tests Are an Important
Words: 994 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31249734
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Psychological Testing

Psychological tests are an important aspect of clinical psychology. Psychological tests are normally administered by professional psychologists as a way of learning fact on how people function or in predicting their future. The paper will look at the definition of the term test, give a description of the major categories of tests while identifying the major uses and users of these tests. There will also be comparing and contrasting the concepts of validity and reliability and a discussion of how they affect the psychological testing field.

Definition of tests

A test or examination is defined as an assessment aimed at measuring the knowledge, aptitude, skill, physical fitness or classification in other different topics. Tests can be administered orally, by use of a paper, computer or in the confinement of a specific area which requires the person taking the test to physically perform a specific set of skills. Tests…

References

Renate, R. (2010).The Real Difference between Reliability and Validity. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8481668_real-difference-between-reliability-validity.html

Dority, J. (2011).Five Common Types of Psychological Tests. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from  http://www.livestrong.com/article/101417-five-common-types-psychological-tests/ 

Edu.com. (2009).psychological Testing. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from http://users.ipfw.edu/abbott/120/PsychTesting.html

Psychological Movie Interpretation Ordinary People on the
Words: 1704 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60550806
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Psychological Movie Interpretation: Ordinary People

On the surface, the movie Ordinary People is a movie about loss. It focuses on a family that is recovering from the death of its oldest son. The older son, Buck, and the younger son, Conrad, are portrayed as stereotypical golden boys, with lifetimes full of promise ahead of them. Both boys are strong swimmers on the swim team, however, while out together, without any parents, on a boat, they get into a boating accident. Buck is unable to save himself. Perhaps more significantly, Conrad is unable to save Buck. Conrad spirals into a significant depression and attempts to commit suicide. He is hospitalized in a mental institution because of his suicide attempt. The movie opens after Conrad returns home from the mental hospital and focuses on Conrad's attempts to reintegrate into his family and his suburban environment. Conrad's father, Calvin, is distraught about Buck's…

References

Cherry, K. (2013). Erikson's psychosocial stages summary chart. Retrieved October 15, 2013

from About.com website:  http://psychology.about.com/library/bl_psychosocial_summary.htm 

Erikson, E. (1994). Identity and the life cycle. New York, W.W. Norton & Company.

Harder, A. (2012). The developmental stages of Erik Erikson. Retrieved October 15, 2013

Psychological Barriers to Effective Decision-Making
Words: 1226 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64399352
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The recency effect: most manager at times have an overreliance on the most readily available information to make decisions, it commonly occurs when carrying out annual performance evaluations of employees where recent performance of the employees plays a major role than accomplishments that have taken place in the earlier periods of review, this has an adverse effect has it may lead to the deviation of the set desired goals. (John k.bochardt 2010)

Anchoring bias: in most cases the price tags on products often if not always affect the purchasing negations between consumers and retailers, and most of the time consumer's end up paying higher prices for the product than necessary. This notion that sometimes leads us to allow initial reference point to distort our estimates is what professor oberto refers to anchoring bias.

From a marketing point-of-view anchoring bias can come about when negotiating the renewal of a contract with…

References

John k.borchardt (2010): overcoming barriers to effective deciosion making. An examination of cognitive bses that cause us to make poor decisions

Retrieved from: http://www.ncmahq.org/files/Articles/CM0610%20-%2054-61.pdf 

Andrew T. Chadwick and Matthew D. Segall: Overcoming psychological barriers to good discovery

Decisions:

Theory vs Creativity in Design Leaders Have
Words: 2363 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 863919
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Theory vs. Creativity in Design

Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.

How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates

Integrity and…

References

American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluators association guiding principles for evaluators. American Evaluation Association. Retrieved from  http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51 

Bogan, C.E., & English, M.J. (2010). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. New York [u.a.: McGraw-Hill.

Burton, R.M. (2008). Designing organizations: 21st century approaches. New York: Springer.

DiMaggio, P. (2011). The twenty-first-century firm: Changing economic organization in international perspective. Princeton, NJ [u.a.: Princeton Univ. Press.

Psychological Analysis Barrack Obama Analysis
Words: 603 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64402288
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However, his sense of self-respect is rendered incomplete because of his father. The struggle he experienced demonstrated this and though it did not define his whole being as he is now, it was the primary component in his life that made it a challenge to meet his need for esteem.

2. As the current president of the United States, Obama can be said as a successful person. However, it cannot be said that he is fulfilled and has achieved self-actualization. The absence of a father figure in Obama's life remains a struggle in his life that could determine his successful realization for self-actualization.

3. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs demonstrates how individual needs are categorized by levels and are comprised of different factors that may or may not apply to the individual. Using the Hierarchy of Needs alone, the theory cannot explain fully Obama's psyche, personality and behavior. Maslow's theory…

References

Barak Obama. (2012). Biography. Retrieved:  http://www.biography.com/people/barack-obama-12782369 

MacFarquhar, Larissa. (2007). The conciliator. The New Yorker. Retrieved:  http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/05/07/070507fa_fact_macfarquhar#ixzz1pbLlZHPI

Psychological Capital and Learners K-12
Words: 4962 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 33447575
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Physical and mental disorders are often comorbid, reflecting an entire system that is out of balance. A healthy state, both physically and mentally reflects a state of equilibrium and stability that every organism wishes to achieve (Wallace, 2008).When one portion of the system is out of balance, the entire system can be out of balance. The degree to which the system is out of balance determines the degree of the disturbance.

A child that has greater resilience skills can recover from a greater disturbance than a child with little resiliency. Everyone has heard stories of the rich and famous who rose up from situations of poverty and despair to become something great. This is exactly what this research is about. Eriksson's psychosocial model sets up the situation that the person must overcome. Wallace's theory on resiliency provides an understanding of what the child needs to overcome these circumstances to become…

References

Anthony, E., Alter, C. & Jenson, J. (2009). Development of a Risk and Resilience-Based Out-of-

School Time Program for Children and Youths. Social Work. 54 (1): 45+. Retrieved from Questia Database.

Brendtro, L. & Larson, S. (2004). The Resilience Code: Finding Greatness in Youth. Reclaiming Children and Youth. 12 (4): 194 +. Retrieved from Questia Database.

Brown, W. (2006). The Value of Role Models in Inspiring Resilience. Reclaiming Children and Youth. 14 (4): 199+. Retrieved from Questia Database.

Psychological Learning Theories There Are
Words: 1412 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98009598
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Thus instrumental condition would rely on the notion that a person generates a response rather than an environmental stimulus. I have found that both people and stimulus may elicit certain behaviors both in and outside of the classroom.

Instrumental conditioning is modeled after animal experiments which showed that the individual's environment can reinforce response controls, thus the best responses occur when reinforcement of a particular behavior is given. This I have learned to be the case in the classroom most assuredly, where students are more likely to exhibit positive behaviors more frequently when they are reinforced immediately for demonstrating positive behaviors. Generally the patterns that emerge from such conditioning are self-directed, meaning that I have found that most students engage in behaviors and continue to engage in behaviors which they find result in a positive response regardless of the environment they are placed in.

With regard to controlling adverse behavior,…

References

Chang, Min-Yu S. (1998). "Learning Theory and Advertising." CIA Advertising. 23,

October 2004, Available:  http://www.ciadvertising.org/studies/student/98_spring/theory/learning.html 

Klein, S.B. (2002). "Principles and Applications of Appetitive Conditioning." Mississippi

State University. McGraw Hill. Education. 22, October, 2004, Available:

Psychological Contracts Are a Good Way of
Words: 808 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43331186
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Psychological contracts are a good way of thinking when it comes to the exchange or relationship between an organization and employees. Psychological contracts refer to the perception an employee has when it comes to his or her exchange relationship with the organization; the outcomes promised by the organization and the contribution an employee is obliged to make (Pp 4)

Organizations can play an active and important role in shaping their members' Psychological Contracts. This is because there are outcomes that are part and parcel of employees' psychological contracts and thus central when it comes to the exchange of relationships with their employees.one such outcome is career opportunities not only to the job an individual holds currently but the job one expects to advance into over the course of their career. Career opportunities include getting promotions, having the opportunity of working in the kind of work one wants to do, receiving…

Reference

College of the Redwoods, (2013). Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Retrieved September 11, 2013 from  http://redwoods.edu/Departments/Distance/Tutorials/MaslowsHierarchyPDF/maslows_hierarchy.pdf

Psychological Foundations Towards Education
Words: 1898 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 57954418
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Psychological Foundations Towards Education

Major characteristics of Freud's theory and Erikson's theory

Looking at pages 143-164 of the article, Freud and Erikson address the basic issue of self-definition. According to Freud believes that a person's sense of self stems from parental projections in the course of the genesis of super-ego. In addition, he argues that these introjects form the foundation of a person's self-definition in childhood and that such parental identifications are not significantly updated or revised during childhood or adolescence. Either way, an individual's self-concept is believed to be a function of the fundamental identification process, which takes place during one's pre-school years. Although Freud has extensively written on the human development process, Erikson was the pioneer in writing about the formation of identities. In his works, Erikson has gone far and beyond Freud's parental introjects and childhood identifications (Austrian 37). He argues that the presence of self-selected identity…

Works Cited

Austrian, Sonia G. Developmental Theories Through the Life Cycle. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008. Print.

Lipsitt, Lewis P, and David S. Palermo. Research Readings in Child Psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 2011. Print.

Miller, Patricia H, and Ellin K. Scholnick. Toward a Feminist Developmental Psychology. New York: Routledge, 2010. Print.

Harris, Margaret. Exploring Developmental Psychology: Understanding Theory and Methods. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, 2008. Print.

Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual
Words: 6079 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 85748070
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It is also interesting to note that the correlation between depression and childhood sexual abuse was found to be higher among females in many studies.

However, the issue of the relationship between depression and sexual abuse may not be as clear-cut as the above studies suggest. Recent research has begun to question this correlation and has produced findings that suggest that there are many other parameters and variables that should be considered. This is especially the case with regard to the view that childhood sexual abuse necessarily leads to depression in adulthood. As one report claims, "...there is accumulating evidence to contradict these claims" (Roosa,

Reinholtz, (Angelini, 1999). However the majority of studies indicate that there is a strong possibility that children who are sexually abused experience symptoms of depression that can extend into adulthood.

PTSD

3.1. What is PTSD?

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a disorder that has shown…

Bibliography

Abused Children Face Depression Risk as Adults. Retrieved March 3, 2009 at  http://www.healthyplace.com/abuse/abuse-and-depression/abused-children-face-depression-risk-as-adults/menu-id-52/ 

Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Adverse

Psychosocial Outcomes in controlled studies. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at  http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/res/csa.html 

Barker J. Adult Sequelae of Child Sexual Abuse. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.medicineau.net.au/clinical/psychiatry/SexualAbuse.html

Psychological Perspective Scenario Anyone Can Experience Stress
Words: 1974 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14131132
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Psychological Perspective Scenario

Anyone can experience stress in his or her life, but how the person responds to that stress is affected by the person's personality and upbringing, as well as other factors (Fernald, 2008). For someone like Lester, the issues he is facing are serious and immediate, but they also appear to have been (and will continue to be) ongoing. That is highly significant, because there is no "quick fix" for Lester. Despite that, he will be able to move forward if he addresses the issues he has and learns how to face them more clearly and in a way that is healthier for him. Psychological distress can have physical causes, but the reverse can also be true in that physical issues can be manifestations of what is taking place psychologically (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2010; Overskeid, 2007).

In Lester's life, he faces several causes of stress. The main one…

References

Fernald, L.D. (2008). Psychology: Six perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Hockenbury, DH & Hockenbury, S.E. (2010). Psychology. New York, NY: Worth Publishers.

O'Neil, H.F.; cited in Coon, D. & Mitterer, J.O. (2008). Introduction to psychology: Gateways to mind and behavior. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.

Overskeid, G. (2007). Looking for Skinner and finding Freud. American Psychologist 62(6), 590 -- 595.

Psychological Disorder ADHD ADHD Is
Words: 1806 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 61198795
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My final recommendation was that the parents and Adam's teachers should work as a team to help Adam manage his condition. In other words, the parents should communicate with the teachers to determine if the interventions have been effective. I would then talk to the parents themselves every two months to make further recommendations as necessary.

CONCLUSION

While drug interventions for ADHD, especially in children, have been increasingly controversial because of their possible side-effects, their main advantage is the speed and efficacy with which they work. Those who have benefited reported that the effects were almost immediately visible, on the same day the drug was used.

On the other hand, drug therapies for any mental disorder have been imperfect and frequently plagued by side-effects and non-compliance. Continuous research is therefore necessary to improve not only drug therapies and identify potential harmful effects in the long-term, but also to find possible…

References

ADHD Information Library (2008). ADHD Treatment Options: many Good Choices. Newideas.Net. Retrieved from: http://newideas.net/adhd/treatment

Martin, B. (2011). Treatment for Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD). PsychCentral. Retrieved from:  http://psychcentral.com/lib/2007/treatment-for-attention-deficit-disorder-adhd/ 

Personal Health Lifestyles, Inc. (2001). Attention Deficit Disorder: Facts, Prevention and Treatment Strategies. Retrieved from:  http://www.healingwithnutrition.com/adisease/add-adhd/add-adhd.html#A1

Psychological Testing
Words: 989 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25469321
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Psychological Testing

When one hears the phrase "psychological testing" one might be inclined to think of a test to determine one's mental health, a test that could tell someone whether she or he was crazy or not. But psychological testing is hardly so clear-cut, nor does it deal with the highly subjective subject of sanity. Psychological tests instead measure a range of qualities and potentials, including one's aptitude for various kinds of jobs, one's IQ, one's cognitive functioning, one's ideal occupation, and one's personality type. There are also specific psychological tests for certain mental illnesses, such as depression. In this paper I will briefly describe the different types of psychological tests before addressing the concepts of validity and reliability.

All psychological tests share the basic criteria of any type of test. Tests are sets of either exercises or questions (or some combination of the two) that are used in a…

References

Janda, L. (2009). Psychological testing: Theory and application. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Kline, T. (2005). Psychological testing: A practical approach to design and evaluation. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.

Maruish, M. (2001). Psychological testing in the age of managed behavioral healthcare. NJ:

Lawrence Erlbaum.

Psychological Factors in Health Traditional
Words: 1772 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80328946
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Ultimately, it may be the greatest measure of humanity that we recognize that the relevance of animal sentience in relation to our needs is not a function of their similarity to us or of our chosen relationships with them.

orks Cited

Coren, Stanley. (1995). The Intelligence Of Dogs: A Guide To The Thoughts, Emotions,

And Inner Lives Of Our Canine Companions. New York: Bantam

Gatchel, Robert J.; Polatin, Peter B.; and Kinney, Regina K. "Predicting Outcome of Chronic Back Pain Using Clinical Predictors of Psychopathology: A Prospective Analysis." Health Psychology, 1995 14 (5): 415-420.

Hoffman, Benson M.; Papas, Rebecca K.; Chatkoff, David K.; and Kerns, Robert D.

"Meta-Analysis Of Psychological Interventions For Chronic Low Back Pain."

Health Psychology, 2007 26 (1): 1-9.

Jensen, Maureen C.; Brant-Zawadzki, Michael N.; Obuchowski, Nancy; Modic, Michael

T. Malkasian, Dennis, and Ross, Jeffrey S. "Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lumbar Spine in People without Back…

Works Cited

Coren, Stanley. (1995). The Intelligence Of Dogs: A Guide To The Thoughts, Emotions,

And Inner Lives Of Our Canine Companions. New York: Bantam

Gatchel, Robert J.; Polatin, Peter B.; and Kinney, Regina K. "Predicting Outcome of Chronic Back Pain Using Clinical Predictors of Psychopathology: A Prospective Analysis." Health Psychology, 1995 14 (5): 415-420.

Hoffman, Benson M.; Papas, Rebecca K.; Chatkoff, David K.; and Kerns, Robert D.

Theory and Methods in Clinical Psychology
Words: 1273 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58668587
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Psychological test or assessment method. "The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III

Brief Description of the Test

The recent release of one of the youngest convicted child murders in our nation's history, Lionel Tate, now an adult, into the general population, has highlighted the difficulty of determining if a former prisoner should be eligible for parole. Psychologists have attempted to answer this difficult and subjective question by designing the objectively-assessed test known as "The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III" exam. (Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc., 1997) This test was originally designed in 1987 exclusively for adult prisoners eligible for probation to determine the risk of paroling them and assessing their risk to society and has since been updated, in 1997, to include inventories for truthfulness. (Spies, 2003)

The SAQ is 165-item questionnaire. It can be administered either in a paper and pencil format or on a computer.…

Works Cited

American Educational Research Association. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.

SAQ -- The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III (1997). Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc.

Spies, Robert. (2003). [Review of the SAQ -- Adult Probation [Substance Abuse Questionnaire].]. Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.  http://www.unl.edu/buros/reviewsample.html .

Toneatto, T. (1995). [Review of the SAQ -- Adult Probation [Substance Abuse Questionnaire].] In J.C. Conoley & J.C. Impara (Eds.). The twelfth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 889-891). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.

Theory Z Is a Paradigm
Words: 592 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48392064
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Long-Term Employment -- Japanese organizations tend to have longer employee cycles than U.S. companies. Many U.S. companies treat employees as replaceable parts. It is far more cost-effective and efficient to retain expertise than continually retrain. This keeps the knowledge base inside the company. Providing incentives for long-term employment, then, is an essential component of Theory Z

Consensual Decision Making -- hen employees feel that they have input into decisions that affect them, their jobs, and their daily processes, they are more likely to buy into those decisions and support change management.

Individual responsibility -- Moving away from 'the union mentality' and accepting measurement based on individual performance is tough for many Americans, but the balance between the group and the individual's participation actually empowers both.

Slow Evaluation and Promotion -- Rather than taking the short-term approach, as many American company's do, it is about the long-term strategy, not the monthly…

WORKS CITED

Barney, J. (2004). "An Interview with William Ouchi." Academy of Management

Executives.18 (4): 108-117.

Daft, R. (2004). "Theory Z: Opening the Corporate Door for Participative Management."

Academy of Management Executives. 18 (4): 117-22.

Psychological the Most Creative Person
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Portfolio: Patients who express suicidal ideation should always be taken seriously. I have read that the greatest risk factor for suicide in previous attempts. Sometimes suicide can be considered a cry for help, and everyone who expresses some time of suicidal ideation deserves evaluation.

Question 14.2

The form of psychotherapy I find the most appealing is the cognitive behavioral approach. It appeals to me since the focus if reparative and based on a desire to change one's behaviors which contribute to the problem which prompted therapy in the first place. Patients who engage in cognitive behavioral therapy require a certain degree of insight into how their behaviors contribute to their own emotions or feelings. The interaction of mind and body can be especially telling; many psychological disorders have physical manifestations and conversely, many chronic medical problems can also manifest emotional symptoms. Cognitive behavioral therapy allows the individual to recognize patterns…

Reference:

Moscicki EK. Identification of suicide risk factors using epidemiologic studies. Psychiatr Clin North Am 1997; 20:499-517.

Bushman BJ, Peterson WC, Bonacci EA, Vasquez EA, Miller N. (2005) Chewing on it Can Chew You Up: Effects of Rumination on Triggered Displaced Aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Copyright 2005 by the American Psychological Association. Vol. 88, No. 6, 969-983

Caprara, G.V., Barbaranelli, C., & Comrey, a.L. (1992). A personological approach to the study of aggression. Personality and Individual Differences,

Psychological Perspectives Three of the
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For example, behaviorism can explain the "fight and flight" response. Psychodynamics can shed light on some of the least understood aspects of the human experience: our dreams. Moreover, psychodynamics can help individuals understand behavior that is not motivated by stimuli but rather by instinctual desires. Finally, the humanistic perspective addresses the emotional and spiritual aspects of human existence and can shed light on the quest for individual expression, creativity, and spiritual awareness.

Each of these schools of thought can apply to certain populations better than others. For example, the humanistic perspective would be weak when trying to study infants or very young children but would be more useful to study adults. Similarly, psychodynamics applies more readily to adults than to young children. Behaviorism can apply to all populations in theory, but regarding stimuli-response, behaviorism can be best applied to understanding infant behaviors.

Psychological Testing
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Psychological Testing

Psychological tests are commonly used to establish individual capabilities and characteristics. Such inference is derived as a result of collecting, integrating and interpreting information about a person (Marnat, 2009). It constitutes measuring variables through the use of procedures and devices crafted to demonstrate a person's behavior (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2009). Assessment of personality is, ideally, the measuring and evaluating of psychological aspects such as one's values, states, world view, personal identity, acculturation, behavior styles, sense of humor and the related characteristics of an individual (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2009). Personality tests are designed to determine the character of a human being or their disposition. The initial personality tests were designed to examine and predict disorders of clinical nature. The tests are still useful today and are applied to determine cases in need of counseling. The latest personality tests are used to measure normal characteristics (Miller, Mclntire, & Lovler, 2011).…

References

Cattell, H. E., & Mead, A. D. (2008). The sixteen-personality factor questionnaire (16PF). The SAGE handbook of personality theory and assessment, 2, 135-178.

Cohen, R. & Swerdlik, M. (2009). Psychological testing and assessment (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Friedman, M. (1996). Type A Behavior: Its Diagnosis and Treatment. New York: Plenum Press (Kluwer Academic Press)

Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment. John Wiley & Sons.

Theory Guided Practice and Nursing
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Theory-Guided Practice
A relationship exists between theories, research, practical application, and education. The latter three, in fact, ought to be directed by the former. Further, research works inform education as well as practical application through offering evidences for nursing instruction- and care provision- related best practices. Education forms the context for learning. Educators need to base their teaching on scholarly evidences in the areas of learning/teaching, learning/teaching theories, and practice arena requirements. Practice contexts are where learners are taught, patients are provided evidence-based care, and nurses acquire experiences to aid them in formulating novel nursing theories and topics for future studies. Theory is the foundation for: 
· How to learn and teach nursing concepts like nursing theories, brain-based education, neurocognitive studies, principles/frameworks, learning approaches, adult learning models, and educational models.
· How to frame researches and understand findings within professional settings, and how to develop the profession for ensuring most…

Psychological Perspectives - Evolutionary Psychology
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Evolutionary psychologists therefore explain current human behaviors, especially instinctive ones, in terms of adaptive successes. A baby would feel safer in the secure space of a crib rather than an expansive lawn. A small fluffy mouse initially presents no threat, as our human ancestors likely preyed on smaller animals. Loud noises, however, can mean danger, so a child instinctively cries in alarm.

Cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychologists look at the internal mental processes that enable humans to learn skills such as languages, memory and problem solving. Notive cognitive psychologist Jean Piaget believed that humans go through different stages of cognitive development, and each stage should be marked by the acquisition of certain skills. In the Sensorimotor stage, which last from birth through two years old, babies learn to move and master their different senses. At the preoperational stage, from ages two to seven, a child should master motor skills such as…

Works Cited

Baum, W. 2005. Understanding behaviorism: Behavior, Culture and Evolution. New York: Blackwell.

Tavris, C. And Wade, C. 2000. Psychology in Perspective. New York: Prentice Hall.

Psychological Counseling Session for Wile
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Likewise, it seems that the patient may also have sublimated repressed his anger at and maybe a perpetual rivalry with at his father by dedicating his entire life to achieving the one accomplishment that his neither his father nor any of his siblings ever achieved: catching a road runner.

Furthermore, it would seem that the patient is mainly driven by ego-based issues; specifically, he has devoted his life to fulfilling the definitions established by his father and family of origin of personal worth. Consequently, he has over-valued the goal of catching the road runner far beyond its actual worth as a meal. The fact that much of the ridicule to which he was exposed during his psychosocial developmental stages occurred during the anal phase is consistent with his rigid focus and his obsession with perfection in the form of the achievement of a hunting goal.

The patient has also apparently…

Psychological Counseling Interview Counselor Tom
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Okay?

Client: Thank you Christina, I look forward to seeing you next week.

Zal (1990, p. 136) states that it can indeed be a very fragile and emotionally battered individual that comes to your office for evaluation. An adequate treatment plan for panic disorder must therefore comprise many specific aspects. The first of course is to make the diagnosis and share it confidently and directly with the patient. As the first person to encounter the patient with some understanding of his or her symptoms, you are in a unique position to do an enormous therapeutic service by giving them a clear, precise definition of their illness and once and for all showing them that their symptoms have meaning. Let them know that it is only since 1980 that panic disorder has a name and that it is only during this decade that even psychiatry is beginning to understand this malady.…

References www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100339937

Austrian, S.G. (2000). Mental Disorders, Medications, and Clinical Social Work. New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved October 4, 2005, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100339938  www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=85908719

Barber, J.P. & Crits-Christoph, P. (Eds.). (1995). Dynamic Therapies for Psychiatric Disorders: Axis I. New York: Basic Books. Retrieved October 4, 2005, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=85908721  www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6960620

Beck, A.T., Emery, G., & Greenberg, R.L. (1985). Anxiety Disorders and Phobias A Cognitive Perspective. New York: Basic Books. Retrieved October 4, 2005, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6960620  www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=8992037

Craske, M.G. (1999). Anxiety Disorders: Psychological Approaches to Theory and Treatment. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Retrieved October 4, 2005, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=8992037  www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=85933111

Psychological View of Investment &
Words: 1828 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44339313
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" (Grabel, 2004) Good institutions serve as the basis for economic growth due to right market-based and market-guided incentives being created which include those stated in this study and specifically: (1) rule of law; (2) competitive markets; (3) low taxation (4) noninflationary monetary policies; and (5) free trade. (2002) Good institutions serve to "Foster other cultural patterns of conduct, hard work, savings and industriousness, honesty and trustworthiness, creativity, and self-responsibility. These are the bases of the wealth of nations." (Easterly, 2002; as cited in: Ebeling, 2002) These tools are helpful in avoiding and mitigating economic risks in development.

ibliography

Easterly, W (2002) the Elusive Quest for Growth: An Economists Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics (Cambridge, MIT Press) Chapter 2

Krueger, a.O (1998) Why Trade Liberalization Is good for Growth, Economic Journal 108

Demetriades, P. And Hussein, K.A (1996) Does Financial Development Cause Economic Growth? Time-Series Evidence From 16 Countries,…

Bibliography

Easterly, W (2002) the Elusive Quest for Growth: An Economists Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics (Cambridge, MIT Press) Chapter 2

Krueger, a.O (1998) Why Trade Liberalization Is good for Growth, Economic Journal 108

Demetriades, P. And Hussein, K.A (1996) Does Financial Development Cause Economic Growth? Time-Series Evidence From 16 Countries, Journal of Development Economics 51, pp387-411.

Grabel, I. (2003) International Private Capital Flows and Developing Countries, in H-J. Chang (ed.) Rethinking Development Economics, London: Anthem Press.

Criminology Biological Sociological and Psychological
Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 52134365
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This is the foundation of the psychiatric classification of antisocial personality disorder. obins also thought that antisocial personality is evident early in life and that it tends to persevere from childhood to adulthood, with dissimilar behavioral demonstrations (Farrington, 2002).

Normally, psychological theories often comprise motivational, inhibiting, decision-making, and learning processes. The most ordinary motivational notion is that individuals, particularly kids are naturally self-indulgent and self-centered, looking for pleasure and staying away from pain, and thus that kids are naturally antisocial. Another characteristic notion is that individuals are provoked to uphold an optimal level of stimulation. If their level falls below the best, they will try to augment it, while if it is above the best they will try to reduce it (Farrington, 2002).

Sociological theories put forth that crime is caused by anomie or the dissociation of the person from the shared conscience. This can happen by social disorganization; by…

Self and Personality Theories Ethics
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The causes of human actions and behavior are generally sought for in the psyche of the individual or in the social environment.

eferences

Ewen obert B. ( 1998) An Introduction to Theories of Personality. 5th ed. Mahwah,

NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Boeree C. ABAHAM MASLOW: 1908 -1970. etrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html

Guy T.M. (2004) Freud's Theory of Culture: Eros, Loss, and Politics. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology; 3/22/2004. etrieved from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-125869018.html

Jantzen, Grace M.(2004) Death and the Displacement of Beauty. New York: outledge.

McKeachie W. And Doyle C. ( 1971) Psychology. New York: Addison-Wesley.

athna I. Ethics in the practice of clinical psychology. etrieved from http://www.issuesinmedicalethics.org/172ar69.html

oth. M. Conflict and Culture. etrieved from http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/9810/freud.html

Strachey, James, ed. (1961) Civilization and Its Discontents. 1st ed. New York W.W. Norton.

The Final Struggle and Victory of Science - Pinel and Tuke. etrieved from http://www.cscs.umich.edu/~crshalizi/White/insanity/pinel.html

The Genetic Self. etrieved from http://www.trans4mind.com/transformation/transform7.1.htm

The Scope Of Psychology.…

References

Ewen Robert B. ( 1998) An Introduction to Theories of Personality. 5th ed. Mahwah,

NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Boeree C. ABRAHAM MASLOW: 1908 -1970. Retrieved from  http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html 

Guy T.M. (2004) Freud's Theory of Culture: Eros, Loss, and Politics. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology; 3/22/2004. Retrieved from  http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-125869018.html

Motivation Many Psychologists Have Put Forward Theories
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Motivation

Many psychologists have put forward theories to advance the concept of motivation. Some of the psychological theories and models that explain motivation include incentive theory, drive theory, self-control model, push and pull model, intrinsic and extrinsic model, and rational motivations among others. Motivation stems from a number of sources, which dictate the way a person acts. It is paramount to note that motivation is one of the greatest determinants of motivation, and one can tell the level of motivation of a person through the way one behaves. The discussion below is an insight into this concept for a better understanding of motivation.

Motivation is a term in psychology that is hard to define; a number of theories have different views of motivation. These views of motivation include drive theories, incentive theories, and homeostasis, and one can draw a common definition of motivation from these views (Kalat, 2011). According to…

References

Bernstein, D.A. (2007). Psychology. Boston, Mass: Houghton Mifflin.

Dinibutun, S.R. (2012). Managing Effective Motivation. GSTF Journal on Business Review, 1(4). Retrieved from http://dl.globalstf.org/index.php?page=shop.product_details&flypage=flypage_images.tpl&product_id=1671&category_id=73&option=com_virtuemart&Itemid=4

Kalat, J.W. (2011). Introduction to psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Katzenbach, J.R. (2006). Motivation beyond money: Learning from peak performers. Leader to Leader, 2006(41), 59-62. Retrieved from  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=22223121&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Etiology of Theories on Addiction
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Etiology of Theories on Addiction

There are different sorts of addictions and substance abuse methods that plague the world today. However, in order to cure an addiction, one needs to go down to its root cause, and eliminate it, after which the damages caused can be mitigated and prevented. There are several theories and approaches to tackle an addiction problem. Most trained professionals use these theories in their treatment plan to get a better understanding of when and how the addiction came into being. After which, along with therapy, counseling and medication, the road to recovery can begin.

Medical etiology is the study of causes of an illness or any psychological condition. When a diseases is uncovered which the doctors are unable to explain and understand, an etiologist is responsible for determining the reason for its origin and being (Alcoholism, 2005). In this manner, the etiologist and the doctors are…

Bibliography

Alcoholism, N.I. (2005). Module 2: Etiology and Natural History of Alcoholism. National Institute of on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

O' Farrell, T., & Fals-Stewart, W. (1999). Treatment models and methods: Family models. New York: Oxford University Press.

Sheehan, T., & Owen, P. (1999). Addictions: A comprehensive guidebook. New York: Oxford University Press.

Applying Activity Theory to Ones Life
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Psychological Aspects of Aging

Activity theory is a psychological theory that could be used to explain successful aging. It holds that the more active a person is as he or she ages, the more likely that individual is to be happier and age without difficulty (Martin, Kelly, Kahana et al., 2015). This theory would apply to Helen's case because part of what would allow her to age successfully is to be active and continuously engaged with something -- whether it is a hobby, friendships, or problem-solving. The key is to be active in mind and body. This pursuit is not really equal to watching television, which is a passive activity rather than an active one.

The strategy of active theory holds that those who age successfully do so because they have trained the minds and bodies over the years to be productive, which staves off the broke down of unused…

Scientific Theory in Scientific Investigation
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Once again, time is an indicator. When a significant amount of evidence for a theory is readily available, the theory tends to be older and concomitantly more accepted by the scientific community. If there are significant gaps in the evidence, the theory can benefit from further investigation.

The same is true of the complexity level of the theory is not very high. More components can then be added by further investigation.

A theory can also be evaluated according to its ability to serve as an indicator of future phenomena. This makes a theory applicable to further scientific investigation, and furthermore also allow for further development in the theory itself. If the theory is for example a consistently accurate predictor of future events or phenomena, it can be viewed as valid. If it however proves inaccurate in one or some of its predictions, further evidence and modifications will be necessary.

Furthermore,…

Sources

BBC. Science and Nature: What is psychology? Oct, 2008.  http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/articles/psychology/what_is_psychology.shtml 

Carter, J. Stein. The Scientific Method. Nov. 4, 2004. http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Courses/bio104/sci_meth.htm

Theory Evaluation. 2008.  http://arti.vub.ac.be/memos/AI-Memo-93-07/subsubsectionstar4_2_3.html 

Wilson, Jerry. Scientific Laws, Hypotheses, and Theories. 2007.  http://www.wilstar.com/theories.htm

Carl Rogers' Theory of Personality Compared to
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Carl ogers' Theory of Personality Compared to Those of Erik Erikson?

Over the past century or so, a number of psychological theorists have provided new ways of understanding human development over the lifespan, including Carl ogers, Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Although these theorists share some common views concerning how people develop over time, they differ in other ways with regards to what forces tend to be the most salient at different periods and how therapists should approach helping others resolve the problems they inevitably encounter along the way. To determine what ogers, Erikson and Piaget share in common and how they differ, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning these theorists, followed by a personal reflections analysis. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.

eview and Analysis

Carl ogers

Best known for his person-centered approach to counseling, Carl ogers was…

References

Comstock, Dana L., Tonya R. Hammer, Julie Strentzsch, Kristi Cannon, Jacqueline Parsons and Ii Gustavo Salazar (2008), "Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging

Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies." Journal of Counseling and Development, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 279-281.

DeCarvalho, Roy J. (1999), The Founders of Humanistic Psychology. New York: Praeger.

Demorest, Amy (2005), Psychology's Grand Theorists: How Personal Experiences Shaped

Falsifiability in Psychological Science for
Words: 1416 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48012793
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However, psychology, even scientific psychology, presents falsifiability challenges not evident in the natural scientists. Some scientists might argue that Freud has been shown to be a poor theorist, given what has been revealed about the brain since Popper's day. If a depressive shows no improvement after years of Freudian therapy, but does show improvement after taking Prozac, that could be said to prove Freud wrong. Unfortunately, so many other external factors can affect a person's mood it is hard to attribute a single cause to a person's remission. It could be the drug or other conditions in the individual's environment. While large drug trials try to use large sample sizes as a way of reducing the influence of extraneous variables as well as use control groups who receive a placebo, the less observable and testable the phenomenon, the more difficult it is to measure. Even attempts to demonstrate improvement of…

References

Cohen, Patricia. (2007). Freud is widely taught at universities, except in the psychology department. The New York Times. Retrieved April 3, 2010 at  http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/25/weekinreview/25cohen.htm 

Good and bad theories. (2007, April 27). On Philosophy. Retrieved April 2, 2010 at  http://onphilosophy.wordpress.com/2007/04/27/good-and-bad-theories/ 

Lutus, Paul. (2009, May 12). Is psychology a science? Retrieved April 2, 2010 at  http://www.arachnoid.com/psychology/ 

Marian, Lucian. (2008). Falsifiability. Debunking primal therapy. Retrieved April 2, 2010 at http://debunkingprimaltherapy.com/3_falsifiability-testable/

How Have Psychologists Revisited Freud's Theory of Repression
Words: 2910 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90202356
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Freud's Theory Of Repression

Freud is popularly known as the father of psychoanalysis and the idea of psychological repression of memories and urges, even though he was neither the first psychoanalyst or even the first to posit the existence of repression. His justifiable fame comes both from the way he popularized psychoanalysis, and from his further development of its theories. He is commonly attributed with creating the theory of the conscious and subconscious, of the many sexual complexes and drives which run our lives and our subconscious, and with the idea that things which are not socially acceptable will be hidden away within the subconscious. Freud called this process of burying the unacceptable aspects of life away into the subconscious regression, which he was to eventually succinctly defined thus: "the essence of repression lies simply in the function of rejecting and keeping something out of consciousness." (Rieff, 147) It is…

Bibliography." August 8, 2004.  http://www.usd.edu/~tgannon/jungbio.html 

Matson, Floyd. "Humanistic theory: the third revolution in psychology" The Humanist, March/April 1971. August 8,. 2004 http://web.isp.cz/jcrane/IB/Humcrit.html

Slater, Lauren. "Why Is Repression Possibly Better Than Your Therapist?" New York Times, 23 Feb 2003. August 8, 2004.  http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/23/magazine/23REPRESSION.htm 

Rieff, P. (Ed.) Freud: General Psychological Theory. New York: Collier, 1963

Webster, Richard. Excerpts from Why Freud was Wrong: Sin, Science and Psychoanalysis (1995). August 8, 2004.  http://www.richardwebster.com

Behavioral and Cognitive Behavioral Theories
Words: 2290 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 71659198
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Behavioral and Cognitive Behavioral Theories

Psychodynamic and Cognitive Behavioral Theories

In this paper, there is going to an examination of Cognitive Behavioral and Psychodynamic theories. This is accomplished by focusing on: the two theories, their theoretical concepts, micro skills / techniques and a summary of these ideas. These elements will show how each one can address issues impacting the patient and the long-term effects upon them.

In the world of psychology, there are different theories which are used to explain how someone reacts to various stimuli. The result is that there has been contrasting ideas about the best way to understand human behavior. Two schools of thought which are very popular are the psychodynamic and cognitive behavioral approaches. (Okun, 2008)

To fully understand them requires examining each one. This will be accomplished by focusing on the two theories, their theoretical concepts, micro skills / techniques and a summary of these…

References

Larson, P. (2012). How Important is an Understanding of the Clients Early Attachments. Counseling Psychology Review, 27 (1), 10 -- 18.

Lucia, M. (2012). Therapeutic Activities and Psychological Interventions. Counseling and Psychotherapy Research, 12 (2), 118 -- 127.

Okun, B. (2008). Effective Helping: Interviewing and Counseling Techniques. New York, NY: Brooks and Cole.

Parpottis, P. (2012). Working with the Therapeutic Relationship. Counseling Psychology Review, 27 (3), 91-97

Group Dynamic Concepts Theories and
Words: 1526 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1014634
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Yet the film ends on an optimistic, even triumphant note, with the raised hand of Bender symbolizing victory over the stereotypes subject to which the characters began the film.

Conclusion

The film "The Breakfast Club" contains myriad examples of group dynamics at play. Doing a close reading of the film was valuable in that it provided insight into how narratives can be shaped by psychological principles. In dissecting the actions of the film's principal characters, it became apparent that the filmmakers were not simply trying to create a plotline that would entertain a mass audience. The film also integrates psychological inquiry into its teenaged protagonists. Each character is given a back story which motivates his or her behavior and later undergoes a realization of his or her flaws in order to make a change. The film goes beyond just a high school narrative; it is about how to break free…

References

Aronoff, J., & Wilson, J.P. (1985). Personality in the social process. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum

Associates.

Golembiewski, R.T. (Ed.) (2000). Handbook of organizational consultation. New York, NY:

Marcel Dekker.

Biological Biosocial Classical Theories Biological
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Biological explanations, in contrast to fair and severe punishment as advocated by classical theorists, stress the need for institutionalization and psychological and medical treatment for the 'ill,' but they also offers what seems like a defeatist attitude towards the improvement of the criminal, as the criminal has no rational choice in his or her behavior. The presumption is that irrationally generated behavior cannot be conditioned out of the individual through incarceration, and criminality must be treated like an illness, although opinions differ as to the best way to go about treating the individual so the criminal is 'cured' of the crime, or if a cure is even possible.

However, biosocial theories suggest that society plays an important role in causing crime, such as social learning theory: "Some children are raised in families in which violence is used as a means to achieve desires. Abusive parents model to their children that…

Works Cited

Greek, Cecil. (2005). "Criminological Theory." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at  http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/lectures.htm 

Keel, Robert. (12 Feb 2007). "Biological and Psychological Theories of Deviance." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at  http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/biotheor.html 

Keel, Robert. (12 Feb 2007). "Theories of Deviance." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at  http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/devtheor.html

Nursing Theory Framework
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Nursing Theory Framework

Attachment Theory

ecognizing Addiction through Attachment Theory

Affect egulation and Addiction

Handling Addiction as an Attachment Disorder

The First Phase of Therapy

Concepts

Autonomy

Beneficence

Nonmaleficence

Nursing Theory Framework

The misappropriation of prescription drugs by teens in the United States is a growing public health issue. Using a nursing theory framework, the scope of the problem of prescription drug use among teens is reviewed. Equal in variety to manifestations of addiction are sundry psychological theories that attempt to explain and treat the problem. Hardy (2011) was able to look into four traditional models for recognizing alcoholism (social learning theory, tension reduction theory, personality theory, and interactional theory,) in addition to five theoretical models that were developing at the time of their writing.

An approach to treating and understanding addiction that has created a huge amount of research in current decades, and which displays big promise for effective…

References

Caplan, J.P. (2012). Neuropsychiatric effects of prescription drug abuse. Neuropsychology Review, 17(3), 363-80.

Elkashef, A.M. (2012). Prevention and treatment of addiction. Psychiatric Times, 16-18.

Fischer, B.P. (n.d.). Assessing the prevalence of nonmedical prescription opioid use in the general canadian population: Methodological issues and questions. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55(9), 606-9.

Flores, P.J. (2012). Group psychotherapy and neuro-plasticity: An attachment theory perspective. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 60(4), 546-70.

Scientific Theory in Psychology the
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So, just as the concept of Right has to have Wrong as its counterpart to be a truth, so does theory need evidence. Science is a method of understanding, it is an understanding of what exists, what we can determine that we know about these things, and the method by which we go about achieving that understanding. Thus, without evidence on either side of the theory, there can be no support for the theory therefore making that theory non-scientific.

The evaluation of a theory is the identification of the type of theory it is. Much like theories themselves that set out a parameter of evaluation of a measurable prediction about a particular behavior or set of behaviors, theory evaluation is the determination of the validity, structure, and use of the theory itself. Theories have two dimensions: parasitical (its reliance on other theories) and operationalizable (interpretations of the theory). The less…

Communication Theory
Words: 2156 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8636037
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media equation theory and its applications. The author of this paper uses the movie The Truman Show to develop an understanding for the reader of what the Media Equation Theory is and how it can be applied to media examples such as the movie. There were six sources used to complete this paper. The paper is in MLA format.

MEDIA THEORY IN PRACTICE

The technological explosion of the last three decades has taken us to places we never dreamed before were possible. ith each passing year, the technology becomes more linked to human thought and emotions than ever before. Today, there are studies being conducted worldwide to understand the phenomena of people treating their media tools in the same manner that their human interactions are treated. For several years, the habits and protocol of people who work with these questions have been narrowly defined by the rigid demands of research…

WORKS CITED

Reeves, Byron. Nass. Clifford. The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers, Television, and New Media Like Real People and Places (C SLI Publications 1997)

This source was a major source for the paper in that it explains the theory itself as well as applies it to several real life media scenarios. The highlights detail the belief of the authors tht we are becoming more ingrained with media tools than ever before and assigning them human like qualities.

Luskin, Bernard J., Toward an understanding of media psychology. (educational CDs) (Technology Information). Vol. 23, THE Journal (Technological Horizons In Education), 02-01-1996, pp 82(3).

This source was a solid source of information for the paper. Its highlights included the discussion of media psychology and the way humans today, interact and feel about their media tools. Many of the facts presented in the paper dovetail with the belief we are integrating more and more with media as if it has feelings, intellect and emotions. The source was viable for the foundational explanation of the theory itself.

Travis H's Theories Controlling Chaos
Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 44246122
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There are five techniques of neutralization; denial of responsibility, denial of injury, denial of victim, condemnation of the condemners, and the appeal to higher loyalties" (David Matza, 1998, FSU).

These theories stress the need for strong social and personal control mechanisms to be instilled in young people early on in their lives, so that individuals have a strong super-ego to control their actions and thwart social influences that encourage a denial of personal responsibility and the reality of the victim's suffering. A good example of this is the DAE (Drug Abuse esistance Education) program run by law enforcement to encourage children not to use drugs. The law enforcement officials are supposed to present a positive image of the law to young people, and encourage youths to take responsibility for their actions and resist peer pressure to use drugs -- appealing to the 'higher loyalties' often absent amongst drug users, according…

References

David Matza. (1998, November 30). FSU. Retrieved June 9, 2011 at  http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/matza.htm 

Gottfredson, Michael R. & Travis Hirschi. (2011). A general theory of crime. Stanford University Press. Retrieved June 9, 2011 at  http://www.sup.org/book.cgi?id=2686 

No Excuse for Peer Abuse. (2011). Anti-Bullying Programs. Retrieved June 9, 2011 at http://antibullyingprograms.org/Programs.html

Welch, Kelly. (1998, November 30). Two major theories of Travis Hirschi. FSU.

biological theories of crime
Words: 1593 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13502099
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.....biological well-being and the features of the environment and how these affect a person's behavior and criminal tendencies is made clear by biological theories. Research has proved that the common traits and actions seen in criminals like delusion, brutality, loneliness and spontaneity are a function of several biological features such as physical problems, blood glucose levels and eating habits, external head damage, mental function and makeup, heredity, body systems and impaired mental function. The supporters of this theory believe that the biological insight into conventional actions of criminal minds give more effective tools, mechanisms, beliefs and examples which can work smoothly with the normal anticrime systems in keeping up their work quality.

The basic belief of the study targeted at biological makeup and criminality is that there is a connection between delusion, brutality, loneliness and spontaneity and crime. Several studies apply their own developed methods and parameters, a trend which…

Social Cognitive Theory it Is
Words: 317 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90048761
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Indeed, his model includes the entire range of human experience and its effect upon behavior, while at the same time explicating it without being excessively confusing.

To accomplish this is a rare feat indeed. Bandura appears to have accomplished the difficult task of explaining the complex nature of human behavior in a non-complex way. This is what makes his theory so fascinating. It shows the reader the different aspects of human behavior as well as the various elements that can influence it. At the core of the theory lies the understanding that human behavior is affected by both external and internal factors, and how these interact with each other.

Having read the article and the various aspects of the theory, it is therefore not surprising to find at the end that the theory has many useful applications in the healthcare field, and in particular in studying how children develop.

Psychology Objectification Theory Refers to
Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9093480
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Third, certain circumstances are more likely to prompt self-objectification than others. These experiments confirmed that trying on a swimsuit is one of these circumstances. This circumstance appears to lead to a sense of being on display even though no actual observers were present. Data from the manipulation check suggested that wearing the swimsuit reduced the person's to feeling that they were nothing more than their body. Trying on swimwear led females to feel embarrassment and repulsion, while this identical circumstance led men to experience bashful and ridiculous thoughts. Shame has been thought to a failure to obtain moral standards. The researchers interpreted the increased shame felt by women as representing the increased cultural strains put on women to adhere to physical beauty standards.

Inducing state self-objectification also reduced math performance only for women, which was consistent with the prediction, that self objectification consume mental assets. The performance decrement established here…

References

Fredrickson, Barbara L. (1998). That swimsuit Becomes You: Sex Differences in Self-

Objectification, Restrained Eating, and Math Performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(1), pg. 269-284.

Borrowed Theory Can Be Useful in Understanding
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borrowed theory can be useful in understanding nursing problems and trials. This essay will broach the problem listed in previous submissions by applying a new theoretical model to the problem. This essay will use a borrowed theory from another discipline in order to measure its effectiveness and importance within the nursing and medical professions.

Problem Summary With Middle Theory

The original problem identified at my hospital saw the patient satisfaction scores becoming more and more poor, as the nursing and caring aspects of this practice on my ward has been in bad shape. A useful middle theory was applied to help understand this problem. Benner's learning theory was applied in this case to help understand how nurses may or may not learn new behaviors. These behaviors would take shape in new practices that would be enforced by new learning and new rules.

Benner's theory explained how professionals, such as nursing…

References

Benner, P. (1982). Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. The American Journal of Nursing, 82(3), 402-407.

Maslow, A.H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological review,50(4), 370.

Sociological Psychological and Biological Theories of Criminals
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biological theories, sociological theories, and psychological theories of crime.

Biological explanations of criminal behavior

Lombroso's Theory dates back to the late 1800s, and is not widely accepted today. Lombroso believed that a person's body type and constitution can tell a researcher whether or not the person is "a born criminal" (Crossman, 2011). Lombroso believed that criminals inherited their deviance, and that the body type of a person, if it resembled "primitive men," meant that individual was a criminal through a biological connection.

Typically, Lombroso believed that if a person had five or more characteristics from this list (" ... large monkey-like ears, large lips, a twisted nose, excessive cheekbones, long arms, and excessive wrinkles on the skin") then that individual would likely be a "born criminal" (Crossman, p. 1). Females, according to Lombroso, needed just three of these characteristics to qualify as a "born criminal."

Another biological crime theory comes…

Works Cited

Crossman, A. (2011). Biological Explanations of Deviant Behavior. About.com.

Retrieved November 21, 2015, from  http://sociology.about.com .

Jrank. (2010). Crime Causation: Sociological Theories -- Labeling Theory / Social Learning.

Theory. Retrieved November 21, 2015, from  http://law.jrank.org .

Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality
Words: 2499 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68113769
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Personality Psych Analysis of Tony Soprano
Psychodynamic Theory
Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality
Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality makes the argument that human behavior is resultant of the interrelations amongst three constituent parts of the mind including the id, ego, and superego (Petocz, 1999). This theory of personality lays substantial significance of the manner in which conflict, more often than not unconscious, amongst the areas of the mind end up shaping an individual’s behavior and personality. The Id deals with instantaneous satisfaction of basic physical needs and desires and it functions completely unconsciously. The Superego takes into account social rules and morals, and is largely referred to as a person’s conscience. The Superego develops as a child progressively learns what is deemed to be right or wrong. Lastly, the ego, unlike the instinctive Id and the ethical superego, the Ego is the sensible, realistic part of an individual’s personality…

Criminal Theory - Operational Implementation
Words: 1089 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38364082
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In terms of correctional program implementation, operant conditioning principles provide the basis for motivating cooperation and other desirable behaviors (including reduction of undesirable behaviors) in a quid pro quo arrangement. Typical examples of operational implementation of operant conditioning would include so-called "token economies" and other bilateral agreements, arrangements, or understandings that certain desired behaviors provide specific rewards (Van Voorhis 2007). Operant conditioning principles are particularly useful in parenting, such as between teenagers rewarded with late weekend curfews for good grades; it is also a proven method of increasing inmate compliance within correctional institutions where good behavior is rewarded with increased privileges and undesirable behaviors are punished through privilege reduction (Spiegler & Guevremont 1993). Generally, the most important fundamental element of successful implementation of operant conditioning principles in behavior modification is the gradual phasing out of the reward-based motivation for compliance (Van Voorhis 2007). The goal of any such operational conditioning-based…

REFERENCES

Gerrig, R.J., Zimbardo, P.G. (2005) Psychology and Life. New York: Pearson

Goldstein, Glick, and Gibbs. (1986) Aggression Replacement Training, pp 1-68

Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon

Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Story of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercus

Theory and Practice
Words: 1112 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96528828
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As the sessions proceeded, the therapist debriefed the client with the aim of de-escalating her psychologically. This enabled the client to explore and express a feeling of guilt and perception that she had failed to give her best to maintain her job. During the debriefing process, it was evident that the client believed that she was responsible for her job loss. She had been experiencing notable difficulties maintaining concentration and sleeping. Ultimately, this led to significant distress in social function.

After a week, the client reported to the therapist that she felt that she was not alone in the first time. As a result, she reported that she no longer needed the sedative medication, but remained compliant to the prescribed medication. After a while, the client related her belief in her ability to apply for new job opportunities. It is evident that the client's experience achieved the diagnostic criteria for…

References

Hillman, J.L. (2012). Crisis intervention and trauma counseling: New approaches to evidence-based practice. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Wainrib, B.R., & Bloch, E.L. (2008). Crisis intervention and trauma response: Theory and practice. New York: Springer.

Ziegler, S.M. (2010). Theory-directed nursing practice. New York: Springer Pub. Co.

Theory -- Horotwitz & Bartholomew
Words: 4058 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 33183152
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c. Other theorists (Modern Attachment Theories)

Upon the establishment and strengthening of Bowlby and Ainsworth's Attachment Theory, other theorists have developed new studies which either tested the theory or sought to apply it in different contexts or scenarios. Inevitably, most scenarios and contexts that new theorists and psychology researchers took is the path to explaining grief and bereavement. Others, however, have centered on specific aspects of the theory and sought to expound and/or test it, as Ainsworth did when Bowlby was still in the process of strengthening his attachment theory.

One such study was conducted by Schore and Schore (2008), which explored the emotion regulation aspect of the theory. In their study, the authors realized the potential of attachment theory in developing a "therapeutic intervention" from which coping on the loss of the attachment figure would be a healthier process for the individual. The authors shifted from the issue of…

References

Ainsworth, M. (1984). "Attachment across the life span." Bulletin of New York Academy of Medicine.

Ainsworth, M. And J. Bowlby. (1991). "An ethological approach to personality development." American Psychologist, Vol. 46, No. 4.

Bartholomew, K. And L. Horowitz. (1991). "Attachment styles among young adults: a test of a four-category model." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 61, No. 2.

Bartholomew, K. And P. Shaver. (1998). In Attachment theory and close relationships. J. Simpson and W. Rholes (Eds.). NY: Guilford Press.

Psychological Disengagement
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ace and Academic Disengagement

Psychological Disengagement

Psychological disengagement represents a coping mechanism that preserves a person's sense of self-worth in the face of negative feedback. For example, a student may discount a bad grade on an exam by framing it as an aberration, thereby preserving a 'good student' self-identity. Employing this coping mechanism has specific advantages, such as allowing the student to be persistent about achieving academic success despite receiving negative feedback (Nussbaum and Steele, 2007). On the other hand, psychological disengagement could facilitate a student framing academic success as irrelevant to their personal goals and future. Such students tend to perform poorly in school and suffer from increased dropout rates (reviewed by Stephan, Caudroit, Boiche, and Sarrazin, 2011). In contrast, students who are academically successful tend not to disengage, despite receiving a negative evaluation, and self-perceptions of their academic competency suffers accordingly. Understanding the mechanisms that encourages psychological disengagement…

References

Major, Brenda, Spencer, Steven, Schmader, Toni, and Wolfe, Connie. (1998). Coping with negative stereotypes about intellectual performance: The role of psychological disengagement. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 34-50.

Nussbaum, A. David and Steele, Claude M. (2007). Situational disengagement and persistence in the face of adversity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 127-134.

Schmader, Toni, Major, Brenda, and Gramzow, Richard, H. (2001). Coping with ethnic stereotypes in the academic domain: Perceived injustice and psychological disengagement. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 93-111.

Stephan, Yannick, Caudroit, Johan, Boiche, Julie, and Sarrazin, Philippe. (2011). Predictors of situational disengagement in the academic setting: The contribution of grades, perceived competence, and academic motivation. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 441-455.

Theory Discussed Attempt Explain a Real Criminal
Words: 1193 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65800862
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theory discussed attempt explain a real criminal crimes. Gary Ridgeway America's notorious serial killers. Your assignment analyze Ridgeway's criminal life Hans Eysenck's theory Personality.

hen considering Gary Leon Ridgway's (The Green River Killer) criminal case in the context of Hans J. Eysenck's theory on personality and crime, one is likely to observe a series of parallels between the murderer's personality and behavior and a series of events that occurred throughout his life up to the moment when he became a serial killer. Eyseneck considered that genetics plays an important role in shaping one's personality and this thus points toward the belief that Ridgway was probably influenced by biological factors when he put across criminal thinking. According to Eyseneck, individuals like Ridgway have a neurophysiologic structure that influences them to express certain attitudes when they come across particular circumstances.

hile someone might be inclined to think otherwise consequent to consulting the…

Works cited:

Hadden, B, & Luce, H.R. (2002). Time, Volume 159.

Putwain, D., & Sammons, A. (2013). Psychology and Crime. Routledge.

Marsh, I. (2006). Theories of Crime. Routledge.

Morehead, P. (2012). The Green River Serial Killer. eBookIt.com.

Theory What Are the Major Concepts of
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Theory

What are the major concepts of Ainsworth's theory?

Ainsworth's attachment theory is rooted in Bowlby's research on the bonds that develop between parent and child. Building on Bowlby's research, Ainsworth conducted a groundbreaking experiment known as the Strange Situation. esults of the Strange Situation experiment revealed three different categories of attachment styles. Ainsworth found secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment (Cherry, n.d.). Moreover, four categories of attachment style behaviors were observed. These four categories include separation anxiety, which refers to the emotional reaction to the caregiver leaving. The infant's willingness to explore in the caregiver's absence is another feature of attachment. Stranger anxiety refers to how the infant responds to strangers when the primary caregiver is absent. Finally, Ainsworth studied reunion behavior, which was how the child reacted to the return of the caregiver. Using these four parameters of attachment-related behaviors, Ainsworth developed the three primary attachment styles:…

References

Benoit, D. (2004). Infant-parent attachment. Pediatric Child Health 9(8): 541-545.

Cherry, K. (n.d.). Attachment theory. Retrieved online:  http://psychology.about.com/od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01.htm 

Fraley, R.C. (n.d.). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved online: http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htm

Main, M. & Solomon, J. (1986). Discovery of an insecure-disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern. Affective Development in Infancy. 95(124).