Discussion on "ithout a Conscience" by Robert D. Hare
The Psychopathic Characteristics
Scientific Reasons of Psychopathy
Psychopathic Behavior and Forensic Psychology
Violence and Psychopaths
Most people would be terrified as well as perhaps intrigued by the word psychopath and visualize images of cold blooded and remorseless murderers or offenders that are depicted in TV serials or films. However Dr. Robert D. Hare, arguably the most well-known researcher of psychopath, describes such people as those who essentially suffer from personality disorder but are very aware of the results of their actions and have the sense between the wrong and the right (Hare, 2011). Such people are often hardly distinguishable in common life and seem to just like anyone else in society until their cruel side shows up.
Hare discusses these aspects of dual consciousness and cruelty and violence of psychopaths knowing very well the consequences of their actions in his…… [Read More]
The need to document and classify such behavior as obsessive can lead to misdiagnosis and unlawful prosecution. The human condition itself is very psychopathic if one is to equivocate this word with an affinity for the abnormal. Human and natural evolution itself displays psychopathic behavior by demanding and requiring a break from the norm and a transcendence to the new. Crawford (2012) suggested that psycopaths have value in our society. She claimed " Not all psychopaths are violent, he says, and some of them are just the sort of people society can count on in a crisis." Lewis (2013) agreed that there are benefits to psycopathy. She revealed that "findings show that people who have psychopathic traits are flexible in their ability to cooperate with others."
Classifying such behavior as an illness arrests development and models the human condition as a robotic and predictable occurrence. Psycopathy being classified as a…… [Read More]
Should we be surprised at his attempts to try to fake mental illness?
For some, incarceration and evading law enforcement is a very normal part of life, making DV's personality very psychopathic in a general framework. To DV however, his faking is normal and routine. DV stands to benefit from lying about his mental condition in order to receive less punishment. This action seems very normal however. Most people wish to escape punishment if afforded the opportunity, and DV is no different.
This week's information about psychopath and psychopathic behavior reveals the tricky and subjective nature of individual circumstance and the mental approaches associated with those circumstances. Unfortunately blanket statements about what the harms and characteristics of psychopaths are not very useful, normalcy is too hard to pin down. Gross demonstrations of non-empathetic, selfish undertakings and willful ignorance are very commonplace in much of society and distinguishing between healthy and…… [Read More]
Sociopath or Psychopath
Psychology - Disorders
Personality disorders have been the interest of psychologists since long time. There are many personality disorders identified by the psychologists, and this paper sheds light on the most important among those disorders i.e. Psychopath and Sociopath. In general, these people use these two terms interchangeably but the fact is that these two conditions may be interrelated, but the symptoms and the behaviors of the individuals suffering from these disorders, along with the background of this disorder may be entirely different. This paper this shed light on the difference of these disorders along with pin pointing the social factors that may be involved in making or enforcing these disorders.
Sociopath or Psychopath
The issue of identifying and differentiating the difference and similarity between a sociopath and psychopath has been a debated topic since long time. Many schools of thoughts have different opinion when it comes…… [Read More]
However, violence is only one possible manifestation of psychopathology (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2009; Schmalleger, 2009). Individuals such as Bundy and Dahmer also represent the classic antisocial personality disorder which is not necessarily true of the vast majority of psychopaths, most of whom do not act out in criminally violent ways (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2009. Schmalleger, 2009).
In principle, what is most relevant about individuals like Bundy and Dahmer is not the depravity of their crimes; rather, it is the overwhelming evidence of their ability to perpetuate a completely normal, even charming, false external personality. Dahmer, while a loner, was socially skilled enough to appeal to a large number of victims and maintained a perfectly ordinary lifestyle from every other perspective (Innes, 2007; Schmalleger, 2009). Bundy, in particular, demonstrates the manner in which psychopaths can manifest very high level of social functioning and professional achievement even while violating the most basic…… [Read More]
Conscience - the Disturbing orld of the Psychopaths Among Us
ithout Conscience: The Disturbing orld of the Psychopaths among Us
In his book ithout Conscience: The Disturbing orld of the Psychopaths Among Us, Robert D. Hare (1999) focuses on not only the famous psychopaths and the criminals who have made the news, but the people who walk among "normal" society every day - at the grocery store, the bank, and everywhere else. Many of these people are very low key. They are not physically violent, but they are emotionally and financially devastating to a large number of people because they have the ability to manipulate people much more easily than the average person could do - largely because they do not have any kind of conscience holding them back from the choices that they make (Hare, 1999). ithout any conscience, they do not see right and wrong the same way…… [Read More]
The five-factor model of personality measurement is based on five preconceived and arbitrary dimensions of personality, including neuroticism vs. emotional stability, extraversion vs. introversion, openness vs. closedness, agreeableness vs. antagonism, and conscientiousness vs. disinhibition. The DSM and its adherents rely heavily on the five-factor model of personality. Although the five-factor model of personality does provide a structure and framework for evaluation and diagnosis, there are several weaknesses in its approach and limitations in its clinical applications. For one it is not culturally relevant, as these traits are often linked to social and cultural factors. Second, these factors can too easily be used to suggest a normative personality type and deviant subtypes.
The major cognitive features of paranoid personality disorder create a vicious cycle due primarily to self-fulfilling prophesy creation. A person who mistrusts others may treat others with suspicion and hostility, causing others to treat the person in kind.…… [Read More]
In the final results of their study, women psychopaths scored higher in the categories "Superficial," "deceitful," "impulsive," and "poor behavioral controls." Men scored higher on "lacks remorse," "lacks goals," "adolescent antisocial behavior," and "adult antisocial behavior." The psychopathic men and women in prison scored about the same on the Hale PCL ratings in "Grandiose," "lacks empathy," "doesn't accept responsibility," and "irresponsible."
These results and data must be understood in the context of prison environments, the authors explain. "...A higher prevalence of psychopathy is expected, since severe violence and psychopathy correlates strongly," according to the report. omen were more impulsive and had less behavior control, but the consensus among researchers is that "women generally have fewer psychopathic traits than men.
In another journal study, "Psychopathy in Adolescent Female Offenders: An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version," also published in Behavioral Sciences and the Law, the authors (Crystal…… [Read More]
The psychopath must be made to realize that his behavior is useless and disadvantageous. And the therapist should find and use a vantage point to encourage socially acceptable behavior in the psychopath. Over and above, the therapist should invest enormous patience, time and money to the whole effort. Thorne believes it will require an investment of $15,000 every year for up to 10 years to obtain satisfactory result. However, no controlled research has been undertaken on this approach. The overall investment is too great for many to embark in (Cleckley). #
Cleckley, H. (1988). The mask of sanity. Georgia C.V. Mosby Company. Retrieved on April 22, 2009 from http://www.cassiopaea.org/cass/sanito_1.pdf
Clercq, . d. (2007). Childhood antecedents of personality disorder. Current Opinion in Psychiatry: Medscape. Retrieved on April 22, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/550673
Rutter, M. (2005). What is the meaning and utility of the psychopathy concept. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology: Plenum…… [Read More]
The dependence on science to precisely label and indentify processes and facts can cause some problems within this discipline. Psychopathology, usually identified as a psychological disorder, has seen attempts to place this phenomena in a biological framework. The purpose of this essay is to discuss whether or not psychopaths are more likely to exhibit criminal behavior and what factors may contribute to such behavior. This essay will also discuss the implications of the biological and psychological contributions to this term.
Moskowitz (2011) recently reveals some results of some interesting experiments. She revealed that "overall, these studies and many more like them paint a picture of significant biological differences between people who commit serious crimes and people who do not. While not all people with antisocial personality disorder -- or even all psychopaths -- end up breaking the law, and not all criminals meet the criteria for these disorders, there…… [Read More]
The research by Mazar, Amir & Ariely (2008) shows that ordinary people often find ways they can cheat and still believe themselves to be honest. People do this by rationalizing their actions, and preserving a self-concept of honesty and integrity. Most people are willing to stretch or manipulate their moral codes under certain circumstances, particularly when they can find ways of maintaining a self-concept or project the image of being honest.
A psychopath would be theoretically less concerned with self-concept or reputation than the ordinary person. Like anyone else, psychopaths will be driven to "minimize risk to themselves," and ensure they do not get caught (Grohol, n.d.). The ordinary people in the Mazar, Amir & Ariely (2008) study likewise do not want to get caught. The psychopath might be more inclined to cheat for the sake of cheating, more often than the ordinary person who cheats primarily for things…… [Read More]
Nonetheless, Bill never hurts other people simply because he thinks that it is irrational to hurt others. He thinks that any rational person would be like him and not hurt other people. Does Bill really understand that hurting others is morally wrong? (Nichols, 2002, p. 285)."
This presents some interesting directions of thought. However, it is time to go into the relationship between serial murderers and forensic psychology as it applies to the crime scene. Ted Bundy seemed very much aware that he was committing crimes against society, certainly crimes against his victims. Berkowitz, it was argued, was more psychotic, and for that reason perhaps less aware of his actions as crimes against society or individuals. Berkowitz was known to have started more than a thousand fires, and had a history of cruelty to animals; both manifestations of deeper emotional problems (Schlesinger, 2004, p. 328). This does not make any…… [Read More]
In both cases, that label can make intervention more difficult instead of less difficult. Certainly, some types of behavioral issues are functions of immaturity or of stages of development and personality or identity experimentation. However, bona fide delinquency issues should not be excused as features of personality, largely because doing so undermines the development of personal responsibility and the realization that negative behaviors have negative consequences.
Which represents the greatest threat to society: multiple murder, workplace violence, or violent bias crimes?
It is difficult to compare the three types of crimes by listing them in order because so much depends on context. For example, violent bias crimes could include multiple murders. In general, multiple murders are relatively rare outside of environments where criminality is already at issue, such as in connection with organize crime and criminal gang rivalries. Workplace violence is comparatively rare when it comes to serious crimes such…… [Read More]
Women Stay with Sociopaths
Finding out that one's husband does not care about anybody but themselves and is a psychopath, could be among the worse things for a wife to hear, but it has happened, and it continues to happen in hundreds of relationship. The question to answer, however, is not why is this guy a sociopath, but instead, why is this woman staying with this man who is clearly in need of mental health assistance. It can be hard to imagine how a woman, after finding out horrendous things about her husband could choose to stay with him despite who she knows he truly is. This was the case with Mary Jo Buttafuoco. After she found out her husband was cheating on her with Amy Fisher, a teenager at the time, her world came tumbling down on her. The picture perfect life that she for a very long time…… [Read More]
The Shape of Things, a play by Neil LaBute, (A) expands on the central themes of society's distortional emphasis on appearances, and art as a potentially limitless and human-sculpting instrument. Linearly structured in three acts, the plot closely follows the problematic evolution of a student couple from a Midwest university. Starting as a discrepant match, Evelyn and Adam develop an oddly unequal relationship, as the former increasingly impacts major changes in the apparel and psychological onset of her partner, who complies with every single suggestion out of innocent devotion.
The public clarification scene from the third act has a great potential for theatricality due to the fact that it comes across as a bitter surprise and a ruthlessly planned humiliation, yet admittedly it challenges the cultural and ethical boundaries concerning art and the human being as object for art. The reason why a large part of the audience exhibits…… [Read More]
Criminal Law and Psychopathy
Various studies have in the past indicated that there is a high correlation between violence/criminal behavior and psychopathy. This would largely be expected given that psychological studies into the character and disposition of psychopaths has demonstrated that the need for control (or power) as well as egocentrism, which also happen to be the dominant character traits of psychopaths, are predictors for deviant or antisocial behavior. The debate on whether or not psychopaths should be held criminally responsible for their acts, and thus be subjected to criminal punishment, has been raging for a long time. On one side of the debate are legal scholars, lawmakers, and judges who are of the opinion that psychopaths have an existing predisposition to commit crimes as a result of their lack of concern or compassion of any kind for those they hurt. Psychopathy is on this front regarded as…… [Read More]
A Case Study Involving an Individual Purported to be Psychopathic
Summary of the case
The article presents an analysis of a case involving a veteran Illinois police officer, Drew Peterson, who was arrested for murdering his third wife. Drew is suspected to have murdered his other two wives due to the influence of psychopathy. The victim of focus in the analysis shows significant symptoms that might be suggestive of psychopathy. For example, he casted publicly that his prosecution is a waste of valuable time, as he holds that he will be eventually released by the criminal justice system. In addition, analysis of his behavior shows that he has aggressive and violent behaviors as those shown by individuals suffering from psychopathy. As such, some critics of the case hold that Peterson is a perfect example of a psychopath while other considers him as a bright individual with the abilities to…… [Read More]
Virginia Tech Killings
Crime and delinquency in the Virginia tech massacre
A shooting took place on the campus of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University which is located in Blacksburg Virginia, on the 6th of April in 2007. In this shooting 32 people got killed. Later on this incident was called the Virginia Tech massacre. Even today this incident is thought of as the deadliest incident that took place in U.S. There were a number of people who were wounded by the man responsible for all this; Seung-Hui Cho. Cho committed suicide at the end of this whole incident. There were two different locations that the incidents took place at in the school and the second shooting occurred two hours after the first one. West Ambler Johnston Hall, which is a co-ed dormitory, is the place where the first incident occurred and here two people were killed by Cho. One…… [Read More]
Cases of violent children have become rampant prompting a lot of research and studies directed towards unravelling the reason behind violence, some of which are extreme at such tender ages. The author gives an example of two children who launched a violent attack in their school killing a teacher and four little girls. The motive suggested for one of the child's behavior is that he was jilted by a girl. These two children were only thirteen and eleven years old. This is quite a young age for a child to exhibit such extreme violent behaviors, they were so young yet they killed with a finely honed sense of premeditation. If I was a child psychologist like the author I would definitely be inspired by this event trying to make sure I found out the exact cause of violent behaviors as such in children who are very young. The author…… [Read More]
Psychopathology Criminal Behavior Part
What might be some of the implications for the forensic field of the differences between the "low-fear hypothesis" and the "high-impulsive" subtypes of psychopathy? In other words, how might the differences in the models help inform us about best practices for such activities as police work on the streets, interrogation methods, trial and sentencing practices, providing treatment, or evaluating recidivism risks?
In retrospect, theorists view Lykken's conceptual framework as a first step toward distinguishing between primary and secondary psychopathy (Baskins-Sommers, 2010). As theory building continues in this decade, the typology is supported by the notion of trait-like sensitivities and trait-like cognitive capacities that suggest the following implications for criminal justice procedures. Primary psychopathy is characterized by disinhibition, which is an inability to abort a dominant response, integrate socialization, or adopt alternative objectives. An individual who is considered to have primary psychopathy will fail to consider emotional…… [Read More]
In addition, the threat of being placed in an adult facility not only doesn't lower crime rates among juveniles, but increases their chances of recidivism and violent behavior (Elikann, 1999). As one critic of the current laws stated: "This country's laws recognize that juveniles are too young to drink alcohol, vote, engage in legal contracts and enter into marriage, all because they are still developing mentally and emotionally" (Bilchik, 2003). Yet today, approximately 200,000 young offenders are funneled directly into the adult court system, "the majority for property crimes and drug-related offenses" (Bilchik, 2003). Sadly, while there are situations in which even an adolescent is a "lost cause" and must be kept locked away, the great majority of cases in which juveniles are tried as adults are unnecessary and unwise (Elikann, 1999). Granted, the juvenile justice system is overloaded and needs to change, but channeling children into the adult system…… [Read More]
Alfred Hitchcok's Psycho was released in 1960, and encapsulates the social, psychological, and political tensions of the Cold ar era. As Raubicheck and Serebnick point out, Psycho could have been a bridge to the 1960s but the film is "less linked to and reflective of the so-called radical sixties than they are of the more controlled fifties and possess more cultural texture of this earlier era," (17). The issues related to gender, sexuality, and sexual repression in the film are likewise reflective of the interest in Freudian psychoanalysis that prevailed during the 1950s. Rebello points out that the popularity of Freudian psychology and theories like the Oedipus complex are played out on the screen in Psycho. Anthony Perkins's character Norman Bates is "connected with a much larger discussion, in the early Cold ar, of political and sexual deviance," (Genter 134). In Psycho, Bates becomes the archetype of the psychopath,…… [Read More]
Treatment of Criminal Offenders
As a clinician, how can you apply the knowledge you gained from this course to more effectively serve your clients?
A connection has been established by researchers between brutal and violent susceptibility to impair a particular area of the brain. Till date, several evidence, have assisted to bring into limelight the shady aspect of human attitude and might pave the way for important interference. For instance, several types of spontaneous aggression might be a result of defective balancing of emotion within the prefrontal cortex of the brain, the centre of superior intellectual activities like judgment, analysis and substantial control of impulses. The degree of malfunctions in the core circuits of the brain related to aggressive behavior and if these circuits are capable of being repaired is of course debatable. esearchers have mentioned that individuals inclined to violence have structured blueprints in the brain that can be…… [Read More]
The case of former colonel ussell Williams offers insight into the psychology of criminal behavior. Williams's confession interview was released to the public and aired on The Fifth Estate, offering criminologists, sociologists, psychologists, and law enforcement officials unique access to the mind of a criminal. Analysts interviewed for The Fifth Estate documentary note that Williams presents a conundrum for psychologists and criminologists, as his reactions to the police interview did not fit any previously known profile, such as that of a psychopath. Williams exhibits traits that resemble psychopathic behavior, in accordance with individual trait theory. For instance, he meticulously recorded his crimes and kept the photographic and video imagery as souvenir mementos.
Yet Williams also denies his right to an attorney, permits a foot imprint of his incriminating boots, and also states in the interview that he "was hoping" that he would not have raped or killed again had…… [Read More]
He is a little shy of his sexuality in the novel since it was written in 1950s when homosexuality was still found repulsive. While in the novel, ipley never admits his homosexuality, he is more confident on the same in the movie. He seems to desire Greenleaf however the same overt declaration is missing in Highsmith version. Instead of clashing, the differences of the film and novel versions seem to complement each other and you might need both to fully understand the forces that guide ipley's actions.
Tom is not the American innocent corrupted by Europe. ather, he is the image of the new American who will win against the sophistication of inherited or earned wealth and Old World education... It may be Tom's ability to flourish in a fluid world, to value both the peace of his home and the challenge of the chase that allows readers to enjoy…… [Read More]
Dexter (The television series)
There is an increase of interest in Hollywood movies and television series set to expand on crime investigation. There are arguments as to how realistic these representations on the screen are in regards to real life experiences and this is what we aim to discuss in this paper with a focus on the television series, ?Dexter, ? which is still running almost eight years after its first appearance on screen. We will be focusing on what appears more realistic in regards to how forensic science is presented in the series while also directing the focus on Hollywood's distinct trademark. We will also look at how such TV series may influence real life and affect people's expectations.
When ?Dexter, ? The television series, started airing in 2006, there already were a few other serial television shows that embedded forensic investigation. But, this time, there was something new…… [Read More]
Dennis ader, BTK Killer
There are few things in society today that horrify or fascinate us as much as serial killers. Murderers like Ted Bundy and Jeffrey Dahmer fill us with fear while also inspiring us to study them and use them as subjects of fiction. Indeed, fictional serial killer Dexter Morgan has millions of fans across the world. When examining the lives an actions of these killers, it is always interesting and shocking to see how easily they blended into their social contexts before their actions were know. A common reaction to the exposure and capture of such a serial killer is often one of disbelief, accompanied by cries to the effect that "he was such a quiet, nice person." This was also the case with Dennis Lynn ader, a serial killer who committed his first murder in 1974, but was only caught, convicted, and incarcerated in 2005.
ader…… [Read More]
She notified police and the parking ticket (because Berkowitz had parked too close to a fire hydrant) was traced to Berkowitz. But the police were just thinking that Berkowitz might be a witness; however, when the Yonkers police searched that Galaxie belonging to Berkowitz, they found a rifle and a .44 caliber Bulldog pistol -- along with detailed maps of the crime scenes that Berkowitz had created with his lust for killing women.
"hat took you so long?" Berkowitz is reported to have asked as the officers arrested him. In time during questioning, Berkowitz either played like he was mentally unbalanced -- which he of course was -- or was just rambling because he claimed that the dog he had killed was possessed by some kind of demon, and that the dog was demanding that Berkowitz go and do the killing. Other claims by Berkowitz included that he was a…… [Read More]
Psychology Discussion: Psychopathology
Read the introduction to Reading 1: Beaver, Rowland, Schwartz & Nedelec (2011). The genetic origins of psychopathic personality traits in adult males and females: Results from an adoption-based study. Journal of Criminal Justice, 39, 426-432.
Characterise psychopathy: What are the defining features?
Psychopathy is a disorder of the personality that based on three prongs of traits: affective, behavioral, and interpersonal. Perhaps because they are so striking, are observed early in a person's life, or are reliably exhibited across people with psychopathy, the affective trait domain is key to identifying and measuring the incidence of psychopathy in a population. In particular, psychiatrists and psychologists look for callousness, absence of empathy, lack of feelings of guilt or remorse, reactive short-tempers, and indifference to punishment -- other than an association with revenge seeking.
State two findings from the reading that indicate that psychopathic personality traits are inherited.
Beaver, et al.…… [Read More]
Psychopathy is defined as a risk factor for sexual and physical violence in the future. Although psychopaths are not often motivated to pursue intervention, studies indicate that they can benefit from psychological intervention. Psychopaths are mainly characterized by remorse and lack of sympathy for others and even their loved ones. This paper summarizes the extent to which genetic, environmental, cognitive, and developmental influences contribute to the development of psychopathy.
Genes perform an important part in the growth of psychopathy. esearchers have discovered that antisocial behavior results from both genetic and environmental effects. However, it is shown that genetics contribute significantly to the development of psychopathy especially where previous family members have had the disorder. Genetic transfer of the disorder to children is always evident. However, socializing and other ecological factors link with genetics: they influence the extent of the psychopathic characteristics (Blonigen et al., 2008). esearches have also revealed…… [Read More]
ichards Marcum a minimum 5 sources
From ancient times, criminal laws have been created to control and ensure safety of society. Time to time changes in law as well as crime varies with the intentions to control criminal conduct and mitigate the troubles experienced by victimized people. Sexual exploitation is one such classification of wrongdoing that has been stamped by intense changes in public perception and enactment of laws. These progressions have influenced not just the way in which guilty parties are taken care of by the criminal equity framework as well as the reaction to survivors of sexual exploitation also (ichards & Marcum, 2015).
How legislation has led to an increase in number to sexual offenders?
Offenders of sexual crimes are wholly abhorred, loathed, and seen as risks to the society at large who need to be bolted up and held under reconnaissance. Following the huge publicity of cries…… [Read More]
Negotiation Process: How Attica and Lewis Changed the Nature of Negotiation
The historical events of the riot at Attica prison on Sept 9th, 1971 and the hostage situation in 2004 at Lewis State Prison (Arizona) led to a significant change in the application of crisis negotiation. The lessons learned from each event changed the art of crisis negotiation as a result. Understanding how this transformation came to be, it is essential to discuss the events that transpired.
The Attica prison revolt served as a "wake-up call" to administers of crisis negotiation (Strentz, 2012, p. 176). Lacking on this day were the necessary "experience" and "intelligence" of crisis negotiators, as well as the implementation of correct "command decisions," tactics, and techniques (Strentz, 2012, p. 176). The "art" of negotiation was unrefined, crude, "forceful," and disorganized (Brown, Campbell, 2010, p. 362). However, among the prisoners, there was the opposite: organization, rhetorical skill,…… [Read More]
Similarly, a married man, though he has a wife, can feel a sense of lack sexually. This sense of lack can lead him to rape a female subordinate at work.
Describe the core behavioral characteristics of the criminal psychopath. Name and describe any five instruments used to measure psychopathy. What is the difference between criminal psychopathy and mental disorder?
a. The core characteristics of the criminal psychopath are a lack of empathy, egocentricity, lack of shame or remorse, and tendency for lying and manipulation
b. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist is a psycho-diagnostic tool used in tandem with the broader PCL-R inventory to measure a person's psychopathic profile.
The Psychopathic Personality Inventory is a self-report survey used to comprehensively index personality traits without explicitly referring to anti-social or criminal behaviors themselves.
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory measures various components of person's personality with a self-report inventory. Each component is measured by…… [Read More]
Instead, the mock jurors were most likely to sentence dangerous defendants to death, regardless of the PCL- label attached to those defendants. In fact, defendants who were considered a high-risk of future violence but were not psychopaths were most likely to be sentenced to death.
This study was fascinating in many ways. First, like many studies, it suffered from a representation sample problem. The participants were first year psychology students, which means that they may already have been more educated than many jurors, particularly in the issue of psychopathy. However, the researchers address this issue by citing a study that indicates no difference in mock juror and real juror results. The study eliminated the jurors who were morally/ethically opposed to the death penalty, which reflects the reality of jury selection in capital cases. However, they also excluded a student for failing to answer some of the factual questions about the…… [Read More]
Social Psychology Concept Matrix
Social Psychology Concept
Application to Society
Application to the Individual
The researcher selects a certain number of people from the population that he/she wants to study and presents them with a list of questions on the topic asking them to respond in order to elicit their opinion.
The survey can be conducted in writing, over the phone, as face-to-face interview, or in a small-group oral format
The survey can be used to, for instance, discover the expectations that citizens wish from their new president.
The citizens of the country can be polled and asked what they wish the president to accomplish for them / their country in the new term. Results can tell the government what the citizens most wish to be implemented in their country.
Tjaden and Thoennes (2000) surveyed men and women to find their comparable…… [Read More]
Death penalty has become a very controversial and high-visibility topic in the recent political and social activities. This is true both in the United States as well as around the world. There has already been a lot of shifts and changes over the years including the abandonment of hanging and firing squads. Even the electric chair has fallen mostly out of favor with the governments and law enforcement agencies of the world. However, even the remaining method commonly used in death penalty executions has started to get difficult, that being the use of lethal injection. hether it be fear of liability or concern about conscience, many of the drug companies that manufacture the drugs that are used in lethal injections are starting to rescind their cooperation with law enforcement and government. This is part of a wider movement around the world to abolish the death penalty due to it allegedly…… [Read More]
They predict age and gender variations relate to bullying concerns. Of the 25 cartoons implemented in the study, two depict characters with different shades of skin color where skin color appeared to be an issue. One cartoon relating to sexual orientation was not used in several countries. Smith et al. report Olweus to assert bullying to be characterized by the following three criteria:
1. It is aggressive behavior or intentional "harmdoing"
2. which carried out repeatedly and over time
3. In an interpersonal relationship characterized by an imbalance of power. (Smith et al., 2002, p. 1120)
In their study, Smith et al. (2002), participating researchers in the 14 countries to completed the following
1. Listed and selected bullying terms as well as social exclusion in the applicable language.
2. Used fundamental focus groups with participating children to confirm usage and extensive comprehensive of terms.
3. Using cartoons, sorted tasks to…… [Read More]
If citizens do not trust the courts to deliver fair sentences, then trust in the government itself falls apart. If citizens do not recognize the legitimacy of the correctional institutions that embody punishment, then the entire criminal justice system has failed.
Punishment by the state for crime must be legitimate. The act of punishment must be systematic and not arbitrary, dealt in an unbiased manner and according to rule of law. For years, differential sentencing for crack cocaine and powdered cocaine in the United States reveals an arbitrary punishment that reflects race and class conflict. Such irrational manifestations of punishment serve to delegitimize the authority of the state. When the legitimacy of the state is lost, the foundation of a free society crumbles.
Ideally, the state possesses credible authority. That authority is used to uphold the rights and freedoms upon which a liberal democracy is based. The shared values of…… [Read More]
Therein was her first ethical dilemma: should she remain quiet about this, or should she share this information with others and see what their response will be?
Her boyfriend gave her worthy advice: keep this to yourself because if your boss is found to be accepting kickbacks, and this revelation results in his removal from the company, her unit may well be disbanded, or otherwise affected in a way unfriendly to existing employees. The fact that Valerie's work visa situation -- she did not have a "green card" -- was largely dependent on the good will and fairness of those in supervisory positions in her company put her in a tight spot. Moreover her ethical decision-making was also stymied temporarily because she was enrolled in a master's program at the University of Chicago, and her continuing with her education was predicated on getting high grades. If she got good grades,…… [Read More]
An American Alex would be against classical music, with anarchists normally being associated with hard rock music. Moreover, he would find it perfectly normal to use drugs instead of drinking milk in a club that has dummies for tables. The reason for which a Hollywood producer would not have his psychotic character drinking milk is that he or she would unquestionably find such a scene to be sick, and, thus, not to be presented to a general public.
Most American movies presenting young people fighting for anarchy want to teach a lesson. They want people to understand that society is good and that it is not worth fighting it, since you only harm yourself in the process. In contrast, Kubrick shows that the system is bad and obsessed with maintaining control over people. After Alex is freed from prison, he can no longer be free, as his mind continues to…… [Read More]
America's sprawling territories makes it easy for people to leave their families and connections, making it easier to kill or be killed. On one hand, the inventions of the Fair and the belief in commercialism and industry makes spectacle possible in a way that is not easily replicated anywhere else, Eiffel Tower aside. More so than anywhere else, the belief in newness and self-creation seems to be a kind of religion in America. Chicago would recreate itself, and so would Holmes. Science would set America free, leaving older primitive cultures to curiosity cabinets and freak shows, and science would give Holmes the tools to create the perfect murders, and then to profit by selling the remains, letting nothing go to waste in this little 'business' he was running. For both Holmes and Chicago, eradication of the 'dark city' beneath the image of a white facade was the essence of the…… [Read More]
It takes an encounter with madness to appreciate the finer things in life and through successful characterization, Kesey brings this issue to the forefront. The struggle between man and those wishing to control him is not new because it is intrinsically human to desire freedom. hen we are caged, we rebel, even if that rebellion comes with a high price. McMurphy emerges triumphant because he demonstrates to the other men that they can be free and they do not have to let the system crush them. Bromden is heroic as well, because he discovers himself after a long separation from who he actually is. He would have never taken the steps he did without McMurphy and his antics. They are modern-day heroes fighting the age-old war of man vs. authority.
Fick, Thomas. "The Hipster, the Hero, and the Psychic Frontier in 'One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest.'" Rocky…… [Read More]
One can only imagine how sick his mind must have been to be standing in front of students, paid to impart educational knowledge to them, but in fact unable to be effective because he was having fantasies.
In a eb site called Serial Killers, Chikatilo's name is spelled "Andrej Tsjikatilo," perhaps closer to the actual Russian name he was given at birth. The site explains that he was known to eat the genitals of his victims, and when he had them as captives, he would gouge out their eyes while they were still alive. During the court trial, Chikatilo was kept in a steel cage in the courtroom "...to protect others from Chikatilo as well as [protecting] Chikatilo from relatives of his victims.
Crime Library. "The Devil's Trail." Retrieved March 4, 2008, at http://www.crimelibrary.com.(2003).
Hater, Jill. "Potvin Spotlight: Andrei Chikatilo." Potvin Newsly. Retrieved March 3, 2008, at http://thepotvinreport.wordpress.com.(2005).…… [Read More]
In fact, and quite surprisingly, one of the key findings of the Rand Report was that 50% of the nation's detectives could be eliminated without having a significant effect on clearance rates in the country (O'Connor). This conclusion flies in the face of conventional wisdom on police work, yet was fully supported by the exhaustive study. The study was funded by the National Institute of Justice and was designed to monitor the effectiveness of detectives in clearing cases in a variety of situations. Surveys were designed and then sent to local and county police departments throughout the country with at least 150 fulltime personnel or a municipal jurisdiction of more than 100,000 people. In total, three hundred agencies were solicited, of which 153 responded with answers to the survey. hile all of the data from those 153 agencies was used in the compilation of the study, twenty-five of the respondents…… [Read More]
Those who are not familiar with such conditions can hardly imagine the results, especially when the mutual differences express themselves in the form of brutal attacks on the part of the father towards the mother or to assaults due to drunkenness." (Langer, "Mind of Adolf Hitler"). He also seems ha have been his mother's favorite and the beneficiary of generous flows of love from her part, contrary to his father's severity. Langer also draws the conclusion that Hitler was influenced in a very serious degree by his father's personality and often confusing way of behaving. His father's deeds seem to contradict themselves in his attempt to present an entirely different image to the society than what he really was at home: an unreliable drunk who physically and verbally abused all the members of his family.
As Langer also points out in his study, Hitler looked in his first adult years…… [Read More]
Graysmith notes the results of a comparison of Starr's printing to the Zodiac letters, but there was no match (Graysmith 266-267). As noted, Graysmith also had an explanation for how the Zodiac might have disguised his printing, but clearly the letters have not been linked to anyone for certain. The fact that the Zodiac stopped killing has been the focus of a good deal of speculation as well, including that he could be dead, that he might be in prison for some other crime, or that for some unknown reason he just stopped. No one really knows the answer to this question, either. A killer in New York later used the name Zodiac and even claimed to be the Zodiac, but that has been discounted by most observers. Earlier killings in Riverside and elsewhere were alter attributed to the Zodiac as well, though again, no one is certain if this…… [Read More]
Although he says his book is not an attack on feminists, feminists become the villains in his book. In Robertson's view, feminists are a monolithic ideological block. He speaks about feminists in broad, sweeping terms: "Feminist advocates of the working mother model of social organization claimed that the quantity of time," was irrelevant to the child's upbringing, he sneers (30). To say that quality rather than quantity time is important when discussing childrearing practices, however, is far different than saying that quantity is irrelevant, or that working mothers have no concern for the amount of hours they spend away from young children. Feminists surely have a wide variety of views on the matter, and some feminists support flexible work time arrangements as well as day care.
Robertson shows his ideological again orientation when he says: "the media elites will not take on feminists," despite the fact that numerous media exposes…… [Read More]
Duncan continues to conform to the statutory definition of a sexual psychopath (Crenson, 2005)."
Temporal deviance can also cause inappropriate sexual behavior and problems maintaining personal relationships.
The courts must decide is and is not criminal when considering temporal deviance. The most basic answer to that question is that a deviancy is criminal if it the deviancy is acted on and is of such a nature that it commits force, damage or fear in a person or against a property.
Located just above the ears, the temporal lobe is involved in face and object recognition, musical ability, personality and sexual behavior. If epilepsy or some other condition causes damage to the temporal lobe, a person can become sexually attracted to inappropriate stimuli, even inanimate objects (Crenson, 2005)."
Studies have indicated that pedophiles have a lower activity level in the temporal part of the brain, however it only becomes criminal when…… [Read More]
United States has the highest rate of confinement of prisoners per 100,000 population than any other Western country. Analyze this phenomena and discuss actions that you feel are necessary to combat this problem.
The United States currently has the highest incarceration rate of any nation worldwide. For example, greater than 60% of nations have incarceration rates below 150 per 100,000 people (Walmsley, 2003). The United States makes up just about five percent of the world's population and yet it houses 25% of the world's prison population (Walmsley, 2009). In 2008 there were more than 2.3 million people held in United States prisons and jails, a rate of approximately 754 inmates per 100,000 people (Sabol, West, & Cooper, 2009). So if we only count adults in the population that translates into a one in 100 American adults is locked up. ussia is the only other major industrialized nation that comes close…… [Read More]
Banality of Evil
What is the relationship between the banality of evil and the ordinariness of goodness?
Justas the 'banality of evil' was committed by apparently ' regular' ordinary' people who proceeded with the premise that their actions were acceptable based on their indoctrinations or cultural teachings (as e.g. By the third eich) and, therefore, 'evil' lost its maliciousness and became ordinary, so too, as per David Blumenthal (1999), goodness is also normalized and becomes banal through systems of social hierarchy, education, and childhood discipline that shape both good and evil attitudes and actions.
2.How do both torturers and the tortured come to terms with their circumstances? Are their similarities between these processes?
Torture not only causes pain to the body but can also cause associated damage and corruption to the psyche. The torturer, on the other hand, may not experience physical pain but will certainly experience the same damage…… [Read More]
Criminals -- Born or Made
Since the construction of the first civil society, behavioral rules distinguishing what is acceptable and what is criminal have existed. Even though individuals typically have a concept of conventional moral behavior, criminal conduct is represented in every society and culture. Criminal deviance is not a novel construct, and has long been the intrigue of researchers, philosophers, and theorists to determine criminal motivation and link the relationship between individuals and the execution of criminal acts. One central argument that has evolved in the realm of criminality is the nature vs. nurture debate, which questions if criminals are born or made. Biological, psychological, and sociological disciplines each offer theories into the origin of criminality to explain if criminal behavior is a consequence of genetics or a matter of the environment in which they are raised (Jones). The biologist introduces genetic evidence and explains the effects of varying…… [Read More]
The term signature aspect is used to refer to unique behavior that is exhibited by the criminal that is peculiar to that particular criminal though may not be necessary in committing the crime. One of the most common signature aspects is the calling card, or tattooing of the dead bodies, use of excessive force, leaving notes behind and many more. These are not necessary in killing of victims but are a sign of claiming the crime (John E. Douglas, 2011).
The components of crime classification that I learnt about and are central in the crime classification are finding out the defining characteristics of the crimes and the crime scenes, this will be instrumental in telling the motive behind the crime and in the case of multiple motives, the most outstanding will guide the profiling. The other component is victimology which is the complete history of the victim which will help…… [Read More]
personality" and personalities. Everyone has a personality, their own unique collection of traits and characteristics. The facets of a person's personality may be partly inherited and partly the result of the person's life experiences. In the personality disorder, the person has inflexible traits and patterns of behavior not typical of most people and that cause the person to function poorly in life. Up to 13% of people may have some kind of personality disorder.
"Odd" Personality Disorders: are characterized by odd or eccentric behavior that can include a high degree of suspiciousness or social withdrawal.
Paranoid personality disorder: is characterized by high levels of distrust regarding other people. Believing that others have it in for them, they avoid close relationships. They find proof that their suspicions are justified in the actions of others, which they perceive as either threatening or putting them down in some way. They are highly critical…… [Read More]
The whole poison-purchasing scene is very interesting and adds to the impact of her action. Emily is determined to buy poison and let the pharmacist assume it is to kill rats. While he is adamant about knowing the truth, Emily is not interested in sharing the details of her plans with him.
I want some poison," she said to the druggist. She was over thirty then, still a slight woman, though thinner than usual, with cold, haughty black eyes in a face the flesh of which was strained across the temples and about the eyesockets as you imagine a lighthouse-keeper's face ought to look. "I want some poison," she said.
Yes, Miss Emily. What kind? For rats and such? I'd recom -- " want the best you have. I don't care what kind."
The druggist named several. "They'll kill anything up to an elephant. But what you want is --…… [Read More]
Although he is compared to divinity, The Misfit is not a "good man," just as the Grandmother is not a good woman. O'Connor purposely alludes to the Old Testament because the deity described there is not necessarily "good" in the sense that He brings joy to human beings. Rather, the Biblical God is vengeful, full of wrath and disgust for humanity. God is, in many ways, like The Misfit. He brings disasters upon humanity and punishes people, often for no reason, as in the story of Job. The Old Testament God is then compared with Jesus Christ, about whom the grandmother and The Misfit exchange many words. Based on their discussions, it is clear that The Misfit has contemplated the nature of Jesus far more than the grandmother, who simply relies on her faith. The grandmother continuously pleads with The Misfit to "pray." However, his response is an intellectual investigation…… [Read More]
" (Magrid and McKelvey, 1990).
Although some analysts still toss around the question of nature vs. nurture, current research seems to be edging out nature and placing much more emphasis on nurture. Another notable expert who agrees with the author's premise is Benjamin B. Wolman. Wolman explores the foundations of deviant behavior in his widely-read book, "Antisocial Behavior: Personality Disorders from Hostility to Homicide," and emphasizes nurture almost to the exclusion of nature, in explaining why sociopaths are more and more prevalent in our society. According to Wolman, "the way that parents rear their children can be crucial. Parental rejection can adversely affect their children's self-confidence and self-reliance. Undeniably, these children will feel neglected and unwanted if their parents are not affectionate and considerate. These children cannot however behave aggressively toward their parents as they fear that they might retaliate. Instead, they behave aggressively toward weak people who are unable…… [Read More]
org. "It is stacked again and again in the killers' favor and victims are an after-thought. It would be unlikely to ever lead to an execution in Massachusetts."
Chief among the group's gripes is that the bill does not specifically call for death in child or sex slayings but would put death on the table for inmates serving life who kill behind bars. Romney's bill provides the death penalty for killings involving terrorism, the murder of a law enforcement officer and slayings involving multiple victims or torture - all backed by irrefutable DNA evidence.
Paranzino also said a requirement for "no doubt" scientific proof conflicts with existing "reasonable doubt" standards. "This bill itself deserves to die of lethal injection," he said. "America is safer without this bill than we would be with it."
Romney aide Shawn Feddeman said the governor "focused on the worst of the worst murders (in drafting…… [Read More]
Temporary Disability Law
What laws apply to temporary disability at the workplace?
Temporary Disability Insurance (TDI) programs are designed to provide wage replacement for non-work-connected sickness or injury. The TDI program complements the UI program by providing benefits to individuals who do not meet the UI program's "able" to work requirement. Although Federal law does not provide for a Federal-State TDI system, the SSA and the FUTA both authorize the withdrawal of employee contributions from a State's unemployment fund for the payment of TDI. (Temporary Disability Insurance, n.d..)
Another law providing for temporarily disabled workers injured on the job is Workers' Compensation. Workers' Compensation laws are designed to ensure that employees who are injured or disabled on the job are provided with fixed monetary awards, eliminating the need for litigation. These laws also provide benefits for dependents of those workers who are killed because of work-related accidents or illnesses. Some…… [Read More]
In his study of the camp doctors, he noted,
The willingness to blame Jews for Germany's troubles, making them "arch enemies of Germany." The nation was itself reduced to an abstract essence, threatened by its enemies and in need of sacred renewal and purification, through blood sacrifice if necessary. One's identity as a German, as the Nazis defined it, crowded out other possible roles. As the embodiment of this "holy, divine Reich," the Fuhrer, and not the doctors, was responsible for all that happened in the camps. Yet "even the Fuhrer could be painted as 'helpless': because the Jew's evil forced the Fuhrer to act or make war on him."
So nefarious was this hidden enemy - the Jew - that he or she was quickly seen to be responsible for every conceivable social ill, real or imagined. "Jews -- or the concept of 'the Jew' -- were equated with…… [Read More]
The church had taught Luther that the Earth was the center of the universe and he pretty much had bought into everything that was laid before him in schools and church. Then, after receiving his master or arts (in 1505), and while still willing to pursue his father's dream for him (to go into law), he began to become melancholy (a best friend died; two of his brothers died of the plague) and very sad.
On July 2, 1505, while on his way back to college at Erfurt, he encountered a thunderstorm (as mentioned earlier in the paper) and when lightning struck the ground near him he was "seized by a severe, some say convulsive, state of terror" (p. 91). Luther claims to have called out at that moment, "Help me, St. Anne...I want to become a monk." Nobody of course heard him cry out, but his family and colleagues…… [Read More]