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It was only in the 1950s when psychiatric drugs to treat severe depression were first developed. Prior to that, most people had to suffer with their emotional pain and its attached sigma. Many individuals had to be admitted to mental hospitals. Now, psychiatrists can prescribe any of hundreds of medications for this illness and, in the majority of cases, have successful results.
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors or MAOs were the first pharmaceuticals developed. Although they have more side effects than the tricyclic and latest selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSIs), they are found to be very helpful particularly in "atypical" and treatment-resistant situations. They can "produce dramatic improvements in some forms of depression" (Gorman, 1990, p. 83). The generic and brand names of the three marketed in the United States are bedisocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine sulfate (Nardil) and tranylcypromine sulfate (Parnate).
The efficacy of MAO inhibitors is generally equivalent to the other…… [Read More]
psychopharmacology, the goal is to use drugs to improve brain function. This takes place via very specific actions within the brain. The drug may be administered in one of several ways, and its metabolism will vary based on many factors, making psychopharmacology a complicated medical issue. In addition, some people abuse substances known to have a psychopharmalogical effect. oth the appropriate and inappropriate use of these drugs can have a profound effect on both mind and body.
While researchers have described many uses for these medications, they are not yet "magic bullets" that can be aimed precisely, giving only the desired effect, doing that well, and causing no side effects (Hamilton & Timmons, 1994). Sometimes the side effects can be managed well, but sometimes a medication will help solve another (say, depression) and yet cause or aggravate another (for example, anxiety) (Hamilton & Timmons, 1994).
One author suggests that one…… [Read More]
Psychopharmacology Treatment for Alzheimers Disease
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the three treatment options for Mr. Akkad suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Mr. Akkad is a 76-year Iranian patient demonstrating some strange behaviors. The patient has started losing interest in the major religious activities, which is critical for a member of the family. Moreover, he has started abandoning things he uses to take very seriously before, and these things have become sources of amusement and ridicule. Moreover, Mr. Akkad has been forgetting things within the past two years, and the issue seems to be getting worse. After clinical examination, Mr. Akkad scores 18 out of 30 revealing that the patient is suffering from moderate dementia based on his primary deficit in attention, registration, orientation, recall and calculation. However, Decision 1, Decision 2 and Decision 3 options are recommended for the treatment of Mr. Akkad.
The purpose of this…… [Read More]
The ritish Association of Psychopharmacology (AP)(n.d.) is a scholarly society and enlisted philanthropy. It advances exploration and instruction in psychopharmacology and related zones, and unites individuals in the educated community, well-being administrations, and industry. Shaped in 1974, it is the biggest such national relationship in Europe, and the second biggest in the world. The website has a lot of different content available that would help me in my coursework. Several articles can be seen in the homepage, which have been published by renowned authors. Videos are also available that would help me in understanding difficult concepts of psychopharmacology. The association has its own journal and publications which are available completely if one becomes a member of the ritish association. The homepage also presents several tweets by AP that creates a good impact on the visitor.
AP provides several activities to the members of the website and also…… [Read More]
Non-medical psychotherapists, such as Marriage and Family Therapists, should learn about psychopharmacology in order to:
Collaborate with prescribers regarding a patient's medication
For a patient with a borderline or dependent personality, a therapist not recommending medication would likely be seen as:
Jim is disturbed by his psychiatrist's prescription of psychotropic medication, believing that the psychiatrist is attempting to control him and remove his autonomy. This most likely reflects:
Paranoid personality traits
Short, branched structures projecting from a nerve cell body are known as:
Messenger molecules are secreted by neurons and affect the functioning of adjacent neurons. Messenger molecules are also called:
The space between the terminal button and receptors is the:
Which statement most accurately describes nerve cell receptors?
They increase in number until age 50, then slowly die off
8) The area of the brain most closely associated with emotion is the:
Limbic system…… [Read More]
Psychopharmacology Case Study
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
GAD or as it is known in full generalized anxiety disorder is a widespread anxiety complication that is characterized by worrying chronically, tension and nervousness. This is different from a phobia; which is characterized by fear of something specific or situation. GAD diffuses a feeling of dread and unease spanning all aspects of one's life. The anxiety is not as intensive as a panic attack but lasts much longer and consequently lowers the general quality of life over a longer time span of life. It does not matter whether you are conscious that your worrying is exaggerated or think that such worries protect you in some way, the consequence is the same. It is impossible for you to deliberately turn off your anxiety. They form an endless stream that flows on your mind (Segal, 2016). Our subject, Tom, is a case…… [Read More]
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
GAD or as it is known in full generalized anxiety disorder is a widespread anxiety complication that is characterized by worrying chronically, tension and nervousness. This is different from a phobia; which is characterized by fear of something specific or situation. GAD diffuses a feeling of dread and unease spanning all aspects of one's life. The anxiety is not as intensive as a panic attack but lasts much longer and consequently lowers the general quality of life over a longer time span of life. It does not matter whether you are conscious that your worrying is exaggerated or think that such worries protect you in some way, the consequence is the same. It is impossible for you to deliberately turn off your anxiety. They form an endless stream that flows on your mind (Segal, 2016). Our subject, Tom, is a case for GAD…… [Read More]
Psychopharmocology: Psychotic Disorders
Psychopharmacology: Psychotic disorders
Accepted psychological and biological theories regarding the causes of each disorder
Psychosis is an undefined syndrome that manifests in delusions, bizarre behavior, hallucinations, losing touch with reality. The condition is attributed to a variety of conditions including primary psychiatric complications and medical complications such as dementia, central lobe epilepsy, Schizophrenia and related disorders, medical complications, abnormalities in metabolism, endocrine and neurologic disease. It also includes drug and substance abuse complications. Common among the substances abused are hallucinogens and amphetamines. The most common primary psychosis is schizophrenia. This disorder is a severe one. It begins sometime around adolescence or in the early stage of adulthood. Although the onset tends to manifest a later among women, the occurrence of the condition seems evenly spread across the gender divide. Surveys in epidemiology demonstrate that 0.4% of the disorder is characterized by critical disorders in thinking patterns and…… [Read More]
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…… [Read More]
(Walsh & Meyersohn, 2001, p. 188)
Therapeutic interventions, as has been mentioned are frequently multifaceted. Nursing interventions can be associated with the disease treatment or can be in support of other diseases the individual has that need treatment, i.e. when and individual is hospitalized for illness or injury the diagnosis and therapeutic evidence of PS is absolutely essential to support and understand as incompliance can be global and "new" therapeutic relationships can be met with extreme distrust. Education is essential as PS patients still have some (greater or lesser) cognitive impairment and may not give appropriate clues as to how well he or she understands or intends to comply with treatment interventions. Nurses in a psych or medical setting must be careful how they word everything and how they educate patents about their treatment. Expected outcomes are dependant on severity but many people with PS can and do…… [Read More]
Avoidant Personality Disorder
As per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), a certain case of avoidant personality disorder (APD) is featured by the existent sign of social inhibition, feeling of being short of requirement, and hypersensitivity to negative valuation. (American Psychiatric Association, 1994, p.1) Even though personality disorders are not often discovered in persons below age 18, children who come within the condition of APD are recurrently portrayed as being aloof to the core, fearful in arising circumstances, and afraid of dissention and social boycott. The proportion of the signs and the inability is way behind the practice of inhibition that is prevalent in as much as 40% of the populace. Hence it is of great relevance of examining the disorder as it relates to professional counseling.
Exploration of disorder
Bearing a semblance to other personality disorders, the state of Avoidant Personality disorder turns out…… [Read More]
Particularly after her PANSS test results, the client in this case has been diagnosed with schizophrenia, paranoid type, in which positive symptoms like delusions are prevalent. The purpose of this paper is to clarify three key psychopharmacological treatment decisions made on behalf of the client. Goals of all three decisions are symptom reduction and the promotion of the client's mental health and psychosocial functioning.
The decision was to give the patient Invega Sustenna (paliperidone palmitate) 234 mg intramuscular X1 followed by 156 mg intramuscular on day 4 and monthly thereafter, instead of either Zyprexa (olanzapine) or Abilify. The reasoning is based primarily on the fact that Invega Sustenna is a long-acting injectable with fewer compliance complications than orally administered drugs. Although Abilify has been available as a long-acting injectable, Invega Sustenna is recommended in this case because it presents fewer side effects than either Zyprexa or Abilify, particularly those…… [Read More]
Genetic Influence of MDMA Neurotoxicity
Ecstasy [(±)-3.4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA, XTC, X, E] is one of the most popular drugs of abuse in the world (Capela et al., 2009, p. 211). Often used in social settings, such as the so-called 'raves' or all night dance parties, ecstasy has been reported to lower barriers to intimacy, increase the pleasure derived from friendships, enhance social interactions, and increase energy (euphoria) (Peters and Kok, 2009, p. 242).
In the U.S., MDMA is classified as a schedule 1 drug due its addictive potential, lack of therapeutic utility, dubious safety profile, and neurotoxic potential (Capela et al., 2009, p. 212) and its use has been illegal since 1985. The safety concerns of MDMA include the potential for a negative therapeutic outcome (Parrott, 2007) and its neurotoxicity (Capela et al., 2009). Apparently, the use of MDMA in a psychotherapy setting can produce a negative outcome that…… [Read More]
Informed consent signifies one of the protections in studies on mental illness. Consent is a procedure that permits for the free choice by a knowledgeable and competent person to or not to partake in investigative procedures. Capacity for consent is not a stationary experience. It can transform with the circumstance of the person. The theory of informed consent was established on two distinctive legal philosophies. Every patient has the right to figure out what will or will not be completed on them and in regards to a fiduciary character of the patient physician affiliation it has to be articulated with the main purpose of endorsing individual self-rule while endorsing balanced decision formulation.
This article was very easy to read and attempted to break the subject matter down into everyday language in order to maintain clarity. It gave a very good overview of psychiatric drug testing on children and how…… [Read More]
biological humanistic approaches personality. The paper cover areas. *Use Maslow's hierarchy discuss extent growth influence personality formation. *Describe biological factors influence formation personality.
Biological and humanistic approaches to personality:
An overview of the debate
Biological theories have become increasingly popular in the field of psychology, as scientists seek to understand the roots of human behavior. Several reasons are at the heart of this shift in emphasis from 'nurture' to 'nature': the first is our expanding knowledge of neuropsychology and how different components of the brain affect behavior. A change in the physical matter or the environment of the brain can result in a change in personality. The second is the expansion of psychopharmacology, whereby aspects of the human character once thought beyond conscious control, such as hyperactivity or a tendency towards melancholy, can be shifted when medications change the individual's brain chemistry. Finally, changes in behavior are evident at different…… [Read More]
organizational chart for the proposed organization.
Include the title of positions and a brief description of the positions' duties and responsibilities.
The organizational structure of the Center is founded on a shared services model. President/director of the center has administrative, management and clinical skills in the field of human welfare along with behavioral health industry for twenty years. Open-book management, mutual respect and shared obligations are the key elements on which the philosophy of the management is based upon.
Director of the company will take care of the company and its management. elationships will be the primary variable in founding the direction of the center as the company is set up as a shared service model. Advisory board will be founded which will have four leaders in the area…… [Read More]
Discuss the criteria used to define abnormality (abnormal behavior / mood disorders)
There are no established criteria to define what is abnormal. On the other hand, every individual trait can be said as abnormal on some social plane. (Oracle think quest, 2010) Some of the preferred ideas to define abnormality are as given below:
Statistical Norms Deviation: Certain population facts such as height, weight and intelligence are measured and recorded. Most of people come in the middle range of intelligence. Those who fail in general terms and falls below the so-called intelligence scale are termed as abnormal. But then, the people with extra intelligence also become abnormal. Furthermore, intelligence is a subjective issue. (Oracle think quest, 2010)
Social Norms Deviation: People going again social norms and trying to make their idiosyncratic identity are also termed as abnormal. Galileo was abnormal and he was brutally punished for his abnormality, he suggested…… [Read More]
At which point, they talk about the effects that the different kinds of coverage are having on senior citizen, with many using a combination of Medicare and private insurance, while others have used a combination of Medicare / Medicaid. To rectify the situation, the article points out that there is one of two solutions to include: the government placing price caps and importing prescription drugs. A government model of limiting the overall scope of price increases, could help to reduce the negative effects that this having on the elderly. Another option, for those who are opposed to such a plan, is to allow the import of prescription drugs. This is significant, because it shows how increasing the available supply of prescription drugs are a key to curtailing costs. If some kind of programs, this could be introduced to address this issue. At which point, it could be effective in reducing…… [Read More]
Seriously, a reader cannot be certain that RAD is the key problem with T, who has had prenatal exposure to alcohol, marijuana and cocaine and has experienced "abuse and neglect" (Lyon p. 644). The article brings in the possibility that FASD or PTSD may be appropriate in describing "T" -- a 12-year-old Hispanic boy. But what stands out in the intervention of T. is the litany of medications given to T. while he was institutionalized due to wild and violent behaviors: Risperidone (3 mg); clozapine (200 mg); valproic acid (750 mg); guanfacine (4 mg); and desmopressin (0.6 mg).
In addition, T received chlorpromazine (50 mg every 2 hours) and Benadryl (50 mg every 4 hours) (Lyon p. 645) to curb his aggression. hat also stands out is the disclosure that Lyon received money from Eli Lilly to conduct this research on T. How much credibility does an author have in…… [Read More]
, 2007). The results of that research indicates that light users of MDMA do exhibit mild cognitive impairment during the short-term in which they occasionally use the drug but that after six months or more of abstinence, their performance on the same cognitive tests used to identify those changes returns to being indistinguishable from the performance of those who have never been exposed to the drug (Golding, Groome, ycroft, et al., 2007).
The Short-Term and Long-Term Consequences of Heavy MDMA Use
Animal studies have conclusively established that MDMA causes permanent destruction of neurons and synaptic processes that are essential to the physiological mechanisms of neurotransmitter secretion, response, and reuptake by virtue of the selectively neurotoxic properties of the drug on 5-HT neurons in rats (Verrico, Miller, & Madras, 2007). Those findings are consistent with anecdotal evidence collected from clinical human data in connection with the long-term cognitive, behavioral, and mood…… [Read More]
This is a fact that is virtually undisputed among the sociological and medical school of thought and practice. Many researchers of late have suggested alternative approaches to treating abnormal behaviors evident in persons diagnosed with mental illness.
By far the most common of these is a cooperative approach to care that involves treatment utilizing pharmacological and cognitive or counseling therapies. It is believed that the combination of both of these will work in tandem to best serve the needs of the patient afflicted with a mental illness. A cooperative approach to treating mental illness will also guarantee that both the sociological aspects and physiological aspects of the disease are treated adequately.
Buelow, G., & Hebert, S. (1995). Counselor's resource on psychiatric medications, issues of treatment and referral. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Christensen, O.J., England, J.T. & Scovel, K.A. (2002). "Mental health counselors'
Perceptions regarding Psychopharmacological prescriptive privileges." Journal of…… [Read More]
History of Paxil
In the 1960s a Danish company named Ferrosan began performing research on aspects of the central nervous system. Ferrosan was most interested in the relationship between the neurotransmitter serotonin and depressed mood in people. The original idea was that if a drug could be developed to increase serotonin levels in the brain it might lead to improvements in treating people with depression (DeGrandpre, 2006). The research resulted in the development of a formula for a compound then known as the "Buus-Lassen Compound" which allegedly had the capability to relieve the depression in people. The compound was patented in the United States in 1977 and the company later sold all rights and research surrounding this patent to SmithKline (now GlaxoSmithKline) in 1980 (DeGrandpre, 2006).
SmithKline put significant effort into developing the compound and much of this development occurred in the SmithKline plant in Harlow, England (DeGrandpre, 2006).…… [Read More]
A Cognitive Behavioral Study of Steven Henderson: Case Conceptualization and Treatment Plan
Theories of Counseling
This is a case conceptualization of a 26-year-old man who experienced sexual abuse as a child and the haunting memories of the abuse have led to difficulties in his personal, social, and educational functioning as an adult. The client is experiencing anxiety, depression, problems with motivation, an inability to confide in those close to him, and difficulties in developing educational and occupational goals for himself. He complained of very low self-esteem and believes that his inability to deal with his past sexual abuse has led to these issues. The case conceptualization explores the proposed treatment of this individual's issues using a cognitive behavioral approach. Empirical evidence for the use of cognitive behavioral treatment for trauma victims is discussed. The specific issues that the individual is experiencing as a result of the abuse are…… [Read More]
Caffeine Improves Visual-Motor Performance
Acute Caffeine Ingestion Improves Visual-Motor esponses
Caffeine represents the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, so understanding how this chemical affects an individual's physiology is essential to providing the best healthcare advice for the general public. Towards this goal, the response times of college students were studied before and after ingestion of water, ed Bull, or coffee. The task involved clicking a mouse button as fast as possible in response to a computer monitor screen changing color. Compared to water, response times improved by almost 6 and 13 seconds for ed Bull and coffee, respectively. Based on published information, which suggests the ed Bull and coffee ingestion would provide approximately 80 and 122 mg of caffeine, respectively, these results indicate a dose-dependent improvement in task performance as the caffeine dosage increased. Although between subjects variability was high, these results are remarkably consistent…… [Read More]
exist on kleptomania. They may include treatment options, background on the disorders, or even how to identify a person suffering from kleptomania. New research however, has begun linking the disorder to others in hopes of better understanding what causes kleptomania and how to effectively treat it. Kleptomania has been linked to compulsive buying and binge-eating disorder. omen are known to suffer more from these disorders than men. This suggests these three disorders may have more in common than initially believed.
Kleptomania is a rare disorder found in both men and women with women producing higher occurrences than men. Shoplifting although similar to kleptomania, is not habitual nor does it produce the same effects that someone suffering from kleptomania would. The disorder is commonly characterized by a need to steal things, sometimes trivial things, in order to feel better or feel in control. Normally people who show symptoms of kleptomania…… [Read More]
Apparent health can be generally positive or negative; in spite of how it links with the real health; it may be significant to comprehend its function in certain kinds of psychopathology. Negatively apparent health has been anticipated to symbolize a cognitive risk factor for panic disorder (PD), detached from elevated anxiety feeling. As a result, PD may be more likely to take place on a background of negative perceptions of one's health. A negatively perceived health may also have predictive implications for PD patients, bearing in mind that negatively perceived health has been found to be a considerable predictor of mortality in general and that individuals with panic-like anxiety indications, panic attacks, and PD have elevated mortality rates, mostly due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular illnesses (Starcevick, Berle, Fenech, Milicevic, Lamplugh and Hannan, 2009).
Studies have suggested that panic attacks (PA) are widespread and connected with an augmented occurrence of…… [Read More]
When processed by a transglutaminase enzyme, it can interact with immunological cells and produce cytotoxic inflammation. In autism, it is believed that peptides from gluten and casein cross the intestinal microvillus barrier and enter the blood stream. They also cross the blood-brain barrier. In the brain, certain amino acid sequences of these peptides compete with natural peptides, which bind to opioid receptors. These receptors are G-protein receptors in cell membrane surfaces of neurons. inding to these receptors disturbs the neuronal function and ultimately leads to or contributes to autism (Department of Pediatrics Staff).
Limited Reliable Scientific Evidence
UK researchers investigated more than 30 scientific articles on the effectiveness of the gluten-free, casein-free diet on autistic children (astian, 2004). They found one, which provided reliable scientific evidence that the diet works. The particular study, however, was conducted on only 20 children aged 5-10 who had high levels of protein in their…… [Read More]
An interesting view of the immune system with particular implications for the current review and collation of information is provided by the field of computer science. The immune system makes many series of continual trade-offs, distributing resources in a way that necessarily leaves certain vulnerabilities in the system as a whole while providing greater comprehensiveness in coverage and protection when necessary (Hofmeyr 1997). This makes the immune system an adaptive and continually evolving and self-improving system; with little outside direction it is capable of assessing changing needs, and altering itself not only in particular instances but even in some of its general responses in order to provide greater long-term efficacy for the task of protecting the human organism from disease (Hofmeyr 1997). This view of the immune system as a contained and self-informing system is not entirely accurate, but it is a very useful perspective for our purposes herein.
The…… [Read More]
The EMD technique is used in conjunction with psychotherapy and it has proven very effective for statistically significant numbers of patients in controlled studies (Breslau, Lucia, & Alvarado, 2006; Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).
Ethical Issues in Treating PTSD in eturning Combat Veterans with MDMA
A much more ethically controversial approach involves the use of low doses of MDMA in conjunction with traditional psychotherapy. That is because MDMA is an illicit drug with a very well-deserved reputation for being notoriously popular with recreational users and addiction. While their may be beneficial therapeutic uses of MDMA in certain patients, the population of U.S. armed services veterans suffering from PTSD are also, demographically and psychologically, at the greatest risk of drug addiction and to mental instability that could be worsened by non-therapeutic use of consciousness-altering substances, particularly in connection with unauthorized and unmonitored or controlled use.
It is not necessarily never appropriate to…… [Read More]
However, she writes that she embarked upon her book to encourage suffering individuals to enter treatment, not to shy away from it, given that without medication she could not be functional.
Jamison's relatively short (240 pages) text is broken up into four sections: "The wild blue younger," "A not-so-fine madness," "This medicine, love," and "An unquiet mind." The book is vaguely chronological, although Jamison dips back and forth in her past, so the reader can better understand the significance of different life events. The book is not pure memoir -- it is a story of her life as a manic-depressive, so every incident is filtered through that point-of-view. To some degree, this can be limiting, for as powerful as the illness may be, it can be difficult to accept that this, more so than any other aspect of Jamison's life, is what defined her existence, beyond relationships, athletics, and her…… [Read More]
Another clinical study was done on the effectiveness of Kava extract for treating anxiety. This study analysis was aimed at assessing the evidence for or against the effectiveness of Kava extract as a symptomatic treatment for anxiety. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of oral Kava extract for the treatment of anxiety were analyzed. Superiority of Kava extract over placebo was suggested by all seven reviewed trials. The meta-analysis of three trials suggests a significant difference in the reduction of the total score on the Hamilton Rating Scale for anxiety in favor of Kava extract. So, according to the study, Kava extract is an herbal treatment option for anxiety that is worthy of consideration (Pittler & Ernst, 2000).
Kava -- is truly one of the strongest anti-anxiety herbs in the world. Kava also has one of the best safety profiles of any anti-anxiety / anti-depression herb (orne, 2003).
Other Natural Herbs
SAM-e…… [Read More]
What further makes interpretation of results difficult to precisely define quantify is that the amount of drug stores depends on the nature of the drug itself, the duration of the ingestion of the drug, and the composition of the tissue holding the drug and the frequency of use. The greater the incidence of drug use the more permanent the level of toxins and chemicals in tissues throughout the body, and therefore the greater the probability of catching chronic drug users in drug testing. Thea difficult part of using drug tests periodically is the longitudinally there may be peaks and valleys to the incidence of drug abuse. Companies have begun surprise inspections of their workers in the most potentially dangerous occupations including forklift workers, construction workers, airline pilots, and heavy equipment workers.
Despite these shortcomings of tests, the advances made in drug testing technologies are gradually overcoming these obstacles related to…… [Read More]
Sixteen percent of people taking Zyprexa for a year gained more than sixty-six pounds, according to documents obtained for a potential class action suit against the drug's manufacturer (Berenson 2007). The drugs used to treat depression are of limited use in treating the repeating depressive episodes of bipolar illness, both in terms of long-term efficacy and their danger in causing the bipolar sufferer to enter a manic episode, not merely recover from depression (Balkalar, 2007). Abilify, a new drug, has demonstrated less significant weight gain, although it can still produce tics, "headache, anxiety, insomnia, nausea, vomiting, constipation, dizziness, upset stomach, and an inner sense of restlessness or need to move" ("Commonly Asked Questions About Side Effects," 2007, Abilify: Bristol-Meyers Squib Official ebsite).
Finding the right drug for Susie may take time, and her drug treatment plan will likely take a series of adjustments over the course of her…… [Read More]
Croop et al. (1997).
The overall safety profile of naltrexone is good; however, care must be taken in prescribing the drug to certain patient populations; e.g., naltrexone shows a dose-dependent hepatotoxicity (package insert) and is therefore contraindicated in patients with significant hepatic impairment, which is frequently encountered in alcohol-dependent populations.
The clinical trials of naltrexone have typically been conducted in patients without significant impairment in hepatic function. Another consequence of the hepatic impact of naltrexone is the possibility of drug-drug interactions.
Kim et al. (2001) potentially clinically significant interaction has been reported between naltrexone and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; these researchers found elevated liver function tests in study participants receiving both medications, although the doses of naltrexone used in this study were higher than the typical 50 mg daily dose.
Naltrexone is not appropriate for use with patients taking prescribed or illicit opioid drugs. Antagonism of the effects of these drugs…… [Read More]
They are the ones who handle jobs that require expertise. Their job itself is difficult that not everybody can accept the responsibility. With this continuously growing number of addicts and/or substance-abused people, indeed, we need to have more and more credible substance abuse counselors to somehow alleviate this problem.
Block I, Ghoneim. MM 1993. Effects of chronic marijuana use on human cognition. Psychopharmacology 100(1-2):219-228,
Brook JS, Balka EB, Whiteman M. 1999.: The risks for late adolescence of early adolescent marijuana use. Am J. Public Health 89(10):1549-1554
Fisher. Gary, Harrison, T. 2004. Substance Abuse: Information for School Counselors, Social Workers, Therapists, and Counselors (3rd Edition). Allyn and Bacon.
Gruber, AJ, Pope HG, Hudson HI, Yurgelun-Todd D. 2003. Attributes of long-term heavy cannabis users: A case control study. Psychological Medicine 33:1415-1422.
Lehman WE, Simpson DD. 1992. Employee substance abuse and on-the-job behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology 77(3):309-321.
Marijuana and Health. 2001.…… [Read More]
Mental Health, and Welfare
Society, mental health and welfare:
A problem related to counseling (under-insurance) and a social problem (the lack of adequate healthcare coverage)
The course text Social action: A mandate for counselors discusses the ethical implications of such issues as race and social injustice in the counseling profession. However, perhaps even more important than these factors is the issue of class, specifically the affordability of counseling on an individual basis. Wealthier individuals with better insurance or who can afford to pay 'pout of pocket' often have the luxury of 'talk' therapy that poorer people, or people without adequate health insurance, lack. This creates a 'haves' versus 'have not' situation in terms of the availability and the quality of counseling. Poorer individuals with minimal insurance coverage for mental health care are often offered fewer counseling sessions, or have their psychological complaints treated as medical disorders, rather than fully addressed…… [Read More]
This really does appear to be true. If you look around you see more and more children being put on Ritalin when their behavior does not seem to be anything more children being children. It seems that parents are more and more taking the easy road out in order to control their children and not have to deal with them. Instead of parents stepping up to the plate and dealing with their kids and their problems they all choose to take the easy way out.
In the article One Pill makes you Smarter: An Ethical Appraisal of the Rise of Ritalin Mills discusses how advances in technology now allow scientists to monitor and manipulate brain functions with precision and control. These advances have lead to the development of drugs such as Prozac that help many people every day. There are many people that need this kind of help and the…… [Read More]
Norepinephrine, one of the monoamine neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, has been reported to be connected to several functions such as memory, cognition, consciousness, and emotion. It plays significant roles in the path physiology of depression. Norepinephrine transporter (NET) is responsible for the reuptake of norepinephrine into presynaptic nerves and is one of the main targets of antidepressants (Sekine, Arakawa, Ito, Okumura, Sasaki, Takahashi & Suhara, 2010). The norepinephrine system is important in: attention like alerting, focusing and orienting, appetitive behaviors, hedonic or pleasurable properties of natural and drug-related reinforcement and mood, arousal, and regulation of blood pressure (Biogenic Amine Neurotransmitters in the CNS, n.d.).
Serotonin is a hormone, also called 5-hydroxytryptamine, in the pineal gland, blood platelets, the digestive tract, and the brain. Serotonin acts both as a chemical messenger that transmits nerve signals between nerve cells and that which causes blood vessels to narrow.…… [Read More]
Throughout its history, psychology has undergone a number of evolutions. As the study of mind, the discipline has necessarily been subject to change as new research revealed information about the functions of the mind and its effect upon behavior. elatively simple conclusions drawn by those who are currently considered the founding fathers of psychology have been challenged and modified to become the various subdisciplines in psychology that we know today. Along with what can be considered the "mental" trends in psychology such as the behaviorist, psychoanalytic, the cognitive, and the evolutionary approaches, it has also been recognized that psychology has a firm basis in physiology.
In about 1913, the focus of psychology up-to-date profoundly changed as a result of work by the American psychologist John B. Watson. In an effort to bring more scientific merit to psychology, Watson advocated that the study of behavior should be used to draw…… [Read More]
Researchers used standard sleep questionnaires to assess sleep problems and characteristics in ADHD (n = 122) and non-ADHD (n = 105) comparison youths. They concluded that ADHD may be one of the consequence of nightmares but is not an outcome of it.
This study is valuable to my study in that it teaches me to be skeptical regarding differentiating between outcome and cause.
StRanjbaran, Z., Keefer, L., Farhadi, a., Stepanski, E., Sedghi, S. And Keshavarzian, a. (2007), Impact of sleep disturbances in inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 22: 1748 -- 1753.
Study showed that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients have significant sleep disturbance even when their disease is not active. This problem might affect quality of life, gastrointestinal symptoms and coping ability, and might potentially increase or decrease disease severity. A self-administered, mail-in questionnaire package was sent to 205 subjects using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index…… [Read More]
Treating Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa
Anorexia nervosa is an eating confusion described by a terror of fatness experienced during the adolescence period that leads to them to starving themselves leading to harmful low body weight, a moody fear of being fat and compulsive hunt for thinness. Though not limited to a certain age or sex, it mostly affects the female. The eating disorder affects both the physical appearance; thin appearance and psychological health. Though the origin of anorexia nervosa is blurred, severe fasting and weight loss are regularly linked with efforts to manage the increasing psychological and social burden of adolescence, the disorder leads to a reported death rate of 6-10% of the adolescent who do not seek medication in time Berkman et al., 2006.
The worry among most clinicians is whether to focus on anxieties the adolescence have during this period of growth or addressing the rigorous dieting and…… [Read More]
Also, later theorists were more inclined to analyze the human person, not in pathological or arrested state, but in a normal state. The input of theorists such as Karen Horney and Erik Erikson during the early part of the 20th century stressed human development from infancy to adulthood and the development of human society from a 'primitive' or collective state to today's more individualistic culture. However, theorists such as Karl Jung still made use of Freud's theory of the unconscious, even while Jung was more apt to stress the need to understand the collective unconscious, the social collective memory.
It is interesting to note that Jung's 20th century analysis of personality types incorporated older ideas about how body types and humors affect one's personality, for example whether one is a bold type, and the high-strung type, for example -- which Jung called degrees of personal extroversion or introversion. But because…… [Read More]
(Paul, 2005) In fact, the AAPC survey found that African-Americans, devout evangelicals, people without a college degree, the elderly and people age 18 to 29 are most likely to fear that a professional counselor won't take their religious beliefs into serious consideration when treating them. (Paul, 2005)
People come to Christian counselors for two reasons," commented Randolph Sanders, executive director of the Christian Association for Psychological Studies, an association of Christians in mental health and behavioral sciences. "One is faith perspective; they want a therapist who resonates with their worldview. The second is moral ethics; they want a counselor who understands what guides their decisions." (Paul, 2005)
Christian counseling, more than secular counseling, has the ability to present a starkly positive viewpoint. In fact, the origins of Christian counseling were planted in the clergy, whom parishioners historically consulted about emotional and spiritual well-being and health.
According to Paul, The progenitors…… [Read More]
The future of professional psychology:
The influence of special populations on the field of professional psychology
According to the American Board of Professional Psychology: "It is expected that clinical psychologists will demonstrate sensitivity to and skills in dealing with multicultural/diverse populations....Individual and cultural diversity recognizes the broad scope of such factors as race, ethnicity, language, sexual orientation, gender, age, disability, class status, education, religion/spiritual orientation, and other cultural dimension" (Clinical psychology, 2012, ABPP). In other words, the special needs of specific population groups must be taken into consideration when offering care, to ensure that treatment is commensurate and sensitive to the population's needs. The reason for this emphasis on culturally-appropriate care reflects a greater awareness of how not all forms of treatment are appropriate for all population groups within the field, and the degree to which special population needs have and continues to shape the point-of-view…… [Read More]
Neural Correlates of Drug elapse Propensity
efraining from Drug Use
Treating drug addiction requires experience and skill, because no single approach has broad efficacy (reviewed by Bauer, Covault, and Gelernter, 2012). High inter-individual variability of contributing factors and a lack of knowledge about what causes treatment failure (reviewed by Walton, Blow, and Booth, 2001), helps explain a relapse rate between 40% to 60% (NIDA, 2011). For this reason, researchers have been trying to identify what factors contribute to addictive tendencies and influence treatment success.
To better understand why some substance abusers are successful in overcoming their drug addictions and others are not, this essay will examine the neural correlates of drug relapse behavior. Particular attention will be paid to environmental and genetic factors and how they influence brain function on an anatomical and cellular level.
Neural Correlates of Environmental Triggers
Environmental triggers have long been known to increase the risk…… [Read More]
Biological applications are being used in the study of mental process and behavior in term of mechanisms of body that is the study of psychology. The thinking that psychological processes are biologically related to each other is the base of relationship of psychology biology. Through different research on the study of mental processes now scientists are able to better treat any disease both physically and mentally.
Study of relationship of biology and psychology take us back to the time of Aristotle who told that mind and body are correlated to each other and mind is being merely one of the body's function. French philosopher ene Descartes present a theory of dualism according to which both mind and spirit are two separate entities which are connected to each other through human body. Gottfried Wilhelm present a psychological parallism theory in which he said that body and mind are separates things but…… [Read More]
According to a 2002 survey conducted under the auspices of NIH, ecstasy abuse among college and university students in general is a widespread trend that impedes academic performance (Bar-on, 2002). The NIH survey targeted 66 4-year American universities and colleges alike. The projected findings indicated a diminishing trend in undergraduate academic performance amongst students who indulge in binge drinking and abuse ecstasy in the process. Elsewhere, a Harvard College drug study indicated persistent drug users were more likely to miss lectures and delay in their coursework than the average student (Montgomery & Fisk, 2008).
A parallel IP esearch dubbed "Predictors of academic achievement and retention among college freshmen" projected that while certain students manage to cope with the new life role upon entering college, a good number of students flunk out of college before completing their freshman year. According to this research, 75% of the freshman drop out is related…… [Read More]
A physiological assumption that relates behavior to the activity of the brain and other organs of the body.
An ontogenetic consumption that describes development of behavior or of a brain structure. C. An evolutionary assumption that examines a brain structure or behavior in terms of evolutionary history.
A functional assumption describing why a particular brain structure or behavior evolved the way it did (Kalat, 2012).
What historical disciplines converge to create biological psychology?
Several areas of psychology are involved in biological psychology including clinical psychology, social psychology, cognitive psychology, evolutionary psychology, and bits and pieces from other areas of psychology. All areas of neuroscience and biology are particularly relevant to biopsychology. Comparative anatomy, physiology, medicine (e.g neurology and psychiatry), research methodology, and statistics also contribute to the creation of biological psychology (Kalat, 2012).
3. What are some of the earliest examples of a biological approach to studying behavior?…… [Read More]
Bipolar disorder, originally called manic depressive disorder, is a severe mood disorder that vacillates between extreme "ups" (mania, hypomania) and "downs" (depression). The effects of having bipolar disorder can be observed across the patients social and occupational functioning. Often the patient is left isolated from work, friends, and family. Medications have become the first-line treatments for bipolar disorder; however, psychotherapy can offer additional benefits in the ongoing treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. This paper discusses the symptoms and treatment of bipolar disorder focusing on cognitive behavioral therapy and emotion focused therapy.
Description and differentiation
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -- Fourth Edition -- Text evision (DSM-IV-T) one's mood is an all-encompassing and sustained feeling tone experienced internally by the person and influences the person's behavior and perception of the world. Affect is the external or outward expression of this inner…… [Read More]
Kyle is a 40-year-old male of Greek-American descent. He reports that his religion is Eastern-Orthodox and he attends weekly services. Kyle's wife urged him to contact a therapist because she was concerned about some recent and radical changes in his behavior. As a reservist in the U.S. Marines, Kyle has been deployed twice to serve in Iraq. During his first deployment, he was stationed in Kuwait and had an uneventful service. However, his second deployment was marked by a significant tragic event. During a weekend leave just before he was sent back to the United States Kyle was exploring a rural marketplace with several military colleagues. A bomb detonated at the market, killing several dozen local civilians, and one of Kyle's colleagues. Kyle, who was not hurt in the blast, heroically assisted both his colleagues and many of the civilians who were critically wounded.
Since returning home two…… [Read More]
Broken Heart Syndrome
Cardiovascular Case Study
Broken heart syndrome, otherwise called stress or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), represents an adverse physiological response to an acute psychological or physical stressor (Derrick, 2009). The death of a loved one or experiencing a physically traumatic event, represent two examples of life stressors that can cause this reversible form of cardiomyopathy. Although effective treatment is available, the seriousness of the condition is such that it explains how a person can literally die of a broken heart.
An estimated 1.2 million people suffered from an myocardial infarction (MI) in 2007 and approximately 1% (Derrick, 2009, p. 50) to 2% (Wittstein, 2012, p. 2) of MI events was probably due to TTC. Women are far more susceptible to TTC than men and represent approximately 89% of all cases (Derrick, 2009, p. 50). This gender bias shifts the estimated prevalence of TTC among female MI patients…… [Read More]
Since its approval for use in the United States by the FDA in 1987, fluoxetine (commonly known as Prozac) has been the subject of great debate. Fluoxetine, now available in generic form, has been proven useful in the treatment of depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, some eating disorders, panic disorder, insomnia, migraines, schizophrenia, and more (Schmetzer, 2002). However, this drug does have a range of possible side effects including sexual dysfunction, anxiety, insomnia, agitation, tremors, irritability, hypomania, impulsivity, and gastrointestinal distress (Kerr, 2008). In addition, it may be too early to tell what the consequences of long-term (more than 20 years) use of fluoxetine might be on the human brain (Murray, 2006).
As a psychoactive drug, fluoxetine works by affecting the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine. Neurotransmitters in the brain are synthesized in neurons, stored in vesicles, and upon nerve impulse stimulation, are released into the synaptic cleft. Here they…… [Read More]
Behavioral Health Changes
Behavioral health, rehab, and detox diagnoses: eimbursement and treatment philosophy
Although mental and physical health statuses are clearly interrelated, mental health diagnoses are treated differently both on a social and institutional level. According to the AHA Task Force on Behavioral Health (2007) one-fifth of patients who suffer a heart attack are also found to suffer from major depression. Depression after a heart attack significantly increases the likelihood of a patient dying from a second attack and mental health issues and heart problems are often co-morbid (Behavioral health challenges, AHA2007:1) However, despite this 'mind-body' connection, reimbursement services have been problematic, particularly for case management services and services provided by non-physicians, but also for more standard forms of mental health care for many patients (Mauch, Kautz, & Smith 2008:2).
Patients with all forms of health insurance have faced considerable obstacles in accessing high-quality mental health care. The privately-insured often…… [Read More]
Deliberate self-harm (DSH) or self-injurious behavior (SI) involves intentional self-poisoning or injury, irrespective of the apparent purpose of the act. (Vela, Harris and Wright, 1983) Self-mutilation is also used interchangeably with self-mutilation, though self-mutilation is one aspect of DSH. Approximately 1% of the United States population uses physical self-injury as a way of dealing with overwhelming feelings or situations, often using it to speak when no words will come. There are different ways in which DSH is manifested: cutting, burning, and abusing drugs, alcohol or other substances. This occurs at times of extreme anger, distress and low self-esteem, in order to either create a physical manifestation of the negative feelings which can then be dealt with, or alternatively to punish yourself. Extremely emotional distress can also cause DSH -- this is sometimes linked with hearing voices, particularly as a way of stopping the voices.
DSH is also often called parasuicide,…… [Read More]
iopsychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes through a biological approach (Cooper 2000). Practitioners in this field believe that biological processes may explain certain psychological phenomena, such as learning, memory, perception, attention, motivation, emotion, and cognition, particularly problems and issues connected with these phenomena. iopsychology is also called biological psychology, psychobiology, behavioral biology or behavioral neuroscience (Cooper).
Practitioners in this new field use varied and overlapping fields of study: cognitive neuroscience, which primarily examines the brain to understand the neural workings of mental processes; psychopharmacology, which deals with the effects of drugs on psychological functions; neuro-psychology, which is concerned with the psychological effects of brain damage in humans; behavioral genetics, which deals with behavior and psychological traits; evolutionary psychology, which is involved with how psychological processes have evolved; and comparative psychology, which compares findings among different species (Cooper). The last science centers on ethology, which…… [Read More]
Children with autism and irritable behavior are an incredibly vulnerable population. The right medications are crucial because the children are the ones who suffer any social or emotional problems based on their conditions. That is why Aman et al. (2008) explored the use of risperidone in children with autism and other forms of irritable behavior. The study aimed to better understand risperidone's cognitive impact on children with severe behavior disturbances to test its efficiency as a potential solution to some of the children's behavioral issues.
isperidone is an antipsychotic that is often administered to this vulnerable population; yet there is surprisingly little discourse on the cognitive impact it may have during treatment of behavioral disorders. The study conducted by Aman et al. (2008) aimed to test whether or not risperidone had a cognitive impact in the short-term during administering of treatment to children. During this age range, cognitive…… [Read More]
Given this priest is able to coax and created situations where boys are with him alone is even worse. In short, the counselor in this situation has no choice but to step in and say/do something.
To make a final decision, it would normally be wise to do some information gathering and to truly find out for sure whether or not this man has offended or not. However, the only real way to do that is to prod the priest even more and/or to ask the children and/or parents what is going on, if anything, and that would probably not be the best idea, at least in the latter case. Any querying of children would have to be done with the full knowledge and consent of the parents, and this is true both ethically and legally, and even if such permission was not garnered it would get back to them…… [Read More]
Importance of Cognitive-enhancing drugs
Methods of boosting an individual's brain power
esearch for cognitive enhancers
The interest in Cognitive enhancement
The neuroethics associated with cognitive enhancements
The article titled "Neuroethical issues in cognitive enhancement" was written by the authors Barbara Sahakian and Sharon Morein-Zamir and was first published online on March 8, 2010. Neuroethics is a field that addresses the applied ethical issues that are brought directly or indirectly about by neuroscience advancements. One area is on the research and development of enhancers in pharmaceutical cognition. These drugs are mainly developed for the treatment of cognitive disabilities and improving the quality of life of patients with brain injuries and neuropsychiatric disorders. This report endeavors to review the impact that such drugs have in both healthy and neuropsychiatric individuals and the overall implications on the society as a new development in the field of psychology (Sahakian & Morein-Zamir,…… [Read More]
ETHNOBOTANY (Biology Class).
John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) is increasingly used as a natural way of treating mild to moderate depression. "Hypericum has a thymoleptic action which results in an improved sense of well-being. It has long been used as a nerve healer in melancholic conditions, depression, exhaustion and convalescence. It is also used to treat conditions where there is a degree of overtension, such as insomnia, cramps and colic of the viscera and uterus, epilepsy, diarrhoea, and enuresis in children" (Haughton 2014). Although it has been used in many different ways in the past as an all-natural remedy, today it is primarily used as a mood enhancer. The effect is mild and the supplement must be taken consistently over time for the individual to feel its benefits.
St. John's Wort must be taken with some caution: although overdoses are rare, it can negatively interact with a number of…… [Read More]
Brain Factors That Influence Psychopathy
Psychopathy is among the conditions that burden the performance of most global states in the current contemporary society. A variety of factors causes psychopathy. The factors include biological, environmental, and brain factors. Psychopathy presents with different symptoms including, violence, deceitfulness, aggression, irresponsibility, lack of guilt, and impulsiveness among other symptoms associated with it. Significant researches conducted in the past have failed to create an understanding of the brain factors that cause the psychopathy. Therefore, the following essay presents an analysis of the brain factors that cause the psychopathy. The analysis presents results obtained from studies conducted to create an understanding of the relationship.
According to Verona, Sprague, and Sadeh (2012) psychopathy refers to a condition characterized by diminished abilities for remorse and low abilities to control behaviors. Cale and Lilienfeld (2002) show in their definition that defining psychopathy should not only focus on the…… [Read More]