Psychopharmacology Essays (Examples)

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Contingency Management Alcohol & Marijuana

Words: 11354 Length: 41 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27822679

" (1995)

The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.

McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)

Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)

Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
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Paranoid Schizophrenia This Work Details

Words: 1791 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54486945

(Walsh & Meyersohn, 2001, p. 188)

Therapeutic Interventions

Therapeutic interventions, as has been mentioned are frequently multifaceted. Nursing interventions can be associated with the disease treatment or can be in support of other diseases the individual has that need treatment, i.e. when and individual is hospitalized for illness or injury the diagnosis and therapeutic evidence of PS is absolutely essential to support and understand as incompliance can be global and "new" therapeutic relationships can be met with extreme distrust. Education is essential as PS patients still have some (greater or lesser) cognitive impairment and may not give appropriate clues as to how well he or she understands or intends to comply with treatment interventions. Nurses in a psych or medical setting must be careful how they word everything and how they educate patents about their treatment. Expected outcomes are dependant on severity but many people with PS can and do…… [Read More]

References

Bond, G.R., & Meyer, P.S. (1999). The Role of Medications in the Employment of People with Schizophrenia. The Journal of Rehabilitation, 65(4), 9.

Higgins, P.B. (1995). Clozapine and the Treatment of Schizophrenia. Health and Social Work, 20(2), 124.

Hilsenroth, M.J., Fowler, J.C., & Padawer, J.R. (1998). The Rorschach Schizophrenia Index (SCZI): an Examination of Reliability, Validity, and Diagnostic Efficiency. Journal of Personality Assessment, 70(3), 514-534.

Mayo Clinic "Paranoid Schizophrenia Definition" http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/paranoid-schizophrenia/DS00862
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Avoidant Personality Disorder

Words: 4280 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14227618

Avoidant Personality Disorder

As per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), a certain case of avoidant personality disorder (APD) is featured by the existent sign of social inhibition, feeling of being short of requirement, and hypersensitivity to negative valuation. (American Psychiatric Association, 1994, p.1) Even though personality disorders are not often discovered in persons below age 18, children who come within the condition of APD are recurrently portrayed as being aloof to the core, fearful in arising circumstances, and afraid of dissention and social boycott. The proportion of the signs and the inability is way behind the practice of inhibition that is prevalent in as much as 40% of the populace. Hence it is of great relevance of examining the disorder as it relates to professional counseling.

Exploration of disorder

Bearing a semblance to other personality disorders, the state of Avoidant Personality disorder turns out…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association: (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Beck, Aaron T; Freeman, M.D; Arthur, Ed.D. (1990). "Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders." New York: The Guilford Press.

Benjamin, Lorna Smith (1996) "An Interpersonal Theory of Personality Disorders," in Major Theories of Personality Disorder, Clarkin, John F. & Lenzenweger, Mark F (Eds.). New York: The Guilford Press

Craig, Robert J. (1995). "Interpersonal Psychotherapy and MCMI-III -- Based Assessment, Tactical Psychotherapy of the Personality Disorders An MCMI-III -- Based Approach." Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
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antipsychotic drugs weight gain and'schizophrenia

Words: 1000 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19240060

Particularly after her PANSS test results, the client in this case has been diagnosed with schizophrenia, paranoid type, in which positive symptoms like delusions are prevalent. The purpose of this paper is to clarify three key psychopharmacological treatment decisions made on behalf of the client. Goals of all three decisions are symptom reduction and the promotion of the client's mental health and psychosocial functioning.

Decision

The decision was to give the patient Invega Sustenna (paliperidone palmitate) 234 mg intramuscular X1 followed by 156 mg intramuscular on day 4 and monthly thereafter, instead of either Zyprexa (olanzapine) or Abilify. The reasoning is based primarily on the fact that Invega Sustenna is a long-acting injectable with fewer compliance complications than orally administered drugs. Although Abilify has been available as a long-acting injectable, Invega Sustenna is recommended in this case because it presents fewer side effects than either Zyprexa or Abilify, particularly those…… [Read More]

References

Amiaz, R., Rubenstein, K., Czerniak, E. et al. (2016). A Diet and Fitness Program Similarly Affects Weight Reduction in Schizophrenia Patients Treated with Typical or Atypical Medications. Pharmacopsychiatry 49(3): 112-116.

Bak, M., et al. (2014). Almost All Antipsychotics Result in Weight Gain: A Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE 9(4): e94112. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094112

Khanna, et al. (2016). Aripiprazole versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD006569. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006569.pub5.

Park, E.J. et al. (2013). Long-acting injectable formulations of antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia. Archives of Pharmacal Research 36(6): 651-659.
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Genetic Influence of MDMA Neurotoxicity MDMA Neurotoxicity

Words: 1921 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57050778

Genetic Influence of MDMA Neurotoxicity

MDMA Neurotoxicity

Ecstasy [(±)-3.4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA, XTC, X, E] is one of the most popular drugs of abuse in the world (Capela et al., 2009, p. 211). Often used in social settings, such as the so-called 'raves' or all night dance parties, ecstasy has been reported to lower barriers to intimacy, increase the pleasure derived from friendships, enhance social interactions, and increase energy (euphoria) (Peters and Kok, 2009, p. 242).

In the U.S., MDMA is classified as a schedule 1 drug due its addictive potential, lack of therapeutic utility, dubious safety profile, and neurotoxic potential (Capela et al., 2009, p. 212) and its use has been illegal since 1985. The safety concerns of MDMA include the potential for a negative therapeutic outcome (Parrott, 2007) and its neurotoxicity (Capela et al., 2009). Apparently, the use of MDMA in a psychotherapy setting can produce a negative outcome that…… [Read More]

References

Capela, Joao P., Carmo, Helena, Remiao, Fernando, Bastos, Maria L., Meisel, Andreas, and Carvalho, F. (2009). Molecular and cellular mechanisms of ecstasy-induced neurotoxicity: An overview. Molecular Neurobiology, 39, 210-271.

Carmo, Helena, Brulport, Marc, Hermes, Matthias, Oesch, Franz, Silva, Renata, Ferreira, Luisa M. et al. (2006). Influence of CYP2D6 polymorphism on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('ecstasy') cytotoxicity. Pharmakogenetics and Genomics, 16, 789-799.

Esse, Katherine, Fossati-Bellani, Marco, Traylor, Angela, and Martin-Schild, Sheryl. (2011). Epidemic of illicit drug use, mechanisms of action/addiction and stroke as a health hazard. Brain and Behavior, 1, 44-54.

Parrott, A.C. (2007). The psychotherapeutic potential of MDMA (3.4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine): An evidence-based review. Psychopharmacology, 191, 181-93.
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Health Care Law Relating to

Words: 953 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44996916

Informed consent signifies one of the protections in studies on mental illness. Consent is a procedure that permits for the free choice by a knowledgeable and competent person to or not to partake in investigative procedures. Capacity for consent is not a stationary experience. It can transform with the circumstance of the person. The theory of informed consent was established on two distinctive legal philosophies. Every patient has the right to figure out what will or will not be completed on them and in regards to a fiduciary character of the patient physician affiliation it has to be articulated with the main purpose of endorsing individual self-rule while endorsing balanced decision formulation.

Evaluation

This article was very easy to read and attempted to break the subject matter down into everyday language in order to maintain clarity. It gave a very good overview of psychiatric drug testing on children and how…… [Read More]

References

Malhotra, Savita and B.N., Subodh. (2009). Informed consent & ethical issues in paediatric psychopharmacology. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 129(1), p.19-32.
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Biological Humanistic Approaches Personality The Paper Cover

Words: 935 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11424023

biological humanistic approaches personality. The paper cover areas. *Use Maslow's hierarchy discuss extent growth influence personality formation. *Describe biological factors influence formation personality.

Biological and humanistic approaches to personality:

An overview of the debate

Biological theories have become increasingly popular in the field of psychology, as scientists seek to understand the roots of human behavior. Several reasons are at the heart of this shift in emphasis from 'nurture' to 'nature': the first is our expanding knowledge of neuropsychology and how different components of the brain affect behavior. A change in the physical matter or the environment of the brain can result in a change in personality. The second is the expansion of psychopharmacology, whereby aspects of the human character once thought beyond conscious control, such as hyperactivity or a tendency towards melancholy, can be shifted when medications change the individual's brain chemistry. Finally, changes in behavior are evident at different…… [Read More]

References

Cherry, Kendra. (2012). Hierarchy of needs.

http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/hierarchyneeds.htm

Coccaro, Emil F. & Larry J. Siever. (2008). The neuropsychopharmacology of personality disorders. Psychopharmacology: The Fourth Generation of Progress,

Davidson, Richard. (n.d). Towards a biology of personality and emotion. Annals New York
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Organizational Chart for the Proposed Organization XYZ

Words: 2822 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61811565

organizational chart for the proposed organization.

XYZ Center

Organizational Chart

ADVISOY BOAD

CENTE DIECTO

CONSULTANTS

SUPPOT STAFF

ASSOCIATES

MEDICAL DIECTO

MEDICAL STAFF

THEAPISTS

ADDICTION STAFF

CONTACTS STAFF

Include the title of positions and a brief description of the positions' duties and responsibilities.

The organizational structure of the Center is founded on a shared services model. President/director of the center has administrative, management and clinical skills in the field of human welfare along with behavioral health industry for twenty years. Open-book management, mutual respect and shared obligations are the key elements on which the philosophy of the management is based upon.

Director of the company will take care of the company and its management. elationships will be the primary variable in founding the direction of the center as the company is set up as a shared service model. Advisory board will be founded which will have four leaders in the area…… [Read More]

References

Allison, M. And Kaye, J. (2005). Strategic Planning for Nonprofit Organizations. Second Edition. John Wiley and Sons.

Haines, S.G. (2004). ABCs of strategic management: an executive briefing and plan-to-plan day on strategic management in the 21st century.

Lorenzen, M. (2006). "Strategic Planning for Academic Library Instructional Programming." In: Illinois Libraries 86, no. 2 (Summer 2006): 22-29.

Mckeown, M. (2012), The Strategy Book, FT Prentice Hall.
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Mental Patients' Physical Health Who Use Antipsychotic Medication

Words: 13284 Length: 32 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44641264

Antipsychotic Medication and the Physical Health Problems of the Patient With Mental Illness

More and more attention is now being given to the mental disorders especially in U.S. And due to this increase in attention an increase has also been noticed in the treatment of these mental health issues (Zuvekas, 2005). About 30% of the total U.S. population that is between the ages of 18-52 is being affected by mental health issues which make up a large part of the public health problem (Kessler et al., 2005; Narrow et al., 2002). The risk of morbidity and smaller life expectancy is very high in the patients who suffer from the mental health issues (Millar, 2008; Skodol, 2008). It has been observed from numerous researches that the chances of suffering from various health issues such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension are a lot more for the patients suffering from schizophrenia (Millar,…… [Read More]

References

Robson, D. And Haddad, M. (2012). Mental health nurses' attitudes towards the physical health care of people with severe and enduring mental illness: The development of a measurement tool. International Journal of Nursing Studies 49; 72 -- 83

Rosenberg, S., Goodman, L.A., Osher, F.C., 2001. Prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in people with sever mental illness. American Journal of Public Health 91, 31 -- 37.

Ruigomez, A., Rodriguez, L.A.G., Dev, V.J., Arellano, F., Raniwala, J., 2000. Are schizophrenia or antipsychotic drugs a risk factor for cataracts? Epidemiology 11, 620 -- 623.

Ryan, M.C., Thakore, J.H., 2001. Physical consequences of schizophrenia and its treatment: the metabolic syndrome. Life Sciences 71 (3), 239 -- 257.
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Diagnose or Not to Diagnose

Words: 2826 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19828979



Discuss the criteria used to define abnormality (abnormal behavior / mood disorders)

There are no established criteria to define what is abnormal. On the other hand, every individual trait can be said as abnormal on some social plane. (Oracle think quest, 2010) Some of the preferred ideas to define abnormality are as given below:

Statistical Norms Deviation: Certain population facts such as height, weight and intelligence are measured and recorded. Most of people come in the middle range of intelligence. Those who fail in general terms and falls below the so-called intelligence scale are termed as abnormal. But then, the people with extra intelligence also become abnormal. Furthermore, intelligence is a subjective issue. (Oracle think quest, 2010)

Social Norms Deviation: People going again social norms and trying to make their idiosyncratic identity are also termed as abnormal. Galileo was abnormal and he was brutally punished for his abnormality, he suggested…… [Read More]

References

Baker, B.L., Blacher, J., & Pfeiffer, S. (1993). "Family involvement in residential treatment of children with psychiatric disorder and mental retardation" Hospital and Community Psychiatry, vol. 44, no. 6, pp: 561-566.

Chan, Jeffery; Hudson, Colin. (2002) "Individuals with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness:

A Literature Review," Australian Journal of Social Issues, vol. 37, no. 1, pp: 31-40.

Davidson, P.W., Cain, N.N., Sloane-Reeves, J., Giesow, V.E Quijano, L.E., Van Heyningen, J., & Sholam, I. (1995). "Crisis intervention for community-based individuals with developmental disabilities and behavioral and psychiatric disorders" Mental Retardation, vol. 33, no. 1, pp: 21-30.
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Health Car Problem Select and

Words: 3075 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28264858

At which point, they talk about the effects that the different kinds of coverage are having on senior citizen, with many using a combination of Medicare and private insurance, while others have used a combination of Medicare / Medicaid. To rectify the situation, the article points out that there is one of two solutions to include: the government placing price caps and importing prescription drugs. A government model of limiting the overall scope of price increases, could help to reduce the negative effects that this having on the elderly. Another option, for those who are opposed to such a plan, is to allow the import of prescription drugs. This is significant, because it shows how increasing the available supply of prescription drugs are a key to curtailing costs. If some kind of programs, this could be introduced to address this issue. At which point, it could be effective in reducing…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Carbaugh, R. (2006). Chapter Summary. Contemporary Economics (pg. 76) Mason, OH: Thompson. http://books.google.com/books?id=9Pascy_5HUMC&pg=PA76&dq=solutions+high+prescriptions+drug+costs+on+the+elderly&hl=en&ei=zFcmTIaALMKB8gb59YnKDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false

Day, T. (n.d.). About Medical Care for the Elderly. Retrieved June 26, 2010 from Long-Term Care Link website: http://www.longtermcarelink.net/eldercare_medical_care_issues.htm

Ham R. (2007). Clinical Pharmacology. Primary Care Geriatrics (pp. 94) Philadelphia, PA Mosby.

http://books.google.com/books?id=aboBPOyYt3IC&pg=PA359&dq=Clinical+Pharmacology.+Primary+Care+Geriatrics+(pp.+94&hl=en&ei=Q3wmTKiCGYP98Ab1pvjLDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
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RAD Reactive Attachment Disorder Introduction

Words: 2088 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1563025

Seriously, a reader cannot be certain that RAD is the key problem with T, who has had prenatal exposure to alcohol, marijuana and cocaine and has experienced "abuse and neglect" (Lyon p. 644). The article brings in the possibility that FASD or PTSD may be appropriate in describing "T" -- a 12-year-old Hispanic boy. But what stands out in the intervention of T. is the litany of medications given to T. while he was institutionalized due to wild and violent behaviors: Risperidone (3 mg); clozapine (200 mg); valproic acid (750 mg); guanfacine (4 mg); and desmopressin (0.6 mg).

In addition, T received chlorpromazine (50 mg every 2 hours) and Benadryl (50 mg every 4 hours) (Lyon p. 645) to curb his aggression. hat also stands out is the disclosure that Lyon received money from Eli Lilly to conduct this research on T. How much credibility does an author have in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. (2008). Reactive Attachment Disorder.

Retrieved May 13, 2009, from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families//reactive_attachment_disorder.

Becker-Weidman, Arthur, and Hughes, Daniel. (2008). Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy:

An evidence-based treatment for children with complex trauma and disorders of attachment.
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Risks of Illicit Recreational Use

Words: 1382 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47206679

, 2007). The results of that research indicates that light users of MDMA do exhibit mild cognitive impairment during the short-term in which they occasionally use the drug but that after six months or more of abstinence, their performance on the same cognitive tests used to identify those changes returns to being indistinguishable from the performance of those who have never been exposed to the drug (Golding, Groome, ycroft, et al., 2007).

The Short-Term and Long-Term Consequences of Heavy MDMA Use

Animal studies have conclusively established that MDMA causes permanent destruction of neurons and synaptic processes that are essential to the physiological mechanisms of neurotransmitter secretion, response, and reuptake by virtue of the selectively neurotoxic properties of the drug on 5-HT neurons in rats (Verrico, Miller, & Madras, 2007). Those findings are consistent with anecdotal evidence collected from clinical human data in connection with the long-term cognitive, behavioral, and mood…… [Read More]

References

Golding, J.F., Groome, DH, Rycroft, N., and Denton, Z. "Cognitive Performance in Light Current Users and Ex-Users of Ecstasy (MDMA) and Controls." The

American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Vol. 33 (2007): 301 -- 307.

Koprich, J.B., Chen, E.Y., Kanaan, N.M., Campbell, N.G., Kordower, J.H., and Lipton, J.W. "Prenatal 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) alters exploratory behavior, reduces monoamine metabolism, and increases forebrain tyrosine hydroxylase fiber density of juvenile rats." Neurotoxicology and Teratology, Vol. 25, No. 5 (2003): 509 -- 517.

Roiser, J.P., Rogers, R.D., and Sahakian, B.J. "Neuropsychological function in ecstasy
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Limitations of Treating Mental Illness

Words: 1524 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90524678

This is a fact that is virtually undisputed among the sociological and medical school of thought and practice. Many researchers of late have suggested alternative approaches to treating abnormal behaviors evident in persons diagnosed with mental illness.

By far the most common of these is a cooperative approach to care that involves treatment utilizing pharmacological and cognitive or counseling therapies. It is believed that the combination of both of these will work in tandem to best serve the needs of the patient afflicted with a mental illness. A cooperative approach to treating mental illness will also guarantee that both the sociological aspects and physiological aspects of the disease are treated adequately.

eferences

Buelow, G., & Hebert, S. (1995). Counselor's resource on psychiatric medications, issues of treatment and referral. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Christensen, O.J., England, J.T. & Scovel, K.A. (2002). "Mental health counselors'

Perceptions regarding Psychopharmacological prescriptive privileges." Journal of…… [Read More]

References

Buelow, G., & Hebert, S. (1995). Counselor's resource on psychiatric medications, issues of treatment and referral. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Christensen, O.J., England, J.T. & Scovel, K.A. (2002). "Mental health counselors'

Perceptions regarding Psychopharmacological prescriptive privileges." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24(1), 36

Hagan, J. (1991). "The disreputable pleasures: Crime and deviance in Canada, 3rd ed."
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Paxil History of Paxil in the 1960s

Words: 1858 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97585016

Paxil

History of Paxil

In the 1960s a Danish company named Ferrosan began performing research on aspects of the central nervous system. Ferrosan was most interested in the relationship between the neurotransmitter serotonin and depressed mood in people. The original idea was that if a drug could be developed to increase serotonin levels in the brain it might lead to improvements in treating people with depression (DeGrandpre, 2006). The research resulted in the development of a formula for a compound then known as the "Buus-Lassen Compound" which allegedly had the capability to relieve the depression in people. The compound was patented in the United States in 1977 and the company later sold all rights and research surrounding this patent to SmithKline (now GlaxoSmithKline) in 1980 (DeGrandpre, 2006).

SmithKline put significant effort into developing the compound and much of this development occurred in the SmithKline plant in Harlow, England (DeGrandpre, 2006).…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, I.M. (2000). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors vs. tricyclic antidepressants: A

meta-analysis of efficacy and tolerability. Journal of Affective Disorders, 58(1), 19-36.

DeGrandpre, R. (2006). The cult of pharmacology. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Kim, S.W., Grant, J.E., Adson, D.E., Shin, Y.C., & Zaninelli, R. (2002). A double-blind placebo-
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Henderson a Cognitive Behavioral Study of Steven

Words: 3439 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12843400

Henderson

A Cognitive Behavioral Study of Steven Henderson: Case Conceptualization and Treatment Plan

Theories of Counseling

Coun510_D04

This is a case conceptualization of a 26-year-old man who experienced sexual abuse as a child and the haunting memories of the abuse have led to difficulties in his personal, social, and educational functioning as an adult. The client is experiencing anxiety, depression, problems with motivation, an inability to confide in those close to him, and difficulties in developing educational and occupational goals for himself. He complained of very low self-esteem and believes that his inability to deal with his past sexual abuse has led to these issues. The case conceptualization explores the proposed treatment of this individual's issues using a cognitive behavioral approach. Empirical evidence for the use of cognitive behavioral treatment for trauma victims is discussed. The specific issues that the individual is experiencing as a result of the abuse are…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.

Beck, A.T., Rush, J.A., Shaw, B.F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression.

New York: The Guilford Press.

Cloitre, M. (2009). Effective psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: A review and critique. CNS Spectrums, 14(1), S1, 32-43.
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Caffeine Increases Visual and Motor Performance

Words: 1913 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86964022

Caffeine Improves Visual-Motor Performance

Biological Investigation

Acute Caffeine Ingestion Improves Visual-Motor esponses

Caffeine represents the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, so understanding how this chemical affects an individual's physiology is essential to providing the best healthcare advice for the general public. Towards this goal, the response times of college students were studied before and after ingestion of water, ed Bull, or coffee. The task involved clicking a mouse button as fast as possible in response to a computer monitor screen changing color. Compared to water, response times improved by almost 6 and 13 seconds for ed Bull and coffee, respectively. Based on published information, which suggests the ed Bull and coffee ingestion would provide approximately 80 and 122 mg of caffeine, respectively, these results indicate a dose-dependent improvement in task performance as the caffeine dosage increased. Although between subjects variability was high, these results are remarkably consistent…… [Read More]

References

Bruce, M., Scott, N., Lader, M., & Marks, V. (1986). The psychopharmacological and electrophysiological effects of single doses of caffeine in healthy human subjects. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 22, 81-7.

Brunye, T.T., Mahoney, C.R., Leiberman, H.R., & Taylor, H.A. (2010). Caffeine modulates attention of network function. Brain and Cognition, 72, 181-8.

Caffeineinformer. (2014). Drip Coffee: Caffeine levels. Retrieved 16 Mar. 2014 from http://www.caffeineinformer.com/caffeine-content/coffee-drip.

Jacobson, B.H. & Thurman-Lacey, S.R. (1992). Effect of caffeine on motor performance by caffeine-naive and -- familiar subjects. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 74, 151-157.
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Exist on Kleptomania They May Include Treatment

Words: 2765 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64686264

exist on kleptomania. They may include treatment options, background on the disorders, or even how to identify a person suffering from kleptomania. New research however, has begun linking the disorder to others in hopes of better understanding what causes kleptomania and how to effectively treat it. Kleptomania has been linked to compulsive buying and binge-eating disorder. omen are known to suffer more from these disorders than men. This suggests these three disorders may have more in common than initially believed.

Prevalence

Kleptomania is a rare disorder found in both men and women with women producing higher occurrences than men. Shoplifting although similar to kleptomania, is not habitual nor does it produce the same effects that someone suffering from kleptomania would. The disorder is commonly characterized by a need to steal things, sometimes trivial things, in order to feel better or feel in control. Normally people who show symptoms of kleptomania…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chong, S.A., and B.L. Iow. "Treatment of kleptomania with fluvoxamine." Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 93.4 (1996): 314-315. Print.

Grant, Jon, Brian Odlaug, Liana Schrieber, Samuel Chamberlain, and Suck Won. "Memantine reduces stealing behavior and impulsivity in kleptomania: a pilot study." International Clinical Psychopharmacology 28.2 (2013): 106-111. Print.

Grant, Jon E., and Suck Won Kim. "An Open-Label Study of Naltrexone in the Treatment of Kleptomania." The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 63.4 (2002): 349-356. Print.

Grant, Jon E., and Marc N. Potenza. The Oxford handbook of impulse control disorders. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. Print.
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Panic Disorder Counseling Panic Disorder

Words: 4240 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27767876

Apparent health can be generally positive or negative; in spite of how it links with the real health; it may be significant to comprehend its function in certain kinds of psychopathology. Negatively apparent health has been anticipated to symbolize a cognitive risk factor for panic disorder (PD), detached from elevated anxiety feeling. As a result, PD may be more likely to take place on a background of negative perceptions of one's health. A negatively perceived health may also have predictive implications for PD patients, bearing in mind that negatively perceived health has been found to be a considerable predictor of mortality in general and that individuals with panic-like anxiety indications, panic attacks, and PD have elevated mortality rates, mostly due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular illnesses (Starcevick, Berle, Fenech, Milicevic, Lamplugh and Hannan, 2009).

Psychological

Studies have suggested that panic attacks (PA) are widespread and connected with an augmented occurrence of…… [Read More]

References

Carrera, M.; Herran, a.; Ramirez, M.L.; Ayestaran, a.; Sierra-Biddle, D.; Hoyuela, F.;

Rodriguez-Cabo, B.; Vazquez-Barquero, J.L..(2006). Personality traits in early phases of panic disorder: implications on the presence of agoraphobia, clinical severity and short-

term outcome. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 114(6), p.417-425.

Craske, Michelle G., Kircanski, Katharina, Phil., C., Epstein, Alyssa, Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich,
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Gluten Affect Autism Fact or

Words: 7524 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46952110

When processed by a transglutaminase enzyme, it can interact with immunological cells and produce cytotoxic inflammation. In autism, it is believed that peptides from gluten and casein cross the intestinal microvillus barrier and enter the blood stream. They also cross the blood-brain barrier. In the brain, certain amino acid sequences of these peptides compete with natural peptides, which bind to opioid receptors. These receptors are G-protein receptors in cell membrane surfaces of neurons. inding to these receptors disturbs the neuronal function and ultimately leads to or contributes to autism (Department of Pediatrics Staff).

Limited Reliable Scientific Evidence

UK researchers investigated more than 30 scientific articles on the effectiveness of the gluten-free, casein-free diet on autistic children (astian, 2004). They found one, which provided reliable scientific evidence that the diet works. The particular study, however, was conducted on only 20 children aged 5-10 who had high levels of protein in their…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Atwood, K.C. (2003). Naturopathy: a critical appraisal. 5 (4) Medscape General

Medicine. Retrieved on June 23, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/465994

Bastian, H. (2010). Can a diet avoiding gluten and milk proteins reduce autism?

Medicine News Today: MediLexicon International Ltd. Retrieved on June 23,
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Immune Biopsychology Interactions of the

Words: 4188 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47766172



An interesting view of the immune system with particular implications for the current review and collation of information is provided by the field of computer science. The immune system makes many series of continual trade-offs, distributing resources in a way that necessarily leaves certain vulnerabilities in the system as a whole while providing greater comprehensiveness in coverage and protection when necessary (Hofmeyr 1997). This makes the immune system an adaptive and continually evolving and self-improving system; with little outside direction it is capable of assessing changing needs, and altering itself not only in particular instances but even in some of its general responses in order to provide greater long-term efficacy for the task of protecting the human organism from disease (Hofmeyr 1997). This view of the immune system as a contained and self-informing system is not entirely accurate, but it is a very useful perspective for our purposes herein.

The…… [Read More]

References

Buske-Kirschbaum, a. (2009). "Cortisol Responses to Stress in Allergic Children: Interaction with the Immune Response." Neuroimmunomodulation 16, pp. 325-32.

Coe, C. & Laudenslager, M. (2007). "Psychosocial influences on immunity, including effects on immune maturation and senescence." Brain, behavior, and immunity 21(8), pp. 1000-8.

Dugdale, D. (2008). "Immune response -- overview." University of Maryland medical center. Accessed 22 May 2010. http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/000821.htm

Dunigan, J.; Carr, B. & Steel, J. (2007). "Posttraumatic Growth, Immunity and Survival in Patients with Hepatoma." Digestive diseases and sciences 52(9), pp. 2452-9.
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and

Words: 920 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32678472

The EMD technique is used in conjunction with psychotherapy and it has proven very effective for statistically significant numbers of patients in controlled studies (Breslau, Lucia, & Alvarado, 2006; Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).

Ethical Issues in Treating PTSD in eturning Combat Veterans with MDMA

A much more ethically controversial approach involves the use of low doses of MDMA in conjunction with traditional psychotherapy. That is because MDMA is an illicit drug with a very well-deserved reputation for being notoriously popular with recreational users and addiction. While their may be beneficial therapeutic uses of MDMA in certain patients, the population of U.S. armed services veterans suffering from PTSD are also, demographically and psychologically, at the greatest risk of drug addiction and to mental instability that could be worsened by non-therapeutic use of consciousness-altering substances, particularly in connection with unauthorized and unmonitored or controlled use.

It is not necessarily never appropriate to…… [Read More]

References

Breslau, N., Lucia, V., and Alvarado, G. "Intelligence and Other Predisposing Factors in Exposure to Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Follow-up Study at Age 17 Years."Arch Gen Psychiatry, Vol. 63; (2006):1238-1245.

Frain, M.P., Bishop, M., and Bethel, M. "A Roadmap for Rehabilitation Counseling to Serve Military Veterans with Disabilities." Journal of Rehabilitation, Vol 76,

No. 1; (2010): 13-21.

Gerrig, R, and Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
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Unquiet Mind a Memoir of

Words: 1475 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72282014

However, she writes that she embarked upon her book to encourage suffering individuals to enter treatment, not to shy away from it, given that without medication she could not be functional.

Jamison's relatively short (240 pages) text is broken up into four sections: "The wild blue younger," "A not-so-fine madness," "This medicine, love," and "An unquiet mind." The book is vaguely chronological, although Jamison dips back and forth in her past, so the reader can better understand the significance of different life events. The book is not pure memoir -- it is a story of her life as a manic-depressive, so every incident is filtered through that point-of-view. To some degree, this can be limiting, for as powerful as the illness may be, it can be difficult to accept that this, more so than any other aspect of Jamison's life, is what defined her existence, beyond relationships, athletics, and her…… [Read More]

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Medications to Treat Alcoholism This

Words: 1267 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65361695



It is interesting to note that Tambour and Quertemont studied the effects of the same two drugs plus Disulfiram, an alcohol-deterrent drug. Their findings, in reviewing other studies, indicated slightly different results from Richardson. Since different drugs target different neuro-inhibitors, the drugs were used both separately and together. Quertemont discovered, in reviewing the results of previous and current studies, that none of the drugs worked particularly well, and that the combination of two of the drugs didn't seem to help. Her review of these studies contradicted the Richardson trial in which acamprosate was found to be ineffective.

Quertemont and Tambour ultimately concluded that the future of curing alcoholism lie in both discovery of new drugs and the refinement of the use of current drugs either singly or in combination.

In Willenbring and Gitlow's debate over the value of drugs to treat alcohol dependence, Dr. Gitlow concludes that until it is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Gitlow, S., & Willenbring, M. (2008). Are medications that reduce risk of drinking, or heavy drinking, or that promote abstinence, of value in the treatment of alcohol dependence? American Journal on Addictions (peer-reviewed), 17(1), 1-5, doi:10.1080/10550490701756047.

Kranzler, H. (2006). Medications to treat heavy drinking. Are we there yet? Addiction (peer-reviewed), 101(2), 153-154, doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01324.x.

Richardson, K., Reid, S., Baillie, A., Morley, K., Teesson, M., Sannibale, C., et al. (2008). Do acamprosate or naltrexone have an effect on daily drinking by reducing craving for alcohol? Addiction, (peer-reviewed), 103(6), 953-959, doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02215.x.

Tambour, S., & Quertemont, E. (2007). Preclinical and clinical pharmacology of alcohol dependence. Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology (peer reviewed), 21(1), 9-28, doi:10.1111/j.1472-8206.2006.00459.x.
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Herbs as Treatment Treating Depression

Words: 589 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29754448



Another clinical study was done on the effectiveness of Kava extract for treating anxiety. This study analysis was aimed at assessing the evidence for or against the effectiveness of Kava extract as a symptomatic treatment for anxiety. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of oral Kava extract for the treatment of anxiety were analyzed. Superiority of Kava extract over placebo was suggested by all seven reviewed trials. The meta-analysis of three trials suggests a significant difference in the reduction of the total score on the Hamilton Rating Scale for anxiety in favor of Kava extract. So, according to the study, Kava extract is an herbal treatment option for anxiety that is worthy of consideration (Pittler & Ernst, 2000).

Kava -- is truly one of the strongest anti-anxiety herbs in the world. Kava also has one of the best safety profiles of any anti-anxiety / anti-depression herb (orne, 2003).

Other Natural Herbs

SAM-e…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Borne, J.V. (2003, Sept 15). Treating depression. Real solutions. Retrieved May 18, 2009, from Insight Journal: http://www.anxiety-and-depression-solutions.com/wellness_concerns/community_depression/treating_depression.php

Pittler, M., & Ernst, E. (2000). Efficacy of kava extract for treating anxiety. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 84-89.

Woelk, H. (2000). Comparison of st. john's wort and imipramine for treating depression: randomized controlled trial. BMJ, 321:536-539.
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Drug Free Workplace in Favor

Words: 2623 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15910707

What further makes interpretation of results difficult to precisely define quantify is that the amount of drug stores depends on the nature of the drug itself, the duration of the ingestion of the drug, and the composition of the tissue holding the drug and the frequency of use. The greater the incidence of drug use the more permanent the level of toxins and chemicals in tissues throughout the body, and therefore the greater the probability of catching chronic drug users in drug testing. Thea difficult part of using drug tests periodically is the longitudinally there may be peaks and valleys to the incidence of drug abuse. Companies have begun surprise inspections of their workers in the most potentially dangerous occupations including forklift workers, construction workers, airline pilots, and heavy equipment workers.

Despite these shortcomings of tests, the advances made in drug testing technologies are gradually overcoming these obstacles related to…… [Read More]

References

Alleyne, B.C., P. Stuart, and R. Copes. (1991) Alcohol and other drug use in occupational fatalities. Journal of occupational medicine (Baltimore) 33(4):496-500, 1991.

Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. (2002). An assessment of drug testing within the construction industry. Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. J Drug Education 32(1):53-68

Koch, K. (1998). "Drug Testing." November 20, 1998

Kelly, T.H., R.W. Foltin, and M.W. Fischman. (1991) Effects of alcohol on human behavior: implications for the workplace. Drugs in the workplace: research and evaluation data. Vol. 11, National Institute on Drug Abuse. Rockville, Maryland 1991. pp. 129-146.
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Bipolar Psychological Model Most Appropriate

Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28265981

Sixteen percent of people taking Zyprexa for a year gained more than sixty-six pounds, according to documents obtained for a potential class action suit against the drug's manufacturer (Berenson 2007). The drugs used to treat depression are of limited use in treating the repeating depressive episodes of bipolar illness, both in terms of long-term efficacy and their danger in causing the bipolar sufferer to enter a manic episode, not merely recover from depression (Balkalar, 2007). Abilify, a new drug, has demonstrated less significant weight gain, although it can still produce tics, "headache, anxiety, insomnia, nausea, vomiting, constipation, dizziness, upset stomach, and an inner sense of restlessness or need to move" ("Commonly Asked Questions About Side Effects," 2007, Abilify: Bristol-Meyers Squib Official ebsite).

Susie's future

Finding the right drug for Susie may take time, and her drug treatment plan will likely take a series of adjustments over the course of her…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Balkalar, Nicholas. (10 Apr 2007). "Long-Term Therapy Effective in Bipolar

Depression." The New York Times. Retrieved 8 Sept 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/10/health/psychology/10therapy.html?ex=1189396800&en=19ecf79bc3128398&ei=5070

Berenson, Alex. (20 Jan 2007). "States Study Marketing of Lilly Pill." The New York

Times. Retrieved 8 Sept 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/20/business/20drug.html?ex=1189396800&en=93d3bd739e2e5f70&ei=5070
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Naltrexone the Efficacy of Naltrexone

Words: 2582 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17590678



Croop et al. (1997).

The overall safety profile of naltrexone is good; however, care must be taken in prescribing the drug to certain patient populations; e.g., naltrexone shows a dose-dependent hepatotoxicity (package insert) and is therefore contraindicated in patients with significant hepatic impairment, which is frequently encountered in alcohol-dependent populations.

The clinical trials of naltrexone have typically been conducted in patients without significant impairment in hepatic function. Another consequence of the hepatic impact of naltrexone is the possibility of drug-drug interactions.

Kim et al. (2001) potentially clinically significant interaction has been reported between naltrexone and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; these researchers found elevated liver function tests in study participants receiving both medications, although the doses of naltrexone used in this study were higher than the typical 50 mg daily dose.

Naltrexone is not appropriate for use with patients taking prescribed or illicit opioid drugs. Antagonism of the effects of these drugs…… [Read More]

References

Ait-Daoud, N., & Johnson, B.A. (1999). Medications to treat alcoholism. Alcohol Research & Health, 23(2), 99.

Anton, R.F., & Randall, C.L. (2005). Measurement and choice of drinking outcome variables in the COMBINE study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 66(4), 104.

Bhagar, H.A., & Schmetzer, a.D. (2006). New antidipsotropics. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 9(4), 29.

Bean, P., & Nemitz, T. (2004). Drug treatment: What works? New York: Routledge.
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Counselling Marijuana Cocaine Heroin Ecstasy

Words: 1778 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45679051

They are the ones who handle jobs that require expertise. Their job itself is difficult that not everybody can accept the responsibility. With this continuously growing number of addicts and/or substance-abused people, indeed, we need to have more and more credible substance abuse counselors to somehow alleviate this problem.

eferences

Block I, Ghoneim. MM 1993. Effects of chronic marijuana use on human cognition. Psychopharmacology 100(1-2):219-228,

Brook JS, Balka EB, Whiteman M. 1999.: The risks for late adolescence of early adolescent marijuana use. Am J. Public Health 89(10):1549-1554

Fisher. Gary, Harrison, T. 2004. Substance Abuse: Information for School Counselors, Social Workers, Therapists, and Counselors (3rd Edition). Allyn and Bacon.

Gruber, AJ, Pope HG, Hudson HI, Yurgelun-Todd D. 2003. Attributes of long-term heavy cannabis users: A case control study. Psychological Medicine 33:1415-1422.

Lehman WE, Simpson DD. 1992. Employee substance abuse and on-the-job behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology 77(3):309-321.

Marijuana and Health. 2001.…… [Read More]

References

Block RI, Ghoneim. MM 1993. Effects of chronic marijuana use on human cognition. Psychopharmacology 100(1-2):219-228,

Brook JS, Balka EB, Whiteman M. 1999.: The risks for late adolescence of early adolescent marijuana use. Am J. Public Health 89(10):1549-1554

Fisher. Gary, Harrison, T. 2004. Substance Abuse: Information for School Counselors, Social Workers, Therapists, and Counselors (3rd Edition). Allyn and Bacon.

Gruber, AJ, Pope HG, Hudson HI, Yurgelun-Todd D. 2003. Attributes of long-term heavy cannabis users: A case control study. Psychological Medicine 33:1415-1422.
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Society Mental Health and Welfare

Words: 668 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67240615

Mental Health, and Welfare

Society, mental health and welfare:

A problem related to counseling (under-insurance) and a social problem (the lack of adequate healthcare coverage)

The course text Social action: A mandate for counselors discusses the ethical implications of such issues as race and social injustice in the counseling profession. However, perhaps even more important than these factors is the issue of class, specifically the affordability of counseling on an individual basis. Wealthier individuals with better insurance or who can afford to pay 'pout of pocket' often have the luxury of 'talk' therapy that poorer people, or people without adequate health insurance, lack. This creates a 'haves' versus 'have not' situation in terms of the availability and the quality of counseling. Poorer individuals with minimal insurance coverage for mental health care are often offered fewer counseling sessions, or have their psychological complaints treated as medical disorders, rather than fully addressed…… [Read More]

References

Considering some practical matters. (2011). AMHA (American Mental Health Alliance).

Retrieved June 8, 2011 at  http://www.americanmentalhealth.com/index.tpl?page=10737827503031878 

Harris, G. (2011, March 6). Talk doesn't pay. The New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 2011 at http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/06/health/policy/06doctors.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=psychiatrist%20talk%20therapy&st=cse
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Ethics Neurotransmitters One Pill Makes

Words: 595 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59385848

This really does appear to be true. If you look around you see more and more children being put on Ritalin when their behavior does not seem to be anything more children being children. It seems that parents are more and more taking the easy road out in order to control their children and not have to deal with them. Instead of parents stepping up to the plate and dealing with their kids and their problems they all choose to take the easy way out.

In the article One Pill makes you Smarter: An Ethical Appraisal of the Rise of Ritalin Mills discusses how advances in technology now allow scientists to monitor and manipulate brain functions with precision and control. These advances have lead to the development of drugs such as Prozac that help many people every day. There are many people that need this kind of help and the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Farah, Martha J. & Wolpe, Paul R. Monitoring and Manipulating Brain Function: New

Neuroscience Technologies and their Ethical Implications

Mills, Claudia. One Pill makes you Smarter: An Ethical Appraisal of the Rise of Ritalin.
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Psychology Impact of Neurotransmitters on

Words: 693 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57281081

d.).

Norepinephrine

Norepinephrine, one of the monoamine neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, has been reported to be connected to several functions such as memory, cognition, consciousness, and emotion. It plays significant roles in the path physiology of depression. Norepinephrine transporter (NET) is responsible for the reuptake of norepinephrine into presynaptic nerves and is one of the main targets of antidepressants (Sekine, Arakawa, Ito, Okumura, Sasaki, Takahashi & Suhara, 2010). The norepinephrine system is important in: attention like alerting, focusing and orienting, appetitive behaviors, hedonic or pleasurable properties of natural and drug-related reinforcement and mood, arousal, and regulation of blood pressure (Biogenic Amine Neurotransmitters in the CNS, n.d.).

Serotonin

Serotonin is a hormone, also called 5-hydroxytryptamine, in the pineal gland, blood platelets, the digestive tract, and the brain. Serotonin acts both as a chemical messenger that transmits nerve signals between nerve cells and that which causes blood vessels to narrow.…… [Read More]

References

Acetylcholine. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.chemistryexplained.com/A-

Ar/Acetylcholine.html

Biogenic Amine Neurotransmitters in the CNS. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://axon.psyc.memphis.edu/~charlesblaha/3507/Biogenic%20Amines/Lecture%20-

%20Biogenic%20Amines%20-%20Summer%203507.pdf
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Psychology Throughout Its History Psychology Has Undergone

Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9514623

Psychology

Throughout its history, psychology has undergone a number of evolutions. As the study of mind, the discipline has necessarily been subject to change as new research revealed information about the functions of the mind and its effect upon behavior. elatively simple conclusions drawn by those who are currently considered the founding fathers of psychology have been challenged and modified to become the various subdisciplines in psychology that we know today. Along with what can be considered the "mental" trends in psychology such as the behaviorist, psychoanalytic, the cognitive, and the evolutionary approaches, it has also been recognized that psychology has a firm basis in physiology.

In about 1913, the focus of psychology up-to-date profoundly changed as a result of work by the American psychologist John B. Watson. In an effort to bring more scientific merit to psychology, Watson advocated that the study of behavior should be used to draw…… [Read More]

References

The Journal of Evolutionary Psychology (2006). Evolutionary Psychology. Retrieved from:  http://www.evolutionary-philosophy.net/psychology.html 

Oracle ThinkQuest. (2011) History of Psychology. Retrieved from: http://library.thinkquest.org/C005870/history/index.php?id=historyp1

Rossman, J. (2007, Dec 3). Biological Psychology: Foundations of Biopsychology. Associated Content. Retrieved from: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/428842/biological_psychology_foundations_of.html
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy CBT Techniques for Combat Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD

Words: 5327 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85865281

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Combat Veterans With Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Although not limited to veterans, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) may be the single most significant mental health risk to veterans, particularly to those veterans that have seen combat. PTSD is an anxiety disorder, which occurs after a person has seen or experienced a traumatic event including, but not limited to: assault, domestic abuse, prison stay, rape, terrorism, war, or natural disaster (Vorvick et al., 2011). In fact, PTSD is unique among psychiatric diagnosis in that it "requires a specific type of event to occur from which the person affected does not recover" (esick et al., 2008). Veterans are at high risk of PTSD because they experience war, but they also experience many of the other traumatic events that can trigger PTSD in the course of the war. PTSD can have serious lifelong effects for veterans. It can impair…… [Read More]

References

Byers, M.G., Allison, K.M., Wendel, C.S., & Lee, J.K. (2010). Pra-zosin vs. quetiapine for nighttime posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in veterans: An assessment of long-term comparative effectiveness and safety. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 30, 225-229.

Chard, K., Schumm, J., Owens, G., & Cottingham, S. (2010). A comparison of OEF and OIF

veterans and Vietnam veterans receiving cognitive processing therapy. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23(1), 25-32.

Hassija, C.M., & Gray, M.J. (2010). Are cognitive techniques and interventions necessary? A
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Cukrowicz Kelly C Otamendi Ainhoa

Words: 982 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80571701

Researchers used standard sleep questionnaires to assess sleep problems and characteristics in ADHD (n = 122) and non-ADHD (n = 105) comparison youths. They concluded that ADHD may be one of the consequence of nightmares but is not an outcome of it.

This study is valuable to my study in that it teaches me to be skeptical regarding differentiating between outcome and cause.

4.

StRanjbaran, Z., Keefer, L., Farhadi, a., Stepanski, E., Sedghi, S. And Keshavarzian, a. (2007), Impact of sleep disturbances in inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 22: 1748 -- 1753.

Study showed that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients have significant sleep disturbance even when their disease is not active. This problem might affect quality of life, gastrointestinal symptoms and coping ability, and might potentially increase or decrease disease severity. A self-administered, mail-in questionnaire package was sent to 205 subjects using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index…… [Read More]

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Treating Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa

Words: 1719 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73279571

Treating Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia nervosa is an eating confusion described by a terror of fatness experienced during the adolescence period that leads to them to starving themselves leading to harmful low body weight, a moody fear of being fat and compulsive hunt for thinness. Though not limited to a certain age or sex, it mostly affects the female. The eating disorder affects both the physical appearance; thin appearance and psychological health. Though the origin of anorexia nervosa is blurred, severe fasting and weight loss are regularly linked with efforts to manage the increasing psychological and social burden of adolescence, the disorder leads to a reported death rate of 6-10% of the adolescent who do not seek medication in time Berkman et al., 2006.

The worry among most clinicians is whether to focus on anxieties the adolescence have during this period of growth or addressing the rigorous dieting and…… [Read More]

Reference

Berkman, N.D., Bulik, C., Lohr, K., Brownley, K., J., S., Rooks, A., & Gartlehner, G. (2006). Management of Eating Disorders. North Carolina: AHRQ Publication.

Cachelin, M., & Rebeck, R. (2000). Barriers to Treatment for Eating Disorders among Ethnically Diverse Women. California: Wesleyan press.

Lock, J., Couturier, J., & A., S.W. (2006). Comparison of Long-Term Outcomes in Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa Treated With Family Therapy. Ontario: DOI press.

Shepphird, S.F. (2010). 100 questions & answers about anorexia nervosa. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
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Selenium and Occupational or Industrial Health Concerns

Words: 1371 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79625342

3). Selenide ions are being increasingly being used in photoelectrochemical cell applications (Lewis, 1995). Selenium compounds are also found in internal combustion exhaust, and have been positively associated with increased mortality rates in five of six American cities surveyed by (Topeka, Kansas was the exception; the other cities surveyed were Boston, St. Louis, Knoxville, Madison, and Steubenville) (Dockery, Laden and Schwartz, 2000). The combustion of coal combustion is responsible for between 62% (Medical and Biological Effects of Environmental Pollutants- Selenium, 1976) and 85% (Eimutis, Quill & inaldi, 1978) of harmful selenium emissions in the United States.

Furthermore, in combination with oxygen, selenium forms selenium dioxide, SeO2; the reaction of this oxide with water results in selenious acid, H2SeO3. Selenium also forms a variety of compounds in which the selenium atom bonds to both an oxygen and a halogen atom resulting in compounds such as selenium (VI) oxychloride, SeO2Cl2, which is…… [Read More]

References

Bradshaw, T.K., Davis, P.R., Gwebu, N. et al. (2003). Science First: Contributions of a University-Industry Toxic Substances Research and Teaching Program to Economic Development. Journal of Higher Education, 74(3), 292.

Dunning, H.C. (1993). Confronting the Environmental Legacy of Irrigated Agriculture in the West: The Case of the Central Valley Project. Environmental Law, 23(3), 943-69.

Eimutis, E.C., Quill, R.P., & Rinaldi, G.M. (1978). Source assessment: noncriteria pollutant emissions. Research Triangle Park, NC: Monsanto Research Corp. For U.S.E.P.A. Industrial and Environmental Research Laboratory.

Grabowski, J. & Vandenbos, G.R. (Eds.). (1992). Psychopharmacology: Basic Mechanisms and Applied Interventions. Washington, DC: APA Books.
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History of Psychology in Many

Words: 441 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99750960

Also, later theorists were more inclined to analyze the human person, not in pathological or arrested state, but in a normal state. The input of theorists such as Karen Horney and Erik Erikson during the early part of the 20th century stressed human development from infancy to adulthood and the development of human society from a 'primitive' or collective state to today's more individualistic culture. However, theorists such as Karl Jung still made use of Freud's theory of the unconscious, even while Jung was more apt to stress the need to understand the collective unconscious, the social collective memory.

It is interesting to note that Jung's 20th century analysis of personality types incorporated older ideas about how body types and humors affect one's personality, for example whether one is a bold type, and the high-strung type, for example -- which Jung called degrees of personal extroversion or introversion. But because…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Myers, Daniel. (2003) Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers.
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Theology and Psychology in Christian

Words: 2975 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21934053

(Paul, 2005) In fact, the AAPC survey found that African-Americans, devout evangelicals, people without a college degree, the elderly and people age 18 to 29 are most likely to fear that a professional counselor won't take their religious beliefs into serious consideration when treating them. (Paul, 2005)

People come to Christian counselors for two reasons," commented Randolph Sanders, executive director of the Christian Association for Psychological Studies, an association of Christians in mental health and behavioral sciences. "One is faith perspective; they want a therapist who resonates with their worldview. The second is moral ethics; they want a counselor who understands what guides their decisions." (Paul, 2005)

Christian counseling, more than secular counseling, has the ability to present a starkly positive viewpoint. In fact, the origins of Christian counseling were planted in the clergy, whom parishioners historically consulted about emotional and spiritual well-being and health.

According to Paul, The progenitors…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Tillich, Paul. 1951. Systematic Theology, vol. 1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Friedman, Edwin. 1985. Generation to Generation: Family Process in Church and Synagogue. New York: Guilford Press.

Zikmund, Barbara, et al. 1988. Clergy Women: An Uphill Calling. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.

Yust, Karen. 2002. "The Toddler and the Community," in Human Development and Faith, ed. Felicity Kelcourse. St. Louis: Chalice Press.
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Special Populations Profession Psychology the Future of

Words: 1371 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50591599

Special Populations

Profession psychology

The future of professional psychology:

The influence of special populations on the field of professional psychology

According to the American Board of Professional Psychology: "It is expected that clinical psychologists will demonstrate sensitivity to and skills in dealing with multicultural/diverse populations....Individual and cultural diversity recognizes the broad scope of such factors as race, ethnicity, language, sexual orientation, gender, age, disability, class status, education, religion/spiritual orientation, and other cultural dimension" (Clinical psychology, 2012, ABPP). In other words, the special needs of specific population groups must be taken into consideration when offering care, to ensure that treatment is commensurate and sensitive to the population's needs. The reason for this emphasis on culturally-appropriate care reflects a greater awareness of how not all forms of treatment are appropriate for all population groups within the field, and the degree to which special population needs have and continues to shape the point-of-view…… [Read More]

References

Asian-Americans need culturally competent mental health care. (2012). APA.

http://www.apa.org/about/gr/issues/minority/culture.aspx

Clinical psychology. (2012). American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP). Retrieved:

 http://www.abpp.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3307
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Neural Correlates of Drug Relapse Propensity Refraining

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69666237

Neural Correlates of Drug elapse Propensity

efraining from Drug Use

Treating drug addiction requires experience and skill, because no single approach has broad efficacy (reviewed by Bauer, Covault, and Gelernter, 2012). High inter-individual variability of contributing factors and a lack of knowledge about what causes treatment failure (reviewed by Walton, Blow, and Booth, 2001), helps explain a relapse rate between 40% to 60% (NIDA, 2011). For this reason, researchers have been trying to identify what factors contribute to addictive tendencies and influence treatment success.

To better understand why some substance abusers are successful in overcoming their drug addictions and others are not, this essay will examine the neural correlates of drug relapse behavior. Particular attention will be paid to environmental and genetic factors and how they influence brain function on an anatomical and cellular level.

Neural Correlates of Environmental Triggers

Environmental triggers have long been known to increase the risk…… [Read More]

References

Bauer, L.O., Covault, J., and Gelernter, J. (2012). GABRA2 and KIBRA genotypes predict early relapse to substance use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 123, 154-159.

NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse & Addiction). (2011). The science of drug abuse and addiction. DrugAbuse.gov. Retrieved 22 Oct. 2012 from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/media-guide/science-drug-abuse-addiction.

Potenza, Marc N., Hong, Kwang-ik A., Lacadie, Cheryl M., Fulbright, Robert K., Tuit, Keri L., and Sinha, Rajita. (2012). Neural correlates of stress-induced and cue-induced drug craving: Influences of sex and cocaine dependence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 406-414.

Preston, Kenzie L. And Epstein, David H. (2011). Stress in the daily lives of cocaine and heroin users: Relationship to mood, craving, relapse triggers, and cocaine use. Psychopharmacology, 218, 29-37.
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Biological Applications Are Being Used in the

Words: 822 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14997662

Biological applications are being used in the study of mental process and behavior in term of mechanisms of body that is the study of psychology. The thinking that psychological processes are biologically related to each other is the base of relationship of psychology biology. Through different research on the study of mental processes now scientists are able to better treat any disease both physically and mentally.

Study of relationship of biology and psychology take us back to the time of Aristotle who told that mind and body are correlated to each other and mind is being merely one of the body's function. French philosopher ene Descartes present a theory of dualism according to which both mind and spirit are two separate entities which are connected to each other through human body. Gottfried Wilhelm present a psychological parallism theory in which he said that body and mind are separates things but…… [Read More]

REFRENCES:

EnGrade,' Study of Monism and Dualism';

(http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/morris2/chapter2/medialib/lecture/dualism.html)
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Theoretical Perspective of the Biological Approach to Personality Psychology

Words: 3177 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56691092

Theoretical Perspective of the Biological Approach to Personality Psychology

Personality is defined as a person's exceptional deviation on the general evolutionary design for human temperament. A personality trait refers to a durable disposition to act in a certain manner in different situations. Personality traits represent some of the most significant sets of individual disparities in organizations. It is the comparatively set of psychological characteristics that differentiates one person from another. People should strive to comprehend fundamental personality attributes and the manner in which they influence a person's behavior (Griffin 2007).Most perspectives to personality presuppose that some traits are more fundamental compared to others. This concept underlie that a small number of basic personality traits determine other, more superficial traits. With respect to the biological approach to personality, personality traits are determined by human genetic inheritance, behavioral tendencies that develop from evolutionary history and human conduct that generate through intricate biological…… [Read More]

References

Andrewes, D. (2001). Neuropsychology: From theory to practice. New York: Psychology Press.

Ashton, Q. (2012). Advances in Nervous System Research and Application: 2011 Edition. New York: Scholarly Editions.

Carducci, B. (2009). The psychology of personality: Viewpoints, research and applications.

London: John Wiley & Sons.
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Effecting Change the Use of

Words: 4091 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19489453

According to a 2002 survey conducted under the auspices of NIH, ecstasy abuse among college and university students in general is a widespread trend that impedes academic performance (Bar-on, 2002). The NIH survey targeted 66 4-year American universities and colleges alike. The projected findings indicated a diminishing trend in undergraduate academic performance amongst students who indulge in binge drinking and abuse ecstasy in the process. Elsewhere, a Harvard College drug study indicated persistent drug users were more likely to miss lectures and delay in their coursework than the average student (Montgomery & Fisk, 2008).

A parallel IP esearch dubbed "Predictors of academic achievement and retention among college freshmen" projected that while certain students manage to cope with the new life role upon entering college, a good number of students flunk out of college before completing their freshman year. According to this research, 75% of the freshman drop out is related…… [Read More]

References

Bar-on, R. (2002). Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I): Technical Manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems

Erikson, E (1956) "The problem of ego identity" (pdf) Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 4: 56 -- 121

Kotter, J & Cohen, D (2002) the Heart of Change: Real-Life Stories of How People Change Their Organizations Harvard Business Review Press

Montgomery C. & Fisk J.E. (2008) "Ecstasy-related deficits in the updating component of executive processes" Human Psychopharmacology 23 (6): 495 -- 511
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Biological Psychology

Words: 712 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67244510

biopsychological approach?

A physiological assumption that relates behavior to the activity of the brain and other organs of the body.

An ontogenetic consumption that describes development of behavior or of a brain structure. C. An evolutionary assumption that examines a brain structure or behavior in terms of evolutionary history.

A functional assumption describing why a particular brain structure or behavior evolved the way it did (Kalat, 2012).

What historical disciplines converge to create biological psychology?

Several areas of psychology are involved in biological psychology including clinical psychology, social psychology, cognitive psychology, evolutionary psychology, and bits and pieces from other areas of psychology. All areas of neuroscience and biology are particularly relevant to biopsychology. Comparative anatomy, physiology, medicine (e.g neurology and psychiatry), research methodology, and statistics also contribute to the creation of biological psychology (Kalat, 2012).

3. What are some of the earliest examples of a biological approach to studying behavior?…… [Read More]

References

Pinel, J. (2011). Biopsychology 8th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Kalat, J.W. (2011). Biological psychology (11th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson

Learning.
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Processing Effects of Cognitive and Emotional Psychotherapy on Bipolar Disorder

Words: 6099 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3470826

BP Disorder

Bipolar disorder, originally called manic depressive disorder, is a severe mood disorder that vacillates between extreme "ups" (mania, hypomania) and "downs" (depression). The effects of having bipolar disorder can be observed across the patients social and occupational functioning. Often the patient is left isolated from work, friends, and family. Medications have become the first-line treatments for bipolar disorder; however, psychotherapy can offer additional benefits in the ongoing treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. This paper discusses the symptoms and treatment of bipolar disorder focusing on cognitive behavioral therapy and emotion focused therapy.

Bipolar Disorder

Description and differentiation

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -- Fourth Edition -- Text evision (DSM-IV-T) one's mood is an all-encompassing and sustained feeling tone experienced internally by the person and influences the person's behavior and perception of the world. Affect is the external or outward expression of this inner…… [Read More]

References

Alloy, L.B., Abramson, L.Y., Walshaw, P.D., Keyser, J., & Gerstein, R.K. (2006). A cognitive vulnerability-stress perspective on bipolar spectrum disorders in a normative adolescence brain, cognitive, and emotional development context. Developmental Psychopathology, 18(4), 1057-1103.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford Press.

Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 17-31
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ASD Case Kyle Is a 40-Year-Old Male

Words: 1297 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13778065

ASD Case

Kyle is a 40-year-old male of Greek-American descent. He reports that his religion is Eastern-Orthodox and he attends weekly services. Kyle's wife urged him to contact a therapist because she was concerned about some recent and radical changes in his behavior. As a reservist in the U.S. Marines, Kyle has been deployed twice to serve in Iraq. During his first deployment, he was stationed in Kuwait and had an uneventful service. However, his second deployment was marked by a significant tragic event. During a weekend leave just before he was sent back to the United States Kyle was exploring a rural marketplace with several military colleagues. A bomb detonated at the market, killing several dozen local civilians, and one of Kyle's colleagues. Kyle, who was not hurt in the blast, heroically assisted both his colleagues and many of the civilians who were critically wounded.

Since returning home two…… [Read More]

References

American Counseling Association (2005). ACA code of ethics. Retrieved on May 15, 2012 from http://www.counseling.org/Files/FD.ashx?guid=ab7c1272-71c4-46cf- 848c-f98489937dda.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.

Cashwell, C.S., Looby, E.J., & Housley, W. (1997). Appreciating cultural diversity through clinical supervision. The Clinical Supervisor, 15, 75-85.

Cloitre, M. (2009). Effective psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: A review and critique. CNS Spectrums, 14(1), S1, 32-43.
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Broken Heart Syndrome Cardiovascular Case Study Broken

Words: 1057 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39907338

Broken Heart Syndrome

Cardiovascular Case Study

Broken heart syndrome, otherwise called stress or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), represents an adverse physiological response to an acute psychological or physical stressor (Derrick, 2009). The death of a loved one or experiencing a physically traumatic event, represent two examples of life stressors that can cause this reversible form of cardiomyopathy. Although effective treatment is available, the seriousness of the condition is such that it explains how a person can literally die of a broken heart.

TTC Demographics

An estimated 1.2 million people suffered from an myocardial infarction (MI) in 2007 and approximately 1% (Derrick, 2009, p. 50) to 2% (Wittstein, 2012, p. 2) of MI events was probably due to TTC. Women are far more susceptible to TTC than men and represent approximately 89% of all cases (Derrick, 2009, p. 50). This gender bias shifts the estimated prevalence of TTC among female MI patients…… [Read More]

References

American Heart Association, American Stroke Association. (2011). Women & cardiovascular disease: Statistical fact sheet 2012 update. Heart.org. Retrieved 4 Feb. 2012 from  http://www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart-public/@wcm/@sop/@smd/documents/downloadable/ucm_319576.pdf 

Derrick, Dawn. (2009). The "broken heart syndrome": Understanding Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Critical Care Nurse, 29, 49-57.

Fitzgerald, Helen. (2000). Helping a grieving parent: Working through Grief. AmericanHospice.org. Retrieved 4 Feb. 2012 from http://www.americanhospice.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=84&Itemid=8

Liao, Joshua. (2011). Takotsubo: Octopus trap. Journal of Medical Humanities. Published ahead of print online Aug. 9. Retrieved 4 Feb. 2012 from http://www.springerlink.com/content/ak0776051x43w701/
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Medication Compliance in Psychotic Disorders

Words: 914 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63130178

Medication Compliance in Psychotic isorders

Janssen, Birgit., Gaebel, Wolfgang., Haerter, Martin, Komaharadi, F., Lindel, Birgit., & Weinmann, Stefan. (2006 April). "Evaluation of factors influencing medication compliance in inpatient treatment of psychotic disorders. Psychopharmacology 187:229-236.

The authors and researchers examine short- and long-term compliance to prescribed antipsychotic drugs. Their objective is to evaluate patient-related and treatment-related factors associated with medication compliance in inpatients with the following diagnoses: schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and other psychotic disorders. The study is a "naturalistic study," based in seven hospitals with patients assessed weekly. The following characteristics were studied: social function, side-effects of medication, mental status, and compliance to medication requests. The researchers in this study attempted to determine whether medication is the basis for compliance or whether multiple factors including innate factors such as social influence and individual characteristics, environmental characteristics, genetic and personality characteristics were more likely to influence medication compliance in psychotic patients because…… [Read More]

Dolder, Christian R., Pharm.D., Jonathan P. Lacro, Pharm.D., Laura B. Dunn, M.D., and Dilip

V. Jeste., M.D (2002 Jan). Antipsychotic medication adherence: Is there a difference between typical and atypical agents? Am J. Psychiatry, 159:103-108.

The researchers and authors of this study had a primary objective of comparing medication adherence in outpatient veterans using typical vs. atypical antipsychotic agents. To accomplish this goal the researchers used pharmacy refill records; the patient selection criteria including patients using medications haloperidol, perphenazine, risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine. Patients used medications for a 3-month period before using an atypical agent, and refill records were reviewed for a period of 12 months. The results of this study suggested that adherence rates were higher in patients receiving atypical agents, suggesting that medication compliance is more likely in patients receiving these agents compared to typical antipsychotic agents. Patient personality traits were not examined in this study, as in previous studies, so it is uncertain whether characteristics including aggression, addiction or other factors may have influenced compliance, as was the case in some previous studies. Patients were likely to miss medications seven times per month on typical antipsychotics vs. four times per month on atypical antipsychotics in this particular study. At the end of the study refill rates showed a four percent difference between typical and atypical agents, with approximately 54% of patients on atypical agents likely to refill their medications vs. roughly 50% of patients likely to comply with necessary refills on traditional or typical antipsychotics.
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Fluoxetine Prozac Since Its Approval for Use

Words: 639 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61933670

Fluoxetine (Prozac)

Since its approval for use in the United States by the FDA in 1987, fluoxetine (commonly known as Prozac) has been the subject of great debate. Fluoxetine, now available in generic form, has been proven useful in the treatment of depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, some eating disorders, panic disorder, insomnia, migraines, schizophrenia, and more (Schmetzer, 2002). However, this drug does have a range of possible side effects including sexual dysfunction, anxiety, insomnia, agitation, tremors, irritability, hypomania, impulsivity, and gastrointestinal distress (Kerr, 2008). In addition, it may be too early to tell what the consequences of long-term (more than 20 years) use of fluoxetine might be on the human brain (Murray, 2006).

As a psychoactive drug, fluoxetine works by affecting the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine. Neurotransmitters in the brain are synthesized in neurons, stored in vesicles, and upon nerve impulse stimulation, are released into the synaptic cleft. Here they…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Borne, R. (1994). Serotonin: the Neurotransmitter for the '90s. Drug Topics, 108+.

Keltner, N. (2000). Mechanisms of Antidepressant Action: In Brief. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 69.

Kerr, L. (2008). Is Social Anxiety Making Us Depressed? Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, 16+.

Murray, T.J. (2006). The Other Side of Psychopharmacology: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 309+.
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Behavioral Health Changes

Words: 997 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17130032

Behavioral Health Changes

Behavioral health, rehab, and detox diagnoses: eimbursement and treatment philosophy

Although mental and physical health statuses are clearly interrelated, mental health diagnoses are treated differently both on a social and institutional level. According to the AHA Task Force on Behavioral Health (2007) one-fifth of patients who suffer a heart attack are also found to suffer from major depression. Depression after a heart attack significantly increases the likelihood of a patient dying from a second attack and mental health issues and heart problems are often co-morbid (Behavioral health challenges, AHA2007:1) However, despite this 'mind-body' connection, reimbursement services have been problematic, particularly for case management services and services provided by non-physicians, but also for more standard forms of mental health care for many patients (Mauch, Kautz, & Smith 2008:2).

Patients with all forms of health insurance have faced considerable obstacles in accessing high-quality mental health care. The privately-insured often…… [Read More]

References

ARMS. (2013). MGH-Harvard Center for Addiction Medicine (CAM). Retrieved from:

http://www.massgeneral.org/psychiatry/services/arms_home.aspx

Barkil-Oteo, A. (2013). The paradox of choice: When more medications mean less treatment.

The Psychiatric Times. Retrieved:
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Self-Injurious Behavior

Words: 5019 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41574937

Deliberate self-harm (DSH) or self-injurious behavior (SI) involves intentional self-poisoning or injury, irrespective of the apparent purpose of the act. (Vela, Harris and Wright, 1983) Self-mutilation is also used interchangeably with self-mutilation, though self-mutilation is one aspect of DSH. Approximately 1% of the United States population uses physical self-injury as a way of dealing with overwhelming feelings or situations, often using it to speak when no words will come. There are different ways in which DSH is manifested: cutting, burning, and abusing drugs, alcohol or other substances. This occurs at times of extreme anger, distress and low self-esteem, in order to either create a physical manifestation of the negative feelings which can then be dealt with, or alternatively to punish yourself. Extremely emotional distress can also cause DSH -- this is sometimes linked with hearing voices, particularly as a way of stopping the voices.

DSH is also often called parasuicide,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Vela, J., Harris, J., and Wright, J.K. "Self-Mutilation." Journal of Trauma 23 (1983): 165-67.

Favazza, A.R. "What Do We Know About Affective Disorders?" Am J. Psychiatry 143.10 (1986): 1328.

Why Patients Mutilate Themselves." Hospital Community Psychiatry 40 (1989): 137-45.

Pies, R.W., and Popli, A.P. "Self-Injurious Behavior: Pathophysiology and Implications for Treatment." J. Clin Psychiatry 56.12 (1995): 580-8.