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The ultimate aim of a public administrator is the provision of best facilities to the public and to make decisions in a way that have a positive influence on interest of the public. It is important for a public administrator to identify the problems that are being faced by the local people and then to devise strategies that are helpful in solving that problem. In this paper we will look at some of the basics of public administration for the best interest of the public.
Public administration can rightly be defined as the implementation of the policies made by the government in accordance with the academic discipline of the implementation of government policies as prepared by the civil servants (andom House Unabridged Dictionary).
The main goal of public administration is to enhance the management of the government and supervise the implementation of the policies so that the government…
Boudreau, A.J. (1950). The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science / Revue canadienne d'Economique et de Science politique. Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 371-374.
Gordon, Paula D. (2002). "Public Administration in the Public Interest:Thoughts about Public Administration."
Ho, Lok Sang (2011). Public Policy and the Public Interest, Routledge.
Kernaghan, Kenneth. "Public administration" in The Canadian Encyclopedia.
A great coalition of smaller firms aimed to defeat patronage and create an acceptable, predictable, regulatory environment; in other words, a credible commitment mechanism was needed, and politicians could supply this. This confluence of monitoring problem, change in political parties, and demand for security led to demand for a merit system that would offer legal security via impartial public agents, and that was less vulnerable to political manipulation (Shepherd, 2003).
Public administration is made up of two levels. One level consists of the political directorates like cabinets, councils and advisory bodies. Members of the political directorate may be elected, co-opted, nominated by interested groups or selected by some other means. The political directorate may also include members from the military or civil services. The other level comprises permanent career officials and bureaucratic organizations. Civil servants are supposed to be selected on merit, and spend their whole careers in the civil…
"Evolution of Public Administration." 2010. Web. 30 March 2012. Available at:
Perry, J.L. 1986. "Merit Pay in the Public Sector: The case for a Failure of Theory." Web. 30
This is what is affectionately known as cutting through the red tape.
Politics and Administration
2. Whether or not administration should be separate from politics is one of the abiding controversies of our field. Describe Woodrow Wilson's and Frank Goodnow's positions (and why they argue what they do) on the matter. Then compare and contrast their ideas with those of Luther Gulick and Leonard White. How does Jane Addams conceive the issue of "separation" in rather different terms? Where do you stand on this issue?
The idea that public administration should be separate from politics has been around for years. This idea has been argued and debated between many theorists. Some believe that they should be separate. While others feel that it is impossible to separate them. What is right or wrong is up to each individual as well as society as a whole to determine.
Woodrow Wilson is often…
Bureaucracy. (2002). Retrieved September 30, 2009, from Web site:
Bureaucracy. (2008). Retrieved September 30, 2009, form New World Encyclopedia Web site:
Woodrow's public administration and politics dichotomy is not workable. Politics cannot be practically divorced from public administration. In fact, there cannot be effective public administration without politics. Political institutions like the parliament engages in policy formulation while the public administrators' primary responsibility is to implement the policies that have been instituted hence the perception that public administration is a detailed and systematic execution of public law. Public institutions cannot be devoid of politics hence Woodrow's assertion that administration lies outside the proper spheres of politics is misleading. He is right in asserting that administrative questions are not political questions. However, it is difficult to find that politics doesn't interfere with public administrator's functions. He is spot on in his observation that public administration is part of political life. I find his assertion that politics is the province of a statesman and public administration the preserve of the technocrats…
Dahl, R. (1947). The Science of Public Administration: Three Problems. Public Administration
Review 7 (1).
Rosenbloom, D. (2008). The Politics-Administration Dichotomy in U.S. Historical Context.
Public Administration Review, 57-60.
Public Administration in Brazil
PUBLIC ADMINSTATION IN BAZIL
The grassroots and rural development happen to be the main concern and responsibility of any responsive government in a political system. This because the power of political participation is significant in any developmental process of a country which has persistently eluded many people at the grassroots level. Brazil as a developing country needs to take into consideration the significant of efficient administrative responsibilities in all aspects of development. The local governments act a vital tool in promoting development and bringing positive change to the people. Presently the local governments have been mirrored with challenges that have made the entity inefficient to the local people. Development process is insignificant in instances that it does not impact the lives of the people positively in relation to the decision making process.
Public administration in Brazil
The Brazilian government, therefore, main objective of creating the local…
Burchfield, M., H.G. Overman, D. Puga & M.Turner (2006) The Determinants of Urban Sprawl: A Portrait from Space, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 121(2), 587-633.
Burchfield, M., H.G. Overman, D. Puga & M.Turner (2006) The Determinants of Urban Sprawl: A Portrait from Space, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 121(2), 587-633.
Bengston, D.N., J.O. Fletcher & K.C. Nelson (2004), Public Policies for Managing Urban Growth and Protecting Open Space: Policy Instruments and Lessons Learned in the United States," Landscape and Urban Planning 69 (2004), pp.271-286.
Heinelt H. & Kubler, D. (2005), Metropolitan Governance, Capacity, Democracy and the Dynamics of Place, Routledge, London and New York.
Public administration conveys activities concerned with public service (what government can give to people). Therefore, I believe that the primary objective of a public administrator should be to strive to work for all citizens regardless of their income, race, gender, creed or physical ability to ensure that they are treated justly, impartially and fairly. In order to accomplish this objective, public administration must continuously strike a balance for values that have to do with power and equity.
I am not a believer in laissez-faire capitalism, the notion that an economic system functions best when there is no interference by government. Instead, I see public administration as a necessity for maximizing the well being of individuals and the community. Therefore, I would like to pursue a Master's in Public Administration because of my strong desire to help build a better society by becoming part of a government agency that is designed…
Public Administration Budgeting
Budgeting for Public Administration
Budgets are used in addressing various purposes including management and control as well as communication of goals, successes, the public entity's philosophy and explain the various departmental functions. Public administration professionals must be able to analyze the financial health of an entity by examining the budget. This work will assess how well available budget documents and auxiliary information address each of these functions on the municipal budget as chosen by the writer which will be supported with examples and information for the documents studied. The questions that this study will answer include those as follows: (1) Did the budget message present an adequate overview of the entity and its financial position? Why or why not? (2) What service area (or program) accounts for the greatest percentage of the operating budget? Does the budget provide any information suggesting why this service area…
Economic Indicators (2010) Howard County, Maryland September 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.co.ho.md.us/DOA/DOApdfs/September%202010.pdf
Spending Affordability Advisory Committee Report (2011) Howard County, Maryland. Retrieved from: http://www.co.ho.md.us/DOA/DOApdfs/Final%2011%20Affordability%20Report%20Pt1.pdf
Ulman, Kenneth (2010) Fiscal Year 2011 Approved Operating Budget Detail, Howard County, Maryland. Retrieved from: http://www.co.ho.md.us/PortalServices/PortalDocs/FY2011_Approved_Budget_Detail.pdf
On the most basic level, implementation is the action of putting a theory or concept into motion. Implementation involves many elements, including decision-making, communications, politics, budgeting, intergovernmental relations, public administrator's professional expertise, ethics and the general environment. This essay will explore two of these elements, ethics and communications. After some brief comments on the precise definition of "implementation," we will look at the Challenger case in relation to ethics, and we will look at the Bakersfield case in relation to communications.
The term implementation is often used to describe activities involved in making theories and concepts into realities. Several steps must be taken before a concept becomes an actuality. First of all, the concept or theory must be approved at the governmental level. Once approval is complete, the concept moves into an authoritative public policy directive. These directives, or mandates, can include statutes, executive orders,…
Ayres, Chris. "Economic Woes Take Lustre Off Golden State." The Times December 11, 2002, sec. Overseas News: 18.
Cole, David. No Equal Justice: Race and Class in the American Criminal Justice System. New York: The New Press, 1999.
Houston, David J. "Implementation." International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration. Ed. Jay M. Shafritz. Vol. 2. Boulder: Westview Press, 1998. 1093-97.
Hummel, Ralph P. "Bureaucracy." International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration. Ed. Jay M. Shafritz. Vol. 1. Boulder: Westview Press, 1998. 307-9.
The inability of the local government to evacuate the city days before the storm arrived and then heed warnings from various federal officials underscores his complacency. As the largest part of Mayor Nagin's evacuation plan was to go to the Superdome or the Convention Center. Once at these locations, the overall amounts of suffering would continue as the break down in communication, would mean that supplies and first responders are unable to go to those areas most affected. Once this took place, it meant that the overall situation in the city would become more desperate as the hours would turn into days, with no help from anyone. At which point, it was only a matter of time unit looting and lawlessness would grip the city. This is because of the lack of response from the different levels of government, would make the situation more precarious for the residents of New…
Looters Strike Advantage of New Orleans Mess. (2005, August 30). Retrieved April 2, 2010 from MSNBC website: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/9131493/
Boaz, D. (2005, September 19). Catastrophe in Big Easy Demonstrate Big Governments Failure. Retrieved April 2, 2010 from Cato Institute website: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=4819
Cole, T. (2008). Risk Communication Failure. Southern Communication Journal, 73 (3), 211 -228.
Handwerk, Brian. (2005, September 2). New Orleans Levies Not Built for Worst Cases. Retrieved April 2, 2010 from National Geographic website: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/09/0902_050902_katrina_levees.html
States reported over seventeen billion in DSH payments and just over fourteen billion in non-DSH supplemental payments during fiscal year 2010, but state reporting of non-DSH supplemental payments separately from regular payments was incomplete, so the exact amount of non-DSH supplemental payments is unknown. There were no formal recommendations made in this report but there was an observation made that ongoing federal efforts to improve the completeness of reporting of Medicaid supplemental payments is important for effective oversight and to better understand their role in financing Medicaid services.
The overt goal of this report was for the GOA to provide information on the transparency of supplemental Medicaid payments that are made by states. They accomplished this goal in the fact that they could not truly determine the amount of the total Medicaid payments made by the states since state reporting of non-DSH supplemental payments separately from regular payments was incomplete.…
Medicaid - States Reported Billions More in Supplemental Payments in Recent Years. (2012).
Retrieved from http://www.gao.gov./assets/600/592785.pdf
Government plays a considerable role in creating feelings of shared obligation and respect in society. People must have confidence that it will defend the public interest, since representative democracy rests on officials and the trust they provoke (Bowman, 1990).
To act morally in the public service environment means making sure that the consequences of the public services are not harmful to others, or to put it more optimistically, making sure that public service activities add to the individual well being of others and of societies overall. This entire concept though depends on the slow creation of a political and public climate favoring fairness, honesty, a sense of accountability and responsibility, and the preservation of a high degree of ethical and moral standards in the public sector. Since we live in a world in which there is a great deal of gray areas surrounding basic norms and values, a lot of…
Bowman, J.S. (1990). Ethics in Government: A National Survey of Public Administrators.
Public Administration Review, 50(3), 345-353.
Ethics, Transparency and Accountability. (2010). Retreived from http://www.unpan.org/DPADM/ProductsServices/AdvisoryServices/EthicsTransparen
A company does not have to advertise a specific job. Instead, they have the flexibility in determining how they will promote the position. (Taylor 132) (Brandenberg)
hen it comes to the interview what can the interviewer ask and what questions can't be asked?
During the interview process, there will be a focus on specific questions that are relevant to a candidates experience and ability to do their jobs. This means that they will concentrate on a number of topics to include: work history, questions about the individual and understanding the opinions of the person about the company. Below are some examples of questions that will be asked which fall into any one of these categories.
hat were your responsibilities with the previous employer?
hat major challenges or problems were encountered in the last job?
How would you describe yourself?
hat interests you about this job?
The combination of these factors…
"What is Public Sector Administration." Wise Geek, 2012. Web 31 Mar. 2012
Brandenberg, Dennis. "Job Advertisement Requirements." E. How, 2012. Web. 31 Mar. 2012
Doyle, Alyson. "Interview Questions." About.com, 2012. Web. 31 Mar. 2012
Taylor, Stephan. People Resourcing. London: Charted Institute of Personnel, 2002. Print.
Non-profits may make greater use of interns and volunteers for administrative work who wish to bolster their resume and also to 'do good.'
ecruitment can begin internally; externally using the organization's website or more generic 'job boards,' or through specific industry publications. Most administrative positions require the candidate to submit a resume and cover letter for initial consideration. Other possible requirements include a statement of intent, writing samples, or tests of key competencies (such as fluency in a language or proficiency with software). Job interviews (either one-on-one or before a panel) may be demanded, particularly if the job requires a great deal of contact with the public. External recruitment often requires a more extensive process than internal recruitment, to 'vet' candidates.
Performance reviews are also a key part of the process. Performance reviews often take the form of annual or more frequent discussions with the employee about his or her…
Job analysis: Overview. (1999). HR Guide. Retrieved June 23, 2011 at http://www.job-analysis.net/G000.htm
Job analysis. (2011). Tutor2u. Retrieved June 23, 2011 at http://www.tutor2u.net/business/people/recruitment_jobanalysis.asp
Pynes, Joan, E. (2009) Human resource management for public and non-profit organizations:
A strategic approach (3rd edition). Jossey-Bass. San Francisco, CA.
The opening of the public administration that the function is social control, it means establishing access channels and regular exchanges with the interests at stake in the various fields of intervention. However, this operation is compromised the claim of neutrality and even exteriorly of administrative action, not being equal, or ability to access or capability organization of interests (White, 1994).
The extension of areas of intervention, the profound transformation of the instruments and forms of administrative action does not contradict the public administration's crisis in a shed specific: the inability of centralized, bureaucratic model to effectively manage corporate postindustrial (Norma, 2010). These qualities seem particularly adapted to changing conditions and complex of modern societies. Specifically, it accuses the administration of waste, rigidity, slowness and lack efficiency, and a growing divorce society.
Two movements, especially, have tried to give a satisfactory solution to this mismatch between public administrations: The decentralized power…
Smith, Kevin B. And Licari, Michael J. (2010). Public Administration -- Power and Politics in the Fourth Branch of Government, ISBN 1-933220-04-X
White, Jay D. And Guy B. Adams. (1994). Research in public administration: reflections on theory and practice?.
Norma M. Riccucci, (2010). Public Administration: Traditions of Inquiry and Philosophies of Knowledge Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
enchmarking occurs in a cycle with the first step stated as crucial and involving "planning and target setting." (cited in Rondo-rovetto and Saliterer, 2007) the second step is stated as comparison and analysis with the third step being 'action' followed by the fourth step of 'evaluation'. The benchmarking cycle then repeats itself. (Rondo-rovetto and Saliterer, 2007)
III. Preferred type of Leader & When the Autocratic Leader is preferable and more Efficient
The work of Kurt Lewin and colleagues in 1939 resulted in the identification of three leadership styles which are specifically regarding decision-making on the part of those in the role of leadership. Those three styles are stated as:
(2) democratic; and (3) laissez-faire. (Lewin, Lippet, and White, 1939)
The autocratic style is one in which the decisions of the leader is made without consultation of others while the democratic style of leadership is one that involves others…
Dess, Gregory, G., Lumpkin (Tom) GT, and Taylor, Marilyn L. (2004) Strategic Management: Creating Competitive Advantages. McGraw Hill Professional. 2004.
Lewin, K., Lippitt, R. And White, R.K. (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created social climates. Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 271-301.
Rondo-Brovetto, Paolo, and Saliterer, Iris (2007) Comparing Regions, Cities and Communities: Local Government Benchmarking as an Instrument for Improving Performance and Competitiveness. The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal, Vol. 12(3) 2007. Article 13. online available at: http://www.innovation.cc/peer-reviewed/rondo13final4rev.pdf
Spendolini, M.J. (1992). The Benchmarking Book, New York, American Management Association. Cited in: Rondo-Brovetto, Paolo, and Saliterer, Iris (2007) Comparing Regions, Cities and Communities: Local Government Benchmarking as an Instrument for Improving Performance and Competitiveness. The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal, Vol. 12(3) 2007. Article 13. online available at:
Trainings and Appraisals
The following will be an examination of public administration processes and skills. A question will be presented and the answer will be in the form of an analysis. The situation itself will be looked at in terms of paradoxes of freedoms and needs and from an organizational and training perspective.
One book that generates these concepts is Human esource Management in Public Service: Paradoxes, Processes, and Problems. It provides challenging and detailed handling of the multifaceted concerns and matters of administration in the public sector, from both worker and decision-making perspectives. It deliberates the matters, clarifies how they come about, and proposes what exactly can be undertaken regarding them. It goes on to provide contradictory viewpoints concerning the characteristic challenges in addition to the exclusive political and legal setting of the public sector administration within which they occur (Bowman, Berman, West, and Van Wart, 2012).…
Lorette, K. (n.d.). How Does Organization Training Influence Employee Performance? Retrieved March 2, 2015, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/organization-training-influence-employee-performance-4835.html
Morgan-Handzel, T. (n.d.). Systematic Employee Performance Training. Retrieved March 2, 2015, from http://www.ideafit.com/fitness-library/systematic-employee-performance-training-0
Markgraf, B. (n.d.). Tools to Measure Training Effectiveness. Retrieved March 3, 2015, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/tools-measure-training-effectiveness-52691.html
Developing a successful public service culture for a criminal justice agency might sound simple at first, but it is more complicated than many might realize. Just because a person chooses the criminal justice environment does not necessarily mean they have a "service" mentality. Creating an effective service oriented criminal justice agency would include creating motives for the employees which were rooted in emotional value, such as an incarceration environment where the guards could see emotional and social progress in the prison population. The prison population was encouraged to recreate their lives so they could be productive and valuable citizens when they were released, and the guards and administration would help in the process so they created their own emotional value in their jobs, and in the lives of others. This would include creating prisoner programs that would encourage personal growth and value enhancement. Many of the current prisoner…
Nowadays, the idea that offshore drilling is safe seems ridiculous. The Gulf spill nowhere compares to drilling disasters that have occurred before including one off the coast of Santa Barbara, Calif. In 1969 that discarded three million gallons into coastal waters and led to the present moratorium. The Deepwater Horizon calamity is a standard low probability, high impact event. It is the kind that has been seen more and more recently (Mcquaid, 2010).
The consequences of this spill are only beginning to be seen, as the exact causes of the initial explosion on the drilling platform and the malfunction of a blowout preventer to deploy on the sea floor probably won't be ascertained for many weeks or months to come. But the summary of many serious universal problems have already emerged, indicating just how misleading the idea of risk-free drilling really was, while uncovering some potential areas for reform. These…
About BP. (2010). Retrieved September 9, 2010, from BP Web site:
BP Now Valued At Less Than Its Assets. (2010). Retrieved September 9, 2010, from The
Huffington Post Web site: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/06/09/bp-worth-more-dead-than-alive_n_606968.html
6) Attorney staff and support staff in the Decatur, Alabama location.
7) Facilities for intake and appointments with future clients seeking legal representation and other relief from being victimized by domestic violence.
8) Information Technology System for record keeping, document preparation and conflict of interest checking.
There will be a need for packets to be prepared in alliance with other agencies and their provision for relief from domestic violence victimization.
V. NATURE of SERVICES to BE PROVIDED
The nature of services that will be provided by this initiative includes:
1) Legal Services assistance - all legal services related assistance in dealing with the situation of Domestic Violence in the home for any and all victims of domestic violence regardless of the individuals race, age, and based upon eligibility according to income and assets guidelines which are set by the agency providing federal funding for this initiative.
2) Referral to all…
Nancy Jones has recently been hired as program manager at CCHS. Her first order of business was to have a meeting with the judge and Klenk. The judge is insisting that they agency fix their employee problems within the next three months. The agency is not doing anyone, especially the children of Cherry County any good operating the way that it is now. The agency needs to completely overhaul the way it does business, so that it can once again be a successful contributor to the welfare of both the county and the children.
The Cherry County Human Services Department finds them selves in a very bad situation. The entire agency is overworked and over stressed. They have a bad reputation in the local court system along with the community as a whole. The turnover rate at the agency has been very high in recent years. This makes for…
Recession is a period characterized by increased unemployment rate, lower inflation, lower spending, reduced production and stocking. Different economic theories such as the Classical, Neo-classical, Keynesian and the Growth curve and life cycle theories argue differently about the economic cycles. The neo-classical theorists for example argue that interest rates are crucial in the shift towards the different cycles and therefore by regulating the flow of funds (increasing or decreasing) it is even possible to avoid the economic slump. [ Stanley Salvary, (2004)]
Medicare and Medicaid
Medicaid and Medicare are two important federal healthcare programs that together serve roughly more than 80 million Americans. These programs were included in the Social Securities act in 1965. These programs cater to the healthcare needs of specific groups of people and are both managed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Medicaid is a Social welfare program that provides health services to…
1) IOUSA, 'One Nation Under Stress In Debt', 2008, http://www.iousathemovie.com/
2) Fox news, 'Growing National Debt Maybe Next economic Crisis', (Jul 3, 2009) http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2009/07/03/growing-national-debt-economic-crisis/
3) Senator Bob Bennett, 'Bennett on Social Security reform', (Feb 12, 2009), http://bennett.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?p=SocialSecurityReform
4) David Goldman, 'Obama's big Idea: Digital Health records', (Jan 12, 2009), http://money.cnn.com/2009/01/12/technology/stimulus_health_care/
Public Administration and Policy Analysis
The objective of this work is to compare and contrast the ethics analysis vs. The cost benefits analysis approaches to policy analysis.
There is a Greek Proverb, which states, "a society grows great when old men plants trees in whose shade they know they will never sit." (Clowney, 2006) Protection of the health of human beings and the natural environment at one time did not appear to make the requirement of such as economic analysis. It is stated in the work of Ackerman (2008) that it is "surprising that cost-benefit analysis is such a failure; at first glance it appears quite reasonable. If only one could assign monetary values to all the costs and all the benefits of a proposed policy, it would become a simple, transparent matter to add up the costs and benefits." (p.2) Many times it is impossible to define all the…
Ackerman, F. (2008) Critique of Cost-Benefit Analysis and Alternative Approaches to Decision-Making: A report to Friends of the Earth England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Jan 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.ase.tufts.edu/gdae/Pubs/rp/Ack_UK_CBAcritique.pdf
Baker, N. (2009) The Ethics of Using Cost Benefit Analysis for Environmental Policy. Policy Symposium Analysis. Retrieved from: http://userwww.sfsu.edu/~nbaker/documents/cost_benefit_analysis.pdf
Clowney, S. (2006) Environmental Ethics and Cost-Benefit Analysis. Fordham Environmental Law Review. Fall 2006. Retrieved from: https://litigation-essentials.lexisnexis.com/webcd/app?action=DocumentDisplay&crawlid=1&doctype=cite&docid=18+Fordham+Envtl.+Law+Rev.+105&srctype=smi&srcid=3B15&key=a796a2bc39fa06cced41b71eb9f65c0d
" Once famed for its salmon runs, the river is now controlled in many parts by dams that help to supply electricity to western cities, and also feed reservoirs for agriculture. In other words there is considerable competition for the same water resources, each possible use serving to prejudice another. Among the many scenarios proposed for alleviating the complex problems arising from this situation have been the creation of a water bank, and the issuing of permits that allow for water to be treated as a commodity in much the same way as emissions would be in an emissions credit scheme (Benson 2005). In the Los Angeles area in the first half of the Twentieth Century, a classic example of a "tragedy of the commons" ensued as developers rushed to pump out ancient aquifers before they became contaminated by seawater (Choe 2004). The story of Los Angeles' quest for ever…
Benson, Reed D. 2005. "The Supreme Court of Science" Speaks on Water Rights: The National Academy of Sciences Columbia River Report and Its Water Policy Implications. Environmental Law 35, no. 1: 85+.
Choe, Olivia S. 2004. Appurtenancy Reconceptualized: Managing Water in an Era of Scarcity. Yale Law Journal 113, no. 8: 1909+.
To some, the difference between public administration and private management only lies in definition. From the onset, it would be prudent to point out that while there is some overlap between public administration and private management, the two are largely distinct on multiple fronts. In the first part of this text, I will demonstrate that the two discipline fundamentally differ on multiple aspects. In the second part of the text, I will assess the implications (for the public administrator) of the differences between the two disciplines in the realms of decision making, human resource management, as well as accountability.
To begin with, and perhaps most fundamentally, the two disciplines differ in terms of definition. According to Waldo (as cited in Khan, 2008), public administration could be conceptualized in terms of “the organization and management of men and materials to achieve the purpose of the government”…
Fry, B. & Raadschelders, J.C. (2013). Mastering Public Administration: From Max Weber to Dwight Waldo. CQ Press.
Horn, M.J. (1995). The Political Economy of Public Administration: Institutional Choice in the Public Sector. Cambridge University Press.
Khan, A. (2008). An Introduction to Public Administration. University Press of America.
Milakovich, M.E. & Gordon, G.J. (2013). Public Administration in America. Cengage Learning.
Rabin, J. (Ed.). (2003). Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy: A-J. CRC Press.
How Public Administrative Discretion Works
The main difference between public and private administration is that in the former the administration both administers to the public and is accountable to the public; in the latter, the administration is accountable only to stakeholders, which may or may not include members of the community/public. Other differences include the fact that in private administration, the idea is that the administration is overseeing some business organization that focuses on a goal related to its mission, its business model. Public administration, on the other hand, refers to a political process wherein official administrators are elected or appointed to do a job for the good of the public. They typically control or use public funds; must give a public accounting of how funds are used, and must to all intents and purposes fulfill a mandate given them by the public—though, of course, it is…
Five future trends in Public Administration are 1) global interconnectedness and self-sufficiency; 2) changes to public health policy; 3) incorporation of advanced technology into administration; 4) more grassroots advocacy; and 5) emphasis on sustainability (Florida Tech, 2019). The first trend—the global interconnectedness of public administrations and a focus at the same time on self-sufficiency—may seem like two diametrically opposed trends going in opposite directions, but the reality is that global interconnectedness and self-sufficiency are compatible and public administrators in the future will need to realize how. First off, globalization is a fact of life in the modern world. The China-U.S. trade war is a perfect example of how what is happening on one side of the world can have a tremendous impact on the entire rest of the planet: the reason is that we live in a global economy, and every country’s economic output is integrated with every other…
New Technology That Can Improve the Veteran Benefits Administration Performance And Improve Efficiency
The use of artificial intelligence (AI) in public administration is a concept that is growing around the world. As Dhasarathy, Jain and Khan (2019) show, AI can help governments to solve complex public-sector issues in more effective and efficient ways. This paper will describe AI technology, the goals of its usage, challenges faced with its implementation, how it impacts the organizational culture, and the pros and cons of adopting AI methods in public administration.
Summary of the Technology
AI is a technology that essentially allows the machine to learn how to address new problems based on the information collected and analyzed by algorithms over time. AI can be used to help public administrators make decisions and improve their performance. Some examples of the ways in which AI can be used include sorting through infrastructure data to…
An occasion in which a public sector leader acted in an unethical manner was when he unquestioningly accepted a potentially damaging organizational culture that he inherited from the previous administration. The leader did not stop to consider that the culture of the government that he was now in charge of was rife with corruption and long time staffers who were engaged in all manner of schemes that served to benefit them, friends, and so on—particularly through the rewarding of contracts to friends, getting money for unnecessary jobs, spying, abuse, harassment, and so on. The leader accepted the culture as just the way the office was run and did not try to fix it, thinking that if this was the way it worked under his predecessor it must be okay.
It turned out to be not okay when a particular grievance was filed by a female staffer against several upper level…
The administration is viewed as the act of effectively managing the matters of a business organization or a state agency. The administration is concerned with the optimum use of information, people, and other resources of the organization in order to attain the ultimate goals of the organization. Public administration is defined as all the processes, individuals, and organizations that are associated with carrying out of laws and other rules that are adopted or issued by legislatures, courts, and executives. In essence, public administration is only concerned with implementing government policy and public policy as defined by the executive branch of government (Boyne, 2002). Any country that has a government will have the concept of public administration. There is no requirement for profit in public administration and this is aimed at ensuring that the public receives the required services as expected. Public policies and programs that are formulated by…
Boyne, G. A. (2002). Public and private management: what’s the difference? Journal of management studies, 39(1), 97-122.
Buelens, M., & Van den Broeck, H. (2007). An analysis of differences in work motivation between public and private sector organizations. Public Administration Review, 67(1), 65-74.
Bullock, J. B., Stritch, J. M., & Rainey, H. G. (2015). International comparison of public and private employees’ work motives, attitudes, and perceived rewards. Public Administration Review, 75(3), 479-489.
Marume, S., Jubenkanda, R., & Namusi, C. (2016). Similarities and Differences between Public Administration and Business Administration.
Milakovich, M. E., & Gordon, G. J. (2013). Public Administration in America. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Papers on the Science of Administration: POSDCORB
In essence, POSDCORB, which denotes the typical administrative process, is used in reference to planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting (Espy and Guy, 2017). The acronym was originally suggested and developed by Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick. While planning has got to do with the formulation of a broad outline of the various objectives that ought to be accomplished and the diverse approaches to be adopted in this endeavor, organizing largely relates to “the establishment of the formal structure of authority through which work subdivisions are arranged, defined and co-ordinated for the defined objective” (Gulick and Urwick, 2004, p. 13). On the other hand, as the authors further point out, staffing involves the recruitment of staff, the development of their capabilities, as well as the maintenance of working conditions that are favorable for the accomplishment of set objectives.
Next, we have…
Espy, L.D. & Guy, M.E. (2017). Maybe it is Rocket Science: How The Martian Reflects Gulick\\\\'s “Notes on the Theory of Organization.” Administrative Theory and Praxis, 39(3), 82-96.
Gulick, L. & Urwick, L. (Eds.). (2004). Papers on the Science of Administration. New York, NY: Routledge
Meeks, M. (2015). Strategic Management and the Disparate Duties of the CEO. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 14(2), 39-44.
Ethical Dilemmas in Social Media Use in Public Safety Administration
Today, public safety administrators at all levels are routinely confronted with complex ethical dilemmas that demand more than a casual analysis and response. Moreover, the types of ethical dilemmas that confront many public safety administrators at present have expanded to include issues that did not even exist a few years ago, most especially those involving the use of social media platforms. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of these types of ethical issues that may confront public safety administrators, suggested training in response to these trends and the identification of relevant stakeholders. In addition, the paper provides an implementation plan and process followed by a draft code of ethics to help guide public safety practitioners. Finally, a summary of the research and key findings concerning the ethical dilemmas involved in social media use in public safety…
Code of ethics. (2017). National Association of Social Workers. Retrieved from https://www.socialworkers.org/About/Ethics/Code-of-Ethics/Code-of-Ethics-English
DePaulis, K. (2015, Spring). Cyberbullying: Implications for social work assessment. School Social Work Journal, 39(2), 15-20.
Glaubinger, C. (2009, September 5). Examples database: Citizen participation. Nation\\\\'s Cities Weekly, 28(36), 5.
Nye, S. G. (2011, July). Law and ethics: Social media issues. The Journal of Employee Assistance, 41(3), 14-19.
Sheer, B. (2015, January-February). Five ways to keep social media from being a legal headache. T H E Journal 42(1), 6-9.
Wright, M. (2018, January 1). Cyberbullying: Victimization through social networking sites and adjustment difficulties: The role of parental mediation. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 19(2), 113-119.
There is an opportunity in my town to solve a drainage issue on one of the main roads that connects to larger highways through town. The road sees a lot of traffic as cars go from one highway to the other and into residential neighborhoods in between, all of which feed off this main road. The problem is that during a rain the road floods badly as it sits at the bottom of two hills in what is basically a valley. There is now money in the treasury from the state to make the repairs, but should the town make them? Fixing it could cause a great deal of traffic nightmares for many people and construction would be on-going for the better part of a year. If constituents think it is not worth the headache it could mean that some public officials are voted out of office.
The best way…
The Oakdale Administrator Case focused on two key topics, financial management and decision making. Other lesser topics covered were ethics and political context. The case study represented a normal and often read case of politics. Meaning, Mayor Bean, the incumbent, argued for what he did in office and the things he managed to fix. When Mr. Hoffnagel, the outsider came in, he downplayed the former’s efforts, stating he was going to solve and fix everything the former could not. Such a platform of ‘change’ would work in a small town because change is easier to promote and implement. However, in a large city, this could very well be a lie that could make Hoffnagel, the new Bean. “In April 2003, Ernie Hoffnagel, a former alderman, was elected mayor of Oakdale over the incumbent, Carl Bean. Hoffnagel, a slight man in his late fifties and a car salesman by profession, focused…
Cropf, R. A., Giancola, J. M., & Loutzenhiser, K. K. (2016). The public administration casebook. Routledge.
Hugentobler, M., Hofer, A., & Simmendinger, P. (2015). More than housing: Cooperative planning - a case study in Zu?rich. Birkhäuser.
Landerer, N. (2016). Mass media and political decision-making: Analyzing mediatization in Switzerland. Bloomsbury Publishing.
Milakovich, M. E., & Gordon, G. J. (2013). Public administration in America. Cengage Learning.
Shafritz, J. M., & Hyde, A. C. (2017). Classics of public administration. Australia: Wadsworth.
Analyze the Issue: Civil Unrest
Civil unrest has been accredited to an assortment of social, political, economic, and environmental causes comprising of ethnic and cultural tensions, food shortage and increases in food prices, changes in global commodity prices, shocks in the economy, and also changes in the demography (Braha, 2012). From a legal standpoint, civil unrest also referred to as civil disturbance takes into account acts of violence and chaos that have an adverse impact on public law and order. It encompasses acts such as disturbances, acts of violence, insurgences, illegal impediments or gatherings. It also comprises of all domestic situations necessitating or likely to necessitate the use of national armed forces. The Legal Information Institute (2018) delineated civil unrest as any public disturbance that takes into account acts of violence by grouping of three or more individuals, which gives rise to an instantaneous danger of or results in…
Braha, D. (2012). Global civil unrest: contagion, self-organization, and prediction. PloS one, 7(10), e48596.
Cox Jr., M. E. (2015). How to Change Response Tactics in Times of Civil Unrest. Domestic Preparedness. Retrieved from: https://www.domesticpreparedness.com/preparedness/how-to-change-response-tactics-in-times-of-civil-unrest/
Dufty, N. (2012). Using social media to build community disaster resilience. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, The, 27(1), 40.
Fire Rescue. (2016). Civil Unrest: Fire Service Preparedness, Trends, And Staffing Software Solutions. Kronos Incorporated.
Groves, R. B. (1999). Policies and procedures for fire service operations during civil disturbances: Executive analysis of fire service operations in emergency management. National Fire Academy.
Legal Information Institute. (2018). 18 U.S. Code §?232. Definitions. Retrieved from: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/232
Lomax, M. (2016). PROBABILITY MODEL FOR MITIGATING CIVIL UNREST AND ENHANCING EFFECTIVE POLICE RESPONSE. The Tactical Edge.
NFPA. (2015). Civil Unrest. Retrieved from: https://www.nfpa.org/-/media/Files/News-and-Research/Resources/Fire-service/Responder-Forum/2015-NFPA-responders-forum-Civil-Unrest-Paper.ashx?la=en
Purpose of Oversight Committees
The oversight committee is an investigative body with authority to investigate issues within the committee’s jurisdiction (Committee on Oversight and Reform, n.d). The oversight committee has the mandate to investigate matters within its mandate. Congressional oversight in the U.S. congress provides oversight over the executive arm of government including the various federal agencies. The role of congressional oversight includes monitoring, supervision, and review of the federal programs, agencies, policy implementation, and activities. Congress has the power to oversight. This power is acquired through the committee system of congress (Committee on Oversight and Reform, n.d). Oversight is also present in various other congressional contexts and activities. Oversight duties include investigation, appropriation, authorization, and legislative hearings carried out by standing committees, studies and reviews by the staff and agencies that provide support to congress, and special investigations conducted by select committees.
Oversight authority by congress comes from the…
ACLN (2018). Audit Committee Leadership Network, April 2016, Tapestry Networks. Retrieved 19 March, 2019 from https://www.tapestrynetworks.com/publications/oversight-special- investigations
CDC/ATSDR Committee on Community Engagement. (2011). Principles of Community Engagement. NIH Publication No. 11-7782, http: ??www.cdc.gov/ phppo/pce/. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.04.014
Cochrane, E. (2019). House Votes to Block Trump’s National Emergency Declaration about the Border, The New York Times. Retrieved 19 March, 2019 from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/02/26/us/politics/national-emergency-vote.html
Committee on Oversight and Reform (n.d.). Committee Jurisdiction, House committee on Oversight and Reform. Retrieved 19 March, 2019 from https://oversight.house.gov/about/committee-jurisdiction
Schultz, N. (2003). Oversight/Review Committee, Beyond Intractability. Retrieved 19 March, 2019 from https://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/oversight-committee
Six Steps in the Budgeting Process. Bottom-up vs. Top-down Budget Plans, 2010).
The budget rules that are prepared by top management are passed down through successive levels within the company. Managers at each level may make additions and offer greater detail for their subordinates. The managers at each level prepare the plans for items under their control. The budgeting process will caution management of possible problems that may occur. By knowing the problems, solutions may be formulated. For example, at the valleys in cash flow, a shortage of cash may occur. Knowing this ahead of time allows management to arrange for a short-term loan for the financing need rather than face an unexpected financing crisis. In a similar element, planning allows for a smooth manufacturing program to result in both lower production costs and lower inventory levels. It steers clear of a crisis circumstances requiring overtime or high transportation charges…
Fuller, Julia. (2010). How to Make a Budget for an Organization. Retrieved August 7, 2010,
from eHow Web site: http://www.ehow.com/how_4464789_make-budget-organization.html
How to Prepare A Sound Budget Process. Six Steps in the Budgeting Process. Bottom-up versus
Top-down Budget Plans. (2010). Retrieved August 7, 2010, from Online Success Center
In this sense, globalization represented an obvious benefit to American industry, but at great cost to some of the workers who toiled away in conditions reminiscent of the first century of industrialized society in this part of the world. Several high profile instances (such as the conditions in which foreign workers produced American athletic wear) in the late twentieth century highlighted the need for governmental regulation in already) industrialized society to prevent exporting child labor exploitation and industrial pollution along with the opportunity for employment to parts of the world where economic conditions make even the most difficult and potentially dangerous work an attractive option to perpetual unemployment and starvation (Hollender, 1990).
Globalization represents the opportunity to improve the lives of billions of people, particularly in parts of the Far East, who are still living in conditions that have long been considered unacceptable in Western society. It also represent the…
Hollender, J. (1990) How to Make the World a Better Place.
William Morrow: New York
United Nations (2000) Globalization and State: an Overview.
LOCOMOTIVE PARTS CONTRACT- CASE STUDY
Worldwide (W) is one of the key players in the field of locomotive parts manufacturing. The company has just been able to obtain an important contract to supply locomotive parts to Paraguay. This report focuses on the work allocation problem at hand and makes some important recommendations. Worldwide cannot afford to take this contract lightly and for this reason, it needs to make sure that only the best people are working on this project. However since all subsidiaries are keen to grab the major share of the contract, the firm is faced with a serious challenge where it has to please the subsidiaries and also assign work to only the very best. The report analyzes the situation and recommends that strengths of each subsidiary be closely evaluated and work be assigned based on the findings.
Worldwide has landed a huge contract and…
Even a casual observer of American politics over the last several years would recognize the theater to which Bolman and Deal refer as it applies to organizational processes. IN Congress, for example, elected representatives devote tremendous effort to the theatrical aspects of portraying themselves as open-minded, desirous of compromise with political opponents, consistency with their prior statements and campaign promises, and (especially) commitment to principles of good faith in general. Unfortunately, it seems that the theater of political processes have come to completely dominate the political processes through which elected representatives are supposed to represent the wishes of their constituents. In particular, the influence of professional lobbyists has thoroughly undermined the political processes articulated in the U.S. Constitution and political representatives, all while elected officials maintain the theater of the formal political process. They routinely rely on obfuscating language to hide the fact that their actions on Capital Hill…
This system is stated to be flawed as "The school board members have a vested interest in the success of the existing local school system and are reluctant to introduce a competitor into the marketplace, said charter school supporters." (O'Donoghue, 2010)
Summary and Conclusion
It is very likely that laws will be changed and policy reformed relating to charter schools in the state of Virginia as to do otherwise means to miss the $350 million in funding opportunity for Virginia's school system and it appears highly unlikely that in the present state of the economy that Virginia will be willing to shun this much in educational funding.
Charter Schools, When Explained, Get Support (2009) Augusta Press. 16 Dec 2009. Online available at: http://augustafreepress.com/2009/12/16/charter-schools-when-explained-get-support/
Schaeffer, Adam . (2006) No, Virginia, There is No such thing as School Choice. 29 Oct 2006. CATO Institute. Online available at: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=6756
raunlich, Christian (2009)…
Charter Schools, When Explained, Get Support (2009) Augusta Press. 16 Dec 2009. Online available at: http://augustafreepress.com/2009/12/16/charter-schools-when-explained-get-support/
Schaeffer, Adam B. (2006) No, Virginia, There is No such thing as School Choice. 29 Oct 2006. CATO Institute. Online available at: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=6756
Braunlich, Christian (2009) Virginia Needs More Public Schools. Bacon's Rebellion. 18 Jan 2009. Online available at: http://baconsrebellion.com/2009/01/18/virginia-needs-more-charter-schools/
Grimes, Cathy (2010) Virginia Seeks $350 Million in Federal Race to the Top Education Funds. Daily Press.21 Jan 2010. Online available at http://www.dailypress.com/news/dp-local_racetothetop_0122jan22,0,5686858.story
This essentially means breaking large jobs down into tiny jobs done by expert people. Frederick Taylor's scientific management methods called for optimizing the way that tasks were performed and simplifying the jobs enough so that workers could be trained to perform their specialized sequence of motions in the one best way. This also fits into the classic organization theory by once again referring to a group of expert people doing one job to the best of their ability.
Three levels of ethics (of the four) noted in the text include: professional ethics, organizational ethics, and social ethics. Explain each of these forms of ethics. Use examples as needed, to clarify your responses.
Professional ethics consists of the rules of what professionals should and should not do. Being a professional often comes with authority and power. A client often places trust in a professional on the basis that the…
Private-label securitization has basically ended, and Fannie and Freddie were positioned into conservatorship by their controller subsequent to working in a dangerous and unsteady way. The job currently is to figure out how best to restore a connection between homebuyers and capital markets in a manner that deals with the problems of the old arrangement (Bernanke, 2008).
One alternative that has been talked about is that of privatizing the GSE's and letting them contend in the marketplace as private mortgage insurers and securitizers. In order to get rid of the assumption of government backing and to arouse competition, some suggestions supporting privatization call for collapsing the corporation into less significant components prior to privatizing them. Privatization would resolve a number of troubles connected with the present GSE model. It would get rid of the disagreement amid private shareholders and public policy and probably reduce the total dangers as well (Bernanke,…
Bernanke, Ben S. (2008). The Future of Mortgage Finance in the United States. Retrieved November 13, 2010, from Federal Reserve Web site: http://www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/speech/bernanke20081031a.htm
Housel, Morgan. (2010). Why the U.S. Can't Inflate Its Way Out of Debt. Retrieved November 13, 2010, from the Motley Fool Web site: http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2010/04/16/why-the-us-cant-inflate-its-way-out-of-debt.aspx
US Congress passes stimulus plan. (2009). Retrieved November 13, 2010, from BBC Web site: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7889897.stm
Woodhill, Louis. (2010). You Can't Tax Your Way Out of a Debt Crisis. Retrieved November 13, 2010, from Real Clear Markets Web site: http://www.realclearmarkets.com/articles/2010/05/11/you_cant_tax_your_way_out_of_a_debt_crisis_98459.html
One demand is to supply adequate fresh water. Insufficient fresh water for drinking, sewage treatment and sewage discharge are frequent issues that arise as the population increases. Augmented amounts of air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination and noise pollution are also issues faced by city governments. Another issue is that of high infant and child mortality rates. These rates are frequently caused by deficiency. There is also an augmented possibility of the appearance of new plagues and pandemics. For a lot of ecological and societal reasons, including congested living situations, undernourishment and insufficient, unreachable, or missing health care; the underprivileged are more likely to be exposed to communicable diseases (Devaney, 2010).
What steps did city governments take to help deal with new demand resulting from the influx in population?
In the late nineteenth century, municipal governments frequently failed to meet the needs of their constituents. Because of this urban planning…
Auch, Roger, Taylor, Janis and Acevedo, William. (2004). Urban Growth in American Cities.
Retrieved March 8, 2011, from Web site:
Devaney, Erik. (2010). The Effects of Population Density on Individuals. Retrieved March 8,
2.) Qualitative evaluation endeavors to ascertain quality, as the name suggests, and in this particular case, how well the course did in achieving its goals, which are presumably how effective its pedagogy was. This is juxtaposed to qualitative evaluation which measures how much the course did.
Here the measure is quality and relevance of a particular program.
In an interview, a qualitative evaluator could use open-ended questions rather than a scale to perhaps learn more about such issues as whether or not the course encouraged the development of critical thinking skills. Toward that end, a qualitative evaluator might ask, "What intellectual skills did the course help you develop?" Or "What critical thinking or problem-solving skills did the course help you develop?"
Conversely, a simple yes/no answer is appropriate for some questions, as in #1. The question might become, "Were the goals of the course clearly expressed at the beginning?" The…
One time or the other, these elected legislatures will find themselves in difficult situations that call for difficult ethical decisions in the processes of performing their duties just as public administrators and as some can mange such trying moments, others will fail to perform. These public administrators should ensure that they have proper interaction with the government/authorities so as to understand well how they function in the quest to establishing reliable solutions that are potential managers of public pressure to finally ensure that public action is not compromised (Stillman, 2009). For example, in the last twenty years, the pressure exerted on public administrators has been "more entrepreneurial, to find ways to do more things and new things with fewer resources, to be nimble in response to fluctuating problems and demands, has been acute" (Cook, 2007, p. 243). In addition, considering the pressure on public administration coupled by increasing global changes…
Business training schools. (n.d.). What does a public administrator do? Business-training-
schools.com. Retrieved from http://www.business-training-schools.com/a/what-does-a-public-administrator-do.html
Cook, B.J. (2007). Democracy and administration: Woodrow Wilson's ideas and challenges of public management. Baltimore, Maryland: JHU Press.
Dubai School of Government. (2010, April 4). Faculty positions in public administration, the Dubai school of government. International Association of Schools and Institutes of Administration. Retrieved from http://www.iias-
Public Administration and its Analysis
This is a paper on the concept and basis of Public Administration and the importance it holds in the field of management.
Defining the Breadth and Scope of Public Administration
In the early years of public administration was hailed as a strong and positive as a professional force for studying and putting into practice for the improvement and revamping of the administration of the federal, state and legislative government but also sure of the political and ethical authenticity of the field of public administration in performing that role.
In what is now known as the Classical period, the mind set of the people that were in the field of public administration were based on the resulting derivative of the theory and principles of values from the intellectual side of political science and, in the main part, from constitutional democratic theory. Woodrow Wilson is considered to…
Preface to Public Administration, A Search for Themes and Direction" by Richard J. Stillman II, copyright 1991 by St. Marin's Press, Inc. As the primary reference source":
U.S. Bureau of the Census (1996). Current Population Reports. No. P25-1130.
Noam, Eli (1995). Electronics and the Dim Future of the University. Science 270 (October 13): 247-249..
Klay, William Earle and Lance DeHaven-Smith (1997). It's the Economy (Values, Stupid! Findings of the FloridaScan Project. Futures Research Quarterly 13:4 (Winter): 51-73.
public administration and considers the effect of their writings and theories on the field of public administration. It has 6 sources.
An analysis of the core areas of public administration and how these areas interrelate with one another; taking into account the theories and writings of major players in the field of public administration and how their views shaped these areas.
The principles of public administration are the clearest description of its usefulness to society and government. This administrative science is barely 100-125 years old in the U.S. And a little over 200 years old in France. Tracing its roots back to Napoleon, public administration evolved largely as a result of the increasing complexity of society, economy and technology. The French system of Public Administration is still considered by many to be the world's best. Compared to Germany and Britain, the U.S. was relatively slower to utilize public administration in…
4)Harting, Tracey L. The Science of "Muddling Through" by Charles E. Lindblom 1998, Accessed on 31-3-2003 at http://www.tamucc.edu/~whatley/PADM5302/theo14e.htm
5) Book review. Understanding Public Policy. Prentice Hall. Accessed on 31-3-2003 at http://vig.prenhall.com/catalog/academic/product/1,4096,0130260088,00.html?type=FEA
6) Thomas Wadsworth, Book Review. Political Science. Fiscal Administration: Analysis and Applications for the Public Sector, Sixth Edition, Accessed on 31-3-2003 at http://newtexts.com/newtexts/book.cfm?book_id=816
Finance in Public Administration
One of the important components towards the successful delivery of services to the public is management of financial resources. Financial management in public administration basically entails budgeting as well as budget execution, monitoring, and accounting with respect to planning and programming of public administration. In essence, public finance administration basically entails raising revenue from the public, allocation of public funds and other financial resources, and managing public assets. These processes are usually carried out to help ensure that the government has adequate money to finance all its activities. In this regard, proper financial management in public administration is crucial towards preventing misuse of public money or resources as well as ensuring compliance with the relevant financial regulations. This paper examines finance in public administration in relation to the budgeting process and budget decision-making based on the fundamental principles of public finance.
Fundamental Principles of Public Finance…
Masters in Public Administration
I seek a Masters in Public Administration because I want to obtain the skills and tools to be able to make solid public decisions that positively impact the community. Public administrators are both servants and leaders and occupy an important role in society: they have to at one and the same time serve the public and put its interests before their own, and they also have to lead the public and the organization with which they are involved. It is their responsibility to manage and meet the needs of those from whom their mandate is ultimately obtained.
With a Masters in Public Administration, I expect to be able to build on the knowledge I have already obtained in my undergraduate years. This is the next level of academic experience that will enable me to enter into an administrative career with professionalism, expertise, and devotion to care…
Master of Public Administration. (2016). UTA. Retrieved from http://www.uta.edu/cappa/academics/public-affairs/public-administration/master-public-administration/
Public Administration: Presenting for the Future
Immigration Policy eform
The term "immigration reform" is used to collectively refer to all efforts that have been undertaken by a country to amend abuses and reduce faults in its immigration policy. These efforts could be geared at either promoting and encouraging immigration or reducing and even eliminating the same. A perfect example of the former is the UK's promotion of the absorption of foreign-educated health specialists in its National Health Service (Dodds, 2012). The U.S. has, however, almost consistently run an anti-immigration policy. As this text will demonstrate, numerous reform efforts have been undertaken since way back in the 18th century to reduce the number of aliens illegally or legally crossing into the U.S. through the country's border points. Most of these efforts were particularly speeded up after the 9/11 tragedy; however, the successful implementation of these has been hampered by a number…
Baker, B. & Rytina, N. (2012). Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2012. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved 17 March 2015 from http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/ois_ill_pe_2012_2.pdf
Camayd-Freixas, E. (2013). U.S. Immigration Reform and its Global Impact: Lessons from the Postville Raid. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan
Carens, J.H. (2013). The Ethics of Immigration. New York, NY: Oxford University Press
DHS. (2015). About DHS. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved 17 March 2015 from http://www.dhs.gov/about-dhs
solid waste management in impoverished areas versus affluent areas by examining the social, economic, ethical, and political reasons for placement of landfills and other waste removal facilities in poorer neighborhoods. By exploring the background of specific social movements, the first section of the assignment will seek to explore why the government placed landfills in certain locations versus others. The essay will also seek to examine what caused the social movements. As well as why the issue evolved from placement of landfills in poorer neighborhoods to placement of landfills in minority-majority poorer neighborhoods.
The next section will seek to analyze which candidates would be best for a nonprofit. Candidate one is a business-savvy employee wishing to change things by dismissing all the older employees and hiring new ones. Candidate two is a college graduate with experience in the field. By looking at the various perspectives of public administration theory, this section…
Aston, R. (1999). The Legal, Engineering, Environmental and Social Perspectives of Surface Mining Law and Reclamation by Landfilling: Getting Maximum Yield from Surface Mines (p. 120). World Scientific.
Brownell, P. & Kelly, J. (2013). Ageism and mistreatment of older workers. Dordrecht: Springer.
Frederickson, G. (1994). Ethics and Public Administration. Routledge.
Hill, B. (2014). Environmental Justice (p. 103). Environmental Law Institute.
Social Equity Public Administration
Emergence as Concern in Field of Public Administration
Social equity has always been an important aspect of public administration, though only recently is it receiving much attention in the press. Whereas in times of old social equity concerned itself primarily with issues of fairness and equality in the public workplace, today social equity is emerging as a field encompassing many different aspects of administration.
Among these include public education, policy development, hiring and promotional practices, public welfare and even transportation. In modern public administration, all of these issues are applied to the field in order to establish fairness, justice and equality for all. Social equity in the field of public administration has emerged as a response to consumer demands for equitable policy making and fairness in governance.
Public administration as a whole may be defined as the management of "matters which have principally to do with…
Frederickson, G. (1986). "New public administration." Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
Rice, M.F. (2003). "Organizational Culture, Social Equity & Diversity: Teaching Public
Administration." Texas A& M. University, Bush School Working Paper #314. 14, November, 2004: http://bush.tamu.edu/content/research/working_papers/mrice/teach-post-modern.pdf
Christopher, G.C., Rutledge, P.J. (2001). "Reinvigorating the Social Equity Debate."
Democracy and Public Administration
This report is a theoretical essay on the inevitable conflicts that consistently occur between public agencies that are managed by unelected civil servants and the political environment in which these individuals and organizations operate in. Public agencies in the healthcare environment are prime examples of successful interdepartmental cooperation in most cases, but, there are also examples where they can demonstrate both internal and external in-fighting. "The health sector workforce, which usually comprises a significant element within the total public sector workforce, may be either directly employed by the public sector health system, or work in public-funded agencies or organizations (e.g., social insurance funded). In many countries healthcare will also be delivered by organizations in the private sector and by voluntary organizations." (World Bank Group) As concerns like the nation's aging population, a rapidly depleting Medicare Trust or the many potential pandemics such as SAs, Swine…
Antos, Joseph. (2008). "Medicare's Bad News: Is Anyone Listening?" American Institute for Public Policy Research. April, No. 3.
American Public Health Association (2009). Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from American Public Health Association Web Site: http://www.apha.org aphanet. (2001). Senators' Introduce Bill to Prepare For Possibility of Biological Warfare. Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from http://www.aphanet.org
CDC. (2009). H1N1. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from Center For Disease Control web site at http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/sick.htm .
Center for Disease Control. (2009). State and Local Infrastructure. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from Center for Disease Control Web Site: http://www.cdc.gov/programs
ethics care" public administration? Using Stensota articles readings, describe "ethics care." After describing ethics care, give examples "ethics care" a modern employee public sector.
In my opinion, the fundamental part of Stensota's article is her argumentation, where she mentions that the concept of an "ethics of care" is centered on "human dependency" and on "relations between people." This means that the concept of ethics shifts from the obedience to norms and authority towards a more complex model in which the interest is also towards acting in the interest of the community and of society.
In public administration, as Stensota points out, the concept of ethics of care becomes relevant since public administration is, overall, determined or impacted by the relationship between the state apparatus and bureaucracy and its citizens. The more public administration is directed and managed in a way that positively impacts the population, the more one can evaluate…
However, some of these wars can also be justified with the explanations that he actually fought to carry into Europe the ideas of the French Revolution, many of which are the basis of today's society. He was just as efficient in implementing these changes as he was in his wars, which brought death and destruction. Many of the European countries today use his judicial codes and public administration today is also a reflection of his work. He was efficient both in implementing these and also in creating mechanisms that ensured they lived after his death.
As mentioned, he was also efficient in the way he managed his war machine. Entire generations of French people were wiped out. In the last campaigns, his soldiers were all 17-18 years old and many perished in the subsequent battles. Eventually, one can wonder whether his motivation was carrying the ideas of the revolution into Europe or whether, eventually, he just wanted to conquer all the countries. By 1812, he invaded Russia, after having defeated and annexed almost all the other countries in Europe.
So, the dark side to effective leadership can be the fact that it can be directed in a wrongful manner, that it can be used to do bad deeds rather than to the benefit of all people.
Philosophy of Public Administration
Policy Making Process
Policymaking is the act of making laws or setting principles for a business or a government. The process includes the essentials of agenda setting, decision making, implementation of the policy and evaluation of the set standards to understand its impact upon the citizens and the society as a whole. The policy formulated needs to be effectively communicated at all organizational levels to ensure positive execution. The stated elements of policy making would be discussed individually in the paper.
Policy makers start the process by setting up an agenda to gain public and elite support. The agenda should be such so that it could narrow a set of feasible subjects to the set that essentially becomes the center of attention. The problem highlighted in an agenda should be convincible and captivating for the government officials and people external to the government and diligently associated…
Bamberger, M. (2009, June). Making Smart Policy: Using Impact Evaluation for Policy Making. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTISPMA/Resources/383704-1146752240884/Doing_ie_series_14.pdf
Cockrel, J. (1997). Public Policy Making in America. Retrieved from http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/ip/ip19/ip19.pdf :
conservative orientation in Public Administration, a concern with order, stability and continuity. I'm not sure that's all bad."
The above statement addresses one of the central concerns - and in many ways the central paradox - of public administration, both in the practice and in the study of this field. A society that is overly resistant to change stagnates. A species that does not adapt to changing environmental and competitive conditions will decline and even become extinct; this is true of societies as well. There must be change, or there will be decline and death.
But just as lack of change can be terribly damaging if not lethal to a society, too much change can also be dangerous. Societies that prosper are those that allow for change within an established structure - and both the change and the structure are important. (This does assume, of course, that the structure is…
Goals of a Public Administrator
The implementation of the policies devised by the government is referred to as public administration. Moreover, public administration is also a discipline that is taught in many higher education institutions. This discipline is based on the studies that revolve around the aforementioned implementation and therefore it prepares the civil servants that would be working for the public service in the future (Frederickson, 1997). The fundamental goal behind the layout of the curriculum of this discipline and the training in this field is to advance the policies and management in order for the government to function effectively (Frederickson, 1997). There are various definitions that have been used to describe this term; "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day"; "the management of public programs" and "the study of the process of decision making by the government, the analysis of the devised policies, the…
Alvarez, K., & Stupak, R. (1993). An Analytical Essay and Annotated Compendium on Organizational Theory: Paradigms Lost and Needed in Public Administration. International Review Of Modern Sociology, 59 -- 81.
Brown-John, C. (1990). Budgeting in the Provinces: Leadership and the Premiers Allan M. Maslove, ed. Toronto: The Institute of Public Administration in Canada, 1989, pp. xxii, 175 Tax Reform in Canada: The Process and Impact Allan M. Maslove Halifax: The Institute for Research on Public Policy, 1989, pp. xv, 96 The Politics of Public Spending in Canada Donald J. Savoie Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990, pp. xiv, 433. Canadian Journal Of Political Science, 23(03), 568 -- 571.
Frederickson, H. (1997). The spirit of public administration. Jossey-Bass Publishers San Francisco, 80.
Geva-May, I., & Kfir, A. (2000). Developments in Policy Analysis and Evaluation in Public Administration. Public Administration, 78(2), 409 -- 422.
What is Public Administration?
Marc Holzer -- in the good company of thousands of colleagues in public administration and business -- embraced the box. The box serves to as a frame to our thinking, acts as scaffolding to our decision-making, and serves our innate tendency as human beings to create meaningful patterns from our experience. And how better to improve on the box, than to further divide it into four boxes -- each of which represents the tensions we experience regarding whatever we have put into the box. The box is familiar as it serves many disciplines. Economists may love the box more than any other group, save management consultants. That said, quadrants are a useful heuristic, and I utilize that attribute here in my version as applied to public administration and the management of non-profits.
The four quadrants I describe are, on the vertical axis,…
Buckingham, M. And Coffman, C. (1999). First, Break All the Rules. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Follett, M.P. (1996). The giving of orders. In Shafritz, J.M. & Ott, J.S. (Eds.). Classics of organization theory (pp.156-162). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Gulick, Luther. 1937. Notes on the Theory of Organization. In Papers on the Science of Administration, edited by Luther Gulick and Lydal Urwick. New York. Institute of Public
Administration, Columbia University.
Denhardt, Robert . (2008) Public Administration: An Action Orientation. elmont, CA: Wadsworth
In the chapter 9, Denhardt is talking about effective leadership inside public services organizations. As, the best entities will use communication, decision making, self-awareness, motivation and group dynamics to help inspire employees. Where, public sectors managers are concentrating how these elements can contribute to increased amounts of accountability and transparency inside the government itself. Once this takes place, it means that most organizations will be responsive to the needs of constituents. This is the point that effective leadership can improve the overall services that are being provided to stakeholders. (Denhardt, 2008, pp. 329 -- 366)
Summary 2: Ingraham, P. (2004). Models and Assumptions for Leadership Development. Review of Public Personal Administration, 24 (2), 95 -- 112.
In the article that was written by Ingraham (2004), she is discussing the impact of changes that are taking place on public…
Denhardt, R. (2008). Public Administration: An Action Orientation. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Ingraham, P. (2004). Models and Assumptions for Leadership Development. Review of Public Personal Administration, 24 (2), 95 -- 112.
Bullen's (n.d.) case study on the ed Hook initiative, Dayal's (2014) "Surfacing Innovative Solutions Through Public-Private Partnerships," and also the World Economic Forum's (2016) Global isks eport. Although these articles address different subject areas, they all tie into public administration, public planning, and public policy. Dayal (2014) shows how resources from the private sector can be harnessed to bolster the power of public sector aid agencies to provide infrastructure development and community resilience in communities around the world. Broader in scope, The Global isks eport 2016 shows how multiple challenges, from poverty and unemployment to terrorism and political instability, intersect with one another. The ed Hook case study offers a more narrow focus on one community, revealing the importance of community engagement in communications network development.
I selected the latter case study because it shows how overarching principles of community planning, infrastructure development, and public policy are all related. In…
Bullen, G. (n.d.). Case study: Red Hook initiative Wifi and Tidepools.
Dayal, A. (2014). Surfacing innovative solutions through public-private partnerships. The Rockefeller Foundation. Retrieved online: https://www.rockefellerfoundation.org/blog/surfacing-innovative-solutions-through/
World Economic Forum (2016). The Global Risks Report, 2016. REF: 080116