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Public Education Campaign
Designing a Public Education Campaign
Public education anti-terrorist campaign concerning new hazards
Unlike a hurricane or a tornado, the aftereffects of a terrorist event can be very difficult to predict. The methods of terrorists are always changing, as they constantly strive to outwit law enforcement officials, inspire fear, and generate destruction. Almost every recent terrorist action has been unique in its impact and approach. While it is advisable that all members of the public have a contingency plan for disasters, such designating a place for family or friends to meet; having working flashlights on hand in the event of a power outage, and having stores of canned food and water, there is no guarantee that such methods can protect against all possible repercussions.
During incidents such as the World Trade Towers bombing, a number of unplanned circumstances were generated by the fallout. The health consequences for workers…
Bioterrorism overview. (2010). The Centers for Disease Control. (CDC).
Retrieved March 8, 2011 at http://www.bt.cdc.gov/bioterrorism/overview.asp
General information about terrorism. (2010). The Federal Office of Emergency Management
(FEMA). Retrieved March 8, 2011 at http://www.fema.gov/hazard/terrorism/info.shtm
public education spending have argued that the significant public expenditures for public education are a waste of taxpayer's money. These critics claim that massive reductions in education expenditures could help reduce the average tax burden. This reduction in the amount of tax paid by individuals and corporations would improve the national economy in the long-term.
This argument is fundamentally and critically flawed. As such, this paper will provide rebuttal to the argument that significant public expenditures for public education are a waste of taxpayer's money.
Certainly, one of the main reasons that the argument against expenditures on public education is flawed is that it fails to consider education as an investment, rather than just an expense. Education benefits both the individual, and society as a whole, in the long-term. I argue that these long-term individual and societal benefits of education far outweigh both the individual and societal costs of education.…
Department of Education. Budget of the United States Government. Fiscal Year 2003. 03 July 2002. http://w3.access.gpo.gov/usbudget/fy2003/pdf/bud13.pdf
D'az-Gimenez, Javier, Quadrini, Vincenzo and R'os-Rull, Jose-V'ctor. Quarterly Review. Spring 1997 (Vol. 21 No. 2). Dimensions of Inequality: Facts on the U.S. Distributions of Earnings, Income, and Wealth.
Cited in: Education and Income Distribution. Dateline: 08/26/97. 03 July 2002. http://economics.about.com/library/weekly/aa082697.htm
society that the public may claim a greater intellectual stake in than public education. Not only is the process of educating the next generation (at least in public schools) undertaken at the expense of most residents, but it also concerns us in a cultural way as well - we will all have to live in the world that these children will inhabit and help to shape, regardless of whether we ourselves are parents.
And yet, despite the legitimacy of the claim that members of the general public may make to their own engagement in the process of public education, relatively few people who are not themselves parents of public-school children do become deeply involved (and relatively few of these). This does not mean, of course, that people do not have strongly held opinions about matters of educational policy.
This literature review examines two related, indeed often intermingled, sets of subjects.…
IssuesPA notes the importance of such statistics:
http://www.goodschoolspa.org/facts/index.cfm?fuseaction=testimony_jill www.latimes.com http://www.issuespa.net
It is a fundamental principle of good democracy that those in power should be open to criticism and this is only possible if the education system provides the necessary skills and training in investigative thinking and inquiry. This aspect is also important in terms of the growth and development of the individual. ithout an inquiring mind the individual is not able to fully explore the world around him or herself and to expand personal horizons.
A third related aspect of public education is that it should provide the necessary content and material that can facilitate the democratic process. Public educationists should prepare their students for dealing with real - world scenarios and activities. This enables the individual to play a proper part in the democratic process. By this is meant that subjects such as history and political culture should be offered in public schools in order to provide the background…
Saving Public Education - Saving Democracy. 9 January, 2006. http://www.dailykos.com/story/2005/4/1/54338/81393
This is also critical for a democracy to survive as the concept of representation is an abstract one; providing students with the ability to understand democracies begins with the accomplishment of these goals. Finally, educating students on the tasks involved in creating their own frameworks for comparing concepts and appreciating the role of democracy in their lives also points to the need for showing how ethnocentrism and stereotypes detract from the ideal of democracy. The ability to educate students in how to have an analytical approach to understanding democracy further distances them from the ignorance that perpetuates stereotypes and fosters ethnocentrism.
A third and extremely important aspect of providing public education in a democracy is the ethical responsibility of providing every student with the opportunity to discover both through education and trial-and-error, what their true strengths are. The ability for every student to find their unique talents and what they…
The foundation of the business called "Connect Education" is the purpose of this formal proposal. It will be written in response to questions and conflicts that have arisen in regards to public education. This proposal outlines solutions to said problems which will provide advantages for both the educators and families.
Letter of Transmittal/Memo
To whom it may concern,
There are a wide variety of both state and federal legislation that focuses on public education. The goal of the company, Connect Education, is to direct their efforts on the vital points of legislation such as BTE, NCLB, as well as the Master Plan. Having No Child Left Behind (NCLB) is a large task and requires the backing of an entire community. According to the Hartford County, it requires high levels of commitment as well as effective planning and organization to increase the performance of our public schools (Hartford County,…
Harford County Public Schools. Transmittal Letter and Budget in Brief for FY 2008 Budget. (2007, July 1). Retrieved April 3, 2015, from
Improving Quality of Education in our Public Schools. (n.d.). Retrieved April 4, 2015, from
Kirsch, S. (n.d.). How to fix our public schools. Retrieved April 3, 2015, from http://www.skirsch.com/politics/education/fix_our_schools_summary.htm
Leikin, R. (2009). Exploring mathematical creativity using multiple solution tasks. In R. Leikin, A. Berman, & B. Koichu (Eds.), Creativity in mathematics and the education of gifted students (pp. 129 -- 145). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers
Diversity is another very serious issue within public schools today, and it can be either racial or economic. Often it is both combined, as many of the lower income individuals and those that are struggling in this country are also usually of minority races. This is, of course, not always true, but it seems to be a generalization that proves to be true in many cases. Regardless of this, however, any students that are struggling with either economic or racial differences from their classmates can have a difficult time in school. Teachers should pay attention to their students and what they need. While it is possible to give too much attention to a student there is nothing wrong with making sure that all students know the teacher is available to talk with them should the need arise. Sometimes just knowing that there is someone they can talk to will be…
public education been used in the areas of focus to achieve health goals other than eradicating Malaria? If so, how successful have such attempts been?
I find it interesting that the World Health Organization suggested the use of DDT, a chemical that has proven harmful after research. This makes me wonder whether the WHO has suggested other potentially harmful "remedies" for health concerns without launching a thorough investigation into potential harms first.
In my view, it appears vitally important to first launch investigations into the potential harm of a chemical or remedy before applying it on a worldwide or countrywide scale, as the WHO appears to have suggested with DDT. Surely the research proves that such a strategy is irresponsible at best.
How would you go about reducing bias in investigating the leader-follower relationship in companies?
It is interesting that so little literature focuses on the follower role…
Rise of Public Education in Arkansas
How public education started in Arkansas
Arkansas saw vehement opposition to the education that was considered most essential in view of the political and economic factors. A group consisting of only a few campaigned for education. The supportive factors in favor of education got weaker during the period of 1819 to 1860. The cultivator class normally wanted education of their children in their residences. The costs of private instructors were very high and due to shortage of instructors it was not possible to provide sufficient teachers to the private institutions as per the demand. Supposedly, Caleb Lindsey evidently was teaching in a school running in Lawrence County cave. The payment to teachers was being determined by the ability and performance of the teachers. The tutors were residing in the hired accommodations in towns or in log cabins in the rural areas. Some of the…
The US government has reduced its state funding for the higher educational institutes to lower the college costs, especially for ethnic groups since the increase in educational costs have made it harder for color and lower-income student to enroll in these colleges. There are numerous benefits for enrolling in the best educational institutions after the students are graduated that mainly includes higher incomes. Still, it puts pressure on those students whose households are earning low. With such stagnant earnings, it is greatly difficult for racially and economically diverse students to have affordability and access to the highly-priced educational institutes. Recently, the costs for attending a public college have surged up to $21,370 as compared to $8,250 in 1980, which means it is an approximately 30 percent rise in the public education costs (Hess “The Cost of College Increased”).
The three causes for the rise in the cost of public education…
Your belief about public education/professional training in general
Public education is always mired in one or the other controversy and ongoing reforms is always the order of the day. From the basics of the nineteenth century, education has come a very long way. The basis of development of education models are seen to be contemporaneous in Britain and USA and most of the commonwealth. At the same time unique innovations are underway in the U.S.A. In the modern context it is indeed important to consider many aspects of global values, and the reforms that were made in public schools become relevant in the modern context which shares a similarity on a global scale. The problems of rampant illiteracy are the cause of unrest in cities and the earlier educationists believed that these problems of the cities can be overcome with increasing the number of educated youth. (Cuban, 2003)…
Burke, Peter; Krey, Robert D. (2005) "Supervision: a guide to instructional leadership"
Charles C. Thomas Publisher.
Cuban, Larry. (2003) "Powerful reforms with shallow roots: improving America's urban schools" Teachers College Press.
Ginsburg, Mark B. (1991) "Understanding educational reform in global context: economy, ideology, and the state" Taylor & Francis.
Importance of Increased Percentage GDP Allocation on Education
Public education has increasingly become necessary for all communities across the globe. Different governments in the world have increased their budgetary allocations on public education. Although the private sector has equally invested in schools and colleges, it has not entirely taken over the role of government in the provision of free or affordable education. The American government allocates about 5% of its GDP on education (Borman & Hewes, 2012). Similarly, most other government has allocated a significantly lower fraction of their GDP on education. The low percentage of allocation to public education threatens the numerous benefits that communities are likely to obtain through affordable education. The following study identifies the benefits that society stands to gain by making education accessible to many people and how an increase in the GDP allocation will enhance access to education. Therefore, an increase in the current…
Baum, S., & Schwartz, S. (2013). Is Postsecondary Education Affordable? International Higher Education, (70), 11-25.
Borman, G. & Hewes G. (2012). The Long-term Effects and Cost-effectiveness of Success for All. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24(2), 243-266.
Groot, W. and van D. (2010). The Effects of Education on Crime. Applied Economics, 42(3), 279 -289.
Levin M., et al., (2007). The Costs and Benefits of an Excellent Education for All of America’s Children. Center for Benefit-Cost Studies in Education at Teachers College. New York, NY: Columbia University
White, G. (2015). Better Schools, Better Economies. The Atlantic. Retrieved Oct. 24, 2017, www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/12/fixing-public-schools-for-a-better-economy/419526/
Desecration of Public Education in Urban Settings
Desecration of Public Education
Attack on Public Education
Public Education: A Democratic Demand
Government's Interest in Charter Schools
Why Charter System Needs to be Opposed
Division of the Community
Failing Public Schools will Loose Funding to the Charter Schools
Difference between Public and Charter Schools
No Standard Policies
Peer Pressure and Violence
Lack of Extracurricular Activities
Authority and their igid System
Ignorance about Children's Bad Habits
Following measures can be taken to improve public schools
Charter Schools vs. Public Schools
The Basics of Educational Policy: The Pressure for eform in American Education
The Pressure for eform in American Education
Traits of Charter Schools
Why Charter Schools Exist in Urban Settings
Why to Save Public Schools 21
The purpose of this research paper is to decipher the truth about…
Behrman, J.R. (1997). The Social Benefits of Education. London: CIP.
Hassel, B.C. (1999). The Charter School Challenge: Avoiding the Pitfalls, Fulfilling the Promise. Washington: Congress Cataloging.
Lieberman, M. (1993). Public Education: An Autopsy. New York: Congress Cataloging.
Buckley, J., & Buckley, J. (2007). Charter Schools: Hope or Hype? London: Princeton University Press.
He has found that in his experience, this method works best.
Grossman, Pam and Loeb, Susanna. (2010). Learning from multiple routes. Educational Leadership, 67(8), 22-27.
Grossman and Loeb talk about how alternative routes to becoming a teacher have grown throughout the past few decades. The necessity for teachers is mainly in urban areas as this is where most teacher shortages occur. They discuss how subjects such as math and science are in high demand and people with backgrounds in either area usually are successful at taking an alternative route. The authors make a point to note that not all alternative programs are the same. They praise the Teach for American and New York City Teaching Fellows programs as being top rated and highly selective, thus garnering the best candidates. Teach for American and New York City Teaching Fellows programs generally recruit applicants from competitive schools which is why both programs…
Kaye, Eileen Beverley. (2004). Turning the tide on marginal teaching. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision. 19(3), 234-258.
In this journal article, Kaye discusses what she calls marginal teachers and the best methods to assist teachers falling into this category. Her definition of marginal teachers are those whose teaching practices are borderline unacceptable. She favors the collaborative approach which requires input and goal setting from both the teacher and the supervisor. Going a step further, she looks at the formative and summative methods of evaluation to find out if either or both approaches would be helpful for teachers falling into the marginal category. Kaye also looks at factors that may cause marginal teaching. She notes that certain supervisory methods could be the blame and says that all areas should be examined.
She favors the formative approach in dealing with schools having a large number of teachers that fall into this category. Kaye feels that when there are several teachers not performing well, the programs should be examined for ways to improve them instead of placing the blame on the teachers.
The result of this way of thinking, teaching, and living is manifested in many ways. The most apparent is the growing number of teenagers and adolescents who need prescription medication (psychotropic drugs) to get through the day.
Teachers would be wise to read this study and consider how important it is for children to experience situations were things are less than ideal. Carefully moderated pretend "bad guy" play is just one way to prepare a child for the hardships that life has to offer.
In addition, the authors note that "previous work about bad guy play (e.g., Pellegrini, 1998) indicates that a small percentage of children in classrooms may escalate from pretend aggression into real aggression, but that most will not." So with very little risk, there's no reason not to let kids be kids.
Professional Position/Response to Content
The study makes many cogent points and raises many interesting questions.…
Detour, A., Logue, M.E. (2011). You Be the Bad Guy: A New Role for Teachers in Supporting Children's Dramatic Play. Early Childhood Research & Practice,
Spring, 13(1). Retrieved from: http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v13n1/index.html
Pellegrini, A.D., & Smith, P.K. (1998). Physical active play: The nature and function of a neglected aspect of play. Child Development, 69(3), 577-598.
Holland, Penny. (2003). We don't play with guns here: War, weapon and superhero play in the early years. Maidenhead, Berkshire, England: Open University Press.
It appears that the school systems are failing here in America. Every year test score trend downward as a continual new stream of information floods into the public consciousness. More schooling and more intensive schooling efforts have shown little if any progress in recent decades and before any more money or energy is thrown at these problems indiscriminately, a tactical pause to contemplate the situation seems in order.
New problems arise everyday in the schooling system as the complexity of the world increases seemingly exponentially. The purpose of this research is to take a view point that steps back at the situation and looks at general trends and questions the very purposes of compulsory school. To do this properly it is necessary to take an unbiased and objective reexamination of the efficacy of public schooling.
By all measurable standards of decency, it appears American society is in some…
Boli, J., Ramirez, F.O., & Meyer, J.W. (1985). Explaining the origins and expansion of mass education. Comparative education review, 29(2), 145-170.
Casillas, A., Robbins, S., Allen, J., Kuo, Y.L., Hanson, M.A., & Schmeiser, C. (2012). Predicting early academic failure in high school from prior academic achievement, psychosocial characteristics, and behavior. Journal of educational psychology, 104(2), 407.
Rothstein, R. (1993). The myth of public school failure. The American Prospect, 4(13), 20-34.
S. is a worthwhile goal, but the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 is a poorly conceived approach whose deficiencies may actually do more to undermine many aspects of education than any meaningful improvement inspired by its programs.
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their
Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. etrieved September 8, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. etrieved September 8, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169.
Forgary, . (1997) Brain Compatible Classrooms. Andover, MA: Skylight Publishing.
Hendrie, C. (2002) Taking a Chance on Choice; Education Week, Oct 23, 2002. etrieved September 8, 2008, from www.edweek.org/ew/ewstory.cfm?slug=08choice.h22
Murray, C. (2006) Acid Tests: No Child Left Behind…
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their
Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. Retrieved September 8, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. Retrieved September 8, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169.
Denying certain individuals access to education at all, in a society that privileges literacy, also creates a societal imbalance and social inequality, as manifested in the examples of Frederick Douglass in America (Gutek, 2005).
Consider in our own contemporary public schools, how even simple actions taken for granted like pledging allegiance to the flag affirms the value of citizenship, how demarcating winter break as a time of rest reinforces the importance of Judeo-Christian holidays, and the content of the textbooks used determines what the child will later consider 'American history' or 'Great Literature.' Editing out certain authors or entire groups of people from the body of knowledge transmitted in a nation's schools creates an exclusionary message of what is intellectually valuable that the child will carry within his or her set of core assumptions, possibly forever.
Cahn, Steven M. 1997. Classic and contemporary readings in the philosophy of…
Cahn, Steven M. 1997. Classic and contemporary readings in the philosophy of education. New York: McGraw-Hill
Gutek, Gerald L. 2005. Historical and philosophical foundations of education: A biographical introduction. 4th ed. Merrill/Prentice Hall.
The State has also established a string of both general and specific policies for improving and developing special education and set aside special funds for this purpose. Consequently, just like regular education, special education has also developed rapidly. Although local governments are encouraged to provide compulsory education to children with and without disabilities, the enacted policies do not necessitate that education be provided to all students.
Despite the fact that students with disabilities were earlier educated in special schools, China has adopted new channels of special education including the integration of disabled children into general education classes. Currently, the number of disabled children enrolled in schools has continued to experience a big increase since 1987. Although many articles in the laws formulated by the Chinese government call for the overall education of handicapped children, special education for children with autism or severe disabilities is not directly mentioned in these policies…
Baker, M. (2007, November 17). China's Bid for World Domination. Retrieved April 11, 2010,
Mu K, Yang H & Armfield A (n.d.). China's Special Education: A Comparative Analysis.
Retrieved April 11, 2010, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/13/16/25.pdf
... Only one in 100 high school seniors could write a coherent response of more than one paragraph to an essay question; and only 7% of high school seniors could read at advanced level." (Hanushek)
In the light of this vast body of very forceful evidence, we cannot but agree that our public education system has deteriorated to the extent that we can no longer expect our public schools to produce quality students. Most of our public school students lack even basic knowledge of scientific facts and mathematical concepts and their communication skills leave a lot to be desired. With such students we cannot hope to compete on a global level, not at least in the long run. This explains why more professionally qualified people from other parts of the world are so rapidly taking over American job market.
The National Commission on Excellence in Education, a Nation at…
The National Commission on Excellence in Education, a Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform (1983)
Eric a. Hanushek, "When School Finance Reform May Not Be Good Policy. Symposium, Investing in Our Children's Future: School Finance Reform in the 1990s," Harvard Journal on Legislation 28 (Summer 1991), 423.
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, National Center for Education Statistics (1993).
Cited in Susan Chira, "The Big Test: How to Translate the Talk About School Reform into Action," New York Times (March 24, 1991), Sec. 4, at 1.
There are specific daily steps that students in these working class schools must take, and in math, for example, the teacher "told them what the procedure was for each problem, rarely asking them to conceptualize or explain it themselves" (Anyon 528). And so the emphasis was on memorizing the steps, not on understanding how or why they are taken. Language arts class was much the same (copy the teacher's notes from the board). In the middle-class school, it was all about "getting the right answers." In social studies, it was the old-fashioned routine of reading the chapter and answering questions, and the same was true in language arts. "Creativity is not often requested in social studies and science projects..." Anyon writes (532).
Things were different in the affluent professional school and fathers' careers included corporate lawyer, cardiologist, engineer; difficult assignments required specific projects like film-making and script-writing; children wrote essays…
Clayton, Victoria. "Public vs. Private School - which is best for kids?" MSNBC.com.
Retrieved April 1 at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/8743221/print/1/displaymode/1098/
Colombo, Gary; Cullen, Robert; & Lisle, Bonnie. Rereading America: Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1992.
Mendez, Teresa. "Public Schools: Do they outperform private ones?" The Christian Science
Whatever biases remain in public education can be removed, because the belief in equal opportunity has prevailed.
Standardized testing offers the only known way to ensure admissions to universities are based more on merit than on social class. In spite of their limitations, standardized tests do offer the only means to assess scholastic aptitude. A merit-based admissions procedure contributes to the betterment of society by offering educational opportunities to citizens who would be otherwise denied them. Upward social mobility and the ability to participate fully in the political process are possible outcomes of a merit-based educational system.
Effective educators understand the cultural contexts in which they work. In "Culture of Youth and How it Affects Learning," we saw how educators need to work hard to understand youth culture. To relate to their students, teachers must find common ground. Learning the language and values their students use out of the classroom…
Need for Study
Roles and Responsibilities of Assistant Principals
Historical Perspective of Assistant Principal Roles
Prior and Current Research Studies of Assistant Principal Roles
Assistant Principals and Use of Instructional Leadership
Transforming Assistant Principals into Instructional Leaders: Key Obstacles
General consensus indicates that the role of the assistant principals should move beyond its traditional clerical and disciplinary heritage to evolve to instructional leaders that deal with curriculum development, teacher and instructional effectiveness, clinical supervision, staff development and teacher evaluation. Yet, historical and current research shows that there has been little change in the assistant principal occupation since its origin in 1920. This paper uncovers research that tries to reconcile why the role change that practically everyone seems to want to happen hasn't been that quick to occur. As these reasons are better identified and understood, perhaps the twenty first century will see a positive transformation in the role of…
Anderson, L., & Pigford, A. (1987). Removing administrative impediments to instructional improvement efforts. Theory Into Practice, 26(1), 67-71.
Calabrese, Raymond (1987). A comparative analysis of alienation among secondary school administrators. Planning and Changing, 18(2), 90-97.
Chell, J. (1994) Introducing principals to the role of instructional leadership. SSTA Research Centre Report 95(14), 1-73.
Fullan, M. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press.
' Standardized test preparation also takes time away from creative activities that can really engage students with learning, and may even better reinforce skills needed in business, like critical thinking, writing, and working with others. Often teachers know better than administrators or managerial professionals what is needed in their classroom. One of the problems with education is that although schools superficially seem to be structured on a hierarchy similar to a corporation with a board of directors, not all managerial principles apply to schools. Schools are not factories and students are not end products. A teacher may know better what a classroom needs than a principal, a principal may know better the challenges of his or her school than someone comparing the school's results to a very different institution in another county. Finally, slashing costs is not the ultimate goal of the Board of Directors, as it is in a…
Nature of Probable Research
The South Bronx section of New York is among the poorest and most diverse school districts in America. Crime and teenage pregnancy have plagued the primarily Hispanic and Afro-American Bronx community for decades. However, in recent years there has been a concerted effort to curb the dire social conditions and education system. For the purposes of our research we will focus on the efforts to improve the educational system through before school and after school programs.
The probable research will involve studying the effects of before school and after school programs on a low performing middle school in the South Bronx section of New York City. The research will examine the manner in which these programs have been implemented and the students that benefit from the programs. The investigation will also discuss the conditions present in some of the middle schools in the South Bronx…
Worth, Robert. (1999) Guess Who Saved the South Bronx? Big Government. Washington Monthly. Volume: 31. Issue: 4. Page Number: 26.
Zinsmeister, Karl (2002) The insufferable wonder. The American Enterprise. Volume:
13. Issue: 4. Page Number: 4+.
What works for one child is not necessarily going to work for the next. So how can one promote the use of standardized tests as the only way to measure educational learning and success? The premise of the No Child Left Behind Act is very honorable. Each child should be taught by the best teachers that there are and each school should be held accountable for making sure that this occurs. But the measuring device that this act relies on is faulty. It places so much emphasis on the scores of the tests that all of the other educational ideas are being lost among the numbers.
Beveridge, Tina. (2010). No Child Left Behind and Fine Arts Classes. Arts Education Policy
eview. 111(1), p4-7.
Caillier, James. (2010). Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions
egarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education. Clearing House. 83(2),
Derthick, Martha and Dunn, Joshua M.…
Beveridge, Tina. (2010). No Child Left Behind and Fine Arts Classes. Arts Education Policy
Review. 111(1), p4-7.
Caillier, James. (2010). Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions
Regarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education. Clearing House. 83(2),
John Gatto is one of the few teachers who are speaking out against the current educational culture who knows what he is talking about. After teaching the state of New York, which has one of the highest per student budgets in the nation, uses many progressive teaching theories, and still produces some of the lowest test scores in the nation, his frustration comes from a wealth of experience. Teachers who start their careers with a sincere desire to educate students have their hands are tied by multi-cultural disconnectedness and a socialist teaching culture which discourages individual accomplishment. The frustration expressed by Mr. Gatto (Berlau, 2003) is likely only the tip of the iceberg representing the depth of the nationwide problem. From Atlanta to Minneapolis, news papers are filled with stories of failing students, failing schools, and school systems which are confused as to the source of the problem. Maybe…
Pink, Daniel H. 'I'm a Saboteur.'., Fast Company, 11-01-2000, pp 242.
Asghar, I. (1995) Constructivism as Substitute for Memorization in Learning: Meaning Is Created by Learner. Education, Vol. 116
Berlau, J. (2003, Sept 30) Teachers Discard the Union Label; as the National Education Association Pursues a Liberal Agenda, Many of Its Rank and File Refuse to Toe the Line and Have Formed Their Own Teacher-Advocacy Groups. Insight on the News.
HAINES, ERRIN. EDUCATION NOTEBOOK. (02-07-2002) The Atlanta Journal and Constitution, pp J3.
By bringing into the equation of transitional services the special needs personnel at local colleges and vocational institutions, the interagency agreement described here will ensure that upon the student's eventual arrival at one such institution, there will be people familiar with his case and prepared to accommodate his needs. These respective agency types can then help a disabled student to train a focus on the specific career goals which have been identified either with the assistance of counselors.
Using the Strategic Planning Meeting as a method to identifying willing and helpful stakeholders in the process, the public partnership in question relies heavily on such networking to both orient the community toward our collective goals and to foster natural communication between such agencies at a personal level. By inviting and bringing into contact such groups as decision-makers from local law organizations, leaders from public recreation leagues and university personnel, as well…
Graddy, E. & Chen, B. (2006). Influences on the size and scope of networks for social service delivery. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory Advance Access.
Milward, H.B. & Provan, K.G. (2006). A Manager's Guide to Choosing and Using Collaborative Networks. Network and Partnership Series.
Office of Career Assessment, Planning and Placement (OCAPP). Setting a Course for Students with Disabilities & their Parents. Charlottesville City Schools. Online at www.ccs.k12.va.us/departments/items/career/docs/TransitionWebPage.pdf
Accordingly, the ties between the psychological aspects of learning and the social aspects tend to be quite strong. Since the student's early social encounters take place within the classroom, he is learning far more than the step-by-step processes of test taking. Knowledge of his social conditions is necessary for the proper development of the student's abilities. Social and psychological features of education are so fundamentally related that they cannot be separated from each other without a sufficient loss of understanding concerning the other.
Primarily, the purpose of education is to produce functional members of society who value both each other and the work they perform. As simple as that may sound, it is an exceedingly difficult goal. In the United States the philosophical basis outlined by the Constitution demands that public institutions not only be employed, but also that they provide an equal level of schooling across geographic and social…
Cremin, Lawrence A. American Education: The Metropolitan Experience. New York: Harper and Row, 1988.
Sadovnik, Alan R. And Peter W. Cookson, Jr. Exploring Education: An Introduction to the Foundations of Education. Needham Heights: Pearson Educational, 2001.
Fifth, the NCLB is devoid of any meaningful consequences for failing to achieve federal objectives other than the publication of such failures in conjunction with the rights of parents to request transfers of their children to better-performing academic institutions (Darling-Hammond 2004). Critics have suggested that the most likely result of enforcement of such limited consequences for noncompliance is the overcrowding of institutions who fulfill the federal requirements to their detriment by virtue of diminution in their ability to meet the educational needs of increased enrollment of low-achieving students (Sonnenblick 2008). Likewise, the NCLB Act authorizes increased federal funding of home schooling and for-profit institutions that further reduces necessary funds to public institutions.
Sixth, whereas George H. Bush articulated the connection between adequate nutrition and access to healthcare and preparedness to learn in school, the NCLB Act ignores this element entirely. Many critics and career educators believe that any proposed educational…
Adams, D. & Hamm, M. (1994). New Designs for Teaching and Learning: Promoting Active Learning in Tomorrow's Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169. Forgary, R. (1997) Brain Compatible Classrooms. Andover, MA: Skylight Publishing.
Nearly all failing schools fit this description (Six Secrets of School Success 2000)." If a country is to overcome educational problems, they must take into account the mentality that poverty creates and how that mentality deteriorates the wherewithal to do well in school.
Although poverty is the issue that affects most underachieving schools, the idea of the super head was conceived as the answer to poorly performing schools. According to Marshall (2001), recruiting exceptional headmasters to improve schools was begun with what was once known as the Hammersmith County School (Marshall, 2001). The local authority school was located in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham (Marshall, 2001). The neighboring schools were grant maintained and church schools (Marshall, 2001). The Hammersmith School was being closed because of poor results and OFSTED reports (Marshall, 2001). However, instead of closing the school the administration decided to reopen it and called it the…
Education. 2004. Official Site of the Labor Party. retrieved January 15, 2005 from;
Mixed feelings from 'super heads'. retrieved January 15, 2005 from; http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/2132516.stm
Superheads' call for £120k a year, (2000). retrieved January 15, 2005 from; http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/914516.stm
Public Admin General Budget Allocation
Social Insurance (aid to the elderly, disable, unemployed)
Public Education (K -- Universities)
Environmental Management (regulate clear and clean water; regulate the handling & disposal of hazardous & radioactive wastes)
Support of Cultural Institutions (e.g. libraries, museums, zoo, etc.)
Conservation of Natural Resources
Management of National Parks % Lands
Manage Law and Order
Build and Maintain Roads, Dams, & Other Infrastructure
A critique of the general thought process used to reach a consensus on the various public policy categories
In choosing the public policy category, it is crucial to determine the necessary resources and measures that should prioritize the percentage budget allocation for the federal government. Security of the federal government is crucial to the development and growth of the nation. This makes security reasonable to command large portion of the budget allocation.…
Property tax relief is a subject that arises when the elderly or poor struggle to meet their property tax burdens. If they are long-term residents, they can be caught up when their neighborhood sees a dramatic increase in property values. There are sometimes mechanisms that governments use in order to provide relief.
Both tax credits and rebates can be used to help return some of the money paid or that is owing from eligible property owners, in order to help relieve from of the burden. This method is direct, and puts the money back into the hands of those who need it. However, this method relies on being able to determine who needs relief. People often have control over their financial situation so an inability to pay does not necessarily reflect somebody with a lack of opportunity to pay. It can be hard to qualify people for relief because of…
TLC. (2006). State roles in financing public school facilities. TLC Research Division. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.tlc.state.tx.us/pubspol/OnlineFinancePubSch.pdf
Pennsylvania Department of Education. (2012). Property tax reduction allocations. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/property_tax_relief/7452/property_tax_reduction_allocations/510335
That means that educational theories and models need to change if we want to catch up and surpass these nations. It is also a well-known fact that Asian children often do better in school, and are more motivated than many other children. A look at the National Spelling Bee and other similar competitions tend to show a lot of Asian, homeschooled, and private school students, and perhaps this is where education should change in the future.
Schools should model themselves after private schools, which can sometimes be stricter and more geared to academics than public schools. Many people believe the quality of public education has declined, and while there are some that say this is not true, it seems at least in some areas, that education has declined, while teacher's salaries have increased and class sizes have been reduced. Clearly, something is not right, and America's children are playing for…
Gardner, like Emerson, Russell, and Einstein, also criticizes the substantive choice of subject matter and the ineficiency with which traditional educational methods inspire genuine understanding or long-term retention of what is learned that way.
I think that we teach way too many subjects and we cover way too much material and the end result is that students have a very superficial knowledge, as we often say, a mile wide and an inch deep. Then once they leave school, almost everything's been forgotten. And I think that school needs to change to have a few priorities and to really go into those priorities very deeply." (Gardner 3007)
Similarly, Gardner (2007) emphasizes the importance of transforming the educational environment from the accumulative approach of traditional education and the NCL approach to one that mirrors the suggestions of Emerson, Russel, and Einstein:
we need to have the individuals who are involved in education,…
BIBLIOGRAPHY Einstein, a. (1936) on Education (From Ideas and Opinions.) New York: Crown Emerson, R.W., (1884) on Education (From a World of Ideas). Friere, P. (1972) the Banking Concept of Education (From a World of Ideas)
Gardner, H. (2000) the Disciplined Mind: Beyond Facts and Standardized Tests: The K-12 Education That Every Child Deserves.
New York: Penguin Putnam.
Gardner, H. (2007): Multiple Intelligences and New Forms of Assessment. Edutopia: What Works in Public Education the George Lucas Educational Foundation. Retrieved June 30, at http://www.edutopia.org/howard-gardner-interview#graph5
Russell, B. (1926) the Functions of a Teacher (From the Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell. London: Routledge.
The obvious implication is that the pairing of hands-on, inquiry-based active-learning teaching methods with cooperative learning holds tremendous potential for improved learning and social development of grade school students. Naturally, that would be an appropriate and likely productive area for future research in the area of effective teaching methodologies.
Cooperative learning has demonstrated tremendous beneficial potential as a modern educational method capable of increasing learning. Evidence also strongly suggests that cooperative learning is an equally valuable tool for increasing the educational value of academic programs for mildly disabled student populations, as well as for their integration into the mainstream student population. Beyond academic achievement, cooperative learning seems to benefit students emotionally and in terms of their development of communications and cooperation skills. Ultimately, its greatest value may be in conjunction with the more general shift toward active learning instead of the traditional focus on passive learning that has long…
Adams D. And Hamm M. (1994). New Designs for Teaching and Learning: Promoting
Active Learning in Tomorrow's Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Huber RA. And Moore CJ. "A Model for Extending Hands-on Science to Be Inquiry
Based." School Science and Mathematics, Vol. 101, No. 1 (2001): 32-35.
The Vietnam ar represented a series of first, all of them seismically changing and affecting the United States in terms of how it wages wars and the outcomes garnered as a result. To be sure, America was wildly successful in wars for the most part up to that point with the Civil ar and orld ar II perhaps being the most quintessential examples. However, the public's rise against the Vietnam ar, the fact that the United States lost the war, that the United States (according to many) could not possibly have won the war if they wanted to and so forth all set a new standard for warfare after that much like the atom bomb did after orld ar II. hile wars are still something the United States is successful at, the media sphere and public cynicism have changed warfare forever and that same public cynicism has become…
Bloom, Alexander. Long time gone: looking back at sixties America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Pew. "Public Attitudes Toward the War in Iraq: 2003-2008." Pew Research Center RSS. http://www.pewresearch.org/2008/03/19/public-attitudes-toward-the-war-in-iraq-20032008 / (accessed June 19, 2014).
Symonds, William. "America The Uneducated." Bloomberg Business Week. http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2005-11-20/america-the-uneducated (accessed June 19, 2014).
Bloom, Alexander. Long time gone: looking back at sixties America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Even under ordinary circumstances, the NCLB motivates teachers to spend more time teaching standardized test-taking and less time on substantive teaching.
The other principal set of interrelated problems currently plaguing American education is that teachers are underpaid, there is little if any correlation between performance and compensation, and tenure policies make it virtually impossible to remove bad teachers once they have achieved tenure. As a result, the teaching profession cannot attract top talent, simply because the highest performing graduates have no incentive to take on high-stress, low-paying jobs where they cannot earn more based on their superior performance. In light of the tremendous importance of improving the American education system for the well-being of the country, public education must make only very limited use of standardized testing. Public funds should be directed into programs to increase the compensation of all entry-level teachers instead of being wasted on standardized test preparation…
Caillier J. (2007). "No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their
Goals?" Journal of Negro Education. Retrieved September 12, 2010, from:
Darling-Hammond L. "NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's
Feminists, like Christine Pizan, who stressed the importance of female education and some of her male feminist contemporaries would mainly remain on the fringes as the classical form of education was reaffirmed as the standard.
In the 1970s, much of the challenge to female education was answered as the tradition of educating all people was accepted early in the development of the U.S. educations system, though it was not an easy transition and according to most inequalities still existed even in the late modern era. In fact there was no official federal department of education until 1979, yet this did not stop the progress of education.
Stallings 677) the marked entrance of women into higher education is thought by most people to be the beginning of the end for male exclusive education but pre-secondary education was available for women from the early part of the foundation of education as a…
Brown-Grant, Rosalind. Christine de Pizan and the Moral Defence of Women: Reading beyond Gender. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Clark, Donald Lemen. John Milton at St. Paul's School: A Study of Ancient Rhetoric in English Renaissance Education. New York: Columbia University Press, 1948.
Clinton, Catherine, and Christine Lunardini. The Columbia Guide to American Women in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
Furniss, W. Todd, and Patricia Albjerg Graham, eds. Women in Higher Education. Washington, DC: American Council on Education, 1974.
Although further education courses can be at traditional universities, they are generally taught through colleges that are exclusively venues for further education courses. These institutions are sometimes called "community colleges" after the American institutions that are similar. (Although American community colleges offer both post-secondary education as well as further or continuing education classes.) Other institutions that offer further education courses may offer a variety of work-based learning classes while campuses that offer adult and community learning coursework also frequently offer further education coursework.
As is appropriate -- and indeed perhaps necessary -- for further education programs designed to ameliorate the skills of a profession as important as teaching (as well as other professions such as social work, medicine, or law), there is an agency tasked with ensuring that teacher further education aligns with national goals for the profession's standards. The Learning and Skills Improvement Service (the LSIS was formerly titled…
Barbezat, D.A. (1987). 'Salary differentials by sex in the academic labour market', Journal of Human Resources, 22(3), pp. 422-28.
Becher, T. Academic tribes and territories: intellectual enquiry and the cultures of disciplines, Milton Keynes: Open University Press/SRHE. (1989).
Blackaby, D., Booth, A. And Frank, J. (2005). 'Outside offers and the gender pay gap: empirical evidence from the UK academic labour market', The Economic Journal, 115, F81-F107.
Tim Brighouse. "Comprehensive Schools Then, Now and in the Future: is it time to draw a line in the sand and create a new ideal?," Forum 45:1 (2003).
" (Montessori, 9) There is a counter-intuitive disconnect between the priorities of the educational system and the real-life demands of individuals attempting to function ably therein.
Here, Montessori speaks to the incredible irony present even in higher education, where students are essentially intended to be prepared for the real world but are instead isolated in a false environment where priorities such as a streamlined means of graded evaluation, a disregard for the physical or emotional needs of students and an overall proclivity toward isolation from true conditions of worldly socialization tend to misappropriate crucial transitional learning years.
In some regards, Montessori's work is relatively outdated, betraying its origins in the first half of the 20th century by criticizing an absence of services that are now present in many universities. Some of the better funded academic institutions do possess programs availing medical treatment and psychological counseling to students where needed at…
Axelrod, P. (2005). Beyond the Progressive Education Debate: A Profile of Toronto Schooling in the 1950s. Historical Studies in Education
Beyer, L.E. (1999). William Heard Kilpatrick. International Bureau of Education, XXVII (3).
Calhoun School (CS). (2009). Progressive Education. Calhoun.org.
Davies, S. (2002). The Paradox of Progressive Education: A Frame Analysis. Sociology of Education, 75, 269-286.
public schooling harming our society?
The survey in this research effort will be intended to a randomly selected group of Americans outside the education system. This data will be collected to learn the attitudes and opinion of the public at large in relation to the public education system. The intent is to take a fresh and new look at the overall practicality, effectiveness and economics of the system and to learn what people are thinking about their personal experiences with their schooling.
The focus group source of data will help examine the research question by gathering data about how leaders in education are self-assessing their own performance. In this group, the goal is to attain honest and frank responses to important challenges that the public school system is providing. This group should include administrators, teachers, teachers aides, coaches and any other professional working directly in the public school…
Module 1 Activity. Provided by customer.
David Woods Elementary School takes into account the issues presented by the case study of James Clark. Action should be taken on multiple levels, including the structural, systemic, cultural, and power and influence dimensions. Because the problems facing the organization prove complex, many different approaches will work better than focusing on one of the images of organization as presented in Morgan (2006). Moreover, the development of an action plan for an organization resembles the intervention opportunities for communities as outlined in the CDC (n.d.) publication on addressing issues and problems related to at-risk youth. The problems addressed in the case study are structural, systemic, cultural, and power-oriented. From each of these perspectives, key leaders in the organization, the community, and all stakeholders can take action that resolve the problems and prevent related problems in the future.
To structurally address the problem, it is important to first assess the organizational structure…
CDC (n.d.). Planning, implementing, and evaluating an intervention. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/chapter1-a.pdf
Morgan, G. (2006). Images of Organization. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Richards-Gustafson, F. (n.d.). Eight steps for organizational development interventions. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved online: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/eight-steps-organizational-development-interventions-14144.html
Maryland Charter Schools
Proponents of charter schools insist that they are the solution to America's educational woes and many state legislatures have begun to agree with that assessment. In Maryland, charter schools have become a viable alternative to the public school system which is seen as a lumbering anachronism, no longer able to educate or motivate. This is especially true in Baltimore where the schools are in dire need of reform. But the implementation of a charter school system did not come easily and there is still substantial opposition to the charter schools, mostly from public school educators. The Public Policy Lifecycle of Maryland's charter schools has been a very interesting one.
hile Maryland has continued to make great strides in its educational system, like many states the performance of its graduating students has been subpar. Even among those who attend college there are notable problems. At Baltimore…
Mossburg, M.H. (2011, May 10). Maryland's uneducated high school graduates. The Maryland
Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from:
Maryland Charter School Network. (2011). History of Maryland legislation. Retrieved from:
Education in America
The seventeenth century has been called, as an age of faith, and for the colonists a preoccupation with religion, as probably right. The religious rebel of the sixteenth century was severe and shaking as its impact was felt both on the continent as well as in America. However, intelligent Americans of the seventeenth century thought and realized that education could, and may be should, be a handmaiden to religion. Yet, humanism was there more than religion in the intellectual diet of the educated Americans 1.
The humanists preceded their work at a stable speed, which, affected education of northern, middle & southern colonies of America. However, many argued that without much attention given to education, and without even realizing that the books comprised illustrations of better life were taught into schools in order to affect the life and mind of students, how could the aspiration of humanism…
1. George R. Waggoner; Barbara Ashton Waggoner. Education in Central America
University Press of Kansas. Lawrence, KS. 1971
2 H.E. Butler. Institutes of Oratory. Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library, Harvard
University Press, 1921, 4 vols.
Today, there is increasing pressure, not only on businesses and adults in the workplace, but also upon young people and children, to perform better. Indeed, schools have responded to the increasing pressures of the job market by focusing on specific subject fields in terms of raising their standards. According to Huffman (2014), for example, high school curricula place emphasis on the STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and math). The purpose of this emphasis is to create a population of graduates who are better equipped for job markets in need of labor force input.
On the reverse side, however, the emphasis on these subjects and increasingly high standards creates a situation in which students simply cannot keep up. This inability to handle the workload and complicated nature of the subject fields includes the danger of higher dropout rates. Hence, the good intentions of raising academic standards become thwarted with the…
Ballard, K. (2012, Feb. 14). America is being left behind in education by India, China. Retrieved from: http://patch.com/california/imperialbeach/america-is-being-left-behind-in-education-by-india-china
Goodyear, M. (2008). The effect on population structure of fertility, mortality and migration. Health Knowledge. Retrieved from: http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/health-information/3a-populations/fertility-mortality-migration
Huffman, M. (2014, Aug. 19). Study: Tougher academic standards raising school drop-out rate. Consumer Affairs. Retrieved from: http://www.consumeraffairs.com/news/study-tougher-academic-standards-raising-school-drop-out-rate-081914.html
Shah, A. (2011, Sep. 22). Health Care Around the World. Global Issues. Retrieved from: http://www.globalissues.org/article/774/health-care-around-the-world
school uniforms within a school system. Ideas such as school discipline, student behavior, and academic achievement are discussed along with examples of why different schools have implemented student use of uniforms. Various viewpoints are presented, along with proponents and opponents concerns for the actual implementation of uniforms.
IMPLEMENTATION OF SCHOOL UNIFORMS ITHIN A SCHOOL SYSTEM: AFFECTS ON DISCIPLINE AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
Many schools across the United States have adopted school uniforms to meet the needs for a mandatory dress code. There are many opposing arguments on the issue of whether public school students in the United States should be required to wear uniforms or obey dress codes. Improvement of discipline and academic performance, reduction of fashion competition among students are a few of the reasons given in support of implementing school uniforms. However, the opposing viewpoints maintain that requiring school uniforms are a violation of students' First Amendment right to…
Brunsma, David. "Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Use and Academic Achievement." Journal of Educational Research 92 (1998) 53-63.
Clinton, William J. Text of Presidential Memo to Secretary of Education on School Uniforms Washington DC: U.S. Newswire, 1996.
Clinton, William J. Transcript of Presidential Radio Address to the Nation.
Washington DC: U.S. Newswire, 1996.
The sample will be drawn from a single school in large urban district. By framing the study this way, researchers understand that findings may produce insights into the way this subject is addressed in some school settings. However, this will lack external validity within the frame of only a single sample school.
The primary delimitation is shaped by the selected grade levels for review and by the teacher population which will drive the focus of the study. Accordingly, the methodology will center on an interview of teachers who preside over grades 6 through 8 in the selected school. The expected sample population is comprised of 11 participants, who will answer questions regarding the identification, labeling and education of students who are talented and gifted.
The study proceeds from the assumption that instructors have addressed the questions presented to them with clarity and honesty. The research is also carried by…
Baker, B.D. & McIntire, B. (2003). Evaluating State Funding for Gifted Education Programs. Roeper Review, 25(4).
Chance, P.L. (1998) Meeting in the Middle: Gifted Education and Middle Schools Working Together. Roeper Review, 21(2).
Cooper, C.R. (1995) Integrating Gifted Education into the Total School Curriculum. American Association of School Administrators: School Administrator, 52(4).
Winebrenner, S. (1999). Shortchanging the Gifted. School Administrator, 56(9)
In creating a brand it is impossible for Pr campaigns to lie. People however tend to divide PR in good and bad. A PR campaign trying to convince people to wear the seatbelt fastened while driving is considered good, a PR campaign trying to discredit a political candidate's opponents is considered bad. If the former case is pretty clear, the latter one makes s wonder where the border between ethics and efficiency is. We must always keep in mind the fact PR has become and ethical profession therefore regardless of its final purpose it must respect a code of ethics which is universally valid (doing otherwise would compromise it, its very success depends on this).
One example of an extremely efficient PR campaign is the one initiated by the candidate to be president arack Obama. The campaign included all the possible media, press, TV, radio, advertising and the internet. Through…
Bernays, E 1998, 'Counselling not communications', International Public Relations Review, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 28-32.
Gower, K 2008, 'U.S. corporate public relations in the progressive era', Journal of Communication Management, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 1-19, .
Heath, RL 2001, 'Shifting foundations: public relations as relationship building', in RL Heath & GM Vasquez (eds.), Handbook of public relations, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California, pp. 1-9.
Ledingham, JA 2003, 'Explicating relationship management as a general theory of public relations', Journal of Public Relations Research, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 181-198, EBSCOhost, Communication & Mass Media Complete
Much of the time spent in school focuses on following arbitrary rules and not theories of importance.
This understanding places much pressure on the teacher. Directives often come from higher, demanding certain test scores be met and curriculum be tailored to more collective ideas. As a result, the very thing that empowers students is ignored. We are individuals with individual gifts and talents all worthwhile and important in way or another. Too often this quality is snuffed out of students and teachers by browbeating and disciplining actions. Although some of this is necessary, it has definitely reached a tipping point.
As a qualified person with intelligence and know-how, I, as a teacher, am often treated like a cow in a herded pasture. Autonomy rarely exists in the classroom anymore and students often leave these institutions with little more knowledge than when they entered. The rich spiritualness that Gatto talks about…
Gatto, J. (n.d.). The Nature of Public Education, Excerpts from the Writings of John Taylor Gatto. Retrieved from http://www.homeschooloasis.com/art_john_taylor_gatto.htm
The 2009-2010 Accountability Progress Reporting System issued by the Department of Education from the state of California contains information necessary to understand the laws and requirements necessary for public educators to meet. The state of California issues adequate yearly progress report (AYP) to not only issued guidance but also to take accountability of what the new standards will be for the future of educators and what things they need to know in order to continue on with their profession.
This document first introduces the key changes that will be implemented throughout the new year and how they differ from the past. This report breaks down California's progress in two different methods by state accountability requirements and by federal accountability requirements. State mandated requirements stem from California's public school accountability act of 1999 and the federal mandated requirements stem from the Elementary and Secondary education act that was passed…
For the public sector, performance management is a valuable process. Organizations increasingly rely on performance data to make decisions relating to various organizational processes, including strategic planning, internal management, resource allocation, reporting, as well as monitoring and evaluation. This is what performance management is all about -- continuous measurement of performance, definition of performance objectives and outcomes, communication of the outcomes, and taking action based on those outcomes. As demonstrated by literature, implementing PBM can be viewed as implementing organizational change: it requires assessment of the status quo, defining the organization's desired future state, and undertaking action to achieve that state. For this to be achieved, however, a number of factors are important: strong leadership commitment, organizational culture changes, as well as attention to individual, operational, and strategic dimensions. If effectively implemented, PBM can positively influence employee and organizational outcomes.
Performance Management: Brief Literature Review
With the operational environment becoming…
Invest More in Education
Higher spending on education is an investment in our collective future. It is an investment in our children. It is an investment in our community. It is an investment in the future world in which we want to live. A more educated community has better economic outcomes. A more educated community has hope. A more educated community is empowered to create their own pathways to their dreams. A more educated community has the ability to understand what really matters, rather than getting bogged down in inane minutiae. This paper will argue that greater investment in education pays dividends for our world down the road. We have a lot of challenges to solve, and they will not be solved any other way. Investment in education will benefit our community.
The Value of Education
What anybody with half a brain already knows intuitively, that education is a worthwhile…
London Economics (2012). Assessing the deadweight loss associated with public investment in further education and skills. BIS Research Paper Number 71. Retrieved May 18, 2015 from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/32281/12-767-assessing-deadweight-loss-with-investment-further-education.pdf
Psacharapoulos, G. (1994). Return on investment in education: A global update. World Development. Vol. 22 (9) 1325-1343.
Schimit, P., Monteiro, L. & Omar, N. (2014). Cash transfer program and education investment: A model for social evolution. Communications in nonlinear science and numerical simulation. Vol. 19 (3) 570-577.
Solesvik, M., Westhead, P., Matlay, H. & Parsyak, V. (2013). Entrepreneurial assets and mindsets. Education + Training. Vol. 55 (8/9) 748-762.
Social Promotion on Young Students With Learning Disabilities
Public school systems in the United States have been damaged by policies adopted by the Department of Education in recent years. For instance, "The No Child Left Behind Act" (NCLB) has been responsible for moving the school system away from allowing teachers to teach (and by extension allowing children to learn and possibly discover their hidden talents, gifts, and greatest potentials). The No Child Left Behind Act has been in effect since 2001 and what it has instituted is a teach-for-the-test mentality, as so many schools are dependent upon funding that is tied to testing performance rather than to quality of education. In addition, teachers are held accountable when students do not meet adequate yearly progress (AYP) in terms of meeting grade proficiency levels. Students who are not promoted may be psychologically/emotionally damaged as a result. This study intends to scientifically investigate…
Education: Social Foundation
Brown v. The Board of Education (1954) was a landmark ruling that not only marked the beginning of the era of desegregation in the school environment, but also served as a frontal attack on the practice and doctrine of white supremacy in the overall society. Many viewed it as a reprieve for the Black-American community, but as Justice William Douglas revealed in 1971, the de jure segregation ruling in Brown v. Board of Education was more than just a mere reprieve for blacks; it was a direct effort towards integrating the philosophies, policies, and cultures of different communities to make public education accessible to American Indians, Latinos, African-Americans, and Asian-Americans just as it was to whites. As it turns out, however, desegregation of public schools did not even come close to being the one-fits-all solution that many thought would address all the inequality concerns of minorities --…
Benton, M.A. (2001). Challenges African-Americans Face at Predominantly White Institutions. Colorado State University. Retrieved 28 January 2015 from http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/SAHE/JOURNAL2/2001/Challenges.htm
Boland, P. (2013). Catholic Education in the 21st Century. Journal of Catholic Education, 3(4), 508-520.
India Country Today Media Network. (2011). Foundation Helps Native American Students Overcome Education Challenges. India Country Today Media Network. Retrieved 28 January 2015 from http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/11/30/foundation-helps-native-american-students-overcome-education-challenges-65093
Krogstad, J.M. (2012). One in four Native Americans and Alaska Natives are Living in Poverty. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 28 January 2015 from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/06/13/1-in-4-native-americans-and-alaska-natives-are-living-in-poverty/
Public School Funding
ith reports on the lower standardized test scores among the nation's students, policy makers are once again turning their attention to the issue of education reform. For many educators, one of the culprits behind this is not only the dearth of money spent on public education. Rather, the available funding is disbursed unequally, benefiting the already more affluent school districts.
This paper examines the inequity that exists in funding public school education.
The first part of this paper looks at examples of this unequal funding throughout the country. The next part of the paper then looks at the various reasons for these disparities, from the government level to the lack of public support.
In the conclusion, this paper argues that there remains a strong need to increase public support for education funding, and to re-work the current formula used by states to determine how school funds are…
Brooks, Charles. 2002. "Poor and minority districts get thousands less per student." New York Amsterdam News. August 15.
Jencks, Christopher and Meredith Phillips. 1998. The Black-White Test Score Gap. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
McDermott, Kathryn. 1999. Controlling Public Education: Localism vs. Equity. Lawrenc: University Press of Kansas.
Reed, Douglas. 2001. "Not in My Schoolyard: Localism and Public Opposition to Funding Schools Equally." Social Science Quarterly. March.
Public Administration: Presenting for the Future
Immigration Policy eform
The term "immigration reform" is used to collectively refer to all efforts that have been undertaken by a country to amend abuses and reduce faults in its immigration policy. These efforts could be geared at either promoting and encouraging immigration or reducing and even eliminating the same. A perfect example of the former is the UK's promotion of the absorption of foreign-educated health specialists in its National Health Service (Dodds, 2012). The U.S. has, however, almost consistently run an anti-immigration policy. As this text will demonstrate, numerous reform efforts have been undertaken since way back in the 18th century to reduce the number of aliens illegally or legally crossing into the U.S. through the country's border points. Most of these efforts were particularly speeded up after the 9/11 tragedy; however, the successful implementation of these has been hampered by a number…
Baker, B. & Rytina, N. (2012). Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2012. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved 17 March 2015 from http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/ois_ill_pe_2012_2.pdf
Camayd-Freixas, E. (2013). U.S. Immigration Reform and its Global Impact: Lessons from the Postville Raid. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan
Carens, J.H. (2013). The Ethics of Immigration. New York, NY: Oxford University Press
DHS. (2015). About DHS. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved 17 March 2015 from http://www.dhs.gov/about-dhs
It is important to recognize the many different areas within adult education, and what type of students these areas attract. Ultimately, for the adult education department to be successful, it must attract a wide variety of students, and keep at least some of those students coming back to continue their education in order to be successful. Adult education serves a vital role in the upper education system, and it serves a diverse amount of people, but in most institutions it also has to support itself if not turn a profit, and that is an important aspect to take into consideration. Therefore, classes must be viable to the institution, but to the student, as well, to keep attracting a wide variety of students into the program.
In addition, diverse students could form a major foundation of the program, and so, it pays to understand these diverse learners so administrators and teaching…
The United Kingdom (and Northern Ireland) used to provide free higher education to all native Brits, but contemporary economic realities have forced UK and Northern Ireland colleges and universities to charge up to the approximate equivalent of $6,000 annually to offset the enormous cost of education. Unlike Canada, Britain provides higher education at the same price for students from Continental European nations but charges students from other nations more than the maximum allowed to be charged to UK students (Ciccone & Peri, 2006). Unlike in the U.S., there are few opportunities to earn scholarships to UK colleges and universities. Similarly, higher education in Southern Ireland costs only the approximate equivalent of $2,000 in the form of registration and related fees for students from Ireland and the European Union.
France provides (essentially) free education that is paid for by public funds and only imposes a nominal annual enrollment fee that is…
Ciccone, A. And Peri, G. "Identifying human-capital externalities: Theory with applications."
Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 73, No. 2; (2006): 381-412.
Dur, R. And Glazer, A. "Subsidizing enjoyable education" Labour Economics, Vol 15, No.
5; (2008): 1023-1039.
People need look no further than their own homes to see the interdependence of world trade; no further than their neighborhoods to see the results of international migration and multiculturalism; no further than the news to see the causes and effects of global economics, ecology and ethnic conflicts. "While domestic debate continues over the nature of these connections, few can doubt their existence. As these connections increase, educators, utilizing a global model, can provide a context that allows students to analyze and understand the impact of world events" (Baker, 1999).
Multiculturalism and globalism are obviously not unique to the United States. The majority of Western societies are racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse. Ethnic revival movements have come up in a lot of countries including quite a few Western European nations (Banks & Lynch, 1986). This type of revival movement occurs when an ethnic group organizes efforts to attain equality inside…
Baker, F.J. (1999). Multicultural vs. global education: Why not two sides of the same coin? Retrieved from http://www.csupomona.edu/~jis/1999/baker.pdf
Cooper, G. (1995). Freire and theology. Studies in the Education of Adults, 27(1), 66.
Global education. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.glob-edu.net/en/global-education/
Global education guidelines. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/nscentre/ge/GE-Guidelines/GEguidelines-web.pdf