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For example, the black worker just following the civil war was believed to be of low intelligence thereby rendering it very unlikely that he would receive pay equal to other men. The same is true for female workers during the mid to latter part of the 1900s as it was highly unlikely that anyone would offer to a woman the same amount that was offered to men to secure their employment.
In the work of Raadschelders entitled: "A Coherent Framework for the Study of Public Administration" stated is that: "The identity crisis of public administration, discussed on both sides of the Atlantic since the Second World War, is a debate about both its academic stature and its relevance to society. American students of Public Administration, who are rooted in a practical approach, have time and again addressed this issue by stating the need for a comprehensive theory that would unify…
Raadschelders, Jos C.N. (1999) a Coherent Framework for the Study of Public Administration. Journal of public administration and theory.Vol. 9 NO. 2: 281-304 (1999). University of Oklahoma, Oxford Journals. Online available at http://jpart.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/9/2/281#search=%22personnel%20administration%3A%202%20eras%2C%202%20periods%22 .
Personnel Administration. (2006). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved October 11, 2006, from Encyclopedia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9059356
Maloney, Thomas N. (1999) Personnel Policy and Racial Inequality in the Pre-World War II North. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 30, No.2 (Autumn, 1999) pp. 235-258.
Kellough, J. Edward (1999) Reinventing Public Personnel Management: Ethical Implications for Manager and Public Personnel Systems" Public Personnel Management, Winter 1999.
Further into the discussion of public personnel, the chapter identified the similarities and differences between public and private sector employees. As earlier discussed, public sector employees are more susceptible to political changes, and thus have "more legal restrictions" (p. 4). This means that despite political changes in the government, public sector employees are expected to be neutral, and "moral legal restrictions" cover, in part, this required impartiality. Public sector employees are required to uphold, at all times, a moral character -- a character that is impartial and legally correct and proper. This is a tall order for public sector employees, given that the environment they work for everyday is constantly changing and driven by conflicts of interest, if not among the employees, but among its managers or politicians/public officials.
Linked with proper employee conduct, public personnel are also always challenged with a judgment call on whom to serve. This determination…
Agency's Public Personnel Administration
The Department of Defense Inspector General (DoD IG) office exists under a stable organizational design. Just like any other department in the government, the department is categorized into varied forms of dockets that serve to contribute to the general performance of the body. Established in 1982, the Department of Defense Inspector General has vision and mission statements. The Inspector General Act of 1978 spells out all the ideals and protocols observed in order to arrive at the general structure of organizing activities within the department. The office is divided into a number of sections that serve different purposes. For instance, the offices are assigned to accomplish activities like evaluation, assessment, investigation, and provide general oversight of the activities taking place within the office. Apart from providing comprehensive approaches of accomplishing the tasks in the departments, the offices are also endowed with leadership qualities. The…
Council of the Inspectors General on Integrity and Efficiency (2012). Inspector General Act
of 1978, as amended. Retrieved on 31 January, 2013 from
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2013). Charlotte Division: Former Staff Sergeant
Sentenced for Stealing Public Money Earmarked for Her Military Unit. Retrieved on
Personnel Law and Regulation
Workers Compensation Rehabilitation
For nearly 100 years, the system of Worker's Compensation has been used in the United States. Worker's Compensation is legislated and administered at the state level. Accordingly, each state has passed their own laws and developed their own system to administer Worker's Compensation within their jurisdiction. Despite the differences of each state's benefits, the overall concept of Worker's Compensation is used in each state.
The model of Worker's Compensation is simple. Employees loose their right to sue their employer for negligence, and employers are required to provide Worker's Compensation to their employees. Specific benefits vary from state to state. All state systems provide some form of protection for employees who are hurt while working.
Prior to the adoption of Worker's Compensation, the previous system required an employee to file a lawsuit against their employer. This proved to be ineffective and problematic. For example,…
Job Got You Stressed?" Health Beat Magazine, February 28, 1995. Pages 50-51
Adams, John D. "Creating and Maintaining Comprehensive Stress-Management Training" Stress Management in Workplace Settings, Praeger Publishers: New York (1989)
Bloch, Frank S. (Editor), Prins, Rienk (Editor) (2001). Who Returns to Work & Why?: A 6 Country Study on Work Incapacity & Reintegration (International Social Security Series, V. 5). Somerset, NJ: Transaction Publications
Clay, Rebecca A., "Job-stress Claims Spin out of Control," American Psychological Association Monitor, July 1998, pgs. 52-55.
Leadership and HM in the Public Sector
At the national level, leadership in human resource management has been problematic, if not negative, in its effects. The Civil Service eform Act of 1978 and related legislation established the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) to provide leadership and innovative personnel programs for the federal establishment. Instead, in the first ten years after its creation, OPM established a record of missed opportunities, failed initiatives, and declining organizational effectiveness, as documented in comprehensive reports issued in 1989 by both the U.S. General Accounting Office and the U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board (Ingraham and Ban, 2008).
By any measure of performance against legislative intent, OPM has been largely an organizational failure in the conduct of its programs and the achievement of its goals. OPM has not become the primary management office for the president, as envisioned by its first director, Alan Campbell. It has…
Patricia, Ingraham W., and Ban. Carolyn (1988) Politics and Merit: Can They Meet in a Public Service Model? Review of Public Personnel Administration (Spring):719.
Lane, Larry M (2009) The Administration and Politics of Reform: The Office of Personnel Management. Policy Studies Journal 17 (Winter):331-351.
Swoboda, Frank (1989) A Coming Shift in the Power Balance. The Washington Post (October 8):H3.
Selznick, Philip (1987) The Idea of a Communitarian Morality. California Law Review 75 (January):445-463.
One time or the other, these elected legislatures will find themselves in difficult situations that call for difficult ethical decisions in the processes of performing their duties just as public administrators and as some can mange such trying moments, others will fail to perform. These public administrators should ensure that they have proper interaction with the government/authorities so as to understand well how they function in the quest to establishing reliable solutions that are potential managers of public pressure to finally ensure that public action is not compromised (Stillman, 2009). For example, in the last twenty years, the pressure exerted on public administrators has been "more entrepreneurial, to find ways to do more things and new things with fewer resources, to be nimble in response to fluctuating problems and demands, has been acute" (Cook, 2007, p. 243). In addition, considering the pressure on public administration coupled by increasing global changes…
Business training schools. (n.d.). What does a public administrator do? Business-training-
schools.com. Retrieved from http://www.business-training-schools.com/a/what-does-a-public-administrator-do.html
Cook, B.J. (2007). Democracy and administration: Woodrow Wilson's ideas and challenges of public management. Baltimore, Maryland: JHU Press.
Dubai School of Government. (2010, April 4). Faculty positions in public administration, the Dubai school of government. International Association of Schools and Institutes of Administration. Retrieved from http://www.iias-
By bringing into the equation of transitional services the special needs personnel at local colleges and vocational institutions, the interagency agreement described here will ensure that upon the student's eventual arrival at one such institution, there will be people familiar with his case and prepared to accommodate his needs. These respective agency types can then help a disabled student to train a focus on the specific career goals which have been identified either with the assistance of counselors.
Using the Strategic Planning Meeting as a method to identifying willing and helpful stakeholders in the process, the public partnership in question relies heavily on such networking to both orient the community toward our collective goals and to foster natural communication between such agencies at a personal level. By inviting and bringing into contact such groups as decision-makers from local law organizations, leaders from public recreation leagues and university personnel, as well…
Graddy, E. & Chen, B. (2006). Influences on the size and scope of networks for social service delivery. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory Advance Access.
Milward, H.B. & Provan, K.G. (2006). A Manager's Guide to Choosing and Using Collaborative Networks. Network and Partnership Series.
Office of Career Assessment, Planning and Placement (OCAPP). Setting a Course for Students with Disabilities & their Parents. Charlottesville City Schools. Online at www.ccs.k12.va.us/departments/items/career/docs/TransitionWebPage.pdf
The private security field also underwent significant reforms in connection with the qualifications, training, and (especially) vetting of employment candidates as well Ortmeier, 2009). Ironically, instead of recognizing the comprehensive improvement throughout the private security industry after 2001, many police personnel intensified their pre-existing disdain for all non-sworn security professionals instead (Dalton, 2003).
The Conceptual Significance of Public and Private Spaces
One of the worst consequences of the antagonism on the part of police toward private security forces is that the private security industry could actually provide valuable assistance to the overall interest of national, regional, and local security. Whereas the actions of all government policing and law enforcement authorities is very strictly limited by fundamental constitutional principles (especially in connection with 4th Amendment search and seizure concepts), non-governmental security agents can operate with considerably wider latitude (Larsen, 2007). In general, private security personnel may conduct various types of searches…
Dalton D. (2003). Rethinking Corporate Security in the Post-9/11 Era. Burlington, MA:
Larsen R. (2007). Our Own Worst Enemy: Asking the Right Questions About Security to Protect You, Your Family, and America. New York: Grand Central Publishing.
Ortmeier P. (2009). Security Management: An Introduction. Uppers Saddle River,
The guardian bureaucracy, for example, goes all the way back to the writings of Plato. Patronage/spoils goes back to the founding of the United States, which is not a surprise, since loyalty was a predominant value post-revolution. Agencies in the United States value "merit and confidence" and merit principles are the core values of the majority of systems.
Cayer moves on to listing the organizational questions that must be asked when choosing a personnel system, including which type of board is desirable, whether there is a centralized personnel office, and who has the final authority over personnel functions and the pros and cons of each decision. Bipartisan or nonpartisan commissions are the dominant choice for governance in the U.S. And have been since 1883. The main alternative to this model is the central personnel office which reports directly to the top executive and takes a role in leadership and management.…
This role is in response to clients' demands for a single trustworthy individual or firm to meet all of their financial needs. However, accountants are restricted from providing these services to clients whose financial statements they also prepare." (U.S. Department of Labor, ureau of Labor Statistics, 2009)
1. Public Accounting
The work entitled: "The Reality of the CPA's Role" states that modern CPAs work "behind the scenes as trusted advisors in nearly all significant business decisions. Successful accountants display the ability to think strategically and creatively and to be problem solvers and business advisors." (Douglass, 2006) Douglass states that the views of the CPA are widely varied "...whether from the viewpoint of the investing public or from the perspective of the companies that engage CPAs to audit their financial statements or perform other functions. In fact, many people not involved in the business management or accounting profession may perceive CPAs…
Douglass, Kevin (2006) the Reality of the CPA's Role New Jersey CPA Magazine, April 2006. Accounting and Auditing. Online available at: http://www.amper.com/publications/amper-cpa-role.asp
Erard, Brian (1992) Taxation with Representation: An Analysis of the Role of Tax Practitioners in Tax Compliance. Journal of Public Economics 52 (1993) 163-107. North-Holland. Online available at: http://aysps.gsu.edu/isp/files/ISP_SUMMER_SCHOOL_2008_ERARD_TAXATION_WITHOUT_REPRESENTATION.pdf
Financial accounting for Local and State School Systems (2005) Chapter 4: Governmental Accounting. National Center for Education Statistics. U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. Online available at: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2004/h2r2/ch_4.asp
Garrison, Ray H. And Noreen, Eric W. (2009) What is Managerial Accounting/Cost Accounting. Accounting Management. Online available t: http://www.accountingformanagement.com/
One demand is to supply adequate fresh water. Insufficient fresh water for drinking, sewage treatment and sewage discharge are frequent issues that arise as the population increases. Augmented amounts of air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination and noise pollution are also issues faced by city governments. Another issue is that of high infant and child mortality rates. These rates are frequently caused by deficiency. There is also an augmented possibility of the appearance of new plagues and pandemics. For a lot of ecological and societal reasons, including congested living situations, undernourishment and insufficient, unreachable, or missing health care; the underprivileged are more likely to be exposed to communicable diseases (Devaney, 2010).
What steps did city governments take to help deal with new demand resulting from the influx in population?
In the late nineteenth century, municipal governments frequently failed to meet the needs of their constituents. Because of this urban planning…
Auch, Roger, Taylor, Janis and Acevedo, William. (2004). Urban Growth in American Cities.
Retrieved March 8, 2011, from Web site:
Devaney, Erik. (2010). The Effects of Population Density on Individuals. Retrieved March 8,
solid waste management in impoverished areas versus affluent areas by examining the social, economic, ethical, and political reasons for placement of landfills and other waste removal facilities in poorer neighborhoods. By exploring the background of specific social movements, the first section of the assignment will seek to explore why the government placed landfills in certain locations versus others. The essay will also seek to examine what caused the social movements. As well as why the issue evolved from placement of landfills in poorer neighborhoods to placement of landfills in minority-majority poorer neighborhoods.
The next section will seek to analyze which candidates would be best for a nonprofit. Candidate one is a business-savvy employee wishing to change things by dismissing all the older employees and hiring new ones. Candidate two is a college graduate with experience in the field. By looking at the various perspectives of public administration theory, this section…
Aston, R. (1999). The Legal, Engineering, Environmental and Social Perspectives of Surface Mining Law and Reclamation by Landfilling: Getting Maximum Yield from Surface Mines (p. 120). World Scientific.
Brownell, P. & Kelly, J. (2013). Ageism and mistreatment of older workers. Dordrecht: Springer.
Frederickson, G. (1994). Ethics and Public Administration. Routledge.
Hill, B. (2014). Environmental Justice (p. 103). Environmental Law Institute.
Human esources and Functional Illiteracy
Public Administration Human esources esearch Study Design
Public Sector Human esource Policy and Functional Illiteracy
Public Sector Human esource Policy and Functional Illiteracy
Anderson and icks (1993) examined the role of illiteracy in determining worker status within the public sector, in part because it had not been done before. They were interested in understanding how worker stratification was determined, after scholars had raised the possibility of a worker caste system within government agencies. This issue is still relevant today, given the increasingly diverse workforce both ethnically and linguistically. This report will analyze the research methods used by Anderson and icks (1993) and summarize their findings
The sample studied by Anderson and icks (1993) were human resource professionals currently engaged in managing employees in the public sector. A 41-item questionnaire was used to determine the 'functional literacy' that these managers were noticing on the job,…
Anderson, Claire J. And Ricks, Betty Roper. (1993). Illiteracy -- The neglected enemy in public service. Public Personnel Management, 22(1), 137-152.
History Channel. (2013). Great migration. History.com. Retrieved 13 Feb. 2013 from http://www.history.com/topics/great-migration .
For the public sector, performance management is a valuable process. Organizations increasingly rely on performance data to make decisions relating to various organizational processes, including strategic planning, internal management, resource allocation, reporting, as well as monitoring and evaluation. This is what performance management is all about -- continuous measurement of performance, definition of performance objectives and outcomes, communication of the outcomes, and taking action based on those outcomes. As demonstrated by literature, implementing PBM can be viewed as implementing organizational change: it requires assessment of the status quo, defining the organization's desired future state, and undertaking action to achieve that state. For this to be achieved, however, a number of factors are important: strong leadership commitment, organizational culture changes, as well as attention to individual, operational, and strategic dimensions. If effectively implemented, PBM can positively influence employee and organizational outcomes.
Performance Management: Brief Literature Review
With the operational environment becoming…
Anti-Bullying as a Policy Change
Students have been bullied while at school since the beginnings of education. Originally they might have been bullied by the people who taught them, but much of that does not continue into the present say. However, students bullying other students does continue. Every child needs an advocate at their school whose function it is to make sure that they are not being bullied. Many times this happens informally when a school does not have a bullying program, but it can also happen formally. The need for advocacy programs within schools, both primary and secondary, that allow children to feel that they are safe from the time that they leave their homes until they arrive back at home in the afternoon is elemental. Because of the backlash that has happened at some schools due to being bullied, it is more vital than ever. Students…
Aluede, O., Adeleke, F., Omoike, D., & Afen-Akpaida, J. (2008). A review of the extent, nature characteristics and effects of bullying behavior in schools. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 35(2), 151-163.
Buck, L., & Willer, B. (2008). Advocacy for young children. In S. Feeney, A Galper, and C. Seefeldt Eds. Continuing issues in early childhood education (pp. 391-405). Toronto: Pearson Education Canada.
Hirschstein, M.K., Edstrom, L.V.S., Frey, K.S., Snell, J.L., & Mackenzie, E.P. (2007). Walking the talk in bullying prevention: Teacher implementation variables related to initial impact of the steps to respect program. School Psychology Review, 36(1), 3-21.
Jacobsen, K.E., & Bauman, S. (2007). Bullying in schools: School counselors' responses to three types of bullying incidents. Professional School Counseling, 11(1), 1-8.
Public Administrators in Work First Family Assistance Program
The ole of Public Administrators in Work First Family Assistance Program
Competency 1: Summarize the Findings of the Analytical Framework
Designing an analytical framework is possible and is seen because the Act was passed into law in 1975 by the federal government. The aim of implementing the child support policy in all states was to reduce the expenditure of the public on social welfare. The North Carolina welfare is an example of child support programs where the Division of Social Service disburses funds, and 100 counties use the program. emember, TANF program is a block grant. The assistance provided by the state is for five years only to ensure that the family stays together, and a reduction of teenage pregnancies is adhered to especially because teenagers need their parents guidance and counsel.
TANF program was created after the passing of legislation in…
Ammons, D.N. (2008). Leading Performance Management. Washington, DC: ICMA Press
Ammons, D.N. & Riverbark, W.C. (2008). Factors Influencing the Use of Performance Data to Improve Municipal Services: Evidence from the North Carolina Benchmarking Project. Public Administration Review, 68(2): 304-318.
APHSA. (2010). Temporary Assistance for Needy Families: Recommendations for Reauthorization. Washington, DC: NASTA
The European Union. (2012). Excellence in Public Administration for Competitiveness in the EU Member States. Enterprise and Industry
Team building, group dynamics, talent management, leadership development, and any number of other functional areas are much more about clarity, focus, aligning expectations, and defining roles than creating equality" (Myatt, 2012). In the last twenty years, organizations have come to the realization that the better their employees are at working together, the more successful their organizations will be.
eductions in budgets in the public sector mean that there is an increased pressure for these organizations to deliver more effectively. Team-building is a verifiable way to ensure a greater success at employee cohesion. Private sector organizations have largely realized this, as private sector organizations more frequently enlist the help of outside organizations such as team-building experts to teach and implement effective means of team-building for their workers. Given these trends in team-building, I would want to further explore: what are the immediate benefits of team building? What are the long-term benefits…
Cellucci, T. (2008, October). Bridging the Communication Gap. Retrieved from DHS.gov: http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/bridging_the_communication_gap.pdf
Dillon, S., Buchannon, J., & Corner, J. (2010, November).Comparing public and private sector decision making: Problem structuring and information quality issues. Retrieved from https://secure.orsnz.org.nz/conf45/program/Papers/ORSNZ2010_Buchanan.pdf
Drexel.edu. (2013). 5 Stages of Group Development. Retrieved from Drexel.edu: http://www.drexel.edu/oca/l/tipsheets/Group_Development.pdf
Groeneveld, S., & verbeek, S. (2011). Diversity Policies in Public and Private Sector Organizations. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 353-381.
Public Administration: Presenting for the Future
Immigration Policy eform
The term "immigration reform" is used to collectively refer to all efforts that have been undertaken by a country to amend abuses and reduce faults in its immigration policy. These efforts could be geared at either promoting and encouraging immigration or reducing and even eliminating the same. A perfect example of the former is the UK's promotion of the absorption of foreign-educated health specialists in its National Health Service (Dodds, 2012). The U.S. has, however, almost consistently run an anti-immigration policy. As this text will demonstrate, numerous reform efforts have been undertaken since way back in the 18th century to reduce the number of aliens illegally or legally crossing into the U.S. through the country's border points. Most of these efforts were particularly speeded up after the 9/11 tragedy; however, the successful implementation of these has been hampered by a number…
Baker, B. & Rytina, N. (2012). Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2012. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved 17 March 2015 from http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/ois_ill_pe_2012_2.pdf
Camayd-Freixas, E. (2013). U.S. Immigration Reform and its Global Impact: Lessons from the Postville Raid. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan
Carens, J.H. (2013). The Ethics of Immigration. New York, NY: Oxford University Press
DHS. (2015). About DHS. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved 17 March 2015 from http://www.dhs.gov/about-dhs
, et al., 2012).
Systems approaches look towards the functional integration of different stakeholders and their goals towards a specific issue or path. What implications might a proposed solution have and to what groups? What is the functional relationship between groups of stakeholders and how can that be maximized. For returning felons, this approach looks at ways to construct programs that are utilitarian in context (the greatest good for the greatest number) (Teaskey, 1976).
Ecological PA supports a more holistic viewpoint and focuses on the nature of the internal and external environments. In other words, PA must interact with the political executive, social political interest groups, commercial and economic organizations, and the citizenry. This approach takes the approach that solutions may only be found by looking at the issue as a sub-set of a larger set of societal issues. Ecological PA cannot solve the incarceration problem, but can look toward…
Project Return - Breaking the Cycle of Crime. (2009, April). Retrieved from projectreturn.com: http://www.projectreturn.com/index.php?name=results_and_impacts
Public Administration. (2012, July 31). Retrieved from publicadministrationtheone.blogspot.com: http://publicadministrationtheone.blogspot.com/2012/07/organisations-theories-systems.html
Beck, a., & Shipley, B. (1989). Recidivism of Prisoners Released. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
Benincasa, R. (2012, May 29). 6 Leadership Styles and When You Should Use Them. Retrieved from Fast Company: http://www.fastcompany.com/1838481/6-leadership-styles-and-when-you-should-use-them
Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual Property
Legal and ethical considerations
PharmaCAE intentionally bypassed the Food and Drug Administration when it established CompCAE a compounding pharmacy. This was done in order to avoid FDA scrutinization, which indicates that the company was aware of the side effects that the drug would have on patients. By evading FDA scrutiny and approval, PharmaCAE was able to sell the new formulation on a prescription basis without the need to seek approvals. CompCAE was not supposed to market directly to consumers, but it still conducted direct marketing to consumers and hospitals. Furthermore, the company encouraged doctors to fax them lists of fictitious patient names. This was done to demonstrate that the company was not selling directly to consumers, but rather it was doctors who were prescribing the drug to the patients.
When reports started surfacing indicating that the drug was causing heart attacks, the…
Halbert, T., & Ingulli, E. (2011). Law and ethics in the business environment. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Kim, Y.K., Lee, K., Park, W.G., & Choo, K. (2012). Appropriate intellectual property protection and economic growth in countries at different levels of development. Research policy, 41(2), 358-375.
Liu, W., KNOx, C.A., & Brushwood, D.B. (2013). Discretion of the Food and Drug Administration to enforce compounding rules. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH-SYSTEM PHARMACY, 70(17), 1538-1543.
Peffer, S.L., Bocheko, A., Del Valle, R.E., Osmani, A., Peyton, S., & Roman, E. (2013). Whistle Where You Work? The Ineffectiveness of the Federal Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989 and the Promise of the Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2012. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 0734371X13508414.
The author of this report has been asked to review the legal and ethical considerations in play given the test case scenario surrounding Pharmacare and Compcare. As is quickly apparent while reading the case study, the company engaged in a long and extensive list of ethical and/or legal violations as a means to maximize profit and minimize the legal and other red tape that seems to bother them even though it is there for a very good reason. The ethical issues involved will be touched upon and analyzed. There will also be an exploration and analysis of direct-to-consumer marketing of drugs, whether John is the "investor" of AD23, the arguments about John being a whistleblower and the associated protections he would have if he is and examples of intellectual property theft that have occurred in the last two years or so. While bad things do incidentally happen and…
Managing Diversity Matters
A Study on QANTAS
Women Representation at QANTAS
QANTAS' Focus on Diverse Needs of Customers
QANTAS Ideology Regarding Recruitment of Youth
Challenges Faced y QANTAS
In today's challenging global scenario where competition is rising every day, it is necessary for Multinational organizations to address the basic need of today's business world: diversity. Customers, employees, strategic alliances, competitors, industry norms etc.; they are all subject to changes every day. This is the reason why organizations must need to show adaptability to the change and address the diverse needs of all these stakeholders. Furthermore, while discussing MNCs, it is noticeable that one of the industries (with highest degree of diversity in its operations) is the aviation industry. Australia is one of the most culturally diverse in the world, according to a 2009 study by L. Leveson in the International Journal of Manpower. The study explored current attitudes to diversity…
Arthur, J.B 1994, 'Effects of Human Resource Systems on Manufacturing Performance and Turnover', Academy of Management Journal, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 670-687.
Australian Human Rights Commission. 2008, The Right to a Discrimination-Free Workplace, Legal Section, Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission
Beer, M., Spector, B., Lawrence, P., Mills, D.Q. And Walton, R 1985, Human Resource Management: A General Managers Perspective, New York: Free Press
Berman, E., West, J. And Wang, X 1999, 'Using Performance Measurement in Human Resource Management', Review of Public Personnel Administration, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 5-17.
civil service reform itself is still an ongoing process, not yet perfected to a point that satisfies all parties. Even the past reforms have been littered with dissent and the need for further revolutions regarding civil service suits, culminating in two different forms of systems: the merit system and the spoils system. hile the spoils system generally gains a horrendously bad reputation, it is without doubt a catalyst that brought about positive reform. And while the merit system has a genuinely "good" idea behind it, there is still basis for concern regarding the ultimate movement toward corruption. In either case, the reform acts brought about by the government regarding civil service have continued to rise up for the benefits of the public service workers.
It is evident that throughout history, there had been ongoing ping-pong relations between presidential administrations and the partisan process. In both the Unit 2 Lecture (2011)…
Cayer, N. Joseph (2004). "Evolution of the Public Personnel System." Public Personnel Administration. Fourth ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. Print.
Public Unit 2 (2011). "Unit 2 Lecture." Public Administration.
For instance, in Min Patel's case her lung cancer there years ago that went into full recovery had nothing to do with her ability to perform as a deputy sheriff especially since she has passed the medical exams of the city. As what the Americans with Disability Act specifies, it is illegal to screen for any disability unrelated to job performance (Cayer, 2003, p. 141) and clearly, there was no disability to speak of except for records of Ms. Patel's clung cancer treatment and her statements that she had the disease. The city may be stating that if she is hired as a deputy sheriff, "she would be exposed to situations in which she could be breathing substances that could reactivate her condition (Cayer, 2003, p. 146)." This argument is immediately presumptuous and without basis unless the city provides strong evidence from top medical experts that that could be the…
Cayer, N.J. (2003). Public personnel administration in the United States, 4th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
Indeed many of the "rotating staff may have never been on a transfer" and in addition most transport vehicles "are not conducive to carrying out active interventions on patients" -- a situation that can lead to serious medical complications during transfers (which often take place in late-night hours) (Ahmed, p. 503). Moreover, less than one in three NHS hospitals followed the procedure of checking the compatibility within the ambulance and it's "mounting system" prior to moving the patient (Ahmed, p. 504). All of these concerns are worth noting by U.S. healthcare professionals, lest similar situations may occur and put patients in jeopardy.
Should every American healthcare provider be required to publish performance data in an online account -- information that relates to the clinical outcomes of his services as well as a record of patient satisfaction? That is a pertinent question because that is the new rule that all NHS…
Ahmed, Majeed a. (2008). Risk management during inter-hospital transfer of critically ill
Patients: making the journey safe. Emergency Medical Journal, Vol. 25, 502-505.
Ali, Adam M. (2009). The personalization of the British National Health Service: empowering
Patients or exacerbating inequality? The International Journal of Clinical Practice, 63(10),
This is the stage in which classifiers stratify (often in terms of importance or ability) the several job factors which comprise a position's description -- all of which contains a fair degree of subjectivity based on the classifier's own personal opinions. The solution, naturally, would be to assign a numeric value to each of these job factors and to come up with a quantitative point-factor comparison method, but as Cayer points out, this approach merely transfers the subjectivity to the numbers assigned to each job factor.
The apex of subjectivity for the classification process, however, exists in the tendency of managers, laborers, and employers to "overclassify" themselves and their positions in order to improve their ranking as well as their remuneration and benefits. The determining of adequate compensation on an equitable scale to all is one of the primary objectives of classification, which any number of workers may exploit for…
But another thing which has been neglected in the chapter is represented by the attitudes of the employees in the private and the public sector. In this order of ideas, the employees in the private sector function in a corporate environment, in which emphasis is placed on perfection, development and gains. And they have come to focus on these values, meaning that bargaining is a means of attaining these objectives for themselves. The employees in the public sector however were less eager to demand new rights and rewards. Some professionals even "resisted joining the bargaining movement because they viewed bargaining as an unprofessional behavior" (Cayer, 2003).
As the chapter completes the discussion of the public sector employees and labor relations, it moves on to describing the concept of bargaining, through various lenses, such as those of the negotiation process, the procedures to resolving impasses, mediation, arbitration or referendums. In cases…
Cayer, N.J., 2003, Public personnel administration, 4th edition, Wadsworth / Thompson Learning, ISBN 0534618669
Cochran, C.E., Mayer, L.C., Carr, T.R., Cayer, N.J., 2008, American public policy: an introduction, 9th edition, Cengage Learning, ISBN 0495501891
Affirmative Action Planning
Through its reference to affirmative action, the Civil ights Act of 1964 ushered in a remedy for disadvantage and discrimination that was intended to reach into the hallowed halls of higher education, union halls, and corporate meeting rooms. President Johnson extended The Act to federal contractors through an Executive Order, and again the charge was to take affirmative action to ensure discrimination was not occurring. The Act was intended to guide and coerce social change, and it empowered the federal courts to penalize violators. The law was based on the construct that people who have been historically excluded from substantive social institutionalized benefits -- culture, education, employment -- needed a boost in the form of preferential selection. This means that the same factors that trigger or support exclusion, by law (ethnicity, gender, and race), become the same factors that drive the affirmative actions that serve…
Aron, N. (2011, March 28). Wal-Mart v. Dukes: The Supreme Court's Big Case Threatens the Ability to Fight Corporate Misbehavior. Alliance for Justice. Huffington Post.
Bates, T. (2009, August). Utilizing Affirmative Action in a public sector procurement as a local economic development strategy. Economic Development Quarterly, 23(3). DOI: 10.1177/089242409333549.
Blanchflower, D.G., Levine, P.B., & Zimmerman, D.J. (2003). Discrimination in the small business credit market. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 91(3), 503-522.
Blanchflower, D.G., and Wainwright, J. (2005). An analysis of the impact of affirmative action programs on self-employment in the construction industry. NBER working paper no. 6840
Employee Retention Issues in Non-profit Organizations
Non-profit organizations face many of the same employee retention concerns as profit-driven enterprises. With profitability no longer a factor in measuring the success or effectiveness of the organization, the non-profit does use different employee management strategies and techniques. Human resources management strategies used in nonprofit firms often do mirror those used in their for-profit counterparts. For example, motivation, employee engagement, training and professional development are all major issues for human resources managers no matter what their sector. The literature on human resources management in non-profit organizations is extensive in general, but few studies have applied qualitative methods to assess the actual HRM practices used in nonprofits. Similarly, few studies have used qualitative methods to determine HRM and employee perceptions of employee training and development programs. Existing studies on employee retention, development, and training in non-profit organizations focus mainly on mission statements, and less on…
Additionally, his statement that new procedures will be phased in over time is inconsistent with the realities of the rules put in place over the first few weeks of his new regime.
Clearly what has occurred and what must be changed to redevelop the productivity and morale of the department is recognition that heavy handed techniques designed to enhance productivity will not produce results. From a psychological perspective Corbett's error was in determining that employees would positively respond to his changes as a matter of physiological and safety considerations as indicated by Maslow. The culture though prior to his arrival though was built on the Maslow identities of social needs, ego, and self- actualization. (Public Personnel Administration. P.104. N.D.) Employees who were subsequently told how and when to do their jobs responded with a decision to do less work, miss time, and produce at a reduced quality. Corbett's intention to…
Once the sampling frame has been defined, the students will be sent a mock-up of a recruitment website and they will be asked to evaluate its navigation, personalization and what factors add to or detract from its trustworthiness online. The mock-up of the online recruitment site will also allow for alerts by specific job category to be defined in addition to personalization of the site as well. Once students have been given the opportunity to review the website, questionnaires will be sent requesting their opinions. To further minimize boas, the students are going to be told this is for a beta test site program for a new job recruitment site specifically developed for graduating seniors.
Data Collection and Analysis Techniques
The data collection and analysis will be initially managed though online survey application Zoomerang, which has preliminary statistical analysis applications included on the site itself. Further analysis of the data…
Bibliography and Reference List
Talya N. Bauer, Donald M. Truxillo, Jennifer S. Tucker, Vaunne Weathers, et al. 2006. Selection in the Information Age: The Impact of Privacy Concerns and Computer Experience on Applicant Reactions. Journal of Management 32, no. 5 (October 1): 601. http://www.proquest.com (Accessed April 20, 2008).
Susanne M. Bruyere, William Erickson, Sara VanLooy. 2006. Information technology (it) accessibility: Implications for employment of people with disabilities. Work 27, no. 4 (January 1): 397-405.
Goals of a Public Administrator
The implementation of the policies devised by the government is referred to as public administration. Moreover, public administration is also a discipline that is taught in many higher education institutions. This discipline is based on the studies that revolve around the aforementioned implementation and therefore it prepares the civil servants that would be working for the public service in the future (Frederickson, 1997). The fundamental goal behind the layout of the curriculum of this discipline and the training in this field is to advance the policies and management in order for the government to function effectively (Frederickson, 1997). There are various definitions that have been used to describe this term; "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day"; "the management of public programs" and "the study of the process of decision making by the government, the analysis of the devised policies, the…
Alvarez, K., & Stupak, R. (1993). An Analytical Essay and Annotated Compendium on Organizational Theory: Paradigms Lost and Needed in Public Administration. International Review Of Modern Sociology, 59 -- 81.
Brown-John, C. (1990). Budgeting in the Provinces: Leadership and the Premiers Allan M. Maslove, ed. Toronto: The Institute of Public Administration in Canada, 1989, pp. xxii, 175 Tax Reform in Canada: The Process and Impact Allan M. Maslove Halifax: The Institute for Research on Public Policy, 1989, pp. xv, 96 The Politics of Public Spending in Canada Donald J. Savoie Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990, pp. xiv, 433. Canadian Journal Of Political Science, 23(03), 568 -- 571.
Frederickson, H. (1997). The spirit of public administration. Jossey-Bass Publishers San Francisco, 80.
Geva-May, I., & Kfir, A. (2000). Developments in Policy Analysis and Evaluation in Public Administration. Public Administration, 78(2), 409 -- 422.
Public Human esources Management
Challenges facing human resource management
Human esource Management is the element of the organization that deals with the human aspect of the organization. The business world today, is very competitive. Every organization must align its resources to the organizational goals and objectives. According to Gill (2009), the employees of an organization are part of its assets just as capital and technology. Proper utilization of human resource can account for the success of an organization. This study will examine the challenges that the human resources management is facing in its commitment towards contributing to organizations' prosperity. It will further, explore how human resource management can overcome the challenges to remain relevant.
The role of human resource management
Human esource Management performs an imperative role in the organization. Its role involves giving job descriptions, assigning of salaries, establishing policies that govern the personnel and capacity building of the…
Ullah, M. (2010). A systematic approach of conducting employee selection interview.
International Journal of Business & Management, 5(6), 106-112
Arthur, J.B. (2011). 'Effects of Human Resource Systems on Manufacturing Performance and Turnover', Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), 670-687.
Jing, W. Huang, T. (2005). Relationship between Strategic Human Resources Management and Firm Performance, International Journal of Manpower, 26 (5),434-449.
Organizational Change in the Public Sector
This research proposal explores the feasibility of management in the public Sector as an organizational paradigm and new model in organizational development. The literature review reviews numerous journal articles that explore on the key concepts of change management strategies from a public sector project management perspective. The authors suggest that employee's participation, effective feedback across the board, and empowerment of subordinate staffs is a major step in transforming public organizations. This proposal further hypothesis that establishment of long-term and productivity advantages are crucial throughout the organization.
SCOPE AND PURPOSE
Factor 1: Need for change
Factor 2: implement a Plan for change
Factor 3: create political internal environment for Change
Factor 4: Support and Commitment from managers
Factor 5: enhancing External Support
Factor 6: Provide Resources for change
Factor 7: establish Change
Factor 8: ascertain comprehensive Change
Determinants of implementing…
Abramson, Mark A., and Paul R .Lawrence .2001. The Challenge of Transforming
Administration and its influence on organizational change. Management Decision,
50(10), 1843-1860, Review 62: 555-67.
Armenakis, Achilles A ., and Arthur G .Bedeian .1999 .Organizational Change: A Review of Associates.
eserve Personnel Management Systems Division: Officer Evaluations
This paper engages in a thorough assessment of the culture, organization and technology of the reserve personnel management that operates as a branch within the Personnel Service Center of the United States Coast Guard: specifically the Officers Evaluation Systems. The method used to assess this particular branch relies heavily on ethnographic skills and related techniques. According to the official website of the U.S. Coast Guard, this is the division which handles "boards, panels, promotions, evaluations, advancements, retirements, resignations, discharges and separations for all reserve officer, chief warrant officers, and enlisted members" (uscg.mil, 2013). This is the division which deals with assignments, copies of records, medical issues and disability, individual ready reserve, promotions, separations, reserve retirement requests, policy waives and a host of other connected factors.
By scrutinizing closely factors like culture, organization, technology and related issues, one is able to obtain an accurately…
Boisjoy, R. (2013). Professional Responsibility and Conduct (Ethical Decisions - Morton Thiokol and the Challenger Disaster) . Retrieved from Onlineethics.org: http://www.onlineethics.org/Topics/ProfPractice/PPEssays/thiokolshuttle/shuttle_pro.aspx
Goldstein, H. (2005, September 1). Who Killed the Virtual Case File? Retrieved from ieee.org: http://spectrum.ieee.org/computing/software/who-killed-the-virtual-case-file/0
Howard, A. (2012, February 22). Data for the public good. Retrieved from Oreilly.com: http://strata.oreilly.com/2012/02/data-public-good.html
Israel, J. (2012). Why the FBI Can't Build a Case Management System. Computer, 73-80.
U.S. Department of State: Public Policy Issue and Sexual Harassment
U.S DEPATMENT OF STATE: PUBLIC POLICY ISSUE AND 1
Policy Issue 7
ole of technology in the process
Diversity Issues Involved
Ethical Concerns and Implications
Protection for Employee
U.S Department of State: Public Policy Issue and Sexual Harassment
Sometime back in 2010, the Albany Fire Department in Georgia established a newer "sexual harassment" policy that was in accordance with the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's course of action and Federal Law. At first, the idea of sexual harassment occurred merely in sexual related claims that were against an employer. Ever since the approval of the department's policy, sexual harassment has now been spreading into every part of employment discrimination as well as the creation of a work environment that is hostile. esearch shows that hostile work environment claims are founded not just…
Baugh, S.G. (2009). On the persistence of sexual harassment in the workplace. 899-908, 34(9), 34-56. Retrieved from Journal of Business Ethics.
Cabrera, N. & . (2010). Understanding and dealing with the problem of sexual harassment in the workplace. Women in Management Review,, 11(2), 21-26.
Cates, S.V. (2013). The state of sexual harassment in america: What is the status of sexual harassment in the U.S. workplace today? Journal of Global Business Management, 8(1), 133-138.
De Coster, S.E. (2009). Routine activities and sexual harassment in the workplace. Work and Occupations, 26(1), 456-459.
In the wake of numerous public complaints as well as allegations within the last two years that point towards excessive use of force by police officers in the apprehension of suspects within the city, there is need to develop a brief that explores the various measures that could be adopted in seeking to enhance our officers’ relations with the community while at the same time attempting to minimize instances of unnecessary aggression and use of force. In essence, in seeking to effect arrests, officers should utilize force that is not only commensurate with the risk posed, but also objectively reasonable. The relevance of formulating blueprints and implementing strategies meant to address the use of force as well as promote or advance the de-escalation of scenarios that turn violent cannot be overstated. In seeking to comprehensively address the issue raised by members of the public regarding the use of force…
To analyze the views of the general public about the Stanley Park project
To determine whether Stanley Park meets the needs of the public
To identify opportunities for service improvements in the project
Under 18 years old
Over 45 years old
How would you rate:
= awful, 2 = bad, 3 = okay, 4 = good, 5 = great
The design of Stanley Park
The environmental friendliness of Stanley Park
The amenities provided at Stanley Park
The comfort of the provided benches and lawns
Extras provided at the park
In your opinion, how important is it that: (circle)
= awful, 2 = bad, 3 = okay, 4 = good, 5 = great
10. Stanley Park is comfortable and pleasant
Brewer, M. (2000). Research Design and Issues of Validity. In H. Reis & C. Judd (Eds.), Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wikman, A. (2006). Reliability, Validity and True Values in Surveys. Social Indicators Research, 78(1), 85-110.
There is confusion about laws which are subject to different interpretations and this result in critical information not being made available. This is caused by such laws like the "Educational ights and Privacy Act -- FEPA, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act -- HIPAA and a number of legislations that seek to protect the privacy of the family." ("eport to the President on Issues aised by the Virginia Tech Tragedy," 2007) Many state laws are also interpreted in such a way that they retard the work of agencies involved in monitoring health and safety issues. ("eport to the President on Issues aised by the Virginia Tech Tragedy," 2007) the complex nature of the law and the state laws, with a small percent of the laws applicable in a federal scale, it is not possible to enforce uniform standards.
It is to be concluded that the federal laws must be…
Billi, John E; Agrawal, Gail Bopp. (2001) "The Challenge of Regulating Managed Care"
Gostin, Larry Ogalthorpe. (2002) "Public Health Law and Ethics: A Reader" University of California Press.
Grim, Charles W. (2005, Jan) "IHS Focuses on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention"
Retrieved 11 February, 2008 at http://www.usmedicine.com/column.cfm?columnID=193&issueID=70
HR Practices in Public Administration:
Performance Improvement Through Distributed Leadership
Managing personnel in a public administration context can be particularly challenging given the various economic, political and bureaucratic pressures which are often attendant to work in the public sector. These challenges are magnified when that public administration context is a school. Public schools are typically beset by a range of personnel obstacles that are unique to the field and which render the implementation of effective Human Resource strategies particularly complex. Indeed, the pressing realities of public education have to an extent created a context in which effective HR strategies have been relegated behind the often more apparent demands of parental contentment, administrative regulation and economic limitation. However, American public education is today suffering, as are many of the professionals who work within this context, due to a decline in quality and a diminishing experience as employees. This calls for a…
Administration and Finance Division (AFD). (2006). Distributed Leadership. West Chester University.
Flash, P.; Froehlich, S; Hegeson, S; Jensen, J.T. & Biotti, J.S. (2006). Identifying Key Attributes of An Effective Transformational Change Model at the University of Minnesota. President's Emerging Leader Team.
Gronn, P. (2002). Distributed Leadership as a Unit of Analysis. The Leadership Quarterly, 13(4), 423-451.
Harris, A. (2004). Distributed Leadership and School Improvement: Leading or Misleading. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 32(1), 11-24.
Social Equity Public Administration
Emergence as Concern in Field of Public Administration
Social equity has always been an important aspect of public administration, though only recently is it receiving much attention in the press. Whereas in times of old social equity concerned itself primarily with issues of fairness and equality in the public workplace, today social equity is emerging as a field encompassing many different aspects of administration.
Among these include public education, policy development, hiring and promotional practices, public welfare and even transportation. In modern public administration, all of these issues are applied to the field in order to establish fairness, justice and equality for all. Social equity in the field of public administration has emerged as a response to consumer demands for equitable policy making and fairness in governance.
Public administration as a whole may be defined as the management of "matters which have principally to do with…
Frederickson, G. (1986). "New public administration." Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
Rice, M.F. (2003). "Organizational Culture, Social Equity & Diversity: Teaching Public
Administration." Texas A& M. University, Bush School Working Paper #314. 14, November, 2004: http://bush.tamu.edu/content/research/working_papers/mrice/teach-post-modern.pdf
Christopher, G.C., Rutledge, P.J. (2001). "Reinvigorating the Social Equity Debate."
devising a contract administration plan should include concise and clear direction. Focus or scope should be narrow and specific. Years of experience suggests the more focused one is on a subject, the more one can eliminate the unnecessary fluff, the better the product or outcome will be. People across various fields appreciate when a plan generates progress and that can be achieved through effective communication.
Perhaps that is why contract administraton planning, if done well, will affect a company's business in a positive way. As mentoned in a report by the Office of Federal Procurement Policy: "In contract administration, the focus is on obtaining supplies and services, of requisite quality, on time, and within budget. While the legal requirements of the contract are determinative of the proper course of action of government officials in administering a contract, the exercise of skill and judgment is often required in order to protect…
Luther, C. (n.d.). Preparing a Contract Administration Plan | Chron.com. Retrieved April 25, 2013, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/preparing-contract-administration-plan-40327.html
OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY (OFPP) (1994, October). Best Practices for Contract Administration. Retrieved from http://acquisition.gov/bestpractices/bestpcont.html
Democracy and Public Administration
This report is a theoretical essay on the inevitable conflicts that consistently occur between public agencies that are managed by unelected civil servants and the political environment in which these individuals and organizations operate in. Public agencies in the healthcare environment are prime examples of successful interdepartmental cooperation in most cases, but, there are also examples where they can demonstrate both internal and external in-fighting. "The health sector workforce, which usually comprises a significant element within the total public sector workforce, may be either directly employed by the public sector health system, or work in public-funded agencies or organizations (e.g., social insurance funded). In many countries healthcare will also be delivered by organizations in the private sector and by voluntary organizations." (World Bank Group) As concerns like the nation's aging population, a rapidly depleting Medicare Trust or the many potential pandemics such as SAs, Swine…
Antos, Joseph. (2008). "Medicare's Bad News: Is Anyone Listening?" American Institute for Public Policy Research. April, No. 3.
American Public Health Association (2009). Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from American Public Health Association Web Site: http://www.apha.org aphanet. (2001). Senators' Introduce Bill to Prepare For Possibility of Biological Warfare. Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from http://www.aphanet.org
CDC. (2009). H1N1. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from Center For Disease Control web site at http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/sick.htm .
Center for Disease Control. (2009). State and Local Infrastructure. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from Center for Disease Control Web Site: http://www.cdc.gov/programs
ationalism Politics Impacts Public's View
The six deadly sins in public administration are mandated in Drucker's "The deadly sins in public administration." The first one is to have too great of a "lofty objective" (Drucker, 1980, p. 103) in the aim that a program is trying to achieve. Programs need to have objectives that are specific and not targeted towards some general good. The next one is to incorporate too wide a scope of objectives in programs. It is much better to start out with a finite (or a single) objective and then attempt to move on to another initiative than to do too many things at one time. The third deadly sin is overstaffing. Simply by sending a great number of people to address a problem will never replace adequately thinking through a solution.
The fourth is to not sufficiently test a theory before applying it. Administrators need to…
Behn, R.D. (2003). "Why measure performance? Different purposes require different measures." Public Administration Review. 63 (5): 586-606.
Drucker, P.F. (1980). "The deadly sins in public administration." Public Administration Review. 40 (2): 103-106. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/resultsadvanced?sid=22c51486-3a0f-4394-93b3-bb44ec64223d%40sessionmgr14&vid=4&hid=17&bquery= (public+administration)+AND+(deadly+sins)&bdata=JmNsaTA9RlQmY2x2MD1ZJnR5cGU9MSZzaXRlPWVkcy1saXZlJnNjb3BlPXNpdGU%3d
Faris, S. (2013). "Have the NSA leaks compromised big data's future?" www.dataversity.net. Retrieved from http://www.dataversity.net/have-the-nsa-leaks-compromised-big-datas-future/
The stress alarm, therefore, can actually assist the employee to improve her performance and is necessary especially, if positive perceptions regarding the challenges of the work environment exist. The response to the stress under the Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress, provided that the exceptions held by the employee are positive, is healthy and necessary for survival and productivity. Eriksen H.., Murison, ., Pensgaard, a.M., Ursin, H. (2005). Under this theory, emotional and physical health within the individual is sustained through a positive expectation for the outcomes, compliance with the expectations, or through resisting the stress altogether. Eriksen H.., Murison, ., Pensgaard, a.M., Ursin, H. (2005). A summary chart outlining these different theories on stress and their potential effects on the organization follows.
A Comparison of Theories of Stress and How They Affect Organizational Operations
Effect on the Organization
Fight or Flight
The stress produces physiological…
Afzalur, R. (1996). Stress, strain, and their moderators: An empirical comparison of entrepreneurs and managers. The Journal of Small Business Management, 34, 1-12.
Cooper, C.L. ed. (2002). Theories of organizational stress. New York, NY: Oxford University
One may also question Bush's incentives for attacking those in the Middle East to begin with. Weapons of mass destruction? Is this just a front for Bush carrying out his own personal vendettas against Hussein? And what of other government officials who have engaged in distrustful behaviors? Other examples include top officials in the White House and VP Dick Cheney's office who await criminal prosecution for their participation as whistleblowers (Lobe, 2005). Such circumstances suggest that the government may at best be dysfunctional and untrustworthy. Even during Clinton's regime and his accusations of infidelity citizens had reason to question the authority of the government. Even historical president's including Nixon had problems in the white house. Indeed there is much not to trust in the realm of politics, as much as there are agencies built around trust and support.
"Drunken airline pilots sentenced to prison." (2005, Jul 22). CNN. 14,…
"Drunken airline pilots sentenced to prison." (2005, Jul 22). CNN. 14, November 2005:
"The Evil in Us." (2004, Jul). Christianity Today. 14, November 2005:
Performance Evaluation on Corruption for Public Organization
In the wake of the double-edged sword caused by its scandalous mismanagement of the September 11th terrorist attacks and Hurricane Katrina's devastation of New Orleans in 2005, the venerable charity organization American ed Cross (AC) was subjected to intense public and political scrutiny. This pressurized process of external examination eventually revealed an abundance of systemic flaws in the AC's organizational management structure, including widespread fraud and abuse of privileges by executives, gross misconduct on the part of volunteers and other employees, and an astounding level of wasteful spending as it pertains to funds that were ostensibly donated to a charitable cause. The four established benefits of business ethics, as described by Ferrell, Fraedrich, and Ferrell in Business Ethics, of employee commitment, investor loyalty, customer satisfaction, and bottom line (2011) all experienced dramatically detrimental consequences that were directly caused by the AC's corrupt and…
Ferrell, O.C., Fraedrich, J., & Ferrell, L. (2011). Business ethics: Ethical decision making and cases. (8th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Koleva, G. (2012, January 17). American red cross fined $9.6 million for unsafe blood collection. Forbes, Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/gerganakoleva/2012/01/17/american-red-cross-fined-9-6 - million-for-unsafe-blood-collection/
Scott, L. (1995). Red Cross touts its broad restructuring. Modern healthcare, 25(46), 10-14.
Strom, S. (2006, March 24). Red cross sifting international charges over katrina aid. The New
The current study aims to examine the effect of the lack of supervision and detachment between administration and low-level supervisors and beat officers and how this leads to low morale and motivation. Imperatively, low level of morale and motivation results in low productivity, which might give rise to absenteeism and poor watch, adversely affecting the society through increased level of crime. A questionnaire will be designed to achieve the purpose of this research study and will be distributed to selected beat officers working in different police precincts. The number of questionnaires analyzed will be to different police precincts. Data collected will be analyzed through SPSS using both descriptive statistics, correlation and regression data.
Organizations endeavor to have more productive personnel, who are deemed the most significant resources and a determining factor for success. Low levels of productivity can be linked to poor employee morale and motivation. The…
Denhardt & Denhardt report that "one aspect of compensation policy that has received substantial attention over the years is the comparability of wages and salaries in the public and private sectors. Efforts to make such comparisons are similar to comparing apples and oranges, thus early studies tended to show public-sector salaries considerably below those in the private sector -- today ranging between 22 and 38%, depending on grade level." (p. 299)
Accordingly, many agencies are under real economic pressure to improve pay scales of public employees and to close this notable gap. For Orange County, this prompts a recommendation to evaluate compensation strategies lest they should lose many of the best and brightest young public administration candidates to more lucrative private enterprising opportunities. Indeed, though the benefits and transparency of public administration may be appealing, these cannot compete with so wide a gap in compensation opportunities. If Orange County is…
Denhardt, R.B. & Denhardt, J.V. (2008). Public Administration: An Action Orientation. Cengage Learning.
Drage, T. (2010). Charter Review Commission Orientation. Charter Review Commission.
Geuras, D. & Garofalo, C. (2011). Practical Ethics in Public Administration. Management Concepts.
Haynie, M.O. (2010). Orange County Comptroller. www.occompt.com.
Emergency personnel occupying the fire and emergency services make day-to-day decisions and their behavior contributes to the constant evolving of public perceptions. The negative perception of the public due to their scrutiny of fire and emergency operations, budgets, and behavior has slowly tarnished the image of these departments. Therefore, measures should be undertaken in saving the image of the fire and emergency services field through talking openly, reflecting on honesty, working collaboratively, taking responsibility for upcoming issues and acting professionally. The following study looks at the perceptions of the public concerning the Fire Department and the factors influencing their opinions. In addition, the paper looks at what they do in an attempt to either increase or decrease the perceptions of their communities. Furthermore, it identifies the Fire Department’s activities aimed at establishing positive perceptions from community members.
Fire Departments continue to be under scrutiny, and they continue to…
Emergency services personnel are required to perceive to include an accountability system which is standard. Systems may change as per the circumstances, however there is required to be certain fundamental principles which are to be followed so as to promote compatibility among systems. There are several varying systems of accountability out there. Each asserts to be superior. Some are very costly, and some are cheap. When perceiving for an accountability system, each of the individual agency is required to first assess their requirements. What kind of incidents do you react to? How many personnel are required to be liable for? What is your economic position? Do you desire to adopt an electronic system or that of a manual system? (Yaccich, 2002)
It is an established truth that freelancing is a much unsecured practice. Freelancing might give rise to injury or death. ("Public Fire Safety Guidelines," 2000) Old timers,…
Abdelnabi, Rasmieyh. (2007, Dec) "Firefighting tactics change over time" Beloit Daily News,
Bieback, John S. (1999) "Firefighters integrated communication and safety system" http://www.google.com/patents?hl=en&lr=&vid=USPAT5990793&id=kQgHAAAAEBAJ&oi=fnd&dq=Accountability+of+fire+fighters+
Kipp, Jonathan D; Loflin, Murrey E. (1996) "Emergency Incident Risk Management: A Safety & Health Perspective" Rothstein Associates Inc.
So, even in such situations as when the countryside has also been hit by war, the local administrators are much more likely to be able to function productively as they are fundamentally closer to the need and have strong community ties and possible a strong desire for social order but more importantly for the meeting of the local publics' needs.
The importance of establishing a public administration theoretical framework that prioritizes citizenship over consumerism, in a society where so much of the citizenry relies on public services is foundational to social order and to mitigating the change that has occurred as a result of war. There is no one right answer to all the functional changes to public administration, with regard to war as the many facets of war also create many facets of change in public administration. The level of degradation to physical and psychological networks must be analyzed…
Boleman, L., & Deal, T. (2003). Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership. Third Ed. . San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Bruck, T. (1997). Macroeconomic Effects of the War in Mozambique. QEH Working Paper Series QEHWPS11, 1-63.
Chopra, J., & Hohe, T. (2004). Participatory Intervention. Global Governance, 10-27.
Denhart, J., & Denhardt, R.B. (2007). The New Public Service. Revised Edition. Armonk, NY:: M.E. Sharpe.
ith the production of Dolly, we also entered a vast technological frontier of possibilities. The cloned sheep "was born after nuclear transfer from a mammary gland cell, the first mammal to develop from a cell derived from adult tissue." Taking a cell containing 98 per cent of the DNA, or its genetic blueprint, from the udder of a six-year-old adult sheep, they fused it to the egg of another sheep to produce a lamb that is virtually an exact copy." (Marsh, 1) Equally as groundbreaking as the creation of the world's first clone was the implication of its process, which indicated that there is a way to employ adult cells, already differentiated and specialized to their own organic functions, in order to fabricate new, un-differentiated genetic material. For researchers battling such diseases as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and paralysis all around the world, such a possibility began to hint at countless opportunities…
Albu, M. (2004). Bush's gay marriage ban is unjust. The Channels Online. Online at http://media.www.thechannelsonline.com/media/storage/paper669/news/2004/03/03/Opinion/Editorial.Bushs.Gay.Marriage.Ban.Is.Unjust-625066.shtml
Bazinet, K.R. (2009). President Obama Reverses Bush's Stem Cell Research Ban; Debate Rages Along Abortion Fault Lines. New York Daily News. Online at http://www.nydailynews.com/news/politics/2009/03/09/2009-03-09_president_obama_reverses_bushs_stem_cell.html
Campbell, D.E. (2007). A Matter of Faith: Religion in the 2004 Presidential Election. The Brookings Institute.
Chaddock, G.R. (2006). Veto Clash Looms for Stem Cell Bill.
Military Draw-Down from Afghanistan
hen terrorists attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, there was very little hesitation on the part of then President George . Bush -- and the United States Congress -- to mount a retaliatory military campaign in Afghanistan, the place where bin Laden was training terrorists to kill Americans. The Taliban militants were control of Afghanistan at that time and they had provided training camps for bin Laden and al Qaeda to plan their terrorist activities against the United States. Bush gave the Taliban time to either hand over bin Laden (which they were not about to do) or prepare for a bombardment by U.S. military. The American public was fully behind the 2001 military engagement in Afghanistan, but few citizens at that time imagined that more than ten years later American soldiers would still be in Afghanistan, fighting the resurgent Taliban militants.
Aymeen Jawad, al-Tamimi. 2012. Rethinking U.S. Strategy in Afghanistan. Middle East
Quarterly 19 (Winter) 1-15.
Jones, Jeffrey M. 2011. Americans More Positive on Afghanistan After Bin Laden Death.
Gallup Poll. Retrieved January 29, 2012, from http://www.gallup.com .
Whistle-blowing can have many adverse effects on the person doing the whistle-blowing and there are definitely feelings of loneliness that can arise when a whistle-blower decides to make some noise. Cooper gives some prime examples of whistle-blowing cases in chapter six, but he insists that there are still many who have "gone away quietly" (202), which may appear to be the safest option for the individual, yet that means that the public will never know the truth about what was going on -- and so, the individual really does have a moral responsibility to the public so that unethical behavior isn't allowed at any level as it will eventually seep into the very core of the organization and back into society.
Whistle-blowing, no matter what way it is looked at is "risky," according to Cooper (203). People who blow the whistle not only face scrutiny and alienation, but they may…
national public health resources in the United States. We will be describing the history of the public health department as well as other significant things regarding this subject. Our main focus besides at the national level will be at the Santa Clara County which is in the state of California. Finally, we will attempt to differentiate between public and community health which is related to our chosen agency of Santa Clara.
History of Department of Health in U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services started in 1798, at that time it had few finances as well as resources in terms of employed personals, medical equipments and so on. It later on became more effective with the aid of different acts such as Quarantine act of the year 1887. The department introduced children's services early in the twentieth century. The overall Public Health Service in the United States was restructured during…
Webster, C. (1998). The National Health Service. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McCrae, M. (2003). The National Health Service in Scotland. East Linton: Tuckwell Press.
Levy, B. (2006). Social Injustice and Public Health. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gostin, L. (2002). Public Health Law and Ethics. California: University of California Press.
According to Pugh (1990), the organizational structure is an instrument that appears from the need to fulfill the organizational aims and objectives with the tools and activities that are available. Following the way that this process is managed, several types of organizational structures can be identified, including pre-bureaucratic structures, bureaucratic and post-bureaucratic structures, functional structures, divisional structures and matrix structures.
Westinghouse organizational structure falls into several different categories. On one hand, it is a bureaucratic structure. Among the characteristics of such an organization, Weber (1948) identifies several: "precision, speed, unambiguity, & #8230; strict subordination, reduction of friction and of material and personal costs- these are raised to the optimum point in the strictly bureaucratic administration."
The bureaucratic nature of the organizational structure at Westinghouse is motivated by at least two aspects: (1) the nature of the industry in which Westinghouse operates: the nuclear industry, highly regulated, which implies…
1. Handy, Charles, (2007). Understanding Organizations. Penguin Books.
2. Deal T.E. And Kennedy, A.A. (1982) Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books, 1982
3. Weber, M. (1948). Essays in Sociology. London: Routledge
4. Pugh, D.S., ed. (1990).Organization Theory: Selected Readings. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Administrative Traditions in America
American administrative tradition has been a historic dilemma for a long time. This is caused by the existence of various administrative traditions like the Hamiltonian traditions, the Madisonian, Wilsonian, and the Jeffersonian tradition. The mode of managing has improved dramatically, and the gap between the theory and the actual activities has brought many challenges to the managing sector. According to Kettl, political scientists have been in the process to initiate some approaches. Formal modeling is one of the administrative traditions that Kettl supports. He also suggests a public method of management and a right of citizens to choose institutions of their choice. Additionally, Kettl goes ahead and gives the effective methods America should focus on to have formal obligations. He talks of administration personnel and theorists who need to focus on the link between the government and its surrounding which include political, social and administrative. The…
Kettl, D.F. (2015). The Transformation of Governance: Public Administration for the Twenty-First Century. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press
White, L. (1926). Introduction to the Study of Public Administration
ADMINISTATIVE DILEMMAS KETTL'S
KETTL'S ADMINISTATIVE DILEMMAS
Kettl's Administrative Dilemmas
Kettl introduces his book by describing the entire history and concept of public administration. The focus on the history enables him to identify administrative dilemmas, which are unique to the traditions previously identified. He uses these methods of writing to enable the learner highlight the major differences in both the public administration and theory and government. The dilemmas the author has described in his writing include the Wilsonian dilemma, Madisonian dilemma, Jeffersonian dilemma, and the Hamiltonian dilemma.
Through these administrative dilemmas, the author has tried to connect the federal 51 paper to the study of administrative. In most cases, public administration has internal paradoxes in all the four traditions: the same are highly experienced in the American democracy even today. Evidently, the American culture is driven by the fierce individuals, the armed opposed the government power, and finally American was found…
Kettl, Donald F. (2002). The Transformation of Governance: Public Administration for Twenty-First Century America. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Goodnow, Frank. (1900). Politics and Administration.
Homeland Security and Justice Administration
In this paper, we are going to be studying the impact of the relationship between: an emergency operations plan (EOP) with a real time incident action plan (IAP). This will be accomplished by focusing on: the strategies that can be used by first responders and the relationship between an EOP in comparison with an IAP. Once this takes place, is when we provide specific insights as to how these areas can address the challenges that are impacting different stakeholders.
Over the last several years, the issue of first responders in dealing with terrorist related events has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because they are expected to go into areas where they may have to save lives. Yet, they are also must preserve evidence and protect any kind of possible crime scene. This is illustrating the constant amounts of planning and training that…
Emergency Operations Plan. (2011). Rollins University. Retrieved from: http://www.rollins.edu/safety/documents/EOPRev03122012.pdf
FEMA Incident Action Planning Guide. (2012). FEMA. Retrieved from: http://www.uscg.mil/hq/cg5/cg534/nsarc/FEMA%20Incident%20Action%20Planning%20Guide%20 (IAP).pdf
Bennett, G. (2010). Cross Training for First Responders. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Kirkorian, M. (2007). Are Immigrants a Homeland Security Risk? CFR. Retrieved from: http://www.cfr.org/immigration/immigrants-homeland-security-risk/p14660