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Public Policy Analysis
There is a sense that politics operates on a continuum scale whose extremes are rationality and irrationality. Politicians make laws that can be seen from both perspectives depending on the particular position of the person judging whether the particular statute is good or bad. Public policy can be judged by either rational choice theory or the converse of that. The difference in the two can be seen in how crimes are litigated. A rational person can make the choice whether an act is right or wrong and has specific knowledge of how society will view that act. An irrational person is one who, for some reason, is not deemed competent to understand that what they have done is criminal in nature. Irrationality is the reason that individuals below a certain age cutoff are generally not treated with the same deterrent stance as adults, why people with metal…… [Read More]
Since 1986, the World Health Organization has promoted a Healthy Communities/Healthy Cities initiative, also known as the Alliance for Healthy Cities, with hundreds of participating municipalities across the world (Hancock, 1993; World Health Organization, 2018). The purpose of the Alliance for Healthy Cities is to encourage local governments to incorporate health promotion into all areas of public practice, economic policy, and urban development (World Health Organization, 2018). Goals of the Healthy Communities/ Healthy Cities approach include reducing public health risks including obesity, and promoting healthy lifestyles, public safety, and health equity. The success of Healthy Cities programs and policies directly depends on the empowerment of nurses at all levels of practice, including community-based nurses. Because each community presents different needs, goals, and challenges, nurses in each community can collaborate with partners and stakeholders to promote and reach realistic public health goals.
Healthy Communities: Relevance to the Nursing Profession
The…… [Read More]
The study of public policy gained significant importance in the late fifties and sixties. However, policy science did not come into existence all of a sudden. It started to emerge when social scientists started researches on a wide range of sociopolitical problems. After the World War II, significant developments were made in the areas of operations research, economics and social psychology. These developments proved to be helpful in formulating new ways for more systematic and empirical investigations of policy making. Although, a considerable level of research was done in the areas of sociopolitical studies but the clear concept of a policy science was first introduced in 1951 by Harold Lasswell. "Lasswell's seminal work identified six basic characteristics of an emerging field of study, concerned with explaining policy making and policy executing process. (McCool)
The study of public policy gained momentum in the late 1960s. With the introduction of…… [Read More]
Policy Analysis Critique
ationale for the chosen policy
Avian influenza is a virus causing lethal infection in human beings (Sims et al., 2003). It can be transmitted from patients to other human beings. It is a deadly virus with track record of 6 deaths in Hong Kong in 1997. That incident was just the start of this health issue. The virus spread enormously and caused H5N1 infection numerous times in Hong Kong. The dawn of 21st century witnessed multiple instances of H5N1 virus (Ellis et al., 2004).
It was expected that the virus could be found in the poultry animals and was infectious. In order to prove it, there were certain laboratory tests conducted on chickens. These tests helped prove the presence and effects of H5N1 virus (Shortridge et al. 1998). Subsequently, it was proved that the chickens were highly pathogenic (Shortridge et al., 1998). It was also proved that…… [Read More]
The author of this response is asked to answer to five major questions and requirements in this assignment relative to the school shootings and focus group research done within the Clemons and McBeth text. The author is asked to look at the content analysis/problem definition, critique the facilitator, survey/focus group analysis, symbols and metaphors and answer the question of "what's next." The author will do answer to these in the order listed in the assignment.
As for the content analysis and the overall description of the problem, the case study does better than most salacious and over-dramatic media reports about events like Columbine and the like but there is still a tinge of that element present and it's not tamped down at all later on. ather than focus on the root cuases and the best ways to do deal with school shootings and the like (e.g. help parents…… [Read More]
intended for a quantitative public policy perspective analysis of strategic and financial changes in small, private as well as not for profit advanced schooling organizations and institutions in Jamaica. The primary intent behind this paper would be to assess the framework by which strategic and financial innovational changes in small, private, not for profit advanced schooling institutions in Jamaica operate. They concentrate on the conditions which will make financial investments much better than be adopted and even implemented in a variety of contexts. In this way hopefully to lay smooth the road for just about any future studies conducted in the region or on the main topic of financial investments with the associated implications. This could, hence inadvertently, provide all potential studies and researches an excellent service. It might provide them with a foundation base on which to consult in most regions of conflict and trouble that may arise due…… [Read More]
("Federal Public Policy," 2011) I am in agreement with these initiatives.
Improving economic activity is when the federal government has been providing assistance to those businesses that are considered to be too big to fail. The resources that they are using: is to provide additional liquidity to these organizations and guarantee a number of different loans. ("Federal Public Policy," 2011) I am in agreement with this program and the effects that it having.
Three State Policies
Three state policies include: improving the quality of health care services, revitalizing the manufacturing sector and improving access to various IT services. As far as health care is concerned, the states have been trying to provide more specific resources for addressing the problem. This is accomplished through additional funding and expanding their Medicare / Medicaid program. I am in agreement with these initiatives. ("Center for Public Policy Research," 2011)
Revitalizing the manufacturing sector is…… [Read More]
This results in several other problems. First, without quality city and school services, there is nothing to attract new businesses and individuals to the town. Further, without quality and opportunities, there is nothing to retain the current population. As opportunities, especially social and recreational opportunities, decrease, drug use and crime will often increase. Again, this will prevent the city from attracting new citizens and businesses.
Clearly, the loss of the initial businesses has caused a downward spiral for the community of Waterville, creating a Catch-22 for policy officials. With the loss of business there is a loss of income which leads to a loss of quality and opportunities which prevents the recruitment of new businesses, which only furthers the cycle, leading to such problems as increased drug use and criminal activity.
What is the solution to this cycle? Without a budget, the city cannot improve quality or opportunities. This being…… [Read More]
In Canada, a much higher percentage of the population lives in remote areas whereas covered healthcare services are often concentrated in large cities (eid, 2009).
Medicare Expansion and Mandatory Health Insurance Issues and Concerns
From the perspective of middle and upper middle income families in the U.S., the expansion of Medicare and the mandatory provision of healthcare by employers would be a tremendous benefit. From the employers' perspective, the associated costs could be prohibitive. Mandatory requirements for individuals could be problematic for those at the lower end of the group income spectrum; however, it would be no less fair than the current situation that forces everyone who pays for healthcare to (in effect) subsidize those who choose not to (Kennedy, 2006). In all likelihood, the only way to make mandatory health insurance work would include expanding Medicare, at least to compete with private health insurers. Naturally, this interferes with their…… [Read More]
Over the years, given the awareness and exposure that came with the advent of media and the internet, human societies and cultural norms across the globe have evolved from being very conservative to moderate to liberal. With apparent increases in literacy rates, standards of living and awareness in general, people around the world have reconsidered many of their notions and have adopted more liberal approaches towards social norms and myths. That said, despite of moving towards liberal broad minded cultural notions, the practice of Abortion still attracts intensive debates in both developed and less developed societies. This paper particularly focuses on the degree to which poverty is related to the practice of Abortion and how this relationship does implicates on the lives of poor women. The paper also aims at proposing a policy that would help in tackling the said problem.
As medical sciences evolved and progressed for…… [Read More]
British policy style?
As one begins to consider British policy, both foreign and domestic, one conjures pictures of the Queen-mother and her regal adherence to British tradition. In this way the Queen-mother stands as an icon of everything that is British. One pictures solicitors, in their powdered wigs and smart suits engaging in scholarly argument that will shape British policy in the future. These icons are the epitome of British policy, they are steadfast, solid and true. Their foundation is rock-solid as it has its basis in the argument of many others before them.
Government policy is the result of conflict. The people of a particular country develop policies as a result of the needs of the individual country. These needs may vary due to many factors, including the availability of natural resources in the region. Traditions arise from necessity. As time passes, many times the people tend to forget…… [Read More]
CHIP: To Abolish or Not to Abolish
The State Children Health Insurance Plan (SCHIP), commonly referred to as CHIP (Children's Health Insurance Plan), is an insurance plan run by the Department of Health and Human Services, and which administers funds to states to enable them provide quality insurance coverage to eligible children within their jurisdictions. To be eligible for CHIP, a child needs to be from a family whose level of income is too low to qualify for private insurance coverage, but too high to be considered for Medicaid (Holtz-Eakin, 2014). With the introduction of the Obama Care Policy, however, which expanded the list of persons eligible for both Medicaid and CHIP, there came so many overlaps between CHIP and other secondary insurance options that budgetary allocations and funding to the former were threatened. Owing to this, there is a lot of controversy over whether funding to the CHIP ought…… [Read More]
President Obama's foreign policy towards Russia has attracted huge concern among policymakers and the public in light of recent events in Ukraine. Russia's aggression has challenged the administration's foreign policy since it is in the process of gulping up the Ukraine one step at a time with very minimal cost and less risk. Obama's foreign policy towards Russia has been accused of enabling the gradual acquisition of Ukraine rather than hindering it. This article focuses on examining this policy and demonstrating why it is largely ineffective, especially in light of President Obama's plans to promote a policy for a globalized 21st Century. In addition to assessing the ineffectiveness of this foreign policy, the article also proposes some of the changes that could be made to promote and enhance its effectiveness.
Russia's aggression that has enabled the country to slowly acquire Ukraine is an issue that has generated huge…… [Read More]
Public policy development is a complex process involving multiple stakeholders and institutions. Moreover, the nature of public policy development varies depending on whether the policies are foreign or domestic. Holloway (2006) points out the three key influences on foreign policy in Canada, including information coming from foreign embassies with direct access to international issues and affairs. Other influences on foreign policy include formal analysis, which often takes place domestically. Finally, bureaucratic machines regulate messages incoming to government offices (Holloway, 2006). Yet the influences on Canadian domestic policy include ancillary issues ranging from shifts in social norms and values to recent judicial action. For example, Pal (2013) points out the role of both the courts and public opinion on the legalization of same-sex marriage. The three most important influences on Canadian public policy in general include public opinion (expressed in terms of values and norms), the courts (expressed through judicial action),…… [Read More]
Public Policy Assessment
Homelessness is a public policy issue that is relevant for almost every community, especially within the veteran community, where there is a general appreciation that individuals who have served their country should be looked after. The development of policies to improve a situation can be complex with many different influences and concerns various stakeholders. The use of a decision making model that breaks down the process into its component parts; looking at understanding the problem, the relevant policy goals, assessing and choosing potential solutions, and evaluation, provides a strong framework for the analysis (Weiner & Vining, 2011). These stages will be used to consider the issue of homelessness.
Understanding the problem
Homelessness may be defined in different ways, in United States it usually incorporates a relatively narrow definition, including only those who are living on the streets, or who are housed in emergency accommodation (Daly, 2013). Other…… [Read More]
1. Executive summary
While the extraction of natural gas by means of hydraulic fracturing is a decade- long practice, of late, it has witnessed immense development owing to advancements in the area of horizontal drilling which enables gas and oil operators to now harness earlier- unprofitable natural gas reserves within rock formations. Extant extraction- related policies combine state-federal alliances and voluntary endeavors by private organizations. More unprejudiced, scientific studies providing details on how fracturing and extraction potentially affect environmental media like water and air are essential, in addition to those focusing on natural gas surges’ long- term effects on local societies. Primary models and hypotheses may offer a basis to reasonably discuss possible effects.
Maintenance of the current state of affairs with regard to free market rules and governmental policies will potentially continually check short- run public expenses; however, it will not contribute sufficiently to furthering response to concerns regarding…… [Read More]
Policies and Emergency Management
ABSTACT/INTODUCTION: As a representative democracy, the United States tries to include as many people and interests into its decision-making processes as possible. Seldom has this practice been more challenged than since the country's intensive focus on emergency planning and preparations because of the rash of high-profile incidents that have brought about death, destruction, fear and critical assessments of our national capabilities, including the 9/11 terror attacks (Perry and Lindell, 2003). For the most part, the main sources of action in this regard have come from the federal government, which has been adopting various mandates and incentives to invite more effective systems of readiness. But state and local agencies and private and public organizations have also found their places in these steadily improving processes even though they continue to struggle with the many complexities they face of being ready for all types of conditions. Large and small…… [Read More]
Canada Public Policy: ADHD and Education
Canadian Public Policy, Education Learning disability A.D.H.D
Struggle by Human ights Groups and Parents
Public Policy Canada: An Overview
It has been estimated that almost five percent of School aged children out of population of 2.1 Million in Ontario are suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Contrasting other disabilities like autism or learning disabilities the ADHD was not in the special education previously. The students with ADHD were not included in the special education policy and thus the students and parents were suffering as they could not get the necessary interventions at School suggested by the doctor. (Andrea Golden, 2012)
ecently Education Minister of Ontario has announced to accommodate the students with ADHD and thus relaxed the parents as previously parents were spending from their pockets on theirs children with ADHD. A memorandum has been posted on the Ministry of Education…… [Read More]
One of the key distinctions to be found within the first two chapters of this book is the difference between policy analysis and policy advocacy. Policy analysis is primarily an examination for what and why public policy is, by analyzing both causes and effects of such policy. Policy advocacy, however, is urging a government to set a certain policy for a desired outcome. The analysis of policy is essential because it allows for various groups to then determine what sort of goals or direction they want their policy makers to advocate.
There are several different policy models that can be used to properly examine and analyze public policy, each of which is somewhat suggestive of a particular line of thought or of advocacy for policy. Institutionalism, for example studies policy in terms of its output from a number of important institutions such as the different branches of government (judicial, executive…… [Read More]
Steven Kelman's Making Public Policy: A Hopeful View of American Government
Steven Kelman's 1998 book on politics is entitled Making Public Policy: A Hopeful View of American Government. This is a brief but accurate summary of the central thesis of Kelman's philosophy of what enables the American system of government to function as well as it does. Perhaps because of the contentious nature of the modern media, discussions of the American governmental system and political process tend to focus on criticisms rather than on praises of its ability to address social ills. However, it is this stress upon the functionality, rather than upon the disfunctionality of American government that drives the structure, arguments, and philosophy advocated by Kelman's book.
In his introduction, Kelman states that he wishes to "evaluate how well the policy-making process works in the United States." In other words, Kelman wishes to rate the efficacy of the…… [Read More]
This is based on the theory, posed by citizens, that certain individuals afflicted with terminal illnesses should have the legal right to hasten their death.
As a result, individuals that acquire these disabilities often view death as an extremely viable solution.
The target population that the Oregon Death with Dignity statute involves are those that are terminally ill. There are both long and short-term effects of the statute on the rest of the population, as well as the target population. Oregon has the fourth highest rate of elder suicide in the United States, and the statute appears to be a short-term solution to a long-term problem. The statute gives physicians the long-term power to judge whether a particular suicide is rational, based on the physician's evaluation of the individual's quality of life. The short-term effect of the statute is that federal resources previously used to care for the elderly and…… [Read More]
Ineffective Public Policy -- No Child Left Behind
One of the most widely criticized educational policies of recent years was / is No Child Left Behind. It is widely referred to an ineffective policy (or legislation). Despite high hopes and bipartisan support, the policy has not worked out as planned. This paper delves into the problems with No Child Left Behind -- and will present the changes that could make it stronger and more effective.
No Child Left Behind -- The Problems and Criticisms
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation (signed into law by President George . Bush in 2002) was launched, according to authors Deborah Meier and George ood, in a bipartisan spirit in order to do something "positive in the wake of the terrorist attacks" of September 11, 2001 (Meier, et al., 2004). In the Introduction to their book, Meier and ood, founding members of the Forum…… [Read More]
U.S. Department of State: Public Policy Issue and Sexual Harassment
U.S DEPATMENT OF STATE: PUBLIC POLICY ISSUE AND 1
Policy Issue 7
ole of technology in the process
Diversity Issues Involved
Ethical Concerns and Implications
Protection for Employee
U.S Department of State: Public Policy Issue and Sexual Harassment
Sometime back in 2010, the Albany Fire Department in Georgia established a newer "sexual harassment" policy that was in accordance with the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's course of action and Federal Law. At first, the idea of sexual harassment occurred merely in sexual related claims that were against an employer. Ever since the approval of the department's policy, sexual harassment has now been spreading into every part of employment discrimination as well as the creation of a work environment that is hostile. esearch shows that hostile work environment claims are founded not just…… [Read More]
Policing Policies Analysis
This study seeks to strengthen the practice of policing by demonstrating the effectiveness of the problem-oriented policing. The information provided herein is useful to practitioners as it compares problem-oriented policing against community-oriented policing. Practitioners will be able to create much robust policing intervention when addressing real life situations within the field by grasping the theoretical mechanisms (Hess & Orthmann, 2011). In addition, by linking academic theories to policing, this review helps theoretical criminologists ponder about the most useful concepts for practical police level.
Zero tolerance Policing
Zero-tolerance policing lacks a specific definition; it can be understood in various ways. The recent definition entails non-discretional and strict enforcement of law regardless of the magnitude or circumstances of the crime. While this approach involves positive police actions, it does not equate to automatic arrests of trivial crimes. This is the most aggressive policing approach and cannot be equated to…… [Read More]
Ethics and Public Policy
This paper discusses the application of the major ethical theories of consequentialism (utilitarianism), deontology, and virtue ethics to a specific policy question, namely how to improve the nutrition of the nation's poor and to reduce the rise in food insecurity. It also discusses the implications of ethical theories such as determinism and moral relativism. First, the theory is discussed in the abstract, followed by an exposition of how the theory relates to real-world practice. The paper concludes with a more general reflection on the implications of ethical theories for public policy-makers. The specific merits of virtue ethics are stressed vs. The more extreme and polarizing views of deontology and consequentialism.
An ethical dilemma: Food insecurity
One of the dilemmas facing public policy-makers regarding food insecurity and the need to improve the diet of poor Americans is the balance between individual liberties and the need…… [Read More]
If given the opportunity to amend the policy, what action would you take and why?
The national proposal to increase sin taxes on alcoholic beverages is long overdue and should be supported not only by all sectors of the government but the American public most especially. The fact is well-known that alcohol consumption is not only dangerous for the consumer but also has various economic and social harms for the society as well as users' immediate environment. It means that alcohol can affect not only the drinker but other people in the form of violence or road accidents. Taxing alcohol at higher rates will provide a mechanism that will taper buying due to high prices. But I believe that taxing alone should not be the only thrust of this policy. Rather, continuous education and awareness campaigns by both the public and private sector will go further to ensure that people…… [Read More]
The Value at Risk model works on the lines of probability and statistics to measure a drop in value of asset over a period of time. In general, it is calculated between the confidence level of 1% and 5%. There are various methods for measuring the Value at Risk for a project including the Variance -- Covariance methods, the Risk Metrics Contribution method, Historical Simulation methods, and Monte Carlo simulation methods. While, these methods are simple to use and compute the potential level of risk involved, these are based on a variety of assumptions. Generally, all approaches involved using historical trends and data and probability distributions are defined based on historical trends. A major problem with Value at Risk model is that it does not take into account the changing conditions and trends and it still claims to compute risk in rare conditions.
ver a period of time risk managers…… [Read More]
Public Administrators in Work First Family Assistance Program
The ole of Public Administrators in Work First Family Assistance Program
Competency 1: Summarize the Findings of the Analytical Framework
Designing an analytical framework is possible and is seen because the Act was passed into law in 1975 by the federal government. The aim of implementing the child support policy in all states was to reduce the expenditure of the public on social welfare. The North Carolina welfare is an example of child support programs where the Division of Social Service disburses funds, and 100 counties use the program. emember, TANF program is a block grant. The assistance provided by the state is for five years only to ensure that the family stays together, and a reduction of teenage pregnancies is adhered to especially because teenagers need their parents guidance and counsel.
TANF program was created after the passing of legislation in…… [Read More]
public policy cycle. Public policy is defined as "a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a given problem," (Pal, 2013, p. 3). The first step of making a given problem known is through public opinion, public interest, and related issues like values and norms. However, as Pal (2013) points out, a more idealistic motivation for bringing policy issues to the attention of policymakers is actually public interest itself in terms of core needs like public safety. There are multiple avenues by which an issue may be made known to the Canadian government. One is via the research route, including university and "think tank" methods of analyzing problems empirically and presenting reports to stakeholder organizations or policymakers. A second is from ministers themselves, through close attention being paid to their constituents and the prevailing interests of the people. Legal restrictions might constrain the ways a potential…… [Read More]
Monopolies and Trusts:
Appropriate Areas for Government Intervention?
Capitalism is the economic system that has dominated the United States virtually since the day of its independence. A social and economic system based on the recognition of individual rights; capitalism demands that owners' rights to control, enjoy, and dispose of their own property must be respected. In a capitalist system, the purpose of government is to protect individual economic rights, and to make sure that no one individual, or group may employ physical or coercive force upon any other group or individual. The success of capitalism is well evident. The surpluses that this system produces have enabled individuals to experiment; to create new products, and market new ideas. These private surpluses are traded in a free market in direct competition with other buyers and sellers. Such competition is best represented by the efforts of two or more parties acting independently to…… [Read More]
Health Policy Analysis for Maryland AC (Affordable Care) Act
McLaughlin, & McLaughlin (2014) rank 11 areas of health innovation based on their impact on costs and quality of healthcare delivery. The process improvement is the highest ranking item. However, the authors identify data analytics, disease management, "non-physician delivery alternatives," and "alternative to fee-for service" (McLaughlin, & McLaughlin, 2014 p 335) as other innovation items that can enhance quality and reduce costs. Additionally, the authors point out that innovation in electronic medical records, diagnosis, and pharmaceuticals can also assist with quality and cost.
Objective of this health policy paper is to evaluate the items that can play important role in the health policy process of Maryland's ACA (Affordable Care Act).
Healthcare items for Health Policy Process for in Maryland Affordable Care Act
The ACA (Affordable Care Act) is a federal government legislation focusing on healthcare coverage for small groups and individuals.…… [Read More]
Disciplined Application of Intellect to Public Problems
Leslie Pal defined public policy as "a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities in addressing given problems or a set of interrelated problems (2010)." In essence, this implies that policies are instrumental in tackling issues of concern to the political community. ationalists argued the importance of policy analysis as having enough data and analysis hopes to solve problems in technical terms, without having to contaminate values. In public policy, the most important overarching value is the interest of public and is a benchmark or touchstone demonstrating what is done by democratic governments. For example, the Public Service has Values and Ethics Codes and under the law, the "democratic mission is to assist Ministers serve the interests of their public." The political system analyzes policies with an attempt to gain consensus, competition, the rule of law, inclusion, and gain good governance.…… [Read More]
Policy Problem & Proposal
The United States faces a $1.4 trillion national deficit, and partisan debate about how to address it is threatening economic stability on top of the shaky "recovery" from the 2009 financial crisis. Yet American corporations continue to enjoy tax loopholes that reduce their taxes to unprecedented low levels. epublicans argue that corporations must retain their preferred tax status in order to maintain and create jobs. This tax policy has been known by a number of names: supply-side economics, trickle-down theory, and horse and sparrow theory. It has not been without its critics, yet, irrationally, the practice of permitting tax loopholes continues to prevail from time-to-time.
"As for the growth enhancing effects of lower tax rates, just look to the 2000s for the latest persuasive evidence to the contrary. After the Bush tax cuts on the progressive rates paid by the wealthy, GDP between 2001…… [Read More]
Policy and Science
Fiddler on the oof
Science has traditionally been presented as the a priori fact-finding, theory-establishing stage one of policy making. Stage two of this conventional approach has policy makers utilizing the "empirical truths" that science offers in support of policies to be enacted to solve a policy problem. Yet both policymaking and empirical research are -- by their very nature -- ongoing human endeavors. Policymakers want the best that science has to offer -- when they need it -- for decision-making, policymaking, and policy implementation. Science marches to its own tune, with agendas set by dynamics such as funding for research or public and private priorities and pressures (Kingdon, 1984). And, increasingly, in a funding environment that is cooling off, the ability to do research is often determined by its application -- public service adding a positive valence -- and the ability to enact policy is dependent…… [Read More]
In other, more charter-friendly states, there are multiple authorizers -- universities, state boards, even specially created bodies with expertise in charter school creation. The new bill before the state House and Senate will give the Board of Education an advising role on charter school applications prior to going before the local school board.
Patrick Henry School of Science and Arts opened Aug. 11, 2010 making it the 10th charter school to open in the state of Virginia since charter schools were allowed to open in 1998. However, if history repeats itself, Patrick Henry will have a bumpy road ahead. Including Patrick Henry only three charter schools are operating currently in the state of Virginia and Patrick Henry is the only one operating in the city of ichmond. At one time there were nine charter schools in Virginia, but most of them closed due to financial reasons. (citation)
According to the…… [Read More]
This system is stated to be flawed as "The school board members have a vested interest in the success of the existing local school system and are reluctant to introduce a competitor into the marketplace, said charter school supporters." (O'Donoghue, 2010)
Summary and Conclusion
It is very likely that laws will be changed and policy reformed relating to charter schools in the state of Virginia as to do otherwise means to miss the $350 million in funding opportunity for Virginia's school system and it appears highly unlikely that in the present state of the economy that Virginia will be willing to shun this much in educational funding.
Charter Schools, When Explained, Get Support (2009) Augusta Press. 16 Dec 2009. Online available at: http://augustafreepress.com/2009/12/16/charter-schools-when-explained-get-support/
Schaeffer, Adam . (2006) No, Virginia, There is No such thing as School Choice. 29 Oct 2006. CATO Institute. Online available at: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=6756
raunlich, Christian (2009)…… [Read More]
I explore policy making process issues reach public agenda-based Kingdon's model
The policy making process and how issues reach the public agenda: Kingdon's model
According to John W. Kingdon's book Agendas, alternatives, and public policy, simply because an idea is beneficial to the public interest does not necessarily mean that the idea will come to fruition and be enacted into law. An idea whose 'time has come' in the American system of government must be created by a series of different types of pressures which Kingdon calls problem streams, policy streams, and political streams. Kingdon uses metaphors such as a 'garbage can' and a 'policy primeval soup' to describe how decision-making in Washington takes place: there is nothing logical or linear about it. Kingdon views the creation of policies as the result of these various intersecting 'streams.' First, 'the problem stream' "can push some items higher on the…… [Read More]
Policy Direction & Politics
Stone captures for me the crux of policy paradox with this statement: "…each type of policy instrument [e.g., inducements, rules rights, for example] is a kind of sports arena, each with its peculiar ground rules, within which political conflicts are continued" (2001, p. 13). Extending the metaphor, arena sports are based on a rational rule-bound game structure that -- as soon as the whistle blows -- is overwhelmed by messy, conflicting and reciprocal interplay. And so it is with policymaking. The calculated, rational market approach to policymaking that was developed to counter the "profound disgust for the ambiguities and paradoxes of politics" does not match what happens in the real world, where political tensions force the hand of those who would create better governance (Stone, 2001, p. xi). We have only to look at the context surrounding the Obama administration to know that this is so…… [Read More]
Policy and Politics
Policy and decision-making are complex issues. Even for what might appear to be a simple decision, there many underlying factors that influence the final outcome. Some of these factors are obvious, but some can be elusive and hidden from all of the parties. Policies are not instituted in a flash and the process of policymaking should not be taken lightly. This makes the process of policy making a slow one at best. The many facets of the issue must be discussed and debated for often long periods of time. Policymaking is wrought with many problems for which there is no obvious right or wrong answer. Deborah Stone addresses these paradoxes in The Art of Political Decision-making.
Stone's work stands apart from many authors that focus on the application of their model in only a few specific applications. One example is einhart and einhart (2011) who recently discussed…… [Read More]
The problems with the budget are said to arise from politicians who are unable to make difficult decisions. The problem with these laws is that they do not explicitly force politicians to make those decision. GRH provides targets for the politicians to work towards, creating motivation, and the BEA provides a framework for penalizing inaction, but neither truly forces politicians to make the tough choices.
Real political solutions involve actually making those tough choices. This is not to discount the value of having these frameworks to guide the negotiations and hold Congress to the outcomes of those negotiations, but the negotiations themselves are the critical component to the budget problem. For example, if the sequester is initiated, Congress can follow it up with laws to build back some of those spending cuts, and it would likely do so quickly. There are no provisions in the BEA, for example, that call…… [Read More]
Public Program vluation: Quality Performance Measurement
Caiden, G and Caiden, NJ (nd) Measuring Performance in Public Sector Programs. Public Administration and Public Policy. Vol. II. Retrieved from: http://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c14/1-34-05-06.pdf
Caiden and Caiden (nd) report that the link between reforms and public measurement and evaluation were not merely chance since as the reforms developed devolution was emphasized or the moving of functions and services to the government levels that were lower, along with an emphasis on privatization, decentralization of management, transparency and satisfaction of customers. It is reported that all of these were dependent on accountability maintenance and credibility.
Poister, T. (2001) Measuring Performance in Public and Non-Profit Organizations. Jossey-Bass. Retrieved from: http://glennschool.osu.edu/faculty/brown/home/810/Class%20Materials/Poister%20Performance%20Chapters%201,%202,%203.pdf
Poister (2001) writes that performance measures are "objective, quantitative indicators" of a range of performance in public programs or for public agencies. (p.3) This work reviews the early development and background of performance measurement and ensues on…… [Read More]
Policy of choice: Patient Safety
The provision of healthcare services is a complex responsibility that the professionals in healthcare risk management must never take lightly. Hospital regulations and accreditation standards make the safety requires complex and inevitable (PSQH, 2014). With formal procedures and policies, it is possible to promote and encourage compliance with regulation and high safety standards in the workplace. These policies also make quality healthcare and patient safety easier to deliver. Well articulate policies will alleviate variability in nursing practice that is likely to lead to compromises in care and eventual harm to the patient. The financial situations that require more attention for patient care may make it difficult to continuously review procedures and policies. Failure to update and develop policy can cause negative consequences for the patients (PSQH, 2014).
Patient safety policy is significant for the fulfillment of several professional requirements including:
· Adherence with the set…… [Read More]
countries impose barriers to stop or hinder the import of cultural products (film, movies, etc.) or offer subsidies to promote their production and distribution
"This memo is in response to your request for input regarding the debate of whether countries should impose barriers to hinder the import of cultural trade or provide subsidies to promote their distribution and production."
In the olden days, the cultural products such as television, movies and broadcasting systems were only developed within the national territories and were shaped using the national regulations. Even during the twenty-first century, the promotion of cultural values through television, films and movies remain the national phenomenon. (Morris and Waisbord 2001). However, rapid development of information technology has revolutionized the promotion of the cultural values to international level. The advent of satellite and cable channels as well as the growth of modern technology such as internet and digital compression has transformed…… [Read More]
public administration and considers the effect of their writings and theories on the field of public administration. It has 6 sources.
An analysis of the core areas of public administration and how these areas interrelate with one another; taking into account the theories and writings of major players in the field of public administration and how their views shaped these areas.
The principles of public administration are the clearest description of its usefulness to society and government. This administrative science is barely 100-125 years old in the U.S. And a little over 200 years old in France. Tracing its roots back to Napoleon, public administration evolved largely as a result of the increasing complexity of society, economy and technology. The French system of Public Administration is still considered by many to be the world's best. Compared to Germany and Britain, the U.S. was relatively slower to utilize public administration in…… [Read More]
One time or the other, these elected legislatures will find themselves in difficult situations that call for difficult ethical decisions in the processes of performing their duties just as public administrators and as some can mange such trying moments, others will fail to perform. These public administrators should ensure that they have proper interaction with the government/authorities so as to understand well how they function in the quest to establishing reliable solutions that are potential managers of public pressure to finally ensure that public action is not compromised (Stillman, 2009). For example, in the last twenty years, the pressure exerted on public administrators has been "more entrepreneurial, to find ways to do more things and new things with fewer resources, to be nimble in response to fluctuating problems and demands, has been acute" (Cook, 2007, p. 243). In addition, considering the pressure on public administration coupled by increasing global changes…… [Read More]
As a result, some kind action must be taken to deal with these challenges. Once this occurs, it will provide specific insights about: how the current plan is not working and what tactics must be used to mitigate the negative effects on various regions. (Schwartz, 1998)
Propose a research study (inclusive of study design, hypothesis, methodology and bivariate / multivariate statistical analysis) that would yield results which can be implemented to better address the current needs of the affected / target population
The hypothesis that we are proposing is: that some kind of classification system should be used to determine who is safe to live in the community. This will maintain the lowest cost structure possible, while preventing the most dangerous mental patients from being released.
The study design will survey various mental health professionals about: if a classification system would be effective. At the same time, you would want…… [Read More]
The executives at Morningstar had deliberated that their decision with a lot of people, inclusive of critical investment bankers prior to the actual offering. The minimum experience of an auction IPO companies are normally encouraging. One recent occurrence has been the recent exclusion wherein CyroCor Inc. offered shares through the auction route at $11 per share in a July auction and has lost 50% of its value since then. It follows from this that the auction route for raising capital through issue of shares does not favor every company. However, there are some positive aspects and companies must fancy the odds of auction route as the real option. All companies encounter a non-stop auction for their stock from the point they start trading in public. (Syre 2005)
Wall Street was extremely cynical as regards the Google's Dutch-auction IPO, that restricted banker's impact by opening biding to the public and fixing…… [Read More]
Honeypot and Honeynet Emerging Technologies
In the present IT environment, individuals and businesses are becoming more dependent an open network that includes the Internet where business transactions, government services and commercial activities are realized. However, the use of open network has led to the development of new information security issues and cyber threats that are being utilized by the cyber criminals. Thus, a mistrust in computer network technologies and telecommunications can affect socio-economic of global enterprises, an increase in the complexity of network infrastructures and communication lead to an increased demand for a new approach to cybersecurity.
Essentially, the threats in the cyber security landscapes are continuously evolving. The reactive and traditional security measures are no more sufficient to protect cyber information infrastructures. Thus, honeypots are the new emerging technology tools focusing in the areas of network forensics and network security, which is effective in enhancing network security of an…… [Read More]
The role of the non-profit organization has transformed in many ways as society and the values inherent within that society also change and transform. The ability to create an organization with purpose and a sense of a greater duty is what makes the non-profit sector of exchange such a unique and important facet within the constructs of our society. The purpose of this essay is to address a situation where a recommendation is needed to determine the best route of approach for raising funds for a hypothetical nonprofit agency.
The background of this case deals with selecting between two options of fundraising method to improve and increase community services. This general situation is encountered by most nonprofit organizations and provides a solid background for discussing the ideas and principles inherent within the public sector. The first option imposes a user fee for individuals who currently request assistance. The second…… [Read More]
One of the newer concepts in public policy is the idea of the public-private partnership, or PPP. Essentially, PPPs are when the government works with private enterprise on a project. Public projects tend to be those that benefit society as a whole, and traditionally governments as representatives of the people have been the drivers of such projects. Private enterprise has often specifically avoided many types of projects because of the financial or operational risk involved. A public-private partnership is a form of development where government and private enterprise share the risk and capital expenditure in a project. The split will be different for every project, but it often involves the government taking on some risk in order to facilitate the project moving forward, on the principle that the project moving forward is in the best interests of the general public. In some instances, the government utilizes public-private partnerships to…… [Read More]
Eight Models of Policy Change as Related to a Problem-Structuring Method
Comprehensive Rationality and Synectics
According to the text, comprehensive rationality occurs when "an individual or collective decision maker […] weighs the cost and benefits of all available alternatives and takes actions that are motivated by a concern with the efficient use of resources" (Chapter 2, 48).
Here, problems within the community are addressed and discussed in terms of importance to see if they are worth acting upon. Some may not ever be dealt with, while others are sent forth onto the next stage.
An example of this is when a council member prepares a presentation for public policy change independently and then produces it to the Council.
Thus, the City Council should pair this with the Synectics problem structuring approach because of the fact an individual can create and discern comparisons without the distraction of the group.…… [Read More]
Exchange is a program designed to educate and promote health among drug-users. Needle Exchange, and similar programs that provide needles and syringes to drug-users are a harm-reducing motive whose aim is to enable access to sterile needles and syringes for individuals injecting drugs. This kind of action is recommended by The World Health Organization (WHO), whose experts suggest that each drug-user injecting drugs needs to be given access to two hundred clean needles and syringes on an annual basis as a way of tackling and preventing the transmitting of HIV and other blood-borne viruses through this method.
Overall, most programs similar to Needle Exchange are facilitated by pharmacies. Some of these programs work from fixed locations, while others are mobile, and some even employ strategically placed sites. The aim of most Needle Exchange programs is to alleviate and prevent the transmission of HIV, as well as other blood-borne viruses, through…… [Read More]
Policy, Politics and Global Trends in Health Sector
Why the Public Policy Issue Was Chosen?
According to the report released by National Priorities and Goals -- aligning efforts meant to transform America's Health care (NQF, 2009; Partnership, 2008). NPP (National Priorities Partnership) came up with 6 priorities. If the priorities are addressed, it could improve the quality of health care delivered to the U.S. citizens. NPP consists of 48 major U.S. health care organizations, which work with NQF (National Quality Forum). It identifies and advances priorities geared at improving health care in the future (NQF, 2009). NPP has identified palliative care as one of the six priorities that can help improve patient-based utilization outcome. This article provides the background to help identify steps to assist match the medical treatment of the patient and family objectives. It concerns itself with access to quality hospice services and palliative care (Meier, 2011). This…… [Read More]
The ole of Management Information System in Decision Making in Public Administration (Case Study on Hungarian Central Statistical Office)
Organizations require appropriate information in the form of proper databases and reports which plays a pivotal role in decision making. The quality of data holds significant importance as the top management of large organizations derives its high level decisions mostly from the available data rather than inspecting the in depth core activity components. This fact is depicted by the analysis of a case study pertaining to the implementation of a Management Information System (MIS) in the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, which has ultimately improved the quality of information flow within the organization. This paper examines how the implementation of an MIS within HCSO lead to the standardization of report formats and operational data collection procedures. Not only this, the paper will also highlight the role played by an MIS…… [Read More]
Programs and Services
§ Briefly describe the major programs and services, and the population intended to be served.
Before choosing the programs it is pointed out that about three decades ago, the term 'organizational culture', came in vogue. It resulted in a study of the different styles of organizing. Today the organizational change can be achieved easily and the methods of conducting programs themselves can be a part of a project that involves multiple organizations. Non-profits also came into the scrutiny of these concepts. (Wright, 1994)
The theory now is to see that maximum benefits and opportunities are extended to the subjects by the organization in this case the disadvantaged groups, particularly women and children. The programs seem to be created and managed on the general principles that all organizations follow. There does not seem to be any specific study that was done to incorporate the persons who belong to…… [Read More]
Addressing this issue is a matter of policy, and difficult to address at the management level. However, extensive recruiting procedures in diverse communities may help to combat the continued disparity of advantages for many minorities. In addition, social representation can be achieved by promoting educational and employment opportunities in a variety of socio-economic settings. The use of internships can also create exposure both of public agencies and of the diverse emerging workforce.
5) There are many different variables that contribute to achieving productivity in the workplace. Research shows that employee satisfaction with their work is a major factor in determining employee productivity. Satisfaction can be improved with increased benefits, including increased wages and salaries, but another very important factor in job satisfaction is the employee's interest in their work and the belief that they are necessary. Promoting a workplace that shows how much it values its employees is essential to…… [Read More]
Improving consumer protection is a less vital factor in the reform package. It focuses on ancillary issues such as predatory lending and credit card interest. Improving protections may help to reduce the incidence of consumer bankruptcy, but has two negative consequences. The first is that the illusion of protection can encourage increased risk-taking behavior among consumers. The second is that increasing consumer protection fails to address the underlying issue, which is the atrocious level of financial literacy among the general population. These reforms, therefore, may not be effective.
The fourth set of reforms addresses the ability of government to respond to the crisis. The Federal Reserve's involvement in stabilizing the financial industry may have been needed at the time, but is inappropriate in the context of the Fed's tradition role. Furthermore, the FDIC has been forced into desperate action as its reserves have run low in the face of 100+…… [Read More]
Policy Process: Evaluation, Analysis and evision
The National Nursing Shortage eform and Patient Advocacy Act was designed to address the public health workforce shortage that is seen, especially where nurses are concerned. It is no secret that nurses are leaving the profession in record numbers, and as they do that it is becoming more and more difficult to replace them with others who want to do the same type of work (Buerhaus & etchin, 2013; Iglehart, 2013). Because of all the nurses retiring, and so many of them experiencing burnout, the gap between the number of needed nurses and those who are available continues to widen (Negron & Cohen, 2013). The issue here is how that Act becomes a policy, so it can provide more help to a public health workforce that is struggling. In order for the Act to become a policy, it must first be evaluated. The Act…… [Read More]
Human esources Management is basically something that encompasses various activities in an office environment, some of them being: what sort of employees does a company need, what are the best methods to recruit as well as train these personnel, making sure that the performance levels of these people is at its optimum best, and also making sure that the rules regarding management issues are followed to the letter by the employees. Some other issues are those of employee compensation, employee benefits, and so on.
The first step in a human resources management policy is that of 'ecruitment' of the company's employees.
In order to prepare an Advertisement for the purpose of recruitment, certain guidelines must be followed. These are: there must be included, in the advertisement, a complete job description. This must state the 'job title' or 'rank' or 'position'. This means that the person who is interested will…… [Read More]
Data collection tools that will prove especially useful in the research will include online electronic database search features and both online and hardcopy items published as a matter of public record by the City of Richmond. Analysis of the data retrieved will take place on a qualitative basis, with specific policy features correlated to institutional changes based on past evidence as well as ongoing scholarship and hypotheses.
ryamn, A.; ell, E. & Teevan, J. (2009). Social research methods. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cohen, L.; Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education. New York: Routledge.
Yin, R. (2009). Case study research: design and methods.…… [Read More]