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Public Safety vs. Civil ights
The United States and its citizens promote a vision of the country as the epitome of civil rights and liberties. These, however, are not offered free from the conditions of honoring the civil rights and liberties, and indeed the safety, of those who share citizenship and residency within American borders. Hence, public safety and civil liberties often need to share an uncomfortable balance. In many cases, issues that relate to these are by no means clear and continue to be debated.
The Death Penalty: Effective Crime Deterrent vs. Civil ights Violation
The death penalty is one of the most highly debated legal issues, both in the United States and world wide. At the heart of the debate is whether this method of punishment can be regarded as a true deterrent for crime and how this balances against the danger of civil rights violations. Both advocates…
ACLU (2012, Dec. 11). The Case Against The Death Penalty. Retrieved from: http://www.aclu.org/capital-punishment/case-against-death-penalty
Burks, F. (2013, Feb. 12). Rare media articles expose how the mass media manipulate public opinion. Retrieved from: http://www.examiner.com/article/rare-media-articles-expose-how-the-mass-media-manipulate-public-opinion
Levy, R.A. (2013, Feb. 11). Reflections on Gun Control by a Second Amendment Advocate. National Law Journal. Retrieved from: http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/reflections-gun-control-second-amendment-advocate
McGill Lawson, K. And Henderson, W.J. (2009). Confronting the New Faces of Hate: Hate Crimes in America. Retrieved from: http://www.protectcivilrights.org/pdf/reports/hatecrimes/lccref_hate_crimes_report.pdf
ecause natural disasters, acts of terrorism, and other types of emergencies often do not respect jurisdictional or physical boundaries, first responders from different agencies, local, state and federal, need to quickly work together (Simay, 2009). During large, catastrophic incidents, first responders may need additional assistance from the U.S. military and the National Guard (Davitt, 2008). The federal government is also concerned that these large events could overwhelm the communications infrastructure, and, therefore, impede effective communication and response time if there isn't a way to control authorization (United States Government Accountability Office, 2007).
Davitt, E. (2008, October 14). Interoperability: the key to emergency first-responder effectiveness. Security Management. http://www.securitymanagement.com.au/article.php?action=view&article_id=93
Simay, G. (2009, January 22). How the Federal Government can help communications interoperability. The Homeland Security log. http://www.thehomelandsecurityblog.com/2009/01/22/how-the-federal-government-can-help-communications-interoperability/
United States Government Accountability Office (2007, April). First responders. http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d07301.pdf
Why first-responder interoperability hasn't happened (2004, September 22). New Millennium Research Council. http://www.newmillenniumresearch.org/news/091404mediacoverage.html
Davitt, E. (2008, October 14). Interoperability: the key to emergency first-responder effectiveness. Security Management. http://www.securitymanagement.com.au/article.php?action=view&article_id=93
Simay, G. (2009, January 22). How the Federal Government can help communications interoperability. The Homeland Security Blog. http://www.thehomelandsecurityblog.com/2009/01/22/how-the-federal-government-can-help-communications-interoperability/
United States Government Accountability Office (2007, April). First responders. http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d07301.pdf
Why first-responder interoperability hasn't happened (2004, September 22). New Millennium Research Council. http://www.newmillenniumresearch.org/news/091404mediacoverage.html
An environment where abuse is condoned can make students feel as if something is 'wrong' with them if they do not overindulge. Fraternities and other organizations which host parties need to confront their role in setting the tone for the campus and provide more alcohol-free activities. The school needs to support groups such as Alcoholics and Narcotics Anonymous (and/or other programs with proven effectiveness 'track records' working with young adult drug and alcohol dependency) on campus to help people who already have problems (Kaskutas 2009). Students need to realize they have a problem -- before it is too late. Taking steps to treat alcoholism and drug abuse amongst young people can prevent the types of escalating healthcare costs caused by abuse later on. And even young people can still suffer from the physical effects of abuse, including the loss of brain cells and damaged liver function that are often only…
Kaskutas, Lee Ann. (2009). Alcoholics Anonymous effectiveness: Faith meets science. Journal of Addictive Disorders, 28 (2): 145-157. Retrieved:
Mission. (2013). The Public Safety Department of Drexel University. Retrieved:
Introduction: Public Safety
The aim of the public safety sector is the provision of products and services geared at safeguarding individuals and their property. Over 286,000 individuals are employed in this sector, which can be segregated into the following two key segments: commercial and governmental organizations. Federal, regional, state, and local level governmental public safety organizations agencies have outnumbered commercial ones all through the course of the past decade. Most individuals working in this sector are hired by governmental organizations, including the fire department, police department, and sheriff's department. Some federal level public safety institutions include the CIA, FBI, Department of Homeland Security, and Border Patrol (Vault, 2020).
The most predominant public safety jobs are connected with the police: police officers, detectives/ investigators, or correctional officers. EMT personnel, highway patrol officials, and firefighters make up another major public safety employee cluster. The majority of private-sector safety personnel include…
Privacy Law: Requiring Convicted Sex Offenders to Register and Allow Their Personal Data to Be Published by the State
One of the most heinous crimes any individual can be accused of is the crime molesting a child. In the hearts and minds of most of the public, perhaps even in the hearts and minds of most legislators and judges, convicted sex abusers exist within a particular category of their own. They are seen as living beyond the pale of common morality and decency. No parent would want to knowingly live near a convicted sex offender. However, how should the law, which is supposed to be cool and dispassionate, deal with the issue of the need for public safety and protection with the rights of the individual, regardless of the crime that individual has committed? The question arose in the case Connecticut Dept. Of Public Safety v. Doe which was heard…
Dorf, Michael. (8 Oct 2002). "Megan's Law. Copyright, free speech among issues before Supreme Court." CNN.com. Retrieved 9 Feb at 2008 at http://archives.cnn.com/2002/LAW/10/08/findlaw.analysis.dorf.scotus/index.html
Privacy loses to security: The United States Supreme Court rules that states can put sex offenders on the WWW. (Connecticut Dept. Of Public Safety v. Doe, 123 S.Ct. 1160, 71 USLW 4125, 71 USLW 4158." (2003). Biotech Law: LSU. Retrieved 9 Feb at 2008 at http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/cases/pp/cn_v_doe.htm
Smith et al., v. Doe et al. (2003). Findlaw. 2008. Retrieved 10 Feb at 2008 at http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=U.S.&vol=000&invol=01-729
U.S. Constitution: Fourteenth Amendment." Findlaw. 2008. Retrieved 9 Feb at 2008 at http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data/constitution/amendment14
Public Safety Administration Challenges; Annotated Bibliography
Cook, C. (September 1, 2012). he Challenges and Opportunities for Public Safety Communications: he Adams County Case Study. Silicon Flatirons Center
On the 23rd of September in the year 2011, scholars, law professionals and members of public safety communications industry were brought together by the Silicon Flatirons Center to discuss issues that faced the industry in the 21st century, both in terms of benefits and challenges that would emerge upon the creation of a countrywide broadband public safety communications network as stipulated and envisaged in the National Broadband Plan. he experts gathered at University of Colorado's School of Law where the discussions were being held. he discussions were chaired by a Mr. Phil Weiser, who is not only the dean of the said School of Law, but also the head of the Silicon Flatirons Centre and also an adjunct professor at the same university.…
There has been a dramatic rise in gang violence in the last couple of years. This increase has also had an impact on the criminal justice system as more gang-affiliated individuals become incarcerated and form violent communities inside prisons. And thus, gang violence doesn't stop at the prison gates and often continues, if not dealt with by correctional institutions. Thus, the management of such threat groups presents quite a number of difficulties to correctional institutions. The key to staying ahead of such gangs in prison systems is to proactively identify gang group members, especially the individuals who are at the leadership of such gangs, and pose a significant security risk to staff, prison warders or even fellow inmates. Some of the management strategies utilized include: integration of zero-tolerance policy for gang symbols, activities, signs and the monitoring of telephone calls. Such policies have led to less conflict and intimidation tactics among prisoners. Clearly, the management of security threat groups will improve public safety through the reduction of criminal activity.
Foster, C. S. (2005). Reshaping Public Safety and Justice. State News (Council Of State Governments), 48(4), 8-37.
Of late, state legislators have been busy with criminal justice laws and matters of public safety. State correction department's budgets have continued to expand due to the increase in number of individuals incarcerated. Sentencing reforms by legislatures have led to people calling on them to respect judicial discretion. Novel DNA technologies are showing huge potential for solving crimes. Furthermore, homeland security demands more attention and new security checks are being introduced into normal duties. Advances in ICT are enhancing justice processes and making significant improvements in solving crimes, and maintaining public safety at lower costs. Such developments in technology have also led to privacy concerns. Thus, key state and federal stakeholders are continuing to evaluate and to reshape their responses and responsibilities.
Public Safety Leadership Assessment
People are attracted to public safety as a career for a number of reasons, with an overarching desire to help others cited by many former and current public servants as being among the most important. In some cases, public safety leaders not only succeed in this goal, they do so in especially noteworthy ways that make them stand out as exemplars of public safety service. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide an analysis of leadership performance in the current public safety environment in order to compare and contrast effective and ineffective leadership. To this end, an evaluation of the performance of recognized public safety leaders in relation to leadership traits, roles, styles, and situations is followed by an appraisal of current and future leadership trends in public safety. Finally, effective and ineffective leadership in the public sector are compared and…
Bumgarner, J. B. (2008). Emergency management: A reference handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio.
Garunay, M. (2016, May 16). President Obama awards the Medal of Valor to 13 public safety officials. The White House. Retrieved from https://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2016 / 05/16/president-obama-awards-medal-valor-13-public-safety-officials.
Giaritelli, A. (2016, May 13). Obama to award 13 Medals of Valor Monday. Examiner (Washington, D.C.), 7.
McBridge, J. T. (2015, February). Bad leadership equals bad results. Law & Order, 63(2), 8.
represents a public safety or public health issue?
I believe that this scenario presents both a public safety and a public health issue. Public safety issues involve any issue of public safety. Generally, public safety is going to be the realm of departments like the police, EMS, and public transportation individuals (Web Finance, 2012). However, public health is part of public safety, since any health risks necessarily impair the safety of the people at risk. Moreover, this particular issue necessarily involves safety issues and would require activities by those outside of the traditional public health realms. "Public Health is the science and art of protecting and improving the health of communities through education, promotion of healthy lifestyles, and research for disease and injury prevention" (What is Public Health?, 2012). Health is necessarily part of safety. Moreover, in this particular scenario, when the threat to health was the result of a…
Web Finance Inc. (2012). Public safety. Retrieved January 9, 2012 from BusinessDictionary.com website: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/public-safety.html
What is Public Health? (2012). What is public health? Retrieved from:
Maryland Department of Public Safety and Correctional Services (DPSCS)
This report will provide a comprehensive safety and security plan for the Maryland Public Safety Education and Training Center (PSETC). This security plan will be broken into different sections that contain information about different security factors that are security risks for the organization and its physical assets. The organization must use its budget in the most effective manner possible to ensure the safety of the organization and its facilities. It is critical to protect lives of students, faculty members, volunteers, employees and inmates from a potential threats that could emerge during the operations that take place at the facilities.
The Department of Public Safety and Correctional Services (DPSCS) is one of the largest agencies in Maryland state government, whose eleven thousand employees work as a team to protect the public and the offenders and arrestees under their supervision (Department…
Department of Public Safety & Correctional Services. (N.d.). What is DPSCS? Retrieved from Department of Public Safety & Correctional Services: http://www.dpscs.state.md.us/
DPSCS. (N.d.). Maryland Police and Correctional Training Commission. Retrieved from DPSCS:
Military vs. Domestic Public Safety Agency Preparedness
Military vs. Domestic: Public Safety Agency Preparedness
In the military, critical incidents must be managed. Public safety agencies at the domestic level also have to handle incident management, but the question is whether these domestic agencies handle these incidents with the same level of preparedness as the military. In the opinion of this researcher, the military has a higher level of preparedness. The reason behind this is simply one of use. The military is required to be ready for anything, at all times. They practice incessantly for critical incidents and other problems that may take place in the future. Whatever issues may arise, they make a strong attempt to be prepared for, and that translates into the ability to handle incidents and problems quickly and efficiently when they occur. Naturally, that makes a big difference in how prepared the military as a whole…
Dupuy, T.N. (1992). Understanding War: History and Theory of Combat. London: Leo Cooper.
Thompson, J. (1991). Lifeblood of war: Logistics in armed conflict. London: Brassey's Classics
controversial issue debate Public Safety vs. Civil ights. Prepare a word paper cultural diversity race relate public safety efforts law enforcement security services
The debate over the confrontation between public safety and civil rights is nowadays considered a subject that may take the headlines in most newspapers and news television channels. This is largely due to the fact that more and more cases of abuse or racial discontent are placed in the framework of this wide debate over the need to feel secure in public but at the same time to ensure the civil rights of citizens, regardless or race, ethnicity, or color of their skin.
One of the main elements of the debate focuses on the ability of law enforcement mechanisms such as the police to have the mandate to react depending on immigration status. More precisely, "the discussion of cross-deputization (mandating that police officers enforce immigration policies) is…
Epstein, L. And Phillip Atiba Goff. (2011) "Safety or Liberty?: The Bogus Trade-Off of Cross-Deputization Policy" Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 314 -- 324. Available at http://cple.psych.ucla.edu/images/uploads/safety_or_liberty_epstein_goff.pdf
House of Representatives. (2009) "Public Safety And Civil Rights Implications Of State And Local Enforcement Of Federal Immigration Laws" Committee On The Judiciary House Of Representatives One Hundred Eleventh Congress. First Session. April 2, Available online at http://judiciary.house.gov/hearings/printers/111th/111-19_48439.PDF
Security Plan for the Maryland Public Safety Education and Training Center
This paper will focus on a security plan designated for the Maryland Public Safety Education and Training Center. Here emphasis will be given on many things including facility assets that require protection, various threats which are directed towards the assets and the probability of loss. It is important to note that there are many complexes and facilities associated with the main training center and any plan offered should be a standard blueprint that can be applied at any of the facilities and all of them should be able to get interconnected with each other. Therefore, it is the purpose of this paper to focus on that blueprint.
Introduction with brief overview
The Maryland Public Safety Education and Training Center is situated in Sykesville, Maryland. The facility is generally divided in two main centers which totals to about seven hundred…
Andress, A. (2003). Surviving Security. Florida: Auerbach.
Liston, D. (1993). Museum Security and Protection. New York: Routledge.
Neocleous, M. (2008). Critique of Security. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Franke, V. (2005). Terrorism and Peacekeeping. Connecticut: Praeger.
As a result of such political pressures, "Since 1977, an American's average daily intake of calories has jumped by more than 10%. Those 200 or so extra calories have to go somewhere...there is a surfeit of cheap calories that clever marketers sooner or later will figure out a way to induce us to consume" (Pollan 2003, p.1).
Because the cause is multifactoral, addressing the issue has proved difficult, and has largely been done on the local level. Some schools have banned sugary snacks and soft drinks; others have tried to increase physical education and nutritional awareness. Some towns have tried to limit the number of fast food establishments within certain areas that have high obesity rates and little access to fresh produce. "For almost two decades, young people in the United States got fatter and fatter -- ate more, sat more -- and nobody seemed to notice. Not parents…
Etiology of obesity. "Lifestyle management of adult obesity." University of Missouri-Columbia.
2007. February 19, 2009. http://www.vhct.org/case2500/etiology.htm
Obesity and overweight." World Health Organization (WHO). 2009. February 19, 2009. http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/publications/facts/obesity/en/
Levine, Susan & Lori Aratani. "Inertia at the top." The Washington Post. May 19, 2008: A01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/05/09/AR2008050900527.html
Race, Culture and Public Safety
How have this week's readings challenged your own beliefs about race and culture and its relevance to the construction of public safety in America? What had a particular impact on your ideas about emerging safety issues? These can be negative as well as positive comments. Also, consider ethnicity.
Police officers often find themselves torn between two competing needs. On one hand, they must serve the laws of the land and obey the U.S. Constitution. This means that they cannot conduct illegal searches and seizures based upon an individual's nation of origin or race. On the other hand, profiling is endemic to the profession of law enforcement. Anecdotally, there is a great deal of evidence that police officers are only human and are subject to the same racial prejudices as other Americans. Of course, part of the duty of an officer is to rise above these…
Describe federalism. Identify the impact it has on the public safety administrator. Make sure you include specific examples or details in your response.
It is important to note that there is no assigned definition for federalism. This essentially means that various definitions have been floated in the past in an attempt to define federalism. However, in essence, federalism could be seen as a political system whereby authority over a definite jurisdiction is shared between several governments (two or more) (Banks, 2018). More specifically, Khan (2008) defines federalism as “a form of government that distributes powers between the national government and state governments” (49). In seeking to distinguish federalism and a unitary form of government, the author further points out that in the latter case, the national/central government has all the powers – with other governments (i.e. local and state) deriving their mandate from the central government. It is important to…
Terrorism in Seattle
Even before the World Trade Center attack in September, 2011, most major cities in the United States were not only aware, but anticipatory regarding the potential for a terrorist attack. Seattle has been fortunate in that it has never experienced an actual international attack, but has had three major domestic incidents since 1999 that continue to be in the minds of Emergency Management professionals. In 1999, Ahmed essam, an Al-Qaeda operative, was apprehended smuggling bomb-making materials into Port Angeles. Because this was so close to the New Year's Eve Millennium event, the New Year's celebration at the Seattle Center was cancelled. Subsequently, the actual target was identified as Los Angeles International Airport. Then, in 2001, The Earth Liberation Front attacked the Urban Horticulture Center at the University of Washington, causing in excess of $7 million in damages. Finally, in 2006, gunmen attacked the Jewish Federal of Greater…
Origins of the Molotov Myth. (April 9, 2008). De-Fact-O. Retrieved from: http://www.de-fact-o.com/fact_read.php?id=12
Terrorism fears halt Seattle Y2K plans. (December 28, 1999). TheCabinet.net. Retrieved from: http://thecabin.net/stories/122899/wor_1228990003.html
The Reichstag Fire. (2006). 9-11 Review. Retrieved from: http://911review.com/precedent/century/reichstag.html
Alsultany, E. (2007). Selling American Diversity and Muslim American Identity through Nonprofit Advertising Post-9/11. The American Quarterly. 59 (3): 593-622.
Discriminatory Treatment of Women in Public Safety
Women can face gender discrimination in public safety on a number of different fronts. They can face job discrimination in workplaces that are related to public safety, such as police departments, fire departments, and emergency medical work units. They can also face discrimination as crime victims. Finally, they can face discrimination as perpetrators; being treated unfairly due to their gender. This research will focus on how women face discrimination as crime victims, specifically as victims of gender-based crimes. Domestic violence and sexual assault are primary public safety risks for women, and that women are, therefore, more likely to receive assistance for gender-based violence than men are.
Cooper, . (2012). Lack of state accountability in acts of domestic violence: Understanding the contrast between the U.S. And international approaches. Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law, 29(3), 657-689.
This article focuses on legal responses (criminal…
Cooper, R. (2012). Lack of state accountability in acts of domestic violence: Understanding the contrast between the U.S. And international approaches. Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law, 29(3), 657-689.
Franklin, E. (2010-2011). When domestic violence and sex-based discrimination collide: Civil rights approaches to combating domestic violence and its aftermath. DePaul Journal for Social Justice, 4(2), 335-348.
Goldfarb, S. (2010). Symposium presentation: Rutgers School of Law- Newark and the history of women and the law: Viewing the Violence Against Women Act through the lenses of feminist legal theory. Women's Rights Law Reporter, 31(2/3), 198-205.
Hines, D. & Douglas, E. (2011). The reported availability of U.S. domestic violence services to victims who vary by age, sexual orientation, and gender. Partner Abuse, 2(1), 3-30.
open communication while resolving public safety concerns. Moreover, it demonstrates the efforts conducted by various agencies in training their personnel to form alliances with local community residents. The primary aim is to initiate quick response in times of emergency.
Public safety agencies should have clear communication with each other to best serve individual citizens. Police departments should formulate governance contracts allowing them to manage, work with, and own communication systems that permit interactions with different agencies in different states (Communication Technologies, 2008).
In 1933, police departments started using radios as government-provided equipment. In the same way, other public agencies such as fire departments and emergency medical services also had their own radios transmitting at their particular frequencies. At the time, sharing of information between the various agencies and across state-borders was generally unheard of. Therefore, states and agencies have begun to rethink and revise their policies concerning information sharing (Communication…
Association, M.C. (2010). Key Leadership Strategies to Enhance Communication. COPS.
Committee on Science and Technology for Countering Terrorism, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, National Research Council, "Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism," (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002), 270. http://www.nap.edu/html/stct/index.html [Accessed November 7, 2004]
Communication Technologies. (2008, June 20). Retrieved from www.nij.gov: http://www.nij.gov/topics/technology/communication/pages/governance.aspx
Docobo, J. (2005, June). Retrieved from www.hsaj.org: https://www.hsaj.org/articles/183
law enforcement agencies to train employees in ethical decision making. This includes training their employees to include public safety in terms of any legal decisions at a time of crisis. The paper also includes the field investigation of a police agency regarding the training of their employees for their ethical decision making.
Failures in public management are directly dependent on security shortfalls. The financial and social costs that include costs of facing crimes, deploying guards, and social stress, can only be minimized by use of effective government decisions that increase security. Although security problems are now getting their due attention from both the perspectives of public management and policy, there are few empirical examinations (Ghaffarzadegan & Andersen, n.d.).
Some security warnings have been issued to improve the security in public places. These are aimed at improving awareness; individuals are expected to become more defensive as a result of these warnings.…
Abrams, S. (2011). NYPD Crimson. Retrieved from http://www.hks.harvard.edu .
Bond, B., & Morreale, S. (n.d.). Elements of Decision-Making in Police Organization. Pending Publication. Retrieved from: https://www.academia.edu/778699/Elements_of_Decision-making_in_Police_Organizations
Ghaffarzadegan, N., & Andersen, D. (n.d.). Management Tools for Public Safety: Behavioral Decision Making Considerations. Rockefeller College of Public Affairs and Policy, 4-5.
Geller, W.A., & Stephens, D.W. (2003). Local Government Police Management (4th ed., pp.71-83). United States of America: ICMA Press.
Local, State, Federal Partnerships
Local, State, and Federal Partnerships
Q1.Explain the chain-of-command structure when receiving information about a possible act of terrorism in your city. The incident is confirmed to be the work of terrorists. Now what?
The mayor (or city or county manager) is charged with providing strategic guidance and coordinating resources during an emergency. As part of the mayor's responsibility for the public's safety, he or she is charged with coordinating "preparation and training for effective response" and working with members of Congress and federal agencies to do so (NF, 2014: 15). In the case of a confirmed act of terrorism this might include working with the Department of Homeland Security, the FBI, or the CIA to not simply provide assistance and relief to affected individuals (as would be the case with a natural disaster) but also to gather information on the possible perpetrators. The city's local emergency…
Chapter 4: The global challenge of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN)
Terrorism (2012). Country Reports on Terrorism 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2011/195548.htm
National Response Framework. (2014). FEMA. Retrieved from:
Threat of Terrorism: Weighing Public Safety in Seattle is an eye opening account of the ever present threat of radical terrorism. The case study presented a result that seems that much luck was involved in preventing any wide scale violence. Most importantly however, this research presented many unanswered questions that lie within finding an appropriate balance between public safety and common sense.
Risk is inherent in life. Life itself hinges upon its ultimate death. We are all on death row one way or another. Safety is preventing a premature death due to negligence and wanton ignorance. But is too much safety a bad thing ? Perhaps the media attention given towards the city of Seattle prior to the millennium celebrations attracted a negative type of energy in the form of Islamic bombing terrorists? What role does responsible journalism and information have in preventing or provoking terrorist acts ?
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design CPTED) is a system that is designed to increase public safety and reduce the perception of crime through the "design and management of the physical environment of buildings, residential neighborhoods, and business areas." (Fleissner and Heinzelmann, 1996, p.1) In other words CPTED manages the physical aspects of a neighborhood in a way that reduces crime and the fear of it. A
Fundamental aspect of CPTED is the idea that there must be cooperation between both the police and the members of the community toward the goal of increasing public safety.
As part of their obligation the police can observe the overall security situation in the neighborhood and make recommendation for improvements along with providing building owners and managers information packets that can inform them of how to deal with problem tenants and improve the overall security of the building. The police can also conduct patrols…
Fleissner, Dan and Fred Heinzelmann. (Aug. 1996). "Crime Prevention Through
Environmental Design and Community Policing. National Institute of Justice.
Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/crimepre.pdf
Prison Population Explosion
The incarceration rate in the United States is alarmingly high given the advanced nature of the country overall. Indeed, prisons have become the de facto asylums of the current day. While many people in prisons should absolutely be there, there are many others that are mentally ill, drug-addicted or both. If one or both of those diagnoses were cleared up, this could serve as a vehicle to significantly drive down the amount of people in prison, the amount of recidivism and the net financial and other burdens (such as loss of life) that are thrust upon the American public. While some of the pernicious patterns have ebbed a bit, the solutions used thus far are simply not getting the job done. There needs to be a weeding out of who truly wants to get their life straightened out and who is just playing on the mercy of…
Groffen, D. I., Bosma, H., van den Akker, M., Kempen, G. M., & van Eijk, J. M. (2008).
Material deprivation and health-related dysfunction in older Dutch people: findings from the SMILE study. European Journal of Public Health, 18(3), 258-263.
Hayes, A., Senior, J., Fahy, T., & Shaw, J. (2014). Actions taken in response to mental health screening at reception into prison. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 25(4),
Most citizens rely on local governments to provide primary and secondary education, police protection, recreation facilities, transport, infrastructure, public sanitation and evolving opportunities. Therefore, a good local government should ensure optimum supply of public goods. Public goods are goods with benefits that are nonrival and nonexclusive in consumption. Such goods are financed by taxes levied on local residents. This paper will analyze the allocation of public goods and services in the County of Waukesha, Wisconsin from 2016 to 2018.
Goals and Priorities of Waukesha County
The leadership and residents of Waukesha County envisage a County that is well managed, safe, secure, and with good infrastructure. In orders to realize these goals, a huge sum of the County’s revenue is allocated to public safety, public works department and general government. Table 1, below, displays Waukesha County expenditures from 2016 to 2018. Public safety expenditure is the highest in the County…
Hyman, D. N. (2014). Public Finance: A Contemporary Application of Theory to Policy. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Village of Summit, Waukesha County, Wisconsin – Official Website of the Village of Summit. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://summitvillage.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/2018-Adopted-Operating-Budget.pdf
.....men and women behind everything from public infrastructure to consumer product design, engineers have a distinct ethical obligation to uphold standards of safety. However, there is more to engineering ethics than the assurance that safety standards are met or exceeded. Engineers also need to ascribe to a policy resonant with corporate social responsibility: working in accordance with global values like environmental conservation and sustainability. Another key component of engineering ethics is related to the globalized nature of the work that engineers do: engineers frequently find themselves working in countries and cultures that are different from their own. The occasional conflicts that arise between local and home values may present unique ethnical conundrums that engineers can overcome with critical thinking and cultural awareness.
Safety is the most apparent of all ethical obligations place upon engineers throughout their careers. The first provision of the American Society of Civil Engineers, as with…
Cities use video cameras more and more these days to control traffic in and around major roads and highways. While some may see this as an invasion of privacy, those working in law enforcement know the advantages of having proof of traffic violations. Furthermore, video cameras may be used to potentially spot other kinds of crimes that can lead to breakthroughs in major criminal cases. Therefore, countries like England have added video cameras to airports, public areas, and intersections to promote safety in these areas through constant surveillance (The Telegraph, 2016). Still, video cameras can be costly to implement, maintain, and monitor. Citizens may also feel their privacy invaded without their consent. Is having video cameras as part of a way to monitor the public for a crime a good idea or a bad one?
The advantages are clear and lean towards public safety. Of the many crimes perpetrated in…
This is a contractual obligation, as money has been received for a certain service.
This is closely related to the third obligation in the model, which is "duty to the organization." The press has an obligation to provide the public with a wide variety of viewpoints in order to ensure public debate and accurate information. If a certain piece of information is withheld from the public as a result of its controversial content, this constitutes unfair censorship. The general principle of the press is to promote knowledge rather than censorship. Hence, information that could cause disagreement should not be withheld on those grounds alone.
On the other hand, the press in general also has a duty to society in terms of providing accurate information. The advertisement is in direct opposition to generally accepted facts regarding slavery. Hence publishing it on the strength merely of publishing whatever opinion is paid for…
The private security field also underwent significant reforms in connection with the qualifications, training, and (especially) vetting of employment candidates as well Ortmeier, 2009). Ironically, instead of recognizing the comprehensive improvement throughout the private security industry after 2001, many police personnel intensified their pre-existing disdain for all non-sworn security professionals instead (Dalton, 2003).
The Conceptual Significance of Public and Private Spaces
One of the worst consequences of the antagonism on the part of police toward private security forces is that the private security industry could actually provide valuable assistance to the overall interest of national, regional, and local security. Whereas the actions of all government policing and law enforcement authorities is very strictly limited by fundamental constitutional principles (especially in connection with 4th Amendment search and seizure concepts), non-governmental security agents can operate with considerably wider latitude (Larsen, 2007). In general, private security personnel may conduct various types of searches…
Dalton D. (2003). Rethinking Corporate Security in the Post-9/11 Era. Burlington, MA:
Larsen R. (2007). Our Own Worst Enemy: Asking the Right Questions About Security to Protect You, Your Family, and America. New York: Grand Central Publishing.
Ortmeier P. (2009). Security Management: An Introduction. Uppers Saddle River,
In terms of similarities, each of these budgets contains roughly the same basic format. hile the specific charts may differ, each budget separates revenue sources and attempts to break those down. The budgets also explain the expenditures, and typically break these down to each individual program within the department.
A similarity between three of the budgets (Federal, Florida and Newark) is that they rely heavily on tables and written explanations. hile these tables are necessary in any budget, it is interesting to note that the Newark budget is significantly more visually-oriented than any of the other budgets. The graphic representation of some of the figures makes for a more user-friendly presentation. The other budgets are less likely to be understood by those without some financial training.
Each of the budgets is produced to unique specifications. There appears to be no standard with respect to the production of public budgets, so…
United States 2010 Federal Budget Summary Tables. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy10/pdf/budget/summary.pdf
State of Florida 2009-10 "People's" Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://peoplesbudget.state.fl.us/bdagencies.aspx?full=1
City of Newark 2009 Proposed Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://www.ci.newark.nj.us/government/city_departments/department_of_administration/2009_proposed_budget.php
Environmental Protection Agency 2010 Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://www.epa.gov/budget/2010/2010bib.pdf
Public Health Preparedness
The concept of 'public health preparedness' (PHP) has been garnering recognition worldwide, given the global-scale threats which are constantly encountered by professional healthcare organizations, including bioterrorism, Ebola, the West Nile Virus, and influenza. Preparedness approaches have brought about improvements in the overall healthcare system, by enabling swifter responses to diverse kinds of hazards across the globe. A majority of PHP measures adopted in America are government-judged; this gives rise to concerns pertaining to militarization. Still, preparedness programs in other country-level settings don't essentially indicate comparable implications. The global significance of health sector preparedness has served to increase governmental need of resolving the concern by means of financing, advances, and maintenance approaches which aid speedy response to every kind of crisis. However, akin to all other ideas, the PHP concept is also accompanied by certain major challenges, like the threat of public health militarization. Yet the associated advantages…
Eisenstein, R., Finnegan, J. R., & Curran, J. W. (2014). Contributions of Academia to Public Health Preparedness Research. Public Health Reports, 129(Suppl 4), 5 -- 7.
Khan, Y., Fazli, G., Henry, B., de Villa, E., Tsamis, C., Grant, M., & Schwartz, B. (2015). The Evidence Base of Primary Research in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Scoping Review and Stakeholder Consultation. BMC Public Health, 15, 432. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1750-1
Moore, S., Mawji, A., Shiell, A., & Noseworthy, T. (2007). Public Health Preparedness: A Systems-Level Approach. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61(4), 282 -- 286. http://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2004.030783
Nelson, C., Lurie, N., Wasserman, J., & Zakowski, S. (2007). Conceptualizing and Defining Public Health Emergency Preparedness. American Journal of Public Health, 97(Suppl 1), S9 -- S11. http://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2007.114496
Over the last several years, the total amounts of spending for the federal government has been continually brought to the forefront. This is because of the high trade deficits and national debt is having an impact on how various services are delivered. In the case of Justice Department, they have been facing drastic cuts. The reason why is from officials using the funds they are receiving to provide generous benefits for employees. ("Budget Cuts Should Start with DOJ," 2011)
A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than a DOJ Inspector General's report. They found that there is rampant waste inside the agency (with them spending $16 per muffin for a breakfast gathering and $600 thousand for event planning services). ("Budget Cuts Should Start with DOJ," 2011) These elements are illustrating how these kinds of reports are leading to a reduction in spending and…
Budget Cuts Should Start with DOJ. (2011). TPM Muckraker. Retrieved from: http://tpmmuckraker.talkingpointsmemo.com/2011/09/grassley_budget_cuts_should_start_with_dojs_16_muffins.php
Cost Control. (2012). Reference for Business. Retrieved from: http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Cos-Des/Cost-Control.html
Department of Justice FY 2013 Budget. (2012). DOJ. Retrieved from: http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2012/February/12-ag-205.html
DOJ Cuts Will Impact Public Safety. (2011). 10 News. Retrieved from: http://www.10news.com/news/29881532/detail.html
Law Enforcement and the Budget
The most important stakeholders in the public finance of law enforcement organizations are the tax payers. Without taxes collected, the government could not afford to fund organizations. Municipal taxes, bonds, grants and more all go to fund law enforcement organizations. State and local taxes pay salaries and pensions for retiring officers, and yet still many municipal, state and federal level law enforcement agencies are required to borrow in order to meet structural requirements. Many cities run a continual budgetary deficit, with mounting debts putting pensions at risk. This is common across America with states like Kentucky and Illinois essentially sitting on a time bomb of debt. This impacts the other stakeholders—the workers in the law enforcement agencies, as well as the public, who are served by the law enforcement workers and the elected officials who must oversee the plans for allocating sources for budgetary purposes.…
Mary have the right to reveal this information to others? Please justify your answer based on what you know about public health and ethics.
Health information management ethics do not allow Mary to reveal the information. Medical records are used to aid decision making in clinical health circles. They are used for a range of other processes including service coordination, efficacy of health care, evaluation, legal security, research, accreditation supplications, policy making, regulation, education and a range of others. It is important to maintain the confidentiality of the information shared by patients with health officers; trust is to be maintained with the patients (Harman, Flite, & ond, 2012). If such practice is not observed, patients will be wary of sharing information. Consequently, the quality of health care would be compromised (ord, urke, & Dudzinski, 2013). Privacy has a range of other benefits apart from the direct health service provision advantages.…
Blightman, K., Griffiths, S., & Danbury, C. (2014). Patient confidentiality: when can a breach be justified? Oxford Journals.
Bord, J. D., Burke, W., & Dudzinski, D. (2013). Confidentiality. Ethics in Medicine.
Harman, L., Flite, C., & Bond, K. (2012). Electronic Health Records: Privacy, Confidentiality, and Security. AMA Journal of Ethics, 712-719.
Nass, S., Levit, L., & Gostin, L. (2009). Beyond the HIPAA Privacy Rule: Enhancing Privacy, Improving Health Through Research. Washington: National Academies Press.
Public Administration: Presenting for the Future
Immigration Policy eform
The term "immigration reform" is used to collectively refer to all efforts that have been undertaken by a country to amend abuses and reduce faults in its immigration policy. These efforts could be geared at either promoting and encouraging immigration or reducing and even eliminating the same. A perfect example of the former is the UK's promotion of the absorption of foreign-educated health specialists in its National Health Service (Dodds, 2012). The U.S. has, however, almost consistently run an anti-immigration policy. As this text will demonstrate, numerous reform efforts have been undertaken since way back in the 18th century to reduce the number of aliens illegally or legally crossing into the U.S. through the country's border points. Most of these efforts were particularly speeded up after the 9/11 tragedy; however, the successful implementation of these has been hampered by a number…
Baker, B. & Rytina, N. (2012). Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2012. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved 17 March 2015 from http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/ois_ill_pe_2012_2.pdf
Camayd-Freixas, E. (2013). U.S. Immigration Reform and its Global Impact: Lessons from the Postville Raid. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan
Carens, J.H. (2013). The Ethics of Immigration. New York, NY: Oxford University Press
DHS. (2015). About DHS. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved 17 March 2015 from http://www.dhs.gov/about-dhs
Any organization that deals directly with petroleum-based products, including storage facilities, will be affected by the act. The act also provides for Area Contingency Plans in case of emergency. The Pollution Prevention Act aims to reduce pollution "through cost-effective changes in production, operation, and raw materials use," ("Pollution Prevention Act"). Recycling programs fall under the Pollution Prevention Act; therefore, organizations might be required under this law to participate in large-scale recycling programs. Moreover, the Pollution Prevention Act is designed to curb source pollution, so the act applies especially to organizations that are potential polluters. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act applies especially to storage of toxic waste. The act will pertain to employees of waste management facilities or of any organization that must dispose of its waste material in an environmentally sound and legally authorized way.
About EPA." 2005. Online at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/aboutepa.htm.
Clean ater Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/water/cwa.htm.…
About EPA." 2005. Online at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/aboutepa.htm .
Clean Water Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/water/cwa.htm .
Endangered Species Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/defs/html/esa.htm .
Freedom of Information Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/defs/html/foia.htm .
This results in healthy, hygienic practices such as washing hands, cooking meat properly, and ensuring a sufficient daily intake of the correct nutrients without encouraging obesity.
Government legislation is another important component in public health infrastructure. This component is essential in protecting the public from unsafe foods such as unpasteurized milk, dangerous insecticides used on fruit and vegetables, and disease-carrying components in imported foods (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report., 1999).
In terms of food security, all the above components of the public health infrastructure can be utilized to help those who feel insecure of their food supply. A thorough scientific investigation can be backed by the other components in order to remedy the situation.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (1999, October 15). Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: afer and Healthier Foods. October 15, 48(40);905-913. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4840a1.htm
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (2000, October 20).…
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (1999, October 15). Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Safer and Healthier Foods. October 15, 48(40);905-913. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4840a1.htm
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (2000, October 20). Self-Reported Concern About Food Security - Eight States, 1996 -- 1998. October 20, 49(41);933-6 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4941a2.htm#top
Public elations (Corporate social responsibility)
The term 'Corporate Social esponsibility' refers to the social responsibility that a Company must honor towards the public, especially those people who have direct contact with and are therefore directly affected by the policies and actions of the company. The feeling that the social responsibility of multi-national companies are not of such standards that would satisfy the general public has lead to widespread protests and demonstrations against these companies at almost every free-trade meeting at the regional and national as well as the multi-national levels. The protests are also generally against worldwide globalization. Almost all major multinational companies are found lacking in their responsibilities towards the public. It is not at all sufficient for a company to satisfy its shareholders and investors and employees and the community in which they function from; in fact, these companies are expected to be aware of and take an…
CEO's Message" HP Standards of Business Conduct. Retrieved at http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/globalcitizenship/csr/sbcbrochure.pdf . Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Corporate Social Responsibility" 2004. Retrieved at http://www.takingitglobal.org/themes/csr/ . Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Corporate Social Responsibility" Retrieved at http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/globalcitizenship/csr/. Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Danng, Lyng. 2004. "Who is monitoring the multinational?" 17th May. Retrieved at http://www.vibewire.net/articles.php?id=2671Accessed on 7 September, 2004
(iii) Among the ones who are dependent on transit, merely 37% stated that they would drive to work by availing the services of an automobile if available. Almost 50%of those driving to work could be taken as potential transit riders depending on flexibility and convenience of availability of transit services. (iv) the other factors which would fuel more use of transit were services of non-transfer nature, express avenues and higher fees for parking. (v) Congestion in traffic was regarded as a very grave situation in 36% among the respondents and fairly serious by 28%. (Byrd, 621) d) Steps to improve transit image and attract choice riders:
Among the modes of transit, introduction of a Bus apid Transit -- BT is a novel innovation which can be promoted as a measure for improvement of the failing image of transit among the population. A good implementation normally entails several of the features…
Bailey, Lee Worth. The enhancements of technology.
University of Illinois Press. 2005.
Byrd, Joseph. P. "Perceptions of Public Transportation." In Public Transportation: Planning,
Operations and Management, G.E. Gray and L.A. Hoel, eds., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1979, pp: 617-633.
The critics of the drug testing policies argue, however, that the policies work to unfairly single out specific athletes for close scrutiny, tempts many of these same athletes to find ways to cheat the test, and that testing also violates the Constitutional right of privacy (McCabe & icciardelli, 2001).
Both arguments are significant, but the main point is that these testing policies and the steroid use that they are involved with have to be dealt with by those that handle public relations, both involving the players and the media/public. Without these public relations individuals, the players could have serious problems with the way that they were viewed by the public, and those that want or do not want the testing could also be viewed rather harshly, so it is important that they have good public relations. This is not always easy, as there are many issues that must be…
Diacin, M.J., Parks, J.B., & Allison, P.C. (2003). Voices of male athletes on drug use, drug testing, and the existing order in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1): 1-16
McCabe, M.P., & Ricciardelli, L.A. (2001). Parent, peer, and media influences on body image and strategies to both increase and decrease body size among adolescent boys and girls. Adolescence, 36: 225-240.
Yesalis, C.E., Kennedy, N.J., Kopstein, A.N., & Bahrke, M.S. (1993). Anabolic-androgenic steroid use in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270:1217-1221.
This means that the government should fund abortions despite of where they are performed whether in hospitals or clinics. This can be achieved through passing legislation to support pro-choice care for all pregnant women. Allowing abortions only in particular situations is a form of discrimination and in order to ensure that Americans have the necessary system that supports the choice of women to get an abortion, the government needs to pass legislation that funds abortion clinics. This will ensure that all women despite their social class have the right to make decisions about their childbearing and their reproductive health and not leaving this to only those who are able to afford to pay for abortion.
Shortage of abortion providers
There has been a shortage of abortion providers over the years as a result of the lack of experience in conducting abortions for doctors since despite their medical education, they are…
Jane Roe, Et Al. V. Henry Wade, District Attorney of Dallas County Roe v. Wade. U.S. Supreme Court 1973.
Haney, J. The Abortion Debate: Understanding the Issues. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Pub Incorporated, 2008. Print.
Henshaw, S.K., and L.B. Finer. "The Accessibility of Abortion Services in the United States, 2001." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 35.1 (2003): 16-24. Print.
Weisberg, D.K. Family Law. New York: Aspen Pub, 2008. Print.
Public (Government) Finance
This essay examines the debate over extending unemployment benefits. The essay reviews the arguments in favor of and against further extensions, and the implications for economic and social policies. After exploring the alternatives, I make a recommendation and discuss means of measuring the success or failure of my recommendation.
The Apparent Problem/The Facts
Unemployment insurance is compensation that is provided to workers who become unemployed through no fault of their own. Unemployment provides compensation for a specific amount of time, or until a worker finds a new job. Regular unemployment provides benefits for up to 26 weeks, based on the number of weeks that the unemployed person worked in his or her claim year (Doyle, 2011).
Extended unemployment benefits provide compensation for a longer period of time, and are available for workers when they have exhausted regular state unemployment benefits during periods of high unemployment.…
Allmanblogs.com. (2010). The case against an unemployment benefits extension: the three main arguments and their rebuttals. Secrets about Unemployment website. Retrieved July 13, 2011 from http://blog.secretsaboutunemployment.com/unemployment-claim/the-case-against-an-unemployment-benefits-extension-the-three-main-arguments-and-their-rebuttals/
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Employment Situation Summary. BLS web site. Retrieved July 13, 2011 from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.nr0.htm
CNBC.com. (2009). Making the case for and against unemployment benefit extension. CNBC Guest Blog. Retrieved July 13, 2011 from http://www.cnbc.com/id/32284041/Making_the_Case_For_and_Against_Unemployment_Benefit_Extension
Doyle, A. (2011). Unemployment Extension. About.com website. Retrieved July 13, 2011 from http://jobsearch.about.com/od/unemployment/a/unempextension.htm
They may not be reassigned to perform work that is substantially different from their normal occupational responsibilities (OSHA, 2003).
Employers may not submit information about the employee that is intended to have damaging consequences on the employee's financial credit history, and employers may not engage in conduct or communications designed to "blackball" the employee from other employment, either within government or in connection with any private sector employment opportunities. Finally, employers may not engage in conduct intended (or reasonably perceived) as "intimidation." Intimidation is one of the most difficult types of non-compliance with activities protected under the Act, because it is subject to interpretation and because it is capable of being perpetrated without any written record. Likewise, many forms of conduct that are generally benign under ordinary (i.e. non-adversarial) circumstances at work only rise to the level of intimidation" in specific context (USLC, 2007).
efusal to Work:
Under certain (limited)…
OSHA (2003) Whistleblower Fact Sheet. Accessed October 9, 2007, at http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_WhistleblowerFacts/whistleblower_protections-general.pdf
U.S. Library of Congress (2007) Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989. Accessed October 8, 2007, at http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/F-c101:1:./temp/~c101Ylqmha:e37677 :
WhistleblowerLaws.com; (2007) the Law: An Overview. Accessed October 9, 2007 at http://whistleblowerlaws.com/protection.htm
Public Goods and Thei Impact on Society
Public institutions ae set up and entusted with ensuing that the sevice which they ae chaged with is effectively implemented and the citizens live within the acceptable standads. In the context of this pape theefoe, thee public goods will be of inteest; national secuity/safety, public health and oads and bidges.
National secuity o safety of the nation is the pivotal public good that each individual in the US needs not only to get but also feel that they get. Each citizen needs to feel safe within the US in ode to be able to engage in economically beneficial activities. It is the single sevice that govenments all ove the wold stive to invest maximum amounts and even ceate liaisons with othe nations to stengthen since it is upon the foundation of the safety of a nation that all othe factos like investments, social…
references. This indicates that there is no majority voting or any other rule that can help in objectively establishing social preference, hence the 'Impossibility Theorem'(Stanford Encyclopedia, 2014). Even in political systems where the lure of democratic voting seems attractive as a means of objectively determining the will of the people on how they want to be governed, still the availability of more than one candidate makes it impossible to be fair preference of the people.
Stanford Encyclopedia, (2014). Arrow's Theorem. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/arrows-theorem/
The etiology of the majority of cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) is unknown. What is known is that the disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that results from a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the area of the brain known as the substantia nigra (Hatfield, 2013). In addition, it is speculated that the disease is related to some type of genetic susceptibility and environmental risk factors that largely remain unidentified. Epidemiological research has suggested that there may be an association between exposure to pesticides and the onset of PD; however, this research is very mixed with some studies indicating that there is such relationship and a number of others failing to demonstrate such an association (Dardiotis, Xiromerisiou, Hadjichristodoulou et al., 2013). Dardiotis et al. (2013) reviewed the research and made a case that perhaps the relationship between pesticide use and PD is moderated by a genetic susceptibility. However, one of…
Dardiotis, E., Xiromerisiou, G., Hadjichristodoulou, C., Tsatsakis, A.M., Wilks, M.F., & Hadjigeorgiou, G.M. (2013). The interplay between environmental and genetic factors in Parkinson's disease susceptibility: the evidence for pesticides. Toxicology, 307, 17-23.
Hatfield, R.C. (2013). The everything guide to the human brain. Avon, MA: Adams.
Liew, Z., Wang, A., Bronstein, J., & Ritz, B. (2014). Job Exposure Matrix (JEM)-derived estimates of lifetime occupational pesticide exposure and the risk of Parkinson's disease. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health, 69(4), 241-251.
Public health core function that is principally addressed by the author is law. As pointed out by the author, public health law infrastructure that is sound is imperative for the reason that it institutes the powers and duties of government to safeguard injury and disease and promote the health of the population (Gostin, 2008). There are examples of how law is used in public health. To begin with, at a personal and individual level, this core function can educate, generate inducements, deter as well as punish. A good illustration is in the sense that health communication promotions provide education and encourage people to make much healthier choices and decision (Gostin, 2000). Secondly, in public health, law as a core function mandates agents of change behavior to have product designs that are much safer and also the use of property. A good example is in the sense that the government undertakes…
This study underscores the presumption that where public health information campaigns are concerned, information is often accessed but forgotten or ignored. By connecting this information to certain compensatory incentives, those who make up a likely donor population may be more likely to retain and return to the information provided. Though controversial, this does present a realistic view on the motives that might incline one toward an act with significant personal and health-related implications.
It is important for public health facilities to consider the courtship of donations in this way, primarily because a failure to do so is increasingly stimulating an extra-curricular market for the sale of kidneys. In other words, by neglecting to consider the option of connecting kidney donation courtship to such compensatory incentives, the medical community is not protecting against the ethical concerns correlated thereto. They are simply forcing would-be recipients to look outside of the field for…
Aghanwa, H.S.; Akinsola, A.; Akinola, D.O. & Makanjuola, R.O.A. (2003). Attitudes Toward Kidney Donation. J Natl Med Assoc., 95(8), 725-731.
Kranenburg, L.; Schram, A.; Zuidema, W.; Weimar, W.; Hilhorst, M.; Hessing, J. & Busschbach, J. (2008). Public Survey of Financial Incentives for Kidney Donation. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 23(3), 1039-1042.
Medical News Today (MNT). (2008). Kidney Donation Websites Raise Ethical Concerns - Public Solicitation For Organs May Favor White, Educated And Wealthy Recipients. Wiley Blackwell Publishing. Online at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/125649.php
Public Order Maintanence Policing
Theory Of Broken Windows
The "Broken Window" theory has enthused police departments in the United States while extending community policing, since its conception in 1982 by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling. The "Broken Windows" theory suggests that neglecting smaller issues would attract bigger issues. The proponents of the theory consider that "at the community level, disorder and crime are usually inextricably linked, in a kind of developmental sequence" and that "one unrepaired broken window is a signal that no one cares and so breaking more windows costs nothing" [Wilson, Kelling, 1982]
However, 'Broken Window' is "only a theory." [Miller, 2001] Controlling crime in a society cannot be as simple as fixing broken windows. The reason for crime in a society is not just about the way the community is maintained; it is a very complex issue with many dimensions. In fact, a criminal mind…
Miller D.W. "Poking Holes in the Theory of 'Broken Windows." 2001, Available at http://www.umsl.edu/~nestor/The%20Chronicle%20February%209,%202001%20Poking%20Holes%20in%20the%20Theory%20of%20.htm. Accessed on 8.10.2003
Vigil, James Diego. A Rainbow of Gangs: Street Cultures in the Mega-City, University of Texas Press, United States, 2002
Wilson, James. Q. and. Kelling George. L. "Broken Windows The police and neighborhood safety," March 1982 Available at http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/crime/windows.htm . Accessed 8.10.2003
It has also been noted that the communication plans and protocols that were in place had not been properly communicated to all necessary parties, such that even the preparations and infrastructure that existed for the express purpose of dealing with emergency events were not properly utilized (White House 2007). Not only were better public safety communications systems as well as interagency communications systems necessary, then, but these systems needed to be more clearly outlined and presented to the right individuals.
esponse to Noted Problems
The issues that arose during the response to Hurricane Katrina did not go unnoticed by the media, the public, or the officials involved in responding to disasters and coordinating relief efforts. Through the reactions of these officials and the legislation that was proposed and/or enacted in the wake of the hurricane, other specific communications problems that occurred during Katrina as well as more general public safety…
Moore, L. (2005). Public Safety Communications Policy: Before and After Hurricane Katrina. Accessed 7 October 2011. http://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=457862
Mountjoy, J. (2005). Broken Connections. Accessed 7 October 2011. http://www.csg.org/knowledgecenter/docs/sn0510BrokenConections.pdf
Perini, M. (2007). Public Communications: Vital Link to Maintaining the Public's Trust During Crisis. Accessed 7 October 2011. http://www.carlisle.army.mil/DIME/documents/Public%20Communications.pdf
US Congress. (2006). Protecting Infrastructure; Public Communication; Role of the Media. Accessed 7 October 2011. http://www.gpoaccess.gov/serialset/creports/pdf/sr109-322/ch20.pdf
Fire services are on the front lines of community safety, and are occasionally integrated with other community organizations. However, fire service affiliations with other community groups are frequently underutilized. Fire service organizations sometimes fail to form effective alliances with community groups, and vice-versa, leading to breakdowns in communication and diminished delivery of service. Given the relationship value inherent in forming deeper and broader affiliations within the community, fire service organizations and the areas they serve benefit tremendously from relational and institutional embeddedness. Relational and institutional embeddedness refers to the comprehensive coordination of communications and other critical services, not just when responding to disasters. Relationship value is created throughout the processes of disaster prevention.
One of the ways community group affiliation with the fire service creates value is through the process of education, public relations, and public awareness, and how awareness promotes public safety. Affiliated groups need to establish ongoing information…
There is confusion about laws which are subject to different interpretations and this result in critical information not being made available. This is caused by such laws like the "Educational ights and Privacy Act -- FEPA, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act -- HIPAA and a number of legislations that seek to protect the privacy of the family." ("eport to the President on Issues aised by the Virginia Tech Tragedy," 2007) Many state laws are also interpreted in such a way that they retard the work of agencies involved in monitoring health and safety issues. ("eport to the President on Issues aised by the Virginia Tech Tragedy," 2007) the complex nature of the law and the state laws, with a small percent of the laws applicable in a federal scale, it is not possible to enforce uniform standards.
It is to be concluded that the federal laws must be…
Billi, John E; Agrawal, Gail Bopp. (2001) "The Challenge of Regulating Managed Care"
Gostin, Larry Ogalthorpe. (2002) "Public Health Law and Ethics: A Reader" University of California Press.
Grim, Charles W. (2005, Jan) "IHS Focuses on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention"
Retrieved 11 February, 2008 at http://www.usmedicine.com/column.cfm?columnID=193&issueID=70
, 2006). The ongoing investigation is being conducted by a "National Interagency Serious Accident Investigation Team," with the purpose of "determining fact surrounding the incident, identify lessons learned," and with the end result a set of "...recommendations for accident prevention purposes."
The investigation will no doubt look into the fire shelter issue, although since the firefighters are gone, the question of why shelters were not used cannot be answered. If all five men had fire shelters on board the engine, it will seem sadly ironic that those protective units were not deployed. For wildland firefighters, it is not only important for escape routes and other safety procedures to be established, but it is imperative that firefighters are in possession of the very newest, safest fire shelters; and with this in mind, the USDA / USFS "Fire & Aviation Management" eb site offers some conflicting and confusing information.
On one page…
Golway, Terry. (2005). Firefighters. American Heritage Magazine. Retrieved 1 Nov. 2006 at http://www.americanheritage.com .
Fire Chief. (2006). Near-Miss Report Total Reaches 1,000. Retrieved 1 Nov. 2006 at http://www.firechief.com/news/1000_near_miss10242006/index.html .
Firehouse.com. (2005) VFIS's Operation Safe Arrival: Don't
Become a Statistic. Retrieved 29 Oct. 2006 at http://cms.firehouse.com/content/article/printer/jsp?id=50236.
Leadership is a challenging endeavor in any sector. In the public sector, however, leadership tends to be particularly more challenging. Public sector leaders often have to work with fewer resources to address increasingly complex challenges. In addition, effective leadership in the public sector is vital for not only driving employee motivation and performance, but also ensuring efficient performance of government agencies and the government in general (McCarthy, 2015). Indeed, leadership is important for effective public governance -- transparency, accountability, planning, efficiency, and so forth (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD], 2001). Another challenge stems from the fact that public sector leaders operate within a conundrum of bureaucratic rules, processes, and processes, which affect processes such as communication, delegation, and teamwork (Teelken, Ferlie & Dent, 2012). In essence, leaders in the public sector face different challenges compared to their counterparts in the private sector, making public sector leadership an especially…
Most state and federal regulations related to the transportation of hazardous materials were first established in 1975 with the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act. The Act broadly defines hazardous materials as anything that “may pose an unreasonable risk to health and safety or property,” (OSHA, 2017). In practice, hazardous materials generally include explosives, hazardous waste, gasses, radioactive material, flammable or combustible materials, and harmful chemicals. However, each state would have its own regulations, which sometimes conflicted with neighboring states or federal regulations. Further complicating the issues related to safe transport of hazardous materials was the fact that a large number of federal, state, and local agencies would have different jurisdictions and subject to different regulations or laws, such as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), Federal Railway Administration (FRA), Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), and the United States Coast Guard (USCG) (Federal Motor Carrier…
Boosting job satisfaction by offering employees safety nets should they get MSD or offering as many preventative measures as possible will lead to a corporate culture more conducive to long-term profitability. Firms should move away from the prevailing business model that discounts employee satisfaction (and employee health) and shift toward a more holistic vision of business. No industry or organization will fare well for long if they cannot maintain a healthy workforce. Firms and their leaders also have an ethical obligation to provide their employees with the best ergonomic equipment and the latest knowledge about MSDs.
MSDs are not a problem, regardless of arguments that insufficient research backs up OSHA's claims. Enough research is available and enough case studies testify to the problem. The federal government absolutely should intervene and mandate complete coverage for MSDs because one of the purposes of government is to help maintain public safety.
Denhardt & Denhardt report that "one aspect of compensation policy that has received substantial attention over the years is the comparability of wages and salaries in the public and private sectors. Efforts to make such comparisons are similar to comparing apples and oranges, thus early studies tended to show public-sector salaries considerably below those in the private sector -- today ranging between 22 and 38%, depending on grade level." (p. 299)
Accordingly, many agencies are under real economic pressure to improve pay scales of public employees and to close this notable gap. For Orange County, this prompts a recommendation to evaluate compensation strategies lest they should lose many of the best and brightest young public administration candidates to more lucrative private enterprising opportunities. Indeed, though the benefits and transparency of public administration may be appealing, these cannot compete with so wide a gap in compensation opportunities. If Orange County is…
Denhardt, R.B. & Denhardt, J.V. (2008). Public Administration: An Action Orientation. Cengage Learning.
Drage, T. (2010). Charter Review Commission Orientation. Charter Review Commission.
Geuras, D. & Garofalo, C. (2011). Practical Ethics in Public Administration. Management Concepts.
Haynie, M.O. (2010). Orange County Comptroller. www.occompt.com.
public policy cycle. Public policy is defined as "a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a given problem," (Pal, 2013, p. 3). The first step of making a given problem known is through public opinion, public interest, and related issues like values and norms. However, as Pal (2013) points out, a more idealistic motivation for bringing policy issues to the attention of policymakers is actually public interest itself in terms of core needs like public safety. There are multiple avenues by which an issue may be made known to the Canadian government. One is via the research route, including university and "think tank" methods of analyzing problems empirically and presenting reports to stakeholder organizations or policymakers. A second is from ministers themselves, through close attention being paid to their constituents and the prevailing interests of the people. Legal restrictions might constrain the ways a potential…
Atkinson, M. M. (1993). Public policy and the new institutionalism. Governing Canada: Institutions and public policy. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Canada Inc.
Pal, L.A. (2013). Beyond Policy Analysis. Nelson.
Undocumented Immigrants in Gainesville
The city of Gainesville has a population of about 54,000 and of these, approximately 3,200 are illegal aliens. The law enforcement community in this city is charged with protecting these undocumented aliens on the one hand and enforcing illegal immigrant laws on the other. To the extent that undocumented residents are afraid that the police will enforce the latter may be the extent to which they are discouraged from seeking help from the law enforcement community when they need it, exacerbating existing crime levels. Conversely, the extent to which law enforcement authorities fail to enforce illegal immigration laws may be the extent to which they are viewed as being malfeasant in the prosecution of their official duties. To determine the optimal course of action for law enforcement authorities faced with these conflicting priorities, this paper reviews the relevant literature including a discussion of so-called "sanctuary cities"…
Armajani, B. (2007, August). What transformational leaders do. Government Finance Review, 23(4), 79-83.
Bahn, S. (2013, April 1). Transformational leaders? The pivotal role that supervisors play in safety culture. International Journal of Training Research, 11(1), 17-21.
Bambale, A. & Jaafaru, S. F. (2012, May 1). Servant leadership as employee-organization approach for performance of employee citizenship behaviors in the Nigeria's electric power sector. Journal of Marketing and Management, 3(1), 1-5.
Berger, T. A (2014, Fall). Servant Leadership 2.0: A call for strong theory. Sociological Viewpoints, 30(1), 146-150.
That is because texting also involves the same brain regions and cognitive processes as communicating by telephone that are responsible for the dangers associated with cell phones and driving and combines that risk factor with another additional independent risk factor: visual distraction.
Unlike cell phones, which distract the driver visually for only a small percentage of the time when they are being used for verbal communication, texting while driving is a continuous visual distraction by its very nature that makes it much more dangerous by comparison. Whereas cell phone users only look at their devices to dial and identify in-coming calls drivers who text must continually shift their attention back and forth from watching the road to looking at their communications devices. Especially at typical highway speeds, the amount of time typically required to look at a mobile device for texting purposes is too much time to look away from…
AHAS. (2005). Fact Sheet: Speeding Accessed 26 Nov 2010 from:
Chisholm, S.L., Caird, J.K., and Lockhart, J. "The effects of practice with MP3 players on driving performance." Accident Analysis & Prevention, Vol. 40, No. 2;
One of the most common challenges that firms will face is taking a company public. This is because the timing must be right and there needs to be clear objectives as to where new investment capital will be utilized. Those firms that are taking these factors into account will have a more successful initial public offering (IPO). In the case of Avaya, the company is considering an IPO in the near future. However, there are challenges in determining what tactics should be utilized to attract the most interest. To decide this requires examining: the type of investors that Avaya is trying to draw, the lesson learned from the Google / Morningstar IPOs, the advantages of each type and the costs / risks. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights as to how Avaya should go public.
The type of investors Avaya is likely to attract
Hot Issue. (2012). Investopedia. Retrieved from: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/h/hotissue.asp#axzz1pxFFOPLB
Traditional IPOs vs. Auction-Based IPOs. (2011), Im Invest. Retrieved from: http://www.iminvest.com/traditional-ipos-vs.-auction-based-ipos/
Traditional IPOs vs. Auction-Based IPOs. (2012). Esortment.com. Retrieved from: http://www.essortment.com/traditional-ipo-vs.-auction-based-ipo-24886.html
Carter, A. (2005). Morningstar follows Google's lead. Business Week. Retrieved from: http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/jan2005/nf20050110_8372_db035.htm
Safety net hospitals have traditionally provided medical services vital to public health. Unfortunately, the recent economic recession has dealt a hard blow to safety net hospitals, even to the point of forcing hospital closures. Fortunately, Health Care Reform has already positively impacted U.S. health care and will even revolutionize American health care in some respects.
The Effect of the Closure of Safety Net Hospitals on Public Health
Safety net hospitals, such as Grady Memorial Hospital, serve the public health through providing vital treatment of uninsured, underinsured, Medicaid, and Medicare patients, along with some privately insured patients (Dewan & Sack, 2008). In addition, some safety net hospitals are also teaching hospitals that train medical professionals who contribute considerably to public health. Unfortunately, economic pressures are forcing the closure of some safety net hospitals, resulting in the severe reduction of medical care in certain communities for the "poor and underserved" (Altman, Shactman,…
Altman, S.H., Shactman, D., & Efrat, E. (2006, Jan/Feb). Could U.S. hospitals go the way of U.S. airlines? Retrieved September 1, 2012 from Proquest.com Web site: http://search.proquest.com/docview/204650663/138ED25BFA63A547161/5?accountid=28844
Amalberti, R., Auroy, Y., Berwick, D., & Barach, P. (2005, May 3). Five system barriers to achieving ultrasafe health care. Retrieved September 1, 2012 from Proquest.com Web site: http://search.proquest.com/docview/222267835/138ED3FE9A36E21E74A/6?accountid=28844
Dewan, S., & Sack, K. (2008, January 8). A safety-net hospital falls into financial crisis. Retrieved September 1, 2012 from Nytimes.com Web site: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/08/us/08grady.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1
Felland, L.E., Cunningham, P.J., Cohen, G.R., November, E.A., & Quinn, B.C. (2010, January). The economic recession: Early impacts on health care safety net providers. Retrieved September 1, 2012 from Rwjf.org Web site: http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/55109.pdf