Public Safety Essays (Examples)

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Safety Systems New Development in the Organization

Words: 1850 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27489500

Safety Systems

New development in the organization of work may affect worker health through a variety of ways by raising the risk of stress-related illnesses, like cardiovascular disease, and psychological disorders, by raising exposure to hazardous substances and fighting on the job, or by affecting occupational health services and training programs. There are a lot of things to be learned about the nature of changes in work organization, and how they affect the health and safety of worker. While the availability of evidence is limited, such proof recommends that new development and trends in work organization may be growing the risk of occupational illnesses. In a revolutionary publication, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has provided a brief summary of available knowledge and an explained agenda for research and progress.


As an employer or manager, getting involved in place of work health and safety will:

• Decrease the costs of office injuries and sicknesses. Workplace injuries and illness are most likely more costly than we think. We may have to pick up costs relating to lowered output, loss of valued staff, staff recruitment and retraining, effects on manufactured goods and service quality and damage to plant and…… [Read More]

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Public Administration Implementation on the Most Basic

Words: 1031 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71598204

Public Administration


On the most basic level, implementation is the action of putting a theory or concept into motion. Implementation involves many elements, including decision-making, communications, politics, budgeting, intergovernmental relations, public administrator's professional expertise, ethics and the general environment. This essay will explore two of these elements, ethics and communications. After some brief comments on the precise definition of "implementation," we will look at the Challenger case in relation to ethics, and we will look at the Bakersfield case in relation to communications.

Defining Implementation

The term implementation is often used to describe activities involved in making theories and concepts into realities. Several steps must be taken before a concept becomes an actuality. First of all, the concept or theory must be approved at the governmental level. Once approval is complete, the concept moves into an authoritative public policy directive. These directives, or mandates, can include statutes, executive orders, and judicial orders. Many people are involved once the policy directive is in place, ranging from private sector and non-profit organizations to clientele and interested citizen groups. These people engage in a variety of activities to make the policy a reality. This stage of the process involves procuring resources, interpreting…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ayres, Chris. "Economic Woes Take Lustre Off Golden State." The Times December 11, 2002, sec. Overseas News: 18.

Cole, David. No Equal Justice: Race and Class in the American Criminal Justice System. New York: The New Press, 1999.

Houston, David J. "Implementation." International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration. Ed. Jay M. Shafritz. Vol. 2. Boulder: Westview Press, 1998. 1093-97.

Hummel, Ralph P. "Bureaucracy." International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration. Ed. Jay M. Shafritz. Vol. 1. Boulder: Westview Press, 1998. 307-9.
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Public Communication Ethics Response A

Words: 2137 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46331261

This is a contractual obligation, as money has been received for a certain service.

This is closely related to the third obligation in the model, which is "duty to the organization." The press has an obligation to provide the public with a wide variety of viewpoints in order to ensure public debate and accurate information. If a certain piece of information is withheld from the public as a result of its controversial content, this constitutes unfair censorship. The general principle of the press is to promote knowledge rather than censorship. Hence, information that could cause disagreement should not be withheld on those grounds alone.

On the other hand, the press in general also has a duty to society in terms of providing accurate information. The advertisement is in direct opposition to generally accepted facts regarding slavery. Hence publishing it on the strength merely of publishing whatever opinion is paid for could be considered unethical in terms of balanced and fair information provision. Particularly, the audience of the publication in question should also be considered. If the audience is for example generally black, one cannot endorse the publication of a piece that could be considered as racist or in some other…… [Read More]

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Public Service the Modernisation of

Words: 2882 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70909589

3. Changes in structure.

In order to facilitate the above needs and requirements that are envisaged for the police services, the government has introduced a policy with regards to the structure of the police services. This is related to the view that there should be less of a "top-down" structure to the police services than was the case in the past. In other words, there is more of an emphasis on outcomes and value-added services.

To facilitate this ideal a number of important agencies have been established. These include the National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA); Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA); the Chief Police Officers (ACPO)' Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA). Communication is facilitated by regular meeting with the Home Secretary. (From the neighbourhood to the national: policing our communities together)

2.3.1. Legislation

New structure also necessitates the creation of new legislation to ensure that the police service works in a formal and correct way. In this regard we can refer to some changes that have been initiated. New powers have been granted to the police to deal with crimes and terrorism. This is obviously related to the governmental agenda to broaden the fight against domestic crime as well as internal…… [Read More]


Excellence and fairness: Achieving world class public services, viewed May 8, 2009
From the neighbourhood to the national: policing our communities together. Presented to Parliament by The Secretary of State for the Home Department, 2008, viewed May 7. 2009,

MODERNISING THE POLICE SERVICE: A Report by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary, viewed May 8, 2009

Police authority budgets face cap, viewed May 8, 2009 < >
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Public Sector Comparator Psc in Public Private Partnership PPP Process

Words: 6929 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95260180

Public Private Comparator

Public Sector Comparator (PSC) in the Public-private partnership (PPP) Process

Increased global financial pressures have caused many government entities to cut costs in any way possible. One way is to outsource services or projects to private companies. However, when comparing costs, the public sector frequently bases its cost calculations for a project by omitting certain types of factors. These can include employee benefits, utilities, or total administrative costs. As result, public sector services may erroneously appear to be less expensive than private services. The public cost comparator (PSC) provides a better comparison of the costs of public and private services. If the private sector can provide services cheaper than the public sector, then the public sector may choose to engage in a public -- private partnership (PPP). This allows them to share the costs, benefits, and risks of the project.

More than one method exists for comparing public and private job costs. Several factors that must be considered in the comparison are the discount rate, risk factors, and total costs of the project. In many cases, the discount rate will be lower for the public sector because they already have the infrastructure in place. This research will…… [Read More]


Ball, R. (2009). The provision of public service infrastructure -- the use of PPPs in the UK and Australia. International Journal of Public Sector Management. 24 (1): 6-22.

Brusewitz, M . 2005. Public-private partnerships in the United States. Project finance. Legal Advisers Review. 2004/2005: p. 70-71. Available from: [Accessed 3 December 2011].

Bult-Spiering, M. & Dewulf, G., 2006, Strategic issues in public-private partnerships: an international perspective, Wiley-Blackwell.

Burger, P. & Hawkesworth, I. 2010. How to Attain Value for Money: Comparing PPP and Traditional Infrastructure Public Procurement. OECD. Annual OECD network meeting of Senior PPP Officials in Paris. 12-13 April 2010.
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Public and Private Policing Functions

Words: 914 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7564262

The private security field also underwent significant reforms in connection with the qualifications, training, and (especially) vetting of employment candidates as well Ortmeier, 2009). Ironically, instead of recognizing the comprehensive improvement throughout the private security industry after 2001, many police personnel intensified their pre-existing disdain for all non-sworn security professionals instead (Dalton, 2003).

The Conceptual Significance of Public and Private Spaces

One of the worst consequences of the antagonism on the part of police toward private security forces is that the private security industry could actually provide valuable assistance to the overall interest of national, regional, and local security. Whereas the actions of all government policing and law enforcement authorities is very strictly limited by fundamental constitutional principles (especially in connection with 4th Amendment search and seizure concepts), non-governmental security agents can operate with considerably wider latitude (Larsen, 2007). In general, private security personnel may conduct various types of searches and investigations pursuant to the assertion of private property rights that would constitute egregious constitutional violations if conducted by any governmental policing authorities (Larsen, 2007). But for the degree to which the uncooperative attitude of police toward private security personnel is unfounded, greater cooperation with and coordination between police and…… [Read More]


Dalton D. (2003). Rethinking Corporate Security in the Post-9/11 Era. Burlington, MA:


Larsen R. (2007). Our Own Worst Enemy: Asking the Right Questions About Security to Protect You, Your Family, and America. New York: Grand Central Publishing.

Ortmeier P. (2009). Security Management: An Introduction. Uppers Saddle River,
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Public Budgeting in America Advisory

Words: 4933 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63407320

In terms of similarities, each of these budgets contains roughly the same basic format. While the specific charts may differ, each budget separates revenue sources and attempts to break those down. The budgets also explain the expenditures, and typically break these down to each individual program within the department.

A similarity between three of the budgets (Federal, Florida and Newark) is that they rely heavily on tables and written explanations. While these tables are necessary in any budget, it is interesting to note that the Newark budget is significantly more visually-oriented than any of the other budgets. The graphic representation of some of the figures makes for a more user-friendly presentation. The other budgets are less likely to be understood by those without some financial training.

Each of the budgets is produced to unique specifications. There appears to be no standard with respect to the production of public budgets, so each government and each agency is free to produce a budget according to whichever criteria they feel best. This gives each entity control over the information that they wish to publicize as well, which could have transparency risks. This also makes it difficult to compare budgets across government entities. That…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

United States 2010 Federal Budget Summary Tables. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from

State of Florida 2009-10 "People's" Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from

City of Newark 2009 Proposed Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from

Environmental Protection Agency 2010 Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from
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Public Administration Eighth Amendment the

Words: 2456 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27294932

CIV S-90-0520 LKK JFM P, 2009 WL 2430820 (E.D.

Cal. Aug. 4, 2009). (2010). Harvard Law Review, 123(3), p.752-759.

This article discusses the civil rights case Coleman v. Schwarzenegger wherein the plaintiff sued California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger for unconstitutional prison conditions. The lawsuit was examined in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of California under the Prison Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (PLRA). The court ruled that authorities should conduct an assessment on the impact of prisoner's release on public safety as long as inmate reduction measures are concerned.

Eight Amendment -- Death Penalty- Missouri Supreme Court Holds that the Juvenile Death

Penalty Violates the Eight Amendment. - State ex rel. Simmons v. Roper, 112 S.W.3d

(Mo. 2003) (en banc), cert. granted, 124 S. Ct. 1171 (2004). Harvard Law Review,

117(7), p.2456-2461.

This article looks at the decision of the Missouri Supreme Court on the case State ex rel. Simmons vs. Roper which held that the juvenile death penalty comprises cruel and unusual punishment and thus violates the 8th Amendment. There is also an examination in this article in regards to the doctrine of the U.S. Supreme Court as it relates to the 8th Amendment prohibition against cruel…… [Read More]


Adelman, Stanley E. (n.d.). Supreme Court Bans Death Penalty for Under -- 18 Offenders.

Retrieved January 14, 2011, from

Eighth Amendment. (2011). Retrieved January 14, 2011, from Web site:
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Public Programs Over the Last Several Years

Words: 1801 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14306249

Public Programs

Over the last several years, the total amounts of spending for the federal government has been continually brought to the forefront. This is because of the high trade deficits and national debt is having an impact on how various services are delivered. In the case of Justice Department, they have been facing drastic cuts. The reason why is from officials using the funds they are receiving to provide generous benefits for employees. ("Budget Cuts Should Start with DOJ," 2011)

A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than a DOJ Inspector General's report. They found that there is rampant waste inside the agency (with them spending $16 per muffin for a breakfast gathering and $600 thousand for event planning services). ("Budget Cuts Should Start with DOJ," 2011) These elements are illustrating how these kinds of reports are leading to a reduction in spending and greater oversight. To fully understand what is happening requires focus on: the political / economic / social influences, the interaction with the agency / different levels of government, specific limitations, the strategies that will be utilized to justify these actions, present / future costs and the use of cost control…… [Read More]


Budget Cuts Should Start with DOJ. (2011). TPM Muckraker. Retrieved from:

Cost Control. (2012). Reference for Business. Retrieved from: 

Department of Justice FY 2013 Budget. (2012). DOJ. Retrieved from:

DOJ Cuts Will Impact Public Safety. (2011). 10 News. Retrieved from:
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Presenting for the Future Public Administration

Words: 3931 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23443609

Public Administration: Presenting for the Future

Immigration Policy Reform

The term "immigration reform" is used to collectively refer to all efforts that have been undertaken by a country to amend abuses and reduce faults in its immigration policy. These efforts could be geared at either promoting and encouraging immigration or reducing and even eliminating the same. A perfect example of the former is the UK's promotion of the absorption of foreign-educated health specialists in its National Health Service (Dodds, 2012). The U.S. has, however, almost consistently run an anti-immigration policy. As this text will demonstrate, numerous reform efforts have been undertaken since way back in the 18th century to reduce the number of aliens illegally or legally crossing into the U.S. through the country's border points. Most of these efforts were particularly speeded up after the 9/11 tragedy; however, the successful implementation of these has been hampered by a number of things, among them a volatile public mood, political wars, and an overall lack of public understanding on the constitutional, social, and economic elements surrounding the immigration issue. Studies have shown that in as much as Americans harbor strong views and beliefs about this issue, most of them do not…… [Read More]


Baker, B. & Rytina, N. (2012). Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2012. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved 17 March 2015 from

Camayd-Freixas, E. (2013). U.S. Immigration Reform and its Global Impact: Lessons from the Postville Raid. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan

Carens, J.H. (2013). The Ethics of Immigration. New York, NY: Oxford University Press

DHS. (2015). About DHS. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved 17 March 2015 from
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Safety Is a Universal Need There Is

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89337025

Safety is a universal need.

There is need to have well structured safety systems that ensure safety is guaranteed at work places.

There is need to have in place the Occupational Safety and Health Management Systems especially at workplaces.

Safety systems

In each environment, there is need to have the utmost safety as long as there are people involved in the given environment. The need to have well structured safety systems that ensure safety is guaranteed at all times especially at work environments which would otherwise experience disproportionate insecurity and injury cases for the workers if such systems were not in place.

There is need to have in place the Occupational Safety and Health Management Systems that will enable the apt implementation of the safety measures, not only to intervene in times of an emergency occasioned by work environment hazards, but also to eliminate the possibility of such hazards ever happening or being present.

Occupational Safety Health (OSH) cannot be treated as an independent discipline.

Central goals of the OSH programs are to encourage a healthy and safe work environment, protecting co-workers, employers, family members, customers.

Occupational Health & Safety management System (OHSHS) is a central part of the risk…… [Read More]

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Public and Privacy Issues State

Words: 1312 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87911228

If Hiibel had been arrested for driving under the influence and striking a minor child, his identity would not matter. In some of the other instances cited by the majority, such as the case of a violation of a restraining order, requesting identification under the reasonable suspicion a crime was being committed might be defensible, but under the circumstances of the case, it would seem that the conviction should have stood, but not for the reasons alleged by any of the reasons cited by the majority. Furthermore, in apprehending criminals suspected of sex offenses, terrorism, and other unspeakable acts, the minority found, that these arrests should be based upon conduct, not upon a failure to provide identification.

Volunteering one's identity is a right one has, the minority stated: "purchasing an airline ticket is a business transaction, and the airlines may condition the sale on knowing who is the purchaser. In contrast, being forced to identify oneself to a police officer or else face arrest is government coercion precisely the type of governmental intrusion that the Fourth Amendment was designed to prevent. Furthermore, it is not necessary to have one's name on a credit card or checkbook in order to effect…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Richey, Warren. (2004, June 22). Court: If police ask, you must give your name.

Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved April 19, 2009 at 

State Supreme Court of Nevada: Hiibel v. Dist. Ct. 118 Nev. Adv. Op. No. 88.

December 20, 2002. Retrieved April 19, 2009 at
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Safety Management in the United

Words: 1525 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11996538

Any organization that deals directly with petroleum-based products, including storage facilities, will be affected by the act. The act also provides for Area Contingency Plans in case of emergency. The Pollution Prevention Act aims to reduce pollution "through cost-effective changes in production, operation, and raw materials use," ("Pollution Prevention Act"). Recycling programs fall under the Pollution Prevention Act; therefore, organizations might be required under this law to participate in large-scale recycling programs. Moreover, the Pollution Prevention Act is designed to curb source pollution, so the act applies especially to organizations that are potential polluters. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act applies especially to storage of toxic waste. The act will pertain to employees of waste management facilities or of any organization that must dispose of its waste material in an environmentally sound and legally authorized way.… [Read More]

Works Cited

About EPA." 2005. Online at

Clean Water Act." Online at

Endangered Species Act." Online at

Freedom of Information Act." Online at
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Public Health in the Development

Words: 370 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13543184

This results in healthy, hygienic practices such as washing hands, cooking meat properly, and ensuring a sufficient daily intake of the correct nutrients without encouraging obesity.

Government legislation is another important component in public health infrastructure. This component is essential in protecting the public from unsafe foods such as unpasteurized milk, dangerous insecticides used on fruit and vegetables, and disease-carrying components in imported foods (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report., 1999).

In terms of food security, all the above components of the public health infrastructure can be utilized to help those who feel insecure of their food supply. A thorough scientific investigation can be backed by the other components in order to remedy the situation.… [Read More]


Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (1999, October 15). Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Safer and Healthier Foods. October 15, 48(40);905-913. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (2000, October 20). Self-Reported Concern About Food Security - Eight States, 1996 -- 1998. October 20, 49(41);933-6 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
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Public Relation Corporate Social Responsibility

Words: 2864 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60296730

Public Relations (Corporate social responsibility)

The term 'Corporate Social Responsibility' refers to the social responsibility that a Company must honor towards the public, especially those people who have direct contact with and are therefore directly affected by the policies and actions of the company. The feeling that the social responsibility of multi-national companies are not of such standards that would satisfy the general public has lead to widespread protests and demonstrations against these companies at almost every free-trade meeting at the regional and national as well as the multi-national levels. The protests are also generally against worldwide globalization. Almost all major multinational companies are found lacking in their responsibilities towards the public. It is not at all sufficient for a company to satisfy its shareholders and investors and employees and the community in which they function from; in fact, these companies are expected to be aware of and take an active part in human rights issues, community development, environmental protection, and so on. The performance and success of the company is judged by these parameters, in addition to its financial performance. (Corporate Social Responsibility)

Some of the major accusations that have been leveled against multinational corporations are these: some corporations…… [Read More]


CEO's Message" HP Standards of Business Conduct. Retrieved at . Accessed on 7 September, 2004

Corporate Social Responsibility" 2004. Retrieved at Accessed on 7 September, 2004

Corporate Social Responsibility" Retrieved at Accessed on 7 September, 2004

Danng, Lyng. 2004. "Who is monitoring the multinational?" 17th May. Retrieved at on 7 September, 2004
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Public Transit Has a Serious

Words: 3083 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37538608

(iii) Among the ones who are dependent on transit, merely 37% stated that they would drive to work by availing the services of an automobile if available. Almost 50%of those driving to work could be taken as potential transit riders depending on flexibility and convenience of availability of transit services. (iv) the other factors which would fuel more use of transit were services of non-transfer nature, express avenues and higher fees for parking. (v) Congestion in traffic was regarded as a very grave situation in 36% among the respondents and fairly serious by 28%. (Byrd, 621) d) Steps to improve transit image and attract choice riders:

Among the modes of transit, introduction of a Bus Rapid Transit -- BRT is a novel innovation which can be promoted as a measure for improvement of the failing image of transit among the population. A good implementation normally entails several of the features stated as under (i) bus stations having amenities (ii) properly designed vehicles (iii) a system for speedier collection of fares (iv) Using Intelligent Transportation Systems -- ITSs (v) allocation of more targeted spaces in roadways. (vi) Increasing the frequency of services for a service that lasts throughout the day. These…… [Read More]


Bailey, Lee Worth. The enhancements of technology.

University of Illinois Press. 2005.

Byrd, Joseph. P. "Perceptions of Public Transportation." In Public Transportation: Planning,

Operations and Management, G.E. Gray and L.A. Hoel, eds., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1979, pp: 617-633.
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Public Policy Analysis There Is a Sense

Words: 2694 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93362737

Public Policy Analysis

There is a sense that politics operates on a continuum scale whose extremes are rationality and irrationality. Politicians make laws that can be seen from both perspectives depending on the particular position of the person judging whether the particular statute is good or bad. Public policy can be judged by either rational choice theory or the converse of that. The difference in the two can be seen in how crimes are litigated. A rational person can make the choice whether an act is right or wrong and has specific knowledge of how society will view that act. An irrational person is one who, for some reason, is not deemed competent to understand that what they have done is criminal in nature. Irrationality is the reason that individuals below a certain age cutoff are generally not treated with the same deterrent stance as adults, why people with metal deficiencies are held to a different standard, and why a person can be deemed temporarily incompetent due to an incredible stress (Dye, 2012, 60). The criminal justice system, and the laws which control it try to gage the understanding that the person committing the act had, and base their actions…… [Read More]


Dye, T.R. (2012). Understanding public policy. Upper Saddle river, NJ: Pearson Education, Ltd.

Keel, R. (2005). Rational choice and deterrence theory. Retrieved from 

Kelling, G.L. & Bratton, W.J. (1998). Declining crime rates: Insiders' views if the New York City story. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 88(4), 1217-1229.

Nordin, M., Pauleen, D.J., & Gorman, G.E. (2009). Investigating KM antecedents: KM in the criminal justice system. Journal of Knowledge Management, 13(2): 4-20. Retrieved from
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Public Sector Management the Term

Words: 4522 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74748712

It relies on the vision of the state you choose to subscribe and it depends upon the costs and benefits of a few highly imperfect social institutions: market trends and the public sector. (Bovaird, Loffler, 2003, p. 25) The public sector is a ubiquitous social institution having grown in size and complexity within the last fifty years. Nevertheless, this is a linear development. Whereas the development belonging to the welfare state in the late 1960s and 1970s took an unprecedented growth of men and women in most OECD states, the 1980s and 1990s was marked by concerns and attempts to reduce the strength of the public sector, or, at a minimum, to make it more helpful and all these have fiscal implications.

A good number of policies have spending implications. In cases where money becomes scarce, financial constraints can create problems in public enterprises. Though the opposite-financial crises also have a powerful upside: they put pressure on public organizations in becoming more efficient is true. (Bovaird, Loffler, 2003, p. 25) In particular, the fiscal crisis in OECD countries in the 1980s and 1990s was a key element trigger for public sector reforms and one such reform is about to be…… [Read More]


Albrecht, W. Steve; Albrecht, Conan C; Albrecht, Chad O. 2009. Fraud Examination. Cengage Learning.

Bovaird, Tony; Loffler, Elke. 2003. Public Management & Governance. Routledge: New York.

Corby, Susan; White, Geoff. 1999. Employee Relations in the Public Services: Themes and Issues. Routledge: London.

Fairholm, Gilbert W. 2001. Mastering Inner Leadership. Quorum Books: Westport, CT.
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Public Education Campaign Designing a Public Education

Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71424580

Public Education Campaign

Designing a Public Education Campaign

Public education anti-terrorist campaign concerning new hazards

Unlike a hurricane or a tornado, the aftereffects of a terrorist event can be very difficult to predict. The methods of terrorists are always changing, as they constantly strive to outwit law enforcement officials, inspire fear, and generate destruction. Almost every recent terrorist action has been unique in its impact and approach. While it is advisable that all members of the public have a contingency plan for disasters, such designating a place for family or friends to meet; having working flashlights on hand in the event of a power outage, and having stores of canned food and water, there is no guarantee that such methods can protect against all possible repercussions.

During incidents such as the World Trade Towers bombing, a number of unplanned circumstances were generated by the fallout. The health consequences for workers at Ground Zero, who lacked adequate equipment to protect themselves against the inhaled dust and particles on site, are one example. Emergency personnel have tried to learn from the incident by generating more effective ways to coordinate responses and communication between national, state, and local authorities. But on a personal…… [Read More]


Bioterrorism overview. (2010). The Centers for Disease Control. (CDC).

Retrieved March 8, 2011 at

General information about terrorism. (2010). The Federal Office of Emergency Management

(FEMA). Retrieved March 8, 2011 at
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Public Affairs Management MLB and

Words: 732 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42183883

The critics of the drug testing policies argue, however, that the policies work to unfairly single out specific athletes for close scrutiny, tempts many of these same athletes to find ways to cheat the test, and that testing also violates the Constitutional right of privacy (McCabe & Ricciardelli, 2001).


Both arguments are significant, but the main point is that these testing policies and the steroid use that they are involved with have to be dealt with by those that handle public relations, both involving the players and the media/public. Without these public relations individuals, the players could have serious problems with the way that they were viewed by the public, and those that want or do not want the testing could also be viewed rather harshly, so it is important that they have good public relations. This is not always easy, as there are many issues that must be taken into account, but those that work with public relations where baseball is concerned do their best to ensure that accusations of steroid use are handled appropriately


Public affairs management is a very difficult field, basically because there are so many different issues that must be dealt with. When…… [Read More]


Diacin, M.J., Parks, J.B., & Allison, P.C. (2003). Voices of male athletes on drug use, drug testing, and the existing order in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1): 1-16

McCabe, M.P., & Ricciardelli, L.A. (2001). Parent, peer, and media influences on body image and strategies to both increase and decrease body size among adolescent boys and girls. Adolescence, 36: 225-240.

Yesalis, C.E., Kennedy, N.J., Kopstein, A.N., & Bahrke, M.S. (1993). Anabolic-androgenic steroid use in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270:1217-1221.
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Public Funding of Abortion Clinic

Words: 1206 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89504329

This means that the government should fund abortions despite of where they are performed whether in hospitals or clinics. This can be achieved through passing legislation to support pro-choice care for all pregnant women. Allowing abortions only in particular situations is a form of discrimination and in order to ensure that Americans have the necessary system that supports the choice of women to get an abortion, the government needs to pass legislation that funds abortion clinics. This will ensure that all women despite their social class have the right to make decisions about their childbearing and their reproductive health and not leaving this to only those who are able to afford to pay for abortion.

Shortage of abortion providers

There has been a shortage of abortion providers over the years as a result of the lack of experience in conducting abortions for doctors since despite their medical education, they are not trained on family planning an abortion which makes them unable to give patients the full range of care that they need. Data from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education reports that techniques for conducting first trimester abortions are taught to about 46% of medical doctors while only 34%…… [Read More]


Jane Roe, Et Al. V. Henry Wade, District Attorney of Dallas County Roe v. Wade. U.S. Supreme Court 1973.

Haney, J. The Abortion Debate: Understanding the Issues. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Pub Incorporated, 2008. Print.

Henshaw, S.K., and L.B. Finer. "The Accessibility of Abortion Services in the United States, 2001." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 35.1 (2003): 16-24. Print.

Weisberg, D.K. Family Law. New York: Aspen Pub, 2008. Print.
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Public Government Finance

Words: 2042 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47745962

Public/Government Finance

Public (Government) Finance

This essay examines the debate over extending unemployment benefits. The essay reviews the arguments in favor of and against further extensions, and the implications for economic and social policies. After exploring the alternatives, I make a recommendation and discuss means of measuring the success or failure of my recommendation.

The Apparent Problem/The Facts

Unemployment insurance is compensation that is provided to workers who become unemployed through no fault of their own. Unemployment provides compensation for a specific amount of time, or until a worker finds a new job. Regular unemployment provides benefits for up to 26 weeks, based on the number of weeks that the unemployed person worked in his or her claim year (Doyle, 2011).

Extended unemployment benefits provide compensation for a longer period of time, and are available for workers when they have exhausted regular state unemployment benefits during periods of high unemployment. In addition, the unemployed may be eligible for additional benefits funded by the federal government, including emergency unemployment compensation EUC). The state a person lives in and the date he or she became unemployed determine which benefits one is eligible for. EUC benefits are based upon the number of weeks…… [Read More]

Works Cited (2010). The case against an unemployment benefits extension: the three main arguments and their rebuttals. Secrets about Unemployment website. Retrieved July 13, 2011 from

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Employment Situation Summary. BLS web site. Retrieved July 13, 2011 from (2009). Making the case for and against unemployment benefit extension. CNBC Guest Blog. Retrieved July 13, 2011 from

Doyle, A. (2011). Unemployment Extension. website. Retrieved July 13, 2011 from
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Public Policy

Words: 1619 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80096618

Public Policy in the State of Maryland: An Examination of Revenues and Potential Funding Options

The objective of this work is to examine the funding policies in the State of Maryland of the Department of Natural Resources funding allotments and to critically analyze funding decision-making in this area of economic finance for the State of Maryland. The State of Maryland invests deeply in its natural resources, which is shown by the Department of Natural Resources for the State of Maryland receiving more funding than any other department according to the states' budget for fiscal year 2011.

Public Policy in the State of Maryland: An Examination of Revenues and Potential Funding Options


The objective of this work is to examine the funding policies in the State of Maryland of the Department of Natural Resources funding allotments and to critically analyze the funding decision-making in this area of economic finance for the State of Maryland.


The State of Maryland invests deeply in its natural resources, which is evidenced by the Department of Natural Resources for the State of Maryland receiving more funding than any other department according to the states' budget for fiscal year 2011.

III. Statement of Thesis

The…… [Read More]


NO NET LOSS OF FOREST TASK FORCE (2009) Final Report and Recommendations January 2009. Retrieved from: 

Conserving Land for People (2010) Boosting Tourism. The Trust for Public Land. Retrieved from:

State of Maryland Budget Index (2010) FY 2011. Retrieved from:

Maryland Budget Highlights (2010) FY 2011 Department of Budget and Management. Retrieved from:
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Public Sector Bargaining Labor Relations

Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34073421

Paul E. Pynes and Joan M. Lafferty assess the issue of labor relations and unions from a different stand -- that of the safety concerns. The two authors found out that most of the labor unions request some sort of membership fee and that the explanation forwarded by the unions to explain these fees is represented by the fact that they require financial resources to efficiently address the needs of the individuals they represent.

Pynes and Lafferty took a rather distant approach of the topic and focused on the objective presentation of the various types and contracts of union security provisions. These included the closed shops -- which are the most rigid type of union security in the private sector --, the union shop, the agency shop, the fair share arrangement and the maintenance of membership (highly rare). Aside from the actual forms of union security provisions, the two authors also discuss the collection of the fees and the prohibition of labor union in some states of the U.S.

All in all, the approach taken by Pynes and Lafferty does not leave much room for discussion and interpretation. It is a cut and clear project, focused on the objective and…… [Read More]


Coulson, A.J., The effects of teachers unions on American education, Cato Institute, last accessed on November 1, 2011

Goldhaber, D., Are teachers' unions good for students, quoted in Collective bargaining in education by Jane Hannaway and Andrew J. Rotherham, Harvard Educational Press

Lovenheim, M.F., 2007, The effect of teachers' unions on education production: evidence from union election certifications in three Midwestern states, University of Illinois,  last accessed on November 1, 2011

Pynes, J.E., Lafferty, J.M., Local government labor relations, Union security devices
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Public Law Whistleblower Compliance in

Words: 1248 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62857216

They may not be reassigned to perform work that is substantially different from their normal occupational responsibilities (OSHA, 2003).

Employers may not submit information about the employee that is intended to have damaging consequences on the employee's financial credit history, and employers may not engage in conduct or communications designed to "blackball" the employee from other employment, either within government or in connection with any private sector employment opportunities. Finally, employers may not engage in conduct intended (or reasonably perceived) as "intimidation." Intimidation is one of the most difficult types of non-compliance with activities protected under the Act, because it is subject to interpretation and because it is capable of being perpetrated without any written record. Likewise, many forms of conduct that are generally benign under ordinary (i.e. non-adversarial) circumstances at work only rise to the level of intimidation" in specific context (USLC, 2007).

Refusal to Work:

Under certain (limited) circumstances, employees also have the right to refuse to work until employers correct dangerous working conditions. The specific criteria that must be met before an employee may walk off the job without surrendering employment/reemployment rights are fairly strict. Employees must satisfy all of the following criteria (OSHA, 2003):

1) the…… [Read More]


OSHA (2003) Whistleblower Fact Sheet. Accessed October 9, 2007, at

U.S. Library of Congress (2007) Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989. Accessed October 8, 2007, at; (2007) the Law: An Overview. Accessed October 9, 2007 at
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Safety the Etiology of the Majority of

Words: 1121 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92081626


The etiology of the majority of cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) is unknown. What is known is that the disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that results from a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the area of the brain known as the substantia nigra (Hatfield, 2013). In addition, it is speculated that the disease is related to some type of genetic susceptibility and environmental risk factors that largely remain unidentified. Epidemiological research has suggested that there may be an association between exposure to pesticides and the onset of PD; however, this research is very mixed with some studies indicating that there is such relationship and a number of others failing to demonstrate such an association (Dardiotis, Xiromerisiou, Hadjichristodoulou et al., 2013). Dardiotis et al. (2013) reviewed the research and made a case that perhaps the relationship between pesticide use and PD is moderated by a genetic susceptibility. However, one of the flaws in most of the studies that attempt to link pesticide exposure and PD is that a history of pesticide exposure is often determined by the self-report of the individuals with PD. Individuals who have developed PD may selectively recall being exposed to or using pesticides at sometime in…… [Read More]


Dardiotis, E., Xiromerisiou, G., Hadjichristodoulou, C., Tsatsakis, A.M., Wilks, M.F., & Hadjigeorgiou, G.M. (2013). The interplay between environmental and genetic factors in Parkinson's disease susceptibility: the evidence for pesticides. Toxicology, 307, 17-23.

Hatfield, R.C. (2013). The everything guide to the human brain. Avon, MA: Adams.

Liew, Z., Wang, A., Bronstein, J., & Ritz, B. (2014). Job Exposure Matrix (JEM)-derived estimates of lifetime occupational pesticide exposure and the risk of Parkinson's disease. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health, 69(4), 241-251.
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Public Information on Kidney Donation

Words: 1145 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80584463

This study underscores the presumption that where public health information campaigns are concerned, information is often accessed but forgotten or ignored. By connecting this information to certain compensatory incentives, those who make up a likely donor population may be more likely to retain and return to the information provided. Though controversial, this does present a realistic view on the motives that might incline one toward an act with significant personal and health-related implications.

It is important for public health facilities to consider the courtship of donations in this way, primarily because a failure to do so is increasingly stimulating an extra-curricular market for the sale of kidneys. In other words, by neglecting to consider the option of connecting kidney donation courtship to such compensatory incentives, the medical community is not protecting against the ethical concerns correlated thereto. They are simply forcing would-be recipients to look outside of the field for options that might keep them alive. The research provided by MNT indicates as much, and simultaneously illuminates a non-traditional approach to organ-donation courtship that should be exploited. According to its research, "if one accepts that, as the waiting list grows, more and more patients will consider the public solicitation of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Aghanwa, H.S.; Akinsola, A.; Akinola, D.O. & Makanjuola, R.O.A. (2003). Attitudes Toward Kidney Donation. J Natl Med Assoc., 95(8), 725-731.

Kranenburg, L.; Schram, A.; Zuidema, W.; Weimar, W.; Hilhorst, M.; Hessing, J. & Busschbach, J. (2008). Public Survey of Financial Incentives for Kidney Donation. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 23(3), 1039-1042.

Medical News Today (MNT). (2008). Kidney Donation Websites Raise Ethical Concerns - Public Solicitation For Organs May Favor White, Educated And Wealthy Recipients. Wiley Blackwell Publishing. Online at
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Public Order Maintanence Policing Theory of Broken

Words: 442 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90415618

Public Order Maintanence Policing

Theory Of Broken Windows

The "Broken Window" theory has enthused police departments in the United States while extending community policing, since its conception in 1982 by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling. The "Broken Windows" theory suggests that neglecting smaller issues would attract bigger issues. The proponents of the theory consider that "at the community level, disorder and crime are usually inextricably linked, in a kind of developmental sequence" and that "one unrepaired broken window is a signal that no one cares and so breaking more windows costs nothing" [Wilson, Kelling, 1982]

However, 'Broken Window' is "only a theory." [Miller, 2001] Controlling crime in a society cannot be as simple as fixing broken windows. The reason for crime in a society is not just about the way the community is maintained; it is a very complex issue with many dimensions. In fact, a criminal mind is at times prone to destroying things when they look the best, reason being attributable to his general unrest in an orderly society. If the 'broken window' theory should hold good, the process of 'fixing' would need to extend beyond its literal sense to a more figurative sense - fixing…… [Read More]


Miller D.W. "Poking Holes in the Theory of 'Broken Windows." 2001, Available at,%202001%20Poking%20Holes%20in%20the%20Theory%20of%20.htm. Accessed on 8.10.2003

Vigil, James Diego. A Rainbow of Gangs: Street Cultures in the Mega-City, University of Texas Press, United States, 2002

Wilson, James. Q. and. Kelling George. L. "Broken Windows The police and neighborhood safety," March 1982 Available at Accessed 8.10.2003
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Katrina Communications Failures in Public

Words: 1056 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25061796

It has also been noted that the communication plans and protocols that were in place had not been properly communicated to all necessary parties, such that even the preparations and infrastructure that existed for the express purpose of dealing with emergency events were not properly utilized (White House 2007). Not only were better public safety communications systems as well as interagency communications systems necessary, then, but these systems needed to be more clearly outlined and presented to the right individuals.

Response to Noted Problems

The issues that arose during the response to Hurricane Katrina did not go unnoticed by the media, the public, or the officials involved in responding to disasters and coordinating relief efforts. Through the reactions of these officials and the legislation that was proposed and/or enacted in the wake of the hurricane, other specific communications problems that occurred during Katrina as well as more general public safety communications concerns can be identified. Direct technological inadequacies and a lack of physical infrastructure within the state of Louisiana were among the earliest problems identified, and legislation was introduced almost immediately after the hurricane to improve communications infrastructure and to ensure greater interoperability between existing and expanding/newly constructed communications systems…… [Read More]


Moore, L. (2005). Public Safety Communications Policy: Before and After Hurricane Katrina. Accessed 7 October 2011.

Mountjoy, J. (2005). Broken Connections. Accessed 7 October 2011. 

Perini, M. (2007). Public Communications: Vital Link to Maintaining the Public's Trust During Crisis. Accessed 7 October 2011.

US Congress. (2006). Protecting Infrastructure; Public Communication; Role of the Media. Accessed 7 October 2011.
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Settings for Public Health Practice

Words: 1856 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52934394

There is confusion about laws which are subject to different interpretations and this result in critical information not being made available. This is caused by such laws like the "Educational Rights and Privacy Act -- FERPA, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act -- HIPAA and a number of legislations that seek to protect the privacy of the family." ("Report to the President on Issues Raised by the Virginia Tech Tragedy," 2007) Many state laws are also interpreted in such a way that they retard the work of agencies involved in monitoring health and safety issues. ("Report to the President on Issues Raised by the Virginia Tech Tragedy," 2007) the complex nature of the law and the state laws, with a small percent of the laws applicable in a federal scale, it is not possible to enforce uniform standards.


It is to be concluded that the federal laws must be made universally applicable and state laws abrogated so far as health issues are concerned. It is evident that public health questions affect the very security of the country and must be treated on par with the defense of the country. Just as it is legal for the federal defense laws…… [Read More]


Billi, John E; Agrawal, Gail Bopp. (2001) "The Challenge of Regulating Managed Care"

Gostin, Larry Ogalthorpe. (2002) "Public Health Law and Ethics: A Reader" University of California Press.

Grim, Charles W. (2005, Jan) "IHS Focuses on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention"

Retrieved 11 February, 2008 at