Public Safety Essays (Examples)

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Public Communication Ethics Response A

Words: 2137 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46331261

This is a contractual obligation, as money has been received for a certain service.

This is closely related to the third obligation in the model, which is "duty to the organization." The press has an obligation to provide the public with a wide variety of viewpoints in order to ensure public debate and accurate information. If a certain piece of information is withheld from the public as a result of its controversial content, this constitutes unfair censorship. The general principle of the press is to promote knowledge rather than censorship. Hence, information that could cause disagreement should not be withheld on those grounds alone.

On the other hand, the press in general also has a duty to society in terms of providing accurate information. The advertisement is in direct opposition to generally accepted facts regarding slavery. Hence publishing it on the strength merely of publishing whatever opinion is paid for…… [Read More]

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Public Service the Modernisation of

Words: 2882 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70909589

3. Changes in structure.

In order to facilitate the above needs and requirements that are envisaged for the police services, the government has introduced a policy with regards to the structure of the police services. This is related to the view that there should be less of a "top-down" structure to the police services than was the case in the past. In other words, there is more of an emphasis on outcomes and value-added services.

To facilitate this ideal a number of important agencies have been established. These include the National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA); Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA); the Chief Police Officers (ACPO)' Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA). Communication is facilitated by regular meeting with the Home Secretary. (From the neighbourhood to the national: policing our communities together)

2.3.1. Legislation

New structure also necessitates the creation of new legislation to ensure that the police service works in a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Excellence and fairness: Achieving world class public services, viewed May 8, 2009
From the neighbourhood to the national: policing our communities together. Presented to Parliament by The Secretary of State for the Home Department, 2008, viewed May 7. 2009,

MODERNISING THE POLICE SERVICE: A Report by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary, viewed May 8, 2009

Police authority budgets face cap, viewed May 8, 2009
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Public and Private Policing Functions

Words: 914 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7564262



The private security field also underwent significant reforms in connection with the qualifications, training, and (especially) vetting of employment candidates as well Ortmeier, 2009). Ironically, instead of recognizing the comprehensive improvement throughout the private security industry after 2001, many police personnel intensified their pre-existing disdain for all non-sworn security professionals instead (Dalton, 2003).

The Conceptual Significance of Public and Private Spaces

One of the worst consequences of the antagonism on the part of police toward private security forces is that the private security industry could actually provide valuable assistance to the overall interest of national, regional, and local security. Whereas the actions of all government policing and law enforcement authorities is very strictly limited by fundamental constitutional principles (especially in connection with 4th Amendment search and seizure concepts), non-governmental security agents can operate with considerably wider latitude (Larsen, 2007). In general, private security personnel may conduct various types of searches…… [Read More]

References

Dalton D. (2003). Rethinking Corporate Security in the Post-9/11 Era. Burlington, MA:

Butterworth-Heinemann.

Larsen R. (2007). Our Own Worst Enemy: Asking the Right Questions About Security to Protect You, Your Family, and America. New York: Grand Central Publishing.

Ortmeier P. (2009). Security Management: An Introduction. Uppers Saddle River,
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Public Budgeting in America Advisory

Words: 4933 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63407320

In terms of similarities, each of these budgets contains roughly the same basic format. hile the specific charts may differ, each budget separates revenue sources and attempts to break those down. The budgets also explain the expenditures, and typically break these down to each individual program within the department.

A similarity between three of the budgets (Federal, Florida and Newark) is that they rely heavily on tables and written explanations. hile these tables are necessary in any budget, it is interesting to note that the Newark budget is significantly more visually-oriented than any of the other budgets. The graphic representation of some of the figures makes for a more user-friendly presentation. The other budgets are less likely to be understood by those without some financial training.

Each of the budgets is produced to unique specifications. There appears to be no standard with respect to the production of public budgets, so…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

United States 2010 Federal Budget Summary Tables. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy10/pdf/budget/summary.pdf

State of Florida 2009-10 "People's" Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://peoplesbudget.state.fl.us/bdagencies.aspx?full=1

City of Newark 2009 Proposed Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://www.ci.newark.nj.us/government/city_departments/department_of_administration/2009_proposed_budget.php

Environmental Protection Agency 2010 Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://www.epa.gov/budget/2010/2010bib.pdf
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Public Health Preparedness

Words: 3218 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73950972

Public Health Preparedness

The concept of 'public health preparedness' (PHP) has been garnering recognition worldwide, given the global-scale threats which are constantly encountered by professional healthcare organizations, including bioterrorism, Ebola, the West Nile Virus, and influenza. Preparedness approaches have brought about improvements in the overall healthcare system, by enabling swifter responses to diverse kinds of hazards across the globe. A majority of PHP measures adopted in America are government-judged; this gives rise to concerns pertaining to militarization. Still, preparedness programs in other country-level settings don't essentially indicate comparable implications. The global significance of health sector preparedness has served to increase governmental need of resolving the concern by means of financing, advances, and maintenance approaches which aid speedy response to every kind of crisis. However, akin to all other ideas, the PHP concept is also accompanied by certain major challenges, like the threat of public health militarization. Yet the associated advantages…… [Read More]

References

Eisenstein, R., Finnegan, J. R., & Curran, J. W. (2014). Contributions of Academia to Public Health Preparedness Research. Public Health Reports, 129(Suppl 4), 5 -- 7.

Khan, Y., Fazli, G., Henry, B., de Villa, E., Tsamis, C., Grant, M., & Schwartz, B. (2015). The Evidence Base of Primary Research in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Scoping Review and Stakeholder Consultation. BMC Public Health, 15, 432. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1750-1

Moore, S., Mawji, A., Shiell, A., & Noseworthy, T. (2007). Public Health Preparedness: A Systems-Level Approach. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61(4), 282 -- 286. http://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2004.030783

Nelson, C., Lurie, N., Wasserman, J., & Zakowski, S. (2007). Conceptualizing and Defining Public Health Emergency Preparedness. American Journal of Public Health, 97(Suppl 1), S9 -- S11. http://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2007.114496
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Public Programs Over the Last Several Years

Words: 1801 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14306249

Public Programs

Over the last several years, the total amounts of spending for the federal government has been continually brought to the forefront. This is because of the high trade deficits and national debt is having an impact on how various services are delivered. In the case of Justice Department, they have been facing drastic cuts. The reason why is from officials using the funds they are receiving to provide generous benefits for employees. ("Budget Cuts Should Start with DOJ," 2011)

A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than a DOJ Inspector General's report. They found that there is rampant waste inside the agency (with them spending $16 per muffin for a breakfast gathering and $600 thousand for event planning services). ("Budget Cuts Should Start with DOJ," 2011) These elements are illustrating how these kinds of reports are leading to a reduction in spending and…… [Read More]

References

Budget Cuts Should Start with DOJ. (2011). TPM Muckraker. Retrieved from: http://tpmmuckraker.talkingpointsmemo.com/2011/09/grassley_budget_cuts_should_start_with_dojs_16_muffins.php

Cost Control. (2012). Reference for Business. Retrieved from:  http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Cos-Des/Cost-Control.html 

Department of Justice FY 2013 Budget. (2012). DOJ. Retrieved from: http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2012/February/12-ag-205.html

DOJ Cuts Will Impact Public Safety. (2011). 10 News. Retrieved from: http://www.10news.com/news/29881532/detail.html
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public health ethics

Words: 1092 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78015214

Mary have the right to reveal this information to others? Please justify your answer based on what you know about public health and ethics.

Health information management ethics do not allow Mary to reveal the information. Medical records are used to aid decision making in clinical health circles. They are used for a range of other processes including service coordination, efficacy of health care, evaluation, legal security, research, accreditation supplications, policy making, regulation, education and a range of others. It is important to maintain the confidentiality of the information shared by patients with health officers; trust is to be maintained with the patients (Harman, Flite, & ond, 2012). If such practice is not observed, patients will be wary of sharing information. Consequently, the quality of health care would be compromised (ord, urke, & Dudzinski, 2013). Privacy has a range of other benefits apart from the direct health service provision advantages.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Blightman, K., Griffiths, S., & Danbury, C. (2014). Patient confidentiality: when can a breach be justified? Oxford Journals.

Bord, J. D., Burke, W., & Dudzinski, D. (2013). Confidentiality. Ethics in Medicine.

Harman, L., Flite, C., & Bond, K. (2012). Electronic Health Records: Privacy, Confidentiality, and Security. AMA Journal of Ethics, 712-719.

Nass, S., Levit, L., & Gostin, L. (2009). Beyond the HIPAA Privacy Rule: Enhancing Privacy, Improving Health Through Research. Washington: National Academies Press.
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Presenting for the Future Public Administration

Words: 3931 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23443609

Public Administration: Presenting for the Future

Immigration Policy eform

The term "immigration reform" is used to collectively refer to all efforts that have been undertaken by a country to amend abuses and reduce faults in its immigration policy. These efforts could be geared at either promoting and encouraging immigration or reducing and even eliminating the same. A perfect example of the former is the UK's promotion of the absorption of foreign-educated health specialists in its National Health Service (Dodds, 2012). The U.S. has, however, almost consistently run an anti-immigration policy. As this text will demonstrate, numerous reform efforts have been undertaken since way back in the 18th century to reduce the number of aliens illegally or legally crossing into the U.S. through the country's border points. Most of these efforts were particularly speeded up after the 9/11 tragedy; however, the successful implementation of these has been hampered by a number…… [Read More]

References

Baker, B. & Rytina, N. (2012). Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2012. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved 17 March 2015 from http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/ois_ill_pe_2012_2.pdf

Camayd-Freixas, E. (2013). U.S. Immigration Reform and its Global Impact: Lessons from the Postville Raid. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan

Carens, J.H. (2013). The Ethics of Immigration. New York, NY: Oxford University Press

DHS. (2015). About DHS. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved 17 March 2015 from http://www.dhs.gov/about-dhs
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Public and Privacy Issues State

Words: 1312 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87911228

If Hiibel had been arrested for driving under the influence and striking a minor child, his identity would not matter. In some of the other instances cited by the majority, such as the case of a violation of a restraining order, requesting identification under the reasonable suspicion a crime was being committed might be defensible, but under the circumstances of the case, it would seem that the conviction should have stood, but not for the reasons alleged by any of the reasons cited by the majority. Furthermore, in apprehending criminals suspected of sex offenses, terrorism, and other unspeakable acts, the minority found, that these arrests should be based upon conduct, not upon a failure to provide identification.

Volunteering one's identity is a right one has, the minority stated: "purchasing an airline ticket is a business transaction, and the airlines may condition the sale on knowing who is the purchaser. In…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Richey, Warren. (2004, June 22). Court: If police ask, you must give your name.

Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved April 19, 2009 at  http://www.csmonitor.com/2004/0622/p01s01-usju.html 

State Supreme Court of Nevada: Hiibel v. Dist. Ct. 118 Nev. Adv. Op. No. 88.

December 20, 2002. Retrieved April 19, 2009 at http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=nv&vol=118NevAdvOpNo88&invol=2
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Safety Management in the United

Words: 1525 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11996538

Any organization that deals directly with petroleum-based products, including storage facilities, will be affected by the act. The act also provides for Area Contingency Plans in case of emergency. The Pollution Prevention Act aims to reduce pollution "through cost-effective changes in production, operation, and raw materials use," ("Pollution Prevention Act"). Recycling programs fall under the Pollution Prevention Act; therefore, organizations might be required under this law to participate in large-scale recycling programs. Moreover, the Pollution Prevention Act is designed to curb source pollution, so the act applies especially to organizations that are potential polluters. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act applies especially to storage of toxic waste. The act will pertain to employees of waste management facilities or of any organization that must dispose of its waste material in an environmentally sound and legally authorized way.

orks Cited

About EPA." 2005. Online at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/aboutepa.htm.

Clean ater Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/water/cwa.htm.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

About EPA." 2005. Online at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/aboutepa.htm.

Clean Water Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/water/cwa.htm.

Endangered Species Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/defs/html/esa.htm.

Freedom of Information Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/defs/html/foia.htm.
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Public Health in the Development

Words: 370 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13543184

This results in healthy, hygienic practices such as washing hands, cooking meat properly, and ensuring a sufficient daily intake of the correct nutrients without encouraging obesity.

Government legislation is another important component in public health infrastructure. This component is essential in protecting the public from unsafe foods such as unpasteurized milk, dangerous insecticides used on fruit and vegetables, and disease-carrying components in imported foods (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report., 1999).

In terms of food security, all the above components of the public health infrastructure can be utilized to help those who feel insecure of their food supply. A thorough scientific investigation can be backed by the other components in order to remedy the situation.

ources

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (1999, October 15). Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: afer and Healthier Foods. October 15, 48(40);905-913. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4840a1.htm

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (2000, October 20).…… [Read More]

Sources

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (1999, October 15). Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Safer and Healthier Foods. October 15, 48(40);905-913. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4840a1.htm 

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (2000, October 20). Self-Reported Concern About Food Security - Eight States, 1996 -- 1998. October 20, 49(41);933-6 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4941a2.htm#top
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Public Relation Corporate Social Responsibility

Words: 2864 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60296730

Public elations (Corporate social responsibility)

The term 'Corporate Social esponsibility' refers to the social responsibility that a Company must honor towards the public, especially those people who have direct contact with and are therefore directly affected by the policies and actions of the company. The feeling that the social responsibility of multi-national companies are not of such standards that would satisfy the general public has lead to widespread protests and demonstrations against these companies at almost every free-trade meeting at the regional and national as well as the multi-national levels. The protests are also generally against worldwide globalization. Almost all major multinational companies are found lacking in their responsibilities towards the public. It is not at all sufficient for a company to satisfy its shareholders and investors and employees and the community in which they function from; in fact, these companies are expected to be aware of and take an…… [Read More]

References

CEO's Message" HP Standards of Business Conduct. Retrieved at  http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/globalcitizenship/csr/sbcbrochure.pdf . Accessed on 7 September, 2004

Corporate Social Responsibility" 2004. Retrieved at http://www.takingitglobal.org/themes/csr/. Accessed on 7 September, 2004

Corporate Social Responsibility" Retrieved at http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/globalcitizenship/csr/. Accessed on 7 September, 2004

Danng, Lyng. 2004. "Who is monitoring the multinational?" 17th May. Retrieved at http://www.vibewire.net/articles.php?id=2671Accessed on 7 September, 2004
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Public Transit Has a Serious

Words: 3083 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37538608

(iii) Among the ones who are dependent on transit, merely 37% stated that they would drive to work by availing the services of an automobile if available. Almost 50%of those driving to work could be taken as potential transit riders depending on flexibility and convenience of availability of transit services. (iv) the other factors which would fuel more use of transit were services of non-transfer nature, express avenues and higher fees for parking. (v) Congestion in traffic was regarded as a very grave situation in 36% among the respondents and fairly serious by 28%. (Byrd, 621) d) Steps to improve transit image and attract choice riders:

Among the modes of transit, introduction of a Bus apid Transit -- BT is a novel innovation which can be promoted as a measure for improvement of the failing image of transit among the population. A good implementation normally entails several of the features…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, Lee Worth. The enhancements of technology.

University of Illinois Press. 2005.

Byrd, Joseph. P. "Perceptions of Public Transportation." In Public Transportation: Planning,

Operations and Management, G.E. Gray and L.A. Hoel, eds., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1979, pp: 617-633.
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Public Policy Analysis There Is a Sense

Words: 2694 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93362737

Public Policy Analysis

There is a sense that politics operates on a continuum scale whose extremes are rationality and irrationality. Politicians make laws that can be seen from both perspectives depending on the particular position of the person judging whether the particular statute is good or bad. Public policy can be judged by either rational choice theory or the converse of that. The difference in the two can be seen in how crimes are litigated. A rational person can make the choice whether an act is right or wrong and has specific knowledge of how society will view that act. An irrational person is one who, for some reason, is not deemed competent to understand that what they have done is criminal in nature. Irrationality is the reason that individuals below a certain age cutoff are generally not treated with the same deterrent stance as adults, why people with metal…… [Read More]

References

Dye, T.R. (2012). Understanding public policy. Upper Saddle river, NJ: Pearson Education, Ltd.

Keel, R. (2005). Rational choice and deterrence theory. Retrieved from  http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/ratchoc.html 

Kelling, G.L. & Bratton, W.J. (1998). Declining crime rates: Insiders' views if the New York City story. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 88(4), 1217-1229.

Nordin, M., Pauleen, D.J., & Gorman, G.E. (2009). Investigating KM antecedents: KM in the criminal justice system. Journal of Knowledge Management, 13(2): 4-20. Retrieved from  http://lpis.csd.auth.gr/mtpx/km/material/JKM-13-2a.pdf
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Public Affairs Management MLB and

Words: 732 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42183883

The critics of the drug testing policies argue, however, that the policies work to unfairly single out specific athletes for close scrutiny, tempts many of these same athletes to find ways to cheat the test, and that testing also violates the Constitutional right of privacy (McCabe & icciardelli, 2001).

Analysis

Both arguments are significant, but the main point is that these testing policies and the steroid use that they are involved with have to be dealt with by those that handle public relations, both involving the players and the media/public. Without these public relations individuals, the players could have serious problems with the way that they were viewed by the public, and those that want or do not want the testing could also be viewed rather harshly, so it is important that they have good public relations. This is not always easy, as there are many issues that must be…… [Read More]

References

Diacin, M.J., Parks, J.B., & Allison, P.C. (2003). Voices of male athletes on drug use, drug testing, and the existing order in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1): 1-16

McCabe, M.P., & Ricciardelli, L.A. (2001). Parent, peer, and media influences on body image and strategies to both increase and decrease body size among adolescent boys and girls. Adolescence, 36: 225-240.

Yesalis, C.E., Kennedy, N.J., Kopstein, A.N., & Bahrke, M.S. (1993). Anabolic-androgenic steroid use in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270:1217-1221.
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Public Funding of Abortion Clinic

Words: 1206 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89504329

This means that the government should fund abortions despite of where they are performed whether in hospitals or clinics. This can be achieved through passing legislation to support pro-choice care for all pregnant women. Allowing abortions only in particular situations is a form of discrimination and in order to ensure that Americans have the necessary system that supports the choice of women to get an abortion, the government needs to pass legislation that funds abortion clinics. This will ensure that all women despite their social class have the right to make decisions about their childbearing and their reproductive health and not leaving this to only those who are able to afford to pay for abortion.

Shortage of abortion providers

There has been a shortage of abortion providers over the years as a result of the lack of experience in conducting abortions for doctors since despite their medical education, they are…… [Read More]

References

Jane Roe, Et Al. V. Henry Wade, District Attorney of Dallas County Roe v. Wade. U.S. Supreme Court 1973.

Haney, J. The Abortion Debate: Understanding the Issues. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Pub Incorporated, 2008. Print.

Henshaw, S.K., and L.B. Finer. "The Accessibility of Abortion Services in the United States, 2001." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 35.1 (2003): 16-24. Print.

Weisberg, D.K. Family Law. New York: Aspen Pub, 2008. Print.
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Public Government Finance

Words: 2042 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47745962

Public/Government Finance

Public (Government) Finance

This essay examines the debate over extending unemployment benefits. The essay reviews the arguments in favor of and against further extensions, and the implications for economic and social policies. After exploring the alternatives, I make a recommendation and discuss means of measuring the success or failure of my recommendation.

The Apparent Problem/The Facts

Unemployment insurance is compensation that is provided to workers who become unemployed through no fault of their own. Unemployment provides compensation for a specific amount of time, or until a worker finds a new job. Regular unemployment provides benefits for up to 26 weeks, based on the number of weeks that the unemployed person worked in his or her claim year (Doyle, 2011).

Extended unemployment benefits provide compensation for a longer period of time, and are available for workers when they have exhausted regular state unemployment benefits during periods of high unemployment.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allmanblogs.com. (2010). The case against an unemployment benefits extension: the three main arguments and their rebuttals. Secrets about Unemployment website. Retrieved July 13, 2011 from http://blog.secretsaboutunemployment.com/unemployment-claim/the-case-against-an-unemployment-benefits-extension-the-three-main-arguments-and-their-rebuttals/

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Employment Situation Summary. BLS web site. Retrieved July 13, 2011 from  http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.nr0.htm 

CNBC.com. (2009). Making the case for and against unemployment benefit extension. CNBC Guest Blog. Retrieved July 13, 2011 from http://www.cnbc.com/id/32284041/Making_the_Case_For_and_Against_Unemployment_Benefit_Extension

Doyle, A. (2011). Unemployment Extension. About.com website. Retrieved July 13, 2011 from http://jobsearch.about.com/od/unemployment/a/unempextension.htm
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Public Law Whistleblower Compliance in

Words: 1248 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62857216

They may not be reassigned to perform work that is substantially different from their normal occupational responsibilities (OSHA, 2003).

Employers may not submit information about the employee that is intended to have damaging consequences on the employee's financial credit history, and employers may not engage in conduct or communications designed to "blackball" the employee from other employment, either within government or in connection with any private sector employment opportunities. Finally, employers may not engage in conduct intended (or reasonably perceived) as "intimidation." Intimidation is one of the most difficult types of non-compliance with activities protected under the Act, because it is subject to interpretation and because it is capable of being perpetrated without any written record. Likewise, many forms of conduct that are generally benign under ordinary (i.e. non-adversarial) circumstances at work only rise to the level of intimidation" in specific context (USLC, 2007).

efusal to Work:

Under certain (limited)…… [Read More]

References

OSHA (2003) Whistleblower Fact Sheet. Accessed October 9, 2007, at http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_WhistleblowerFacts/whistleblower_protections-general.pdf

U.S. Library of Congress (2007) Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989. Accessed October 8, 2007, at http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/F-c101:1:./temp/~c101Ylqmha:e37677:

WhistleblowerLaws.com; (2007) the Law: An Overview. Accessed October 9, 2007 at http://whistleblowerlaws.com/protection.htm
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public goods and the government budgetig process

Words: 819 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39060732

Public Goods and Thei Impact on Society

Public institutions ae set up and entusted with ensuing that the sevice which they ae chaged with is effectively implemented and the citizens live within the acceptable standads. In the context of this pape theefoe, thee public goods will be of inteest; national secuity/safety, public health and oads and bidges.

National secuity o safety of the nation is the pivotal public good that each individual in the US needs not only to get but also feel that they get. Each citizen needs to feel safe within the US in ode to be able to engage in economically beneficial activities. It is the single sevice that govenments all ove the wold stive to invest maximum amounts and even ceate liaisons with othe nations to stengthen since it is upon the foundation of the safety of a nation that all othe factos like investments, social…… [Read More]

references. This indicates that there is no majority voting or any other rule that can help in objectively establishing social preference, hence the 'Impossibility Theorem'(Stanford Encyclopedia, 2014). Even in political systems where the lure of democratic voting seems attractive as a means of objectively determining the will of the people on how they want to be governed, still the availability of more than one candidate makes it impossible to be fair preference of the people.

Reference

Stanford Encyclopedia, (2014). Arrow's Theorem.  https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/arrows-theorem/
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Safety the Etiology of the Majority of

Words: 1121 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92081626

Safety

The etiology of the majority of cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) is unknown. What is known is that the disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that results from a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the area of the brain known as the substantia nigra (Hatfield, 2013). In addition, it is speculated that the disease is related to some type of genetic susceptibility and environmental risk factors that largely remain unidentified. Epidemiological research has suggested that there may be an association between exposure to pesticides and the onset of PD; however, this research is very mixed with some studies indicating that there is such relationship and a number of others failing to demonstrate such an association (Dardiotis, Xiromerisiou, Hadjichristodoulou et al., 2013). Dardiotis et al. (2013) reviewed the research and made a case that perhaps the relationship between pesticide use and PD is moderated by a genetic susceptibility. However, one of…… [Read More]

References

Dardiotis, E., Xiromerisiou, G., Hadjichristodoulou, C., Tsatsakis, A.M., Wilks, M.F., & Hadjigeorgiou, G.M. (2013). The interplay between environmental and genetic factors in Parkinson's disease susceptibility: the evidence for pesticides. Toxicology, 307, 17-23.

Hatfield, R.C. (2013). The everything guide to the human brain. Avon, MA: Adams.

Liew, Z., Wang, A., Bronstein, J., & Ritz, B. (2014). Job Exposure Matrix (JEM)-derived estimates of lifetime occupational pesticide exposure and the risk of Parkinson's disease. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health, 69(4), 241-251.
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Public Information on Kidney Donation

Words: 1145 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80584463

This study underscores the presumption that where public health information campaigns are concerned, information is often accessed but forgotten or ignored. By connecting this information to certain compensatory incentives, those who make up a likely donor population may be more likely to retain and return to the information provided. Though controversial, this does present a realistic view on the motives that might incline one toward an act with significant personal and health-related implications.

It is important for public health facilities to consider the courtship of donations in this way, primarily because a failure to do so is increasingly stimulating an extra-curricular market for the sale of kidneys. In other words, by neglecting to consider the option of connecting kidney donation courtship to such compensatory incentives, the medical community is not protecting against the ethical concerns correlated thereto. They are simply forcing would-be recipients to look outside of the field for…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Aghanwa, H.S.; Akinsola, A.; Akinola, D.O. & Makanjuola, R.O.A. (2003). Attitudes Toward Kidney Donation. J Natl Med Assoc., 95(8), 725-731.

Kranenburg, L.; Schram, A.; Zuidema, W.; Weimar, W.; Hilhorst, M.; Hessing, J. & Busschbach, J. (2008). Public Survey of Financial Incentives for Kidney Donation. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 23(3), 1039-1042.

Medical News Today (MNT). (2008). Kidney Donation Websites Raise Ethical Concerns - Public Solicitation For Organs May Favor White, Educated And Wealthy Recipients. Wiley Blackwell Publishing. Online at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/125649.php
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Public Order Maintanence Policing Theory of Broken

Words: 442 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90415618

Public Order Maintanence Policing

Theory Of Broken Windows

The "Broken Window" theory has enthused police departments in the United States while extending community policing, since its conception in 1982 by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling. The "Broken Windows" theory suggests that neglecting smaller issues would attract bigger issues. The proponents of the theory consider that "at the community level, disorder and crime are usually inextricably linked, in a kind of developmental sequence" and that "one unrepaired broken window is a signal that no one cares and so breaking more windows costs nothing" [Wilson, Kelling, 1982]

However, 'Broken Window' is "only a theory." [Miller, 2001] Controlling crime in a society cannot be as simple as fixing broken windows. The reason for crime in a society is not just about the way the community is maintained; it is a very complex issue with many dimensions. In fact, a criminal mind…… [Read More]

References

Miller D.W. "Poking Holes in the Theory of 'Broken Windows." 2001, Available at http://www.umsl.edu/~nestor/The%20Chronicle%20February%209,%202001%20Poking%20Holes%20in%20the%20Theory%20of%20.htm. Accessed on 8.10.2003

Vigil, James Diego. A Rainbow of Gangs: Street Cultures in the Mega-City, University of Texas Press, United States, 2002

Wilson, James. Q. and. Kelling George. L. "Broken Windows The police and neighborhood safety," March 1982 Available at http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/crime/windows.htm. Accessed 8.10.2003
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Katrina Communications Failures in Public

Words: 1056 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25061796

It has also been noted that the communication plans and protocols that were in place had not been properly communicated to all necessary parties, such that even the preparations and infrastructure that existed for the express purpose of dealing with emergency events were not properly utilized (White House 2007). Not only were better public safety communications systems as well as interagency communications systems necessary, then, but these systems needed to be more clearly outlined and presented to the right individuals.

esponse to Noted Problems

The issues that arose during the response to Hurricane Katrina did not go unnoticed by the media, the public, or the officials involved in responding to disasters and coordinating relief efforts. Through the reactions of these officials and the legislation that was proposed and/or enacted in the wake of the hurricane, other specific communications problems that occurred during Katrina as well as more general public safety…… [Read More]

References

Moore, L. (2005). Public Safety Communications Policy: Before and After Hurricane Katrina. Accessed 7 October 2011. http://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=457862

Mountjoy, J. (2005). Broken Connections. Accessed 7 October 2011.  http://www.csg.org/knowledgecenter/docs/sn0510BrokenConections.pdf 

Perini, M. (2007). Public Communications: Vital Link to Maintaining the Public's Trust During Crisis. Accessed 7 October 2011. http://www.carlisle.army.mil/DIME/documents/Public%20Communications.pdf

US Congress. (2006). Protecting Infrastructure; Public Communication; Role of the Media. Accessed 7 October 2011. http://www.gpoaccess.gov/serialset/creports/pdf/sr109-322/ch20.pdf
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Settings for Public Health Practice

Words: 1856 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52934394

There is confusion about laws which are subject to different interpretations and this result in critical information not being made available. This is caused by such laws like the "Educational ights and Privacy Act -- FEPA, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act -- HIPAA and a number of legislations that seek to protect the privacy of the family." ("eport to the President on Issues aised by the Virginia Tech Tragedy," 2007) Many state laws are also interpreted in such a way that they retard the work of agencies involved in monitoring health and safety issues. ("eport to the President on Issues aised by the Virginia Tech Tragedy," 2007) the complex nature of the law and the state laws, with a small percent of the laws applicable in a federal scale, it is not possible to enforce uniform standards.

Conclusion

It is to be concluded that the federal laws must be…… [Read More]

References

Billi, John E; Agrawal, Gail Bopp. (2001) "The Challenge of Regulating Managed Care"

Gostin, Larry Ogalthorpe. (2002) "Public Health Law and Ethics: A Reader" University of California Press.

Grim, Charles W. (2005, Jan) "IHS Focuses on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention"

Retrieved 11 February, 2008 at http://www.usmedicine.com/column.cfm?columnID=193&issueID=70
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Firefighter Safety the Job of

Words: 4904 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94657794

, 2006). The ongoing investigation is being conducted by a "National Interagency Serious Accident Investigation Team," with the purpose of "determining fact surrounding the incident, identify lessons learned," and with the end result a set of "...recommendations for accident prevention purposes."

The investigation will no doubt look into the fire shelter issue, although since the firefighters are gone, the question of why shelters were not used cannot be answered. If all five men had fire shelters on board the engine, it will seem sadly ironic that those protective units were not deployed. For wildland firefighters, it is not only important for escape routes and other safety procedures to be established, but it is imperative that firefighters are in possession of the very newest, safest fire shelters; and with this in mind, the USDA / USFS "Fire & Aviation Management" eb site offers some conflicting and confusing information.

On one page…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Golway, Terry. (2005). Firefighters. American Heritage Magazine. Retrieved 1 Nov. 2006 at  http://www.americanheritage.com .

Fire Chief. (2006). Near-Miss Report Total Reaches 1,000. Retrieved 1 Nov. 2006 at http://www.firechief.com/news/1000_near_miss10242006/index.html.

Firehouse.com. (2005) VFIS's Operation Safe Arrival: Don't

Become a Statistic. Retrieved 29 Oct. 2006 at http://cms.firehouse.com/content/article/printer/jsp?id=50236.
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Belfast Study Reconciling Safety and Succession Planning

Words: 3112 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42203913

Belfast Study

econciling Safety and Succession Planning

iSummary Prospectus

Hermeneutics Worldview

Company background

The Experts, their composition and grounds of expertise.

The epistemology of the experts.

Decision makers.

The epistemology of the decision makers.

The Belfast Board

The petroleum experts

Current state of knowledge

Discuss the problem

Discuss the source of the problem

Analyze the problem.

Insights

Derived insights

Summary Prospectus

Belfast is a petroleum company with core competences in oil and gas exploration, development, and production located in Calgary. Its experts are petroleum engineers many of whom have substantial years in the petroleum sector. The company's decision makers are its Board of Directors. Belfast Company's decision makers and experts disagree about the experience level of engineers that the company needs to supervise sensitive oilfield operations. Whereas the Board believes that newer engineers should become exposed to a broader range of activities in the field, the experts disagree and hold…… [Read More]

References

Agbons, P. (1975). A historical evolution of the petroleum engineering profession. Ibadan,

Oyo: University Press.

Barrel of Oil Equivalent (BOE). Investopedia. Retrieved http://www. investopedia. com/terms/b/barrelofoilequivalent. asp#ixzz1UlxCgNhr

Belfast Petroleum, Inc., BloomsbergBusinessWeek. Retrieved http://investing. businessweek. com/research/stocks/private/snapshot. asp-privcapId
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Workplace Safety Do You Agree

Words: 309 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1750128

Boosting job satisfaction by offering employees safety nets should they get MSD or offering as many preventative measures as possible will lead to a corporate culture more conducive to long-term profitability. Firms should move away from the prevailing business model that discounts employee satisfaction (and employee health) and shift toward a more holistic vision of business. No industry or organization will fare well for long if they cannot maintain a healthy workforce. Firms and their leaders also have an ethical obligation to provide their employees with the best ergonomic equipment and the latest knowledge about MSDs.

MSDs are not a problem, regardless of arguments that insufficient research backs up OSHA's claims. Enough research is available and enough case studies testify to the problem. The federal government absolutely should intervene and mandate complete coverage for MSDs because one of the purposes of government is to help maintain public safety.… [Read More]

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Orange County Florida Public Administration

Words: 1613 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4328547

Denhardt & Denhardt report that "one aspect of compensation policy that has received substantial attention over the years is the comparability of wages and salaries in the public and private sectors. Efforts to make such comparisons are similar to comparing apples and oranges, thus early studies tended to show public-sector salaries considerably below those in the private sector -- today ranging between 22 and 38%, depending on grade level." (p. 299)

Accordingly, many agencies are under real economic pressure to improve pay scales of public employees and to close this notable gap. For Orange County, this prompts a recommendation to evaluate compensation strategies lest they should lose many of the best and brightest young public administration candidates to more lucrative private enterprising opportunities. Indeed, though the benefits and transparency of public administration may be appealing, these cannot compete with so wide a gap in compensation opportunities. If Orange County is…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Denhardt, R.B. & Denhardt, J.V. (2008). Public Administration: An Action Orientation. Cengage Learning.

Drage, T. (2010). Charter Review Commission Orientation. Charter Review Commission.

Geuras, D. & Garofalo, C. (2011). Practical Ethics in Public Administration. Management Concepts.

Haynie, M.O. (2010). Orange County Comptroller. www.occompt.com.
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Canadian Public Policy Creation Influences

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72944218

public policy cycle. Public policy is defined as "a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a given problem," (Pal, 2013, p. 3). The first step of making a given problem known is through public opinion, public interest, and related issues like values and norms. However, as Pal (2013) points out, a more idealistic motivation for bringing policy issues to the attention of policymakers is actually public interest itself in terms of core needs like public safety. There are multiple avenues by which an issue may be made known to the Canadian government. One is via the research route, including university and "think tank" methods of analyzing problems empirically and presenting reports to stakeholder organizations or policymakers. A second is from ministers themselves, through close attention being paid to their constituents and the prevailing interests of the people. Legal restrictions might constrain the ways a potential…… [Read More]

References

Atkinson, M. M. (1993). Public policy and the new institutionalism. Governing Canada: Institutions and public policy. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Canada Inc.

Pal, L.A. (2013). Beyond Policy Analysis. Nelson.
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Law Enforcement Priorities and Public Sector Leadership

Words: 5421 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96700535

Undocumented Immigrants in Gainesville

The city of Gainesville has a population of about 54,000 and of these, approximately 3,200 are illegal aliens. The law enforcement community in this city is charged with protecting these undocumented aliens on the one hand and enforcing illegal immigrant laws on the other. To the extent that undocumented residents are afraid that the police will enforce the latter may be the extent to which they are discouraged from seeking help from the law enforcement community when they need it, exacerbating existing crime levels. Conversely, the extent to which law enforcement authorities fail to enforce illegal immigration laws may be the extent to which they are viewed as being malfeasant in the prosecution of their official duties. To determine the optimal course of action for law enforcement authorities faced with these conflicting priorities, this paper reviews the relevant literature including a discussion of so-called "sanctuary cities"…… [Read More]

References

Armajani, B. (2007, August). What transformational leaders do. Government Finance Review, 23(4), 79-83.

Bahn, S. (2013, April 1). Transformational leaders? The pivotal role that supervisors play in safety culture. International Journal of Training Research, 11(1), 17-21.

Bambale, A. & Jaafaru, S. F. (2012, May 1). Servant leadership as employee-organization approach for performance of employee citizenship behaviors in the Nigeria's electric power sector. Journal of Marketing and Management, 3(1), 1-5.

Berger, T. A (2014, Fall). Servant Leadership 2.0: A call for strong theory. Sociological Viewpoints, 30(1), 146-150.
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Texting and Driving Safety the

Words: 1046 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44863012

That is because texting also involves the same brain regions and cognitive processes as communicating by telephone that are responsible for the dangers associated with cell phones and driving and combines that risk factor with another additional independent risk factor: visual distraction.

Unlike cell phones, which distract the driver visually for only a small percentage of the time when they are being used for verbal communication, texting while driving is a continuous visual distraction by its very nature that makes it much more dangerous by comparison. Whereas cell phone users only look at their devices to dial and identify in-coming calls drivers who text must continually shift their attention back and forth from watching the road to looking at their communications devices. Especially at typical highway speeds, the amount of time typically required to look at a mobile device for texting purposes is too much time to look away from…… [Read More]

References

AHAS. (2005). Fact Sheet: Speeding Accessed 26 Nov 2010 from:

http://www.saferoads.org/issues/fs-speed.htm

Chisholm, S.L., Caird, J.K., and Lockhart, J. "The effects of practice with MP3 players on driving performance." Accident Analysis & Prevention, Vol. 40, No. 2;

(2007): 704-713.
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Public Offering One of the Most Common

Words: 1625 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12803096

Public Offering

One of the most common challenges that firms will face is taking a company public. This is because the timing must be right and there needs to be clear objectives as to where new investment capital will be utilized. Those firms that are taking these factors into account will have a more successful initial public offering (IPO). In the case of Avaya, the company is considering an IPO in the near future. However, there are challenges in determining what tactics should be utilized to attract the most interest. To decide this requires examining: the type of investors that Avaya is trying to draw, the lesson learned from the Google / Morningstar IPOs, the advantages of each type and the costs / risks. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights as to how Avaya should go public.

The type of investors Avaya is likely to attract

The…… [Read More]

References

Hot Issue. (2012). Investopedia. Retrieved from:  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/h/hotissue.asp#axzz1pxFFOPLB 

Traditional IPOs vs. Auction-Based IPOs. (2011), Im Invest. Retrieved from: http://www.iminvest.com/traditional-ipos-vs.-auction-based-ipos/

Traditional IPOs vs. Auction-Based IPOs. (2012). Esortment.com. Retrieved from: http://www.essortment.com/traditional-ipo-vs.-auction-based-ipo-24886.html

Carter, A. (2005). Morningstar follows Google's lead. Business Week. Retrieved from: http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/jan2005/nf20050110_8372_db035.htm
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Safety Net Hospitals Have Traditionally Provided Medical

Words: 1382 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72609761

Safety net hospitals have traditionally provided medical services vital to public health. Unfortunately, the recent economic recession has dealt a hard blow to safety net hospitals, even to the point of forcing hospital closures. Fortunately, Health Care Reform has already positively impacted U.S. health care and will even revolutionize American health care in some respects.

The Effect of the Closure of Safety Net Hospitals on Public Health

Safety net hospitals, such as Grady Memorial Hospital, serve the public health through providing vital treatment of uninsured, underinsured, Medicaid, and Medicare patients, along with some privately insured patients (Dewan & Sack, 2008). In addition, some safety net hospitals are also teaching hospitals that train medical professionals who contribute considerably to public health. Unfortunately, economic pressures are forcing the closure of some safety net hospitals, resulting in the severe reduction of medical care in certain communities for the "poor and underserved" (Altman, Shactman,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Altman, S.H., Shactman, D., & Efrat, E. (2006, Jan/Feb). Could U.S. hospitals go the way of U.S. airlines? Retrieved September 1, 2012 from Proquest.com Web site:  http://search.proquest.com/docview/204650663/138ED25BFA63A547161/5?accountid=28844 

Amalberti, R., Auroy, Y., Berwick, D., & Barach, P. (2005, May 3). Five system barriers to achieving ultrasafe health care. Retrieved September 1, 2012 from Proquest.com Web site:  http://search.proquest.com/docview/222267835/138ED3FE9A36E21E74A/6?accountid=28844 

Dewan, S., & Sack, K. (2008, January 8). A safety-net hospital falls into financial crisis. Retrieved September 1, 2012 from Nytimes.com Web site: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/08/us/08grady.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1

Felland, L.E., Cunningham, P.J., Cohen, G.R., November, E.A., & Quinn, B.C. (2010, January). The economic recession: Early impacts on health care safety net providers. Retrieved September 1, 2012 from Rwjf.org Web site: http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/55109.pdf
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Public Budgeting

Words: 6131 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64152660

public budgeting comparisons of the federal, state and local budget distributions. This thesis will be focused on whether or not the increased budget allocations for transportation in the federal, state and local government will enhance travel security, efficiency, performance measures and &D development in the domain. The thesis will start off with a proposal for an agency that works across and is allocated budget in all the federal, state and local legislatures. The agency chosen for the thesis is the United States Department of Transportation. The proposal will include a detailed overview of the chosen agency inclusive of some financial data in recent years for the agency and a comparative analysis of the performance measures accomplished with those measures that were not completed. This will be followed by the details and comparative analysis of the budgetary performances of the federal, state and local budget departments in the United States which…… [Read More]

References

Budget.Gov. 2012. Fiscal year 2012: Historical tables -- Budget of the U.S. Government. Office of Management and Budget.

Budget.Gov. 2012a. Fiscal year 2012: Budget of the U.S. Government. Office of Management and Budget.

Dinapoli, T.P. (2011). Report on the State Fiscal Year 2011-12 -- Enacted Budget. New York State Comptroller

Leigland, J. And Russell, H. 2009. Another lost decade? Effects of the financial crisis on project finance for infrastructure, Grid Lines No. 48. Washington, PPIAF.
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Public Health Funding Be Directed Towards Complementary

Words: 2471 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84436745

public health funding be directed towards complementary medicine?

Complementary Medicine

An Argumentative Essay

Complementary medicine describes the use of therapies and herbal medicines which are not commonly practiced by doctors. The term itself refers to getting a medical treatment by doctor and simultaneously getting such therapies so both treatments work together to improve the patient's health. Many of the therapies or herbal medicines have been a part of our lives but most of us do not know that they are under the umbrella term of complementary medicine. Another term is attached to complementary medicine and that is alternative medicine. Alternative medicine is when we use only these herbal medicine or therapies as a treatment instead of conventional medicine, which is commonly practiced by medical. With the increase in preference of complementary medicine and the requests for it to be used more regularly by patients, it is gradually replacing the term…… [Read More]

References

Alameddine, M, Naja, F, Abdel-Salam, S, Maalouf, S & Matta, C. (2011, August 28). Stakeholders' perspectives on the regulation and integration of complementary and alternative medicine products in Lebanon: a qualitative study. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011, 11(71). doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-71.

Clement, Y.N., Williams, A.F., Khan, K, Bernard, T, Bhola, S, Fortune, M, Medupe, O, Nagee, K & Seaforth, C.E. (2005, November 18). A gap between acceptance and knowledge of herbal remedies by physicians: The need for educational intervention. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2005, 5(20). doi:10.1186/1472-6882-5-20

Kwan, D, Boon, H.S, Hirschkorn, K, Welsh, S, Jurgens, T, Eccott, L, Heschuk, S, Griener, G.G. & Cohen-Kohler, J.C. (2008, July 14). Exploring consumer and pharmacist views on the professional role of the pharmacist with respect to natural health products: a study of focus groups. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2008, 8(40). doi:10.1186/1472-6882-8-40

Rhodes, P.J., Small, N, Ismail, H and Wright, J.P. (2008, March 20). The use of biomedicine, complementary and alternative medicine, and ethnomedicine for the treatment of epilepsy among people of South Asian origin in the UK. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2008, 8(7). doi:10.1186/1472-6882-8-7.
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Public Administrator Is to Provide Services to

Words: 856 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97700585

public administrator is to provide services to the public -- and to keep the public interest in focus -- whether the administrator is an elected official or not. A public administrator might be responsible for enforcing a city or county ordinance when it comes to property values, which can become contentious because homeowners have their own ideas as to the value of their property. Public administrators might be heads of regional or local or state or even federal departments. A city manager is not elected but he or she is on the job to provide responsive leadership to laws and to the elected officials' (council members) directives.

Public policy is not made exclusively by elected officials. The word "policy" in fact just means a government is taking some form of action in response to a public need, and an administrator of a county health department, for example, makes policy regarding…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gerston, Larry N. (2010). Public Policy Making: Process and Principles. Armonk, NY: M.E,

Sharpe.

Jackson, Lisa P. (2011). Too dirty to fail? Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 4, 2012, from  http://articles.latimes.com .

Liggett, Brit. (2010). Study Shows BP Oil Spill Could Have Been Prevented by Regulation.
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Public Health Infrastructure Is a Necessity for

Words: 543 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28611728

public health infrastructure is a necessity for each and every nation. Public health infrastructure is a component of the larger and complex public health system (CDC, 2001,p.5).Public health infrastructure is described by Turnock (2000) as the nerve center of global public health. The objectives of the U.S. public health infrastructure encompasses the rural, urban and tribal population.In this paper, we address whether the workforce, communications and tracking systems, research and evaluation capabilities, planning and laboratory facilities are adequate. Also addressed are the most important needs in shaping and sustaining the infrastructure for dealing with the identified public health problem. The recommended changes are also indicated.

Workforce

A serious public health workforce shortage is currently affecting the global and U.S. public healthcare systems. The nation is facing a shortage of critical healthcare workers like nurses, primary care physicians, behavioral as well as public health professionals. More that 64 million Americans live…… [Read More]

References

Assoociation of Schools of Public Health (2012). Confronting the Public Health Workforce Crisis.Available online at http://www.asph.org/document.cfm?page=1038

Center for Disease Control (2001). Public Health's Infrastructure -- A Status report. Available online at  http://www.uic.edu/sph/prepare/courses/ph410/resources/phinfrastructure.pdf 

Committee on Assuring the Health of the Public (2002).The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Institute Of Medicine

HHS (2012). Goal 5: Strengthen the Nation's Health and Human Service Infrastructure and Workforce. Available online at http://www.hhs.gov/secretary/about/goal5.html]
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Public Health Research Methods

Words: 891 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49615878

Worker responses provide data, which is known as primary data. On the other hand, some research projects entail use of data already collected by somebody else (for example, Canadian Census survey data). Researchers study this already-gathered data to find answers to their research question. Such data is known as secondary data. One advantage of primary data collection is that, in this process, information is collected specifically for a particular study. The questions asked by researchers are essentially tailored for eliciting information which will aid them in the study. Research tools like interviews, surveys and direct observation (e.g. observation of safety practices at a factory) are employed for collecting primary data. Secondary data is normally easily available and obtainable at low prices. Additionally, secondary data over a long duration can be easily obtained for analysis. For instance, one can examine a firm's lost-time rate trends over many years (IWH, 2008).

Primary…… [Read More]

Bibliography

IWH. (2008). What researchers mean by primary data and secondary data. Retrieved from Institute of Work and Health: http://www.iwh.on.ca/wrmb/primary-data-and-secondary-data

Nielsen, J., Zielinski, B., Ferguson, M., Lainhart, J., & Anderson, J. (2013). An Evaluation of the Left-Brain vs. Right-Brain Hypothesis with Resting State Functional Connectivity Magnetic Resonance Imaging. PLOS Collections.

Ramachandran, V., & Altschuler, E. (2009). The use of visual feedback, in particular mirror visual feedback, in restoring brain function. A Journal of Neurology, 1693-1710.

UCSC. (n.d.). Distinguish Between Primary and Secondary Sources. Retrieved from University Library: http://guides.library.ucsc.edu/primarysecondary
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Safety Programs Cost Effectiveness of

Words: 2578 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76647162



Given that the single fatality, that occurred in 1990 cost the company an increase of 7% in workers compensation insurance premiums which over the long run has been a substantial cost and individual falls have since cost the company significant time and production loss as well as other increased in premiums, related to injuries and simply as increases have occurred. Finally, the initial fatal fall cost the company a 4 million dollar benefits claim to the family of the employee and $1.7 in litigation and attorneys fees. Additionally, the settlement was mitigated by the attorneys, who managed to reduce the claim for pain and suffering significantly and calculated the remainder based on the lifetime earning potential of the individual at his current salary. It is unlikely that such mitigation would occur in every case, and the cost of a trial would be exponential if a reasonable settlement had not been…… [Read More]

References

Block, R.N., Roberts, K., & Clarke, R.O. (2003). Labor Standards in the United States and Canada. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.

Department of Labor (U.S.) (2008) "Fall Protection" http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/fallprotection/index.html

Karoly, L.A., & Panis, C.W. (2004). The 21st Century at Work: Forces Shaping the Future Workforce and Workplace in the United States / . Santa Monica, CA: Rand.

Leigh, J.P. (1995). Causes of Death in the Workplace. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.