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As with the Gallatin Plan, the 1908 oosevelt vision exercised its influence over the long-term, eventually drawing on new technologies like the regional electric power grid and the automobile superhighway to achieve its ends" (Fishman, 2007). This period is important for the evolution of public transportation because it offers a perspective on the way in which different aspects of the world we see today have come about, the struggles and the incipient initiatives of the government along the years.
One of the most significant contributions to the issue of public policy transportation but in particular to the infrastructure on which the advanced policies would be based was that of FD oosevelt, one of the most important presidents of the United States, the one that, through his presidential program often labeled as being of socialist origins, managed to draw the most powerful country out of the deepest recession of our times,…
Reference List bill to establish a National Commission on the Infrastructure of the United States. (2004). Library of Congress. Retrieved 17 February 2008, at http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z-d108:SN02993:@@@L&summ2=m& ;
America 2050. (2008) Speaker Pelosi evokes National Plans in State of the Union "pre-brutal." Retrieved 17 February 2008, at http://www.america2050.org/national_transportation_policy/
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. (n.d.) Recommendations for the Interstate System of the Future. Retrieved 17 February 2008, at http://www.transportation1.org/tif1report/highway_01.html
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. (n.d.) Transportation invest in America. Retrieved 17 February 2008, at http://freight.transportation.org/doc/FreightRailReport.pdf
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. (2003) Freight-rail Bottom line report. Retrieved 17 February 2008, at
Stores simply do not have the staff for this.
That being said, the biggest question with expectant mother and breastfeeding mother designated seats is whether or not this can or will be enforced. Agencies put up signs for this purpose in the hopes that humanity will uphold these rules. egardless, bus services, train services and metro services are still a business and many experts find it difficult to believe that any individual, male or female, would be turned away for service over specially designated seating.
The main goal of these programs throughout big cities is to provide safer transportation for women, children and the elderly. Public transportation officials recognize that these passengers are the majority of their passengers. Unfortunately, there are a lot of unsafe areas and many women passengers do not feel safe enough to take public transportation. Many city officials are taking measures to make areas safer, by…
Undefined, (March 14, 2010). Women-only taxis hit Cairo streets. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.independent.co.uk/travel/news-and-advice/womenonly-taxis-hit-cairo-streets-1921271.html
Connelly, MC (March 17, 1997). From vehicle design to retail, Ford wants to be female-friendly. (Freedom Ford's.... Retrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.allbusiness.com/automotive/automotive-trade-motor-vehicle-parts/9310950-1.html
Licona, DL (November 17, 2009). Female-Friendly Taxis Arrive in Mexico. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from http://springwise.com/transportation/pinktaxidepuebla/
Kirk, DK (February 1, 2010). Women Friendly Seoul. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.biztechreport.com/story/423-women-friendly-seoul
Although the Pacific Electric Railway Company is history, it is still remembered with nostalgia. However, the Los Angeles County Transportation Commission has gotten actively engaged in reviving tramway transportation across a large sector of the previous Long Beach railway line (Cudahy 1990, 204).
Influenced by a series of factors such as geography, freeway construction, the Great Depression, and advancements in automobile industry, the Pacific Electric Railway Company had little chances to continue its domination over Los Angeles public transportation. Even from its early years the company did not seem to be promising regarding its effectiveness, given that it rapidly became outdated and people lost interest in traveling by trolley, as the alternatives appeared to be cheaper and faster.
Boarnet, Marlon G. And Crane, Randall. Travel by Design: The Influence of Urban Form on Travel (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001).
Cudahy, Brian J. Cash, Tokens, and Transfers: A…
Boarnet, Marlon G. And Crane, Randall. Travel by Design: The Influence of Urban Form on Travel (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001).
Cudahy, Brian J. Cash, Tokens, and Transfers: A History of Urban Mass Transit in North America (New York: Fordham University Press, 1990).
Gerlach, Arch C. Growth of El Segundo, California. Economic Geography
Vol. 16, No. 2 (Apr., 1940), pp. 225-230.
City Promote the Use of Public Transportation?
The Best Way for a City to Promote Public Transportation
Cities can promote public transportation in many ways. However, many cities fail to do so. They put public transportation options on the "back burner" so to speak, or they make the assumption that people will use public transportation only if they want to, and it does not need to be promoted. This is far from the truth. Many people may not know about transportation options in their city, and they may not realize how beneficial these options can be (Barletta, et al., 2008). There is an assumption by many people that public transportation is dirty and smelly, or that only lower income people use it (Achs, 1991). In the vast majority of cities, all kinds of people use public transportation (Newman & Kenworthy, 1999). In fact, in a number of major American cities,…
Achs, N. (1991). Roadblocks to public transit: for reasons ranging from prejudice to pragmatism, many suburbanites are fighting tooth and nail to keep mass transit out of their neighborhoods. American City & County, 106(1): 28 -- 32.
Barletta, B., Dabdub, D., Blake, D.R., Sherwood, R.F., Nissenson, P., & Meinardi, S. (2008). Influence of the public transportation system on the air quality of a major urban center. A case study: Milan, Italy. Atmospheric Environment, 42(34): 7915 -- 7923.
Newman, P. & Kenworthy, J.R. (1999). Sustainability and cities: Overcoming automobile dependence. NY: Island Press.
Introduction: Quality Counts
A well-designed public transportation system is far more likely to lure new users and encourage regular rides than a system that has few routes, which has insufficient frequency, or which is generally not user-friendly. Therefore, the most important method of promoting public transportation in the city is to develop a good product. The product itself should be designed with the needs of both visitors and residents in mind, and likewise, a marketing and promotions strategy should also consider locals and tourists as different target markets. Once the system has been designed and is ready to be promoted, the city council needs to focus on what motivates people to ride. Is the city traffic congested? Are parking options limited and expensive? Are citizens ready to improve their quality of life by reducing their dependency on cars? These are all different angles an advertising campaign may take, while avoiding…
American Public Transportation Association (2018). Public transportation benefits. https://www.apta.com/mediacenter/ptbenefits/Pages/default.aspx
Beirao, G. & Cabral, S. (2007). Understanding attitudes towards public transport and private car: A qualitative study. Transport Policy 14(6): 478-489.
Carrus, G., Passafaro, P. & Bonnes, M. (2008). Emotions, habits and rational choices in ecological behaviours: The case of recycling and use of public transportation. Journal of Environmental Psychology 28(1): 51-62.
Fujii, S. & Gaerling, T. (2005). Temporary structural change. National Academy of Sciences. https://trid.trb.org/view/763053
The Troubled and Disjointed Sydney Transport System Pitted Against Boston, Massachusetts.
It is apparent that public transport systems that serve every destination and origin would be prone to low occupancies, low frequencies, high costs and, worst of all, high greenhouse emissions per commuter. One of the options available for such diverse patterns of travel is to offer custom services for the various markets in the travel niche. Some of the options include providing express trains and buses for commuters that need them at peak hours, regular bus service for local based trips; with buses plying busy corridors and para-transit car transport for low demand hours and routes. There is a flip side to this approach though; the more customized public transport becomes, the more it ignores its economic and environmental advantages (Stone, 2009).
The Boston and Sydney Transport Systems
Many Australians wonder why there cannot be a public transport system…
Infrastructure Australia. (2015). Australian infrastructure audit. Retrieved from http://infrastructureaustralia.gov.au/policy-publications/publications/Australian-Infrastructure-Audit.aspx
Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. (2011). MBTA Service Area. Title VI Report. Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority website. Retrieved from http://mbta.com/uploadedfiles/ About_the_T/Fare_Proposals_2012/Map%20of%20MBTA%20 Service%20District
Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. (2014). About the MTA— History. Retrieved from http://www.mbta.com/about_the_ mbta/history/
Mees, P. (2010). Transport for Suburbia: Beyond the automobile age. Earthscan: London.
Stone, J. (2009). Can European models of public transport governance help to save Australian cities? Institute for Social Research. Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria: Australia.
Stone, J. (2009). Contrasts in reform: how the Cain and Burke years shaped public transport in Melbourne and Perth. Urban Policy and Research, 27(4), pp. 419-434.
TransitCenter. (2014). Getting to the route of it: The role of governance in regional transit. Retrieved from http://transitcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Transit-Governance-Final-PDF-10_7_14.pdf
The Seattle Monorail is the first of its kind in many respects. Indeed, it is the first commercial monorail that is entirely complete and full-scale in nature. It is also effective in that it passes through or near many of the important landmarks of Seattle. The system is effective in that it passes by several important hubs of the city every ten minutes or so. There are also effective connections to many of the cultural and theatrical experiences of the city. Entertainment and fun are also parts of the city that are effective connected to by the monorail. The system serves as an example of a fully functional and fully featured system that helps people connect to their work, transportation and entertainment needs or preferences while at the same time being controlled properly in terms of costs, resources and so forth.
The Seattle Monorail in many ways serves as…
Dhillon, J. S. (2006). Eminent-domain - the Seattle popular monorail authority\\\\'s condemnation of a private parking garage for the purpose of building a monorail station does not violate the eminent domain provision of the Washington Constitution. Rutgers Law Journal, (4), 1251.
Greenwood, F. H. (1963). Monorails for Metropolitan Transportation. Transportation Journal (American Society of Transportation & Logistics Inc), 3(1), 26-29.
Kinsey, B. S., Bartling, H., Peterson, A. F., & Baybeck, B. P. (2010). Location of Public Goods and the Calculus of Voting: The Seattle Monorail Referendum. Social Science Quarterly Wiley-Blackwell), 91(3), 741-761. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6237.2010.00717.x
Seattle Monorail. (2018). Seattle Center Monorail. Seattle Monorail. Retrieved 25 February 2018, from http://www.seattlemonorail.com
Senechal, M. (2005). Revisiting Granite Falls: Why the Seattle Monorail Project Requires Re-examination of Washington\\\\'s Prohibition on Taxation without Representation. SeattleUniversity Law Review, 2963.
Promoting the Use of Public Transportation
Public transportation serves numerous purposes: first, it helps to ease congestion in urban areas by decreasing the number of cars on the road at any given time but especially during busy traffic hours; second, it helps people who may not otherwise have means of getting to work obtain these means; third, it can reduce pollution and fuel emissions that can harm the environment. All of these are good reasons for using and promoting public transportation. The problem of how to promote public transportation, however, is one that needs to be solved. In order to solve it, a variety of factors have to be considered: a) who is most likely to use public transportation—i.e., who is the audience to whom the message needs to be communicated; b) where are these individuals most likely to need to go; c) how can the benefits of public…
(iii) Among the ones who are dependent on transit, merely 37% stated that they would drive to work by availing the services of an automobile if available. Almost 50%of those driving to work could be taken as potential transit riders depending on flexibility and convenience of availability of transit services. (iv) the other factors which would fuel more use of transit were services of non-transfer nature, express avenues and higher fees for parking. (v) Congestion in traffic was regarded as a very grave situation in 36% among the respondents and fairly serious by 28%. (Byrd, 621) d) Steps to improve transit image and attract choice riders:
Among the modes of transit, introduction of a Bus apid Transit -- BT is a novel innovation which can be promoted as a measure for improvement of the failing image of transit among the population. A good implementation normally entails several of the features…
Bailey, Lee Worth. The enhancements of technology.
University of Illinois Press. 2005.
Byrd, Joseph. P. "Perceptions of Public Transportation." In Public Transportation: Planning,
Operations and Management, G.E. Gray and L.A. Hoel, eds., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1979, pp: 617-633.
This is because congestion has become a problem and they want to discourage them from utilizing this form of transportation. Over the long-term, this will create a change in habits by making public transportation and other alternatives economically viable. (Davenport) (osenthal)
In the U.S., vehicles are a center of private transportation. This is because many cities were designed to accommodate cars. If there was a dramatic shift, these challenges could have an adverse impact on the auto industry, parts producers / suppliers and dealers. This would lead to a slowdown and possibly create a recession from a change in policies. (Davenport) (osenthal)
Moreover, the U.S. has not ratified and withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol. This means that they do not have to meet the same standards as Europe. To adjust for the increased amounts of traffic flow, there is a focus on using stop lights to effectively accommodate vehicles. (Davenport)…
Davenport, John. The Ecology of Transportation. New York: Springer, 2006. Print.
Rosenthal, Elisabeth. "Across Europe." NY Times, 2011. Web. 5 Apr. 2014.
They may not be reassigned to perform work that is substantially different from their normal occupational responsibilities (OSHA, 2003).
Employers may not submit information about the employee that is intended to have damaging consequences on the employee's financial credit history, and employers may not engage in conduct or communications designed to "blackball" the employee from other employment, either within government or in connection with any private sector employment opportunities. Finally, employers may not engage in conduct intended (or reasonably perceived) as "intimidation." Intimidation is one of the most difficult types of non-compliance with activities protected under the Act, because it is subject to interpretation and because it is capable of being perpetrated without any written record. Likewise, many forms of conduct that are generally benign under ordinary (i.e. non-adversarial) circumstances at work only rise to the level of intimidation" in specific context (USLC, 2007).
efusal to Work:
Under certain (limited)…
OSHA (2003) Whistleblower Fact Sheet. Accessed October 9, 2007, at http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_WhistleblowerFacts/whistleblower_protections-general.pdf
U.S. Library of Congress (2007) Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989. Accessed October 8, 2007, at http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/F-c101:1:./temp/~c101Ylqmha:e37677 :
WhistleblowerLaws.com; (2007) the Law: An Overview. Accessed October 9, 2007 at http://whistleblowerlaws.com/protection.htm
Today, al-Mart is altering the retail landscape in many ways, primarily by parlaying its power as a retail chain into operation as a full-scale distributional company as well.
The attention dedicated to improving the cost and efficiency of its distributional operation underscores the emergent strategy which al-Mart is using to change the retail business altogether. This aspect of its operation has become a major effecter in its relationship to suppliers. For instance, "Coke altered its century-old distribution model to accommodate the world's largest retailer, and in April began delivering its Powerade sports drink to al-Mart warehouses, rather than direct the retailer's stores." (Hoffman, 28) This demonstrates the manner in which al-Mart has come largely to change many of the rules which were once well-established in the retail business. Namely, suppliers have always functioned as the power in the retail industry. By controlling the cost of items, leveraging the available supply…
Hoffman, W. (2006). Wal-Mart Formula. Journal of Commerce.
Johnston, N. & Runningen, R. (2009). Obama Focuses on Small Business to Spur Job Growth. Bloomberg.com.
Transite. (2009). Transportation and Logistics: Integrating Transportation into Your Supply Chain. Transportation Management Solutions.
Transportation and Sustainability in Los Angeles
Increase utilization of green technology for vehicles
The horrific traffic situation in Los Angeles is not only detrimental to society in the sense that its immense levels of congestion cost commuters millions of dollars in lost time daily, but also because it can cause physical harm. One study has identified several risk factors that are significantly increased by freeway pollution levels such as cardiovascular problems, respiratory disease, cancer, heart attacks and flat-out premature death (Cronan). It further finds that some brain cells in mice showed inflammation consistent with Alzheimer's disease when exposed to these pollutants.
It would be one thing if the levels of pollutants in the city were consistent with the levels found in other cities; however the levels of air pollution found in Los Angeles are among the highest in the country. In fact, Forbes…
public budgeting comparisons of the federal, state and local budget distributions. This thesis will be focused on whether or not the increased budget allocations for transportation in the federal, state and local government will enhance travel security, efficiency, performance measures and &D development in the domain. The thesis will start off with a proposal for an agency that works across and is allocated budget in all the federal, state and local legislatures. The agency chosen for the thesis is the United States Department of Transportation. The proposal will include a detailed overview of the chosen agency inclusive of some financial data in recent years for the agency and a comparative analysis of the performance measures accomplished with those measures that were not completed. This will be followed by the details and comparative analysis of the budgetary performances of the federal, state and local budget departments in the United States which…
Budget.Gov. 2012. Fiscal year 2012: Historical tables -- Budget of the U.S. Government. Office of Management and Budget.
Budget.Gov. 2012a. Fiscal year 2012: Budget of the U.S. Government. Office of Management and Budget.
Dinapoli, T.P. (2011). Report on the State Fiscal Year 2011-12 -- Enacted Budget. New York State Comptroller
Leigland, J. And Russell, H. 2009. Another lost decade? Effects of the financial crisis on project finance for infrastructure, Grid Lines No. 48. Washington, PPIAF.
Many small and medium sized town are experiencing problems that were typically focused on larger urban areas. An issue that has a broad range of effects; from environmental to fiscal, from social population dynamics to the cultural environment of the city, transportation is one of the key factors that makes the modern urban area function.
Fairfield City is located SW of Sydney and has an approximate population of 181,000. Demographically, more than 50 per cent of the population is foreign born, speaks little or no English, and is at medical risk from lifestyle behaviors that contribute to potentially serious health problems.
Fairfield City also lacks adequate public transport, and most of its residents remain tied to their cars for work, school, and recreation. This creates a serious environmental problem, parking issues, crowding issues and perpetuates the separate nature of the community.
To mitigate this issue, the Fairfield City…
An examination of the four basic steps of policymaking reveals this quite clearly.
The first step in the policymaking process is the agenda setting that must come before policies are even considered. Bringing problems to the attention of policy makers and thus setting the policy agenda is accomplished by many different players with different aims, from citizen groups to businesses to media organizations and many others. All of these groups r individual representatives (and sometimes simple individuals) can use a variety of methods for setting the agenda, form private meetings with policy makers to speaking at town hall meetings or city councils to engaging in media or public awareness campaigns. In larger governments, lobbying is a major source of agenda-setting activity, as the interests of groups that engage lobbying services are brought to the direct and immediate attention of government representatives in what amounts to a pay-for-play system. The political…
Gerston, L. (2010). Public Policymaking: Process and Principles. Armonk, NY: M.E.
Texas Constitution and Statutes. (2011). Government Code Chapter 573. Accessed 14
October 2011. http://www.statutes.legis.state.tx.us/
Transportation Improvements and Accountability in San Francisco Bay Area
The process has been much more painful and has taken much longer than anyone anticipated, but today, by any measure, San Francisco is a world-class city. The Bay Area in particular is poised to become one of the most livable regions in the entire nation as the result of progressive and far-sighted transportation projects and investments in civic infrastructure. To determine how recent transportation improvements and the related issues of accountability have played out in recent years in the San Francisco area, this paper provides an overview of recent transportation initiatives in the region, followed by an assessment of what accountability issues emerged as a result. A summary of the research and salient findings are presented in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Recent Transportation Initiatives and Improvements in San Francisco Bay Area. Perhaps the most well-known and visible of San Francisco's…
Buhl, Soren, Bent Flyvbjerg and Mette Skamris Holm. (2002). "Underestimating Costs in Public Works Projects: Error or Lie?" Journal of the American Planning Association,
Ellis, John. (2002, January). "View from San Francisco: San Francisco May Be Suffering
Because of the Collapse of the E-Industry, but Its Ambitious Infrastructure Projects Are a Fair Bid to Make It the Most Civilized City on the U.S. Pacific Coast. The Architectural
VMI is a highly orchestrated process that can drastically reduce the inventory carrying costs of a manufacturer, and is one that 3PL providers rely on public warehouses to attain.
The cost benefits of reverse logistics also contribute to the cost efficiencies of public warehouses (Berglund, Laarhoven, Sharman, Wandel, 1999). everse logistics is a supply chain process that seeks to capture packaging, recyclable components, and potentially toxic materials in products so they can be safely disposed of (Dowlatshahi, 2010). This is extremely expensive for manufacturers to do on their own, and given the compliance regulations globally surrounding electronic goods in particular, 3PL providers and public warehouse are seeing much interest in this specific service (Dowlatshahi, 2010).
Cost eduction and Service Bundling: The New Strategy of Public Warehouses
Historically public warehouses have relied on their variable cost business model, located in regions of the world that are distribution hubs, in addition to…
Magnus Berglund, Peter van Laarhoven, Graham Sharman, & Sten Wandel. (1999). Third-party logistics: Is there a future? International Journal of Logistics Management, 10(1), 59-70.
Dowlatshahi, S.. (2010). The role of transportation in the design and implementation of reverse logistics systems. International Journal of Production Research, 48(14), 4199.
Jayaram, J., & Tan, K.. (2010). Supply chain integration with third-party logistics providers. International Journal of Production Economics, 125(2), 262.
Jenkins, Michael. (1992). Gaining a Financial Foothold Through Public Warehousing. The Journal of Business Strategy, 13(3), 53.
DISASTER RECOVERY AND ORGANIZATIONAL CONTINUITY
The governments of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States all have some form of transportation safety board for disaster response. Their duties are sometimes gathered under one agency and sometimes divided among more than one agency. However, their missions are all focused on transportation security and not on assigning blame to people or groups for accident.
Transportation Safety Boards
Australia has the Australian Transportation Safety Bureau (ATSB), which is an independent statutory agency run by a Commission and kept apart from regulators, policy makers and service providers for transportation. It is designed to increase safety and public confidence transportation by: autonomous examination -- both in Australia and abroad - of accidents and safety incidents; recording, examining and researching safety information; and encouraging safety consciousness, information and behavior (Australian Government, 2016). The ATSB investigates aviation accidents, events and insufficiencies.…
Australian Government. (2016). About ATSB. Retrieved from www.atsb.gov.au: https://www.atsb.gov.au/about_atsb/overview/
Australian Government. (2016). Aviation. Retrieved from www.atsb.gov.au: https://www.atsb.gov.au/aviation/aviation-safety/
Australian Government. (2016). Marine. Retrieved from www.gov.au: https://www.atsb.gov.au/marine/marine-safety/
Australian Government. (2016). Rail. Retrieved from www.atsb.gov.au: https://www.atsb.gov.au/rail/rail-safety/
One demand is to supply adequate fresh water. Insufficient fresh water for drinking, sewage treatment and sewage discharge are frequent issues that arise as the population increases. Augmented amounts of air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination and noise pollution are also issues faced by city governments. Another issue is that of high infant and child mortality rates. These rates are frequently caused by deficiency. There is also an augmented possibility of the appearance of new plagues and pandemics. For a lot of ecological and societal reasons, including congested living situations, undernourishment and insufficient, unreachable, or missing health care; the underprivileged are more likely to be exposed to communicable diseases (Devaney, 2010).
What steps did city governments take to help deal with new demand resulting from the influx in population?
In the late nineteenth century, municipal governments frequently failed to meet the needs of their constituents. Because of this urban planning…
Auch, Roger, Taylor, Janis and Acevedo, William. (2004). Urban Growth in American Cities.
Retrieved March 8, 2011, from Web site:
Devaney, Erik. (2010). The Effects of Population Density on Individuals. Retrieved March 8,
In terms of similarities, each of these budgets contains roughly the same basic format. hile the specific charts may differ, each budget separates revenue sources and attempts to break those down. The budgets also explain the expenditures, and typically break these down to each individual program within the department.
A similarity between three of the budgets (Federal, Florida and Newark) is that they rely heavily on tables and written explanations. hile these tables are necessary in any budget, it is interesting to note that the Newark budget is significantly more visually-oriented than any of the other budgets. The graphic representation of some of the figures makes for a more user-friendly presentation. The other budgets are less likely to be understood by those without some financial training.
Each of the budgets is produced to unique specifications. There appears to be no standard with respect to the production of public budgets, so…
United States 2010 Federal Budget Summary Tables. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy10/pdf/budget/summary.pdf
State of Florida 2009-10 "People's" Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://peoplesbudget.state.fl.us/bdagencies.aspx?full=1
City of Newark 2009 Proposed Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://www.ci.newark.nj.us/government/city_departments/department_of_administration/2009_proposed_budget.php
Environmental Protection Agency 2010 Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from http://www.epa.gov/budget/2010/2010bib.pdf
Having a clientele also allows the agency to gain a sense of internal direction as well. Employees of the agency have a more clear sense of mandate when there is a definable clientele as well. This helps with direction, with effectiveness and with efficiency.
Question 2. Issues assessments are conducted so that government or its agencies can learn about the variety of issues surrounding a specific subject. The issues assessment can be conducted with respect to a program or proposed program, with respect to a parcel of land or proposed development, or with respect to a subject matter such as transportation, housing, homelessness or other key issue. ithin each of these issues will be a number of other issues of import to the individual stakeholders. It is the purpose of the issues assessment to uncover each of these sub-issues pertaining to the subject, so that the best course of action…
Rabin, Jack. (1992). Handbook of Public Budgeting. Retrieved July 2, 2009 from http://books.google.de/books?id=jyX0oF66J3oC&pg=PA217&lpg=PA217&dq=revenue+forecasting+time+series&source=bl&ots=mSw7SNpEku&sig=GlF6iTgjQ5_0u8RpN6AhFPVWAUE&hl=en&ei=wCJNSv2fKInBsAak1uC1BA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2
Six Steps in the Budgeting Process. Bottom-up vs. Top-down Budget Plans, 2010).
The budget rules that are prepared by top management are passed down through successive levels within the company. Managers at each level may make additions and offer greater detail for their subordinates. The managers at each level prepare the plans for items under their control. The budgeting process will caution management of possible problems that may occur. By knowing the problems, solutions may be formulated. For example, at the valleys in cash flow, a shortage of cash may occur. Knowing this ahead of time allows management to arrange for a short-term loan for the financing need rather than face an unexpected financing crisis. In a similar element, planning allows for a smooth manufacturing program to result in both lower production costs and lower inventory levels. It steers clear of a crisis circumstances requiring overtime or high transportation charges…
Fuller, Julia. (2010). How to Make a Budget for an Organization. Retrieved August 7, 2010,
from eHow Web site: http://www.ehow.com/how_4464789_make-budget-organization.html
How to Prepare A Sound Budget Process. Six Steps in the Budgeting Process. Bottom-up versus
Top-down Budget Plans. (2010). Retrieved August 7, 2010, from Online Success Center
Public Health Preparedness
The concept of 'public health preparedness' (PHP) has been garnering recognition worldwide, given the global-scale threats which are constantly encountered by professional healthcare organizations, including bioterrorism, Ebola, the West Nile Virus, and influenza. Preparedness approaches have brought about improvements in the overall healthcare system, by enabling swifter responses to diverse kinds of hazards across the globe. A majority of PHP measures adopted in America are government-judged; this gives rise to concerns pertaining to militarization. Still, preparedness programs in other country-level settings don't essentially indicate comparable implications. The global significance of health sector preparedness has served to increase governmental need of resolving the concern by means of financing, advances, and maintenance approaches which aid speedy response to every kind of crisis. However, akin to all other ideas, the PHP concept is also accompanied by certain major challenges, like the threat of public health militarization. Yet the associated advantages…
Eisenstein, R., Finnegan, J. R., & Curran, J. W. (2014). Contributions of Academia to Public Health Preparedness Research. Public Health Reports, 129(Suppl 4), 5 -- 7.
Khan, Y., Fazli, G., Henry, B., de Villa, E., Tsamis, C., Grant, M., & Schwartz, B. (2015). The Evidence Base of Primary Research in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Scoping Review and Stakeholder Consultation. BMC Public Health, 15, 432. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1750-1
Moore, S., Mawji, A., Shiell, A., & Noseworthy, T. (2007). Public Health Preparedness: A Systems-Level Approach. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61(4), 282 -- 286. http://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2004.030783
Nelson, C., Lurie, N., Wasserman, J., & Zakowski, S. (2007). Conceptualizing and Defining Public Health Emergency Preparedness. American Journal of Public Health, 97(Suppl 1), S9 -- S11. http://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2007.114496
Environmental egulations in Public Transit
The negative effects of air pollution are that it can force illness on us. It can produce burning eyes and nose and an itchy, irritated throat, in addition to difficulty in breathing. The cause for certain diseases like cancer, birth defects, brain and nerve injury and long-standing wound to the lungs and breathing passages is found to be some chemicals in polluted air. Severe injury or even death can happen if some hazardous air pollutants are released by mistake. Air pollution affects environment. Air pollution also affects trees, lakes and animals. Air pollutants are contracting the shielding ozone layers above the Earth. This loss of ozone can lead to alterations in the environment in addition to more skin cancer and cataracts in people. By soiling buildings and other structures, air pollution spoils properties like home, offices, etc. Damages to stone-based structures like buildings, monuments and…
Background on Air Pollution. Retrieved from http://www.nsc.org/ehc/mobile/acback.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005
Background Sheet: The Clean Air Act. 4 November, 2000. Retrieved from http://www.deq.state.la.us/assistance/educate/readdat4.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005
Clean Air Act. Retrieved from http://www.answers.com/topic/clean-air-act Accessed on 28 May 2005
Economic aspects of sustainable development in India. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/india/eco.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005
Car travel may also pose a threat if gas prices continue to 'idle' or decline as the economy worsens.
Do its customers have special requirements?
In response to consumer demand and a shifting political climate, Bombardier has tried to incorporate sustainability into its business model to a greater degree. Providing rail travel in a way to reduce the planet's and the company's carbon footprint has become a core part of its mission ("Corporate responsibility," Bombardier, 2009)
Bombardier is organized into two separate sections, rail and aerospace, both of which have a presence worldwide.
Current financial analysis
The company's financial performance is strong. On January 31, 2009 Bombardier "showed improvements in revenues, profitability and a robust cash position. Revenues increased by 13% to reach $19.7 billion" and Bombardier Transportation specifically "Bombardier Transportation's revenues totaled $9.8 billion, an increase of 25% over last fiscal year" ("Bombardier, Marketwire, 2009).…
"About us: History." Bombardier. May 16, 2009.
"Bombardier Announces Extended Range Option for Learjet 40 XR Aircraft." Webwire.
May 13, 2009
1920s transportation changes. Specifically it will discuss how the growth of the automobile industry in the 1920's changed the world and what positive and negative influences it had on society. By the 1920s, automobiles were much more common, and American society was becoming more accepting of them. They changed the way Americans viewed transportation, and really altered society in many different ways.
The automobile was firmly established by the 1920s. More people could afford them due to mass production and competition between manufacturers, and that meant people had greater freedom and mobility. Previously, the only methods of transportation where horse and buggy or carriage, train, or public transportation like streetcars. However, by the 1920s, this was not the case. Editors at the Smithsonian Institution note, "By the time this photo was taken in the 1920s, automobiles had changed the city streetscape, and the carriage was becoming a rarity" ("America on…
Drowne, Kathleen Morgan and Huber, Patrick The 1920's. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004.
Editors. "1920s Automobiles." 1920-30.com. 2009. 26 Oct. 2009.
Editors. "America on the Move." Smithsonian Institution.edu. 2009. 26 Oct. 2009.
leadership a tool implementing public policy. For Application Assignment
One of the most prominent tools or practices that John Bury should utilize to help reinforce environmental legislation from a non-regulatory perspective is to issue tax breaks to citizens who decided to contribute to practices that are environmentally sound. For instance, those that donate funds to various groups that are set up for the purpose of counteracting environmental effects should be able to write off such donations and get a 'break' on their income taxes as a result. Presenting tax incentives will be an effective means of getting people to adhere to environmental regulations because they will be able to see a direct benefit to doing so in their financial statements at the end of the year. There are no regulations for this practice, and it will certainly resonate with more financially conscious individuals -- who are typically the people involved…
Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Guidelines for Preparing Economic Analyses. www.yosemite.epa.gov. Retrieved from http://yosemite.epa.gov/ee/epa/eerm.nsf/vwAN/EE-0568-04.pdf/$file/EE-0568-04.pdf
Environmental Protection Agency. (2013). Criminal enforcement overview. www.2epa.gov. Retrieved from http://www2.epa.gov/enforcement/criminal-enforcement-overview
No author (1997). Appendix C: regulatory and non-regulatory tools. www.epa.gov. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/superfund/programs/aml/policy/app_c.pdf
In short, providing transit using the current paradigms and strategies is unsustainble. Transit's success depends on the ability of planners to make the lives of travelers worse off by making it harder to get around, restricting housing choice and type, and subjecting people to all manner of externalities and lifestyles they routinely choose to avoid in the current housing market place (e.g., small homes, urban noise, and air pollution" (Stanley 2007).
Facts and figures publication of the Road Information Program, a Mobility omparison of Investments in Highways and Mass Transit, notes that Despite a 148.8% increase in operating subsidies between 1980 and 1990, mass transit was unable to increase its share of the nation's PMT. In fact, between 1980 and 1990, mass transit's share of the nation's passenger miles of non-marine, surface transportation decreased from 1.43% to 1.27%...total PMT provided by mass transit exceeded 1% of total transportation in only…
From the evidence in this paper, mass transit is important for long-run economic growth and less traffic. This can be shown in many cities where the economic cost of the commuting time is huge. By eliminating issue, it would bring a significant improvement in the economy's efficiency and modern day continence. The economic and military power of a nation has been closely tied to efficient methods of transportation since it provides access to natural resources and promotes trade. A nation can gain wealth and power by increasing the use of mass transit since it allows the movement of soldiers, equipment, and supplies so that a nation can wage war. "Metra ridership grew by about 15% between 1985 and 1995.... Generally, all Metra zones have been experiencing steady growth since 1985.... Ridership in zones a and B (combined) increased by about 800,000 annual riders between 1990 and 1994. These are the zones closest to the CBD. This 14% increase may be due to switching of CTA (Heavy Rail) passengers to Metra to benefit from better fares and a better passenger environment." (Weyrich and Lind). Furthermore, it has become apparent that reliable transportation allows a population to expand throughout a country's territory without being traffic congested.
Internalizing externalities and public goods
Discussion Question: Externalities
The most obvious negative externalities of traffic congestion, even for non-drivers who take public transportation, include the noise and air pollution caused by traffic. Pedestrians may also run the risk of being hit by a passing driver who is trying to maneuver his or her way in rush hour traffic. There are significant opportunity costs to living in a large city where many people drive. Large commercial parking lots take up space that otherwise could be allocated for use for retail stores that all residents could patronize. Public parking areas take up space that could otherwise be devoted to public parks. Cyclists and pedestrians often have notably decreased quality of life and freedom of movement, thanks to the fact that they must compete for space with cars on city streets. While even drivers bear some of these costs when they…
TANF: Evaluation Proposal
The ole of the Evaluative Process in Public Administration
Within the private sector, evaluation has long been deemed a critical component of determining that resources are being used efficiently. Data such as customer buying patterns, quality of manufacturing, rates of errors, and feedback about customer satisfaction can all be used to determine that the organization is operating effectively and can improve services. The same is true of public administration. esources are also limited and the public has a right to be assured that its tax dollars are being spent effectively. Beneficiaries of social welfare programs also have a right to participate in programs that address their genuine needs.
This is particularly true of programs such as the Work First Family Assistance (WFFA), better known as the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). TANF provides assistance to needy families, usually single mothers with children, with the aim of…
Action research (2014). The glossary of education reform. Retrieved from: http://edglossary.org/action-research/
Hildebrandt, E. & Stevens, P. (2009). Impoverished women with children and no welfare benefits: The urgency of researching failures of the Temporary
Assistance for Needy Families Program. American Journal of Public Health,
99(5): 793-801. Retrieved from:
Johnson also used deceptive public relations tactics in publicizing a supposed attack on the U.S. naval fleet in the Gulf of Tonkin off the Vietnamese coast. Eventually, it would be acknowledged by former members of the Johnson administration that the incident was essentially fabricated as a means to justify the entrance of the U.S. military into the Vietnamese conflict in an operational (i.e. war-fighting) capacity instead of the advisory capacity in which U.S. forces had been involved to that point (McNamara, 1995; oberts, 2000; Vance, 1983).
The public relations industry and mechanisms have also been used effectively by foreign governments in a manner designed to instigate public opposition to the policies of the American administration. One of the best examples is the "No Nukes" political movement during the 1980s in opposition to President onald eagan's increased funding of U.S. defense capabilities against the threat believed to have been represented by…
Craig, R.T. (2007). "Pragmatism in the Field of Communication Theory" Communication
Theory, Vol. 17, No. 2: 125-145.
Commager, H.S. (1999). The American Mind: An Interpretation of American Thought
and Character Since the 1880s. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Toyota Beginning and Emergence
The Market for the Company
The Major Partners and Suppliers
Toyota Supply Chain
Dedicated Transport Service
The Green Supply Chain
Freight Flow of Toyota
The Transport Improvement Plan
Dedicated Transport Service
Integration of services
Division of Duties at the Plant Level for Better Accountability
Mapping logistics flows
The Future of the Transport Improvement Plan
Production by region
Sales by region
Toyota is the biggest single producer and the second biggest producer of cars in the world, after General Motors.
The Toyota Motor Corporation was founded in 1937 by Kiichiro Toyoda. It is headquartered in Toyota city in Japan with regional offices and factories all around the globe. The company primarily manufactures automobiles but also has business interests in robotics, financial services and biotechnology. It employs a huge number of people and is among the top…
Antony, J., Caine, P., & Escamilla, J. (2003). Lean Sigma [production and supply chain management]. Manufacturing Engineer, 82(2), 40-42. doi:10.1049/me:20030203
Automotivelogisticsmagazine.com,. (2015). Automotive Logistics - Toyota's total supply chain vision. Retrieved 25 February 2015, from http://www.automotivelogisticsmagazine.com/interview/total-supply-chain-vision
Chambers, K. (2008). Toyota. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
DALLERY, Y., & LIBEROPOULOS, G. (2000). Extended kanban control system: combining kanban and base stock. IIE Transactions, 32(4), 369-386. doi:10.1080/07408170008963914
In "The Annapolis Report" -- a review of the 2010 legislative session -- the MPPI explains that due to the governor taking funds from the HUR all the counties' share and the Baltimore City share will be "significantly reduced" (MPPI). In fact the counties' share will "have been all but eliminated" the MPPI continues, quoting from an article in the ashington Post that asserts "…counties will have to contend with almost no 'highway user' revenue."
Moreover, through 2015, the Post is quoted suggesting that Maryland counties "will have to make due with less than 10% of the hundreds of millions they have typically received each year over the last two decades" (MPPI, p. 9). The actual dollar amount that the counties and Baltimore City will lose due to this dipping into funds by the governor is around $400 million, the MPPI explains.
Included in O'Malley's budget moves -- the legal…
Fauf, David Saleh. (2011). I State Transportation Fund Being Raided? A Challenge to the
Rhetoric. Columbia Patch. Retrieved February 19, 2011, from http://columbia.patch.com .
Kilmer, Marc. (2010). O'Malley's big spending hurts Wicomico. The Maryland Public Policy
Institute. Retrieved February 18, 2011,
Public Relations in Lebanon
his study described and analyzed the perceptions and practices of public relations in Lebanon. It focused specifically on media relations and was based on Grunig's (1984) theoretical framework of four models of public relations: press agentry, public information, two-way asymmetrical, and two-way symmetrical.
A review of the literature was conducted that revealed a debate about whether public relations can be practiced the same way all over the world (Gruban, 1995) or if certain localized practices should be considered for each nation (Sharpe, 1992).
he research design was a triangulated method. Data were collected using a written survey questionnaire and telephone interviews with Lebanese public relations practitioners. he results showed that all four of the Grunig models were practiced in Lebanon, with the two-way symmetrical model the most popular. Evidence collected from this research supported the hypothesis of this study that public relations can be globalized despite…
The Republic of Lebanon is located on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, surrounded by Israel from the south, Syria from the east and the north, and the Mediterranean Sea from the west. Lebanon is one of the smallest sovereign countries in the world. The length of the whole country is 220 kilometers (135 miles) from South to North and varies between 20-55 miles from East to West. The area is 10,425 square kilometers (3,950 square miles) (Embassy of Lebanon, 2002). Lebanon is a democracy based on a parliamentary democratic political regime. Similar to Western democracies, the government consists of three branches: an executive, a legislative, and an independent judiciary.
The economy is a liberal capitalist one.
Lebanon's population of four million
Anckar, arsten. "Why ountries hoose the Death Penalty." Brown Journal of World
Affairs 21.1 (2014): 7-25. Business Source Premier. Web. 28 Mar. 2016.
This source focuses on why countries choose to use the death penalty to punish certain crimes. The crimes punished for with the death penalty vary but the use of the death penalty is typically for one or more several common reasons. For the countries that do choose the death penalty, the reason is usually because it is seen as the "ultimate" form of punishment and is typically (but not always) reserved for crimes of a very obscene and/or violent nature. In the vast majority of cases, the taking of a life is required for those that get death sentences. For countries that do not choose the death penalty, it is typically avoided because it is seen as ineffectual, barbaric to engage in despite the nature…
Convergences and Divergences." American Journal of Criminal Law 41.2 (2014): 189-
207. Legal Collection. Web. 28 Mar. 2016.
- This report looks at the various convergences and divergences that exist when it comes to the death penalty and mass incarceration. The focal point in terms of time is April 2014. The report focuses on American's penal policy, its historical trends when it comes to executions and so forth. To explain what is meant by the above, there seem to be some ideas and patterns when it comes to the death penalty and mass incarceration that are converging. Meaning, more and more people are agreeing about the subject. At the same time, there are also clear divisions emerging such as opinion differences between states.
Masters in Public Administration
I seek a Masters in Public Administration because I want to obtain the skills and tools to be able to make solid public decisions that positively impact the community. Public administrators are both servants and leaders and occupy an important role in society: they have to at one and the same time serve the public and put its interests before their own, and they also have to lead the public and the organization with which they are involved. It is their responsibility to manage and meet the needs of those from whom their mandate is ultimately obtained.
With a Masters in Public Administration, I expect to be able to build on the knowledge I have already obtained in my undergraduate years. This is the next level of academic experience that will enable me to enter into an administrative career with professionalism, expertise, and devotion to care…
Master of Public Administration. (2016). UTA. Retrieved from http://www.uta.edu/cappa/academics/public-affairs/public-administration/master-public-administration/
The state response to Ebola should be a coordinated communications effort. This will serve a number of purposes. First, it will maintain fiscal discipline. Second, communication is key to maintaining public order should there be an outbreak of Ebola. Third, communication helps to reduce the risk of an outbreak, because all members of our community will know how to avoid spreading Ebola.
The recent revelations that the World Health Organization and others botched their response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa has done little to calm the public here at home regarding this disease. A government that deals in evidence and has a realistic world view does not need to address irrational panic, but the fact that global and national-level bodies seem challenged to come up with a plan to deal with Ebola places the onus on the state to devise such solutions. Already, some states, such as…
AP. (2014). Canadian nurses: Updated ebola guidelines don't protect healthcare staff. Global News. Retrieved October 22, 2014 from http://globalnews.ca/news/1623732/canada-releases-updated-ebola-guidelines-amid-calls-for-international-aid/
CBS. (2014). Christie announce MJ ebola team. CBS New York. Retrieved October 22, 2014 from http://newyork.cbslocal.com/2014/10/22/christie-to-hold-nj-response-readiness-briefing-on-ebola/
Dixon, R. (2014). Eight reported dead in attack on Ebola workers in Guinea. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 22, 2014 from http://www.latimes.com/world/africa/la-fg-attack-ebola-guinea-outreach-20140918-story.html#
There are a number of different modes of transportation, and each mode has different safety considerations. This paper will look at road, rail, sea and air freight in particular. Obviously, there will be some safety issues that can affect any mode of transport -- human error or mechanical breakdown can happen to anything, anytime. But within each mode there will be unique risks, and it is important to understand what those risks are, in order that they be addressed effectively.
ail transport is generally considered to be one of the safer modes, but rail accidents are surprisingly common. The particular issues relating to rail tend to be issues with track maintenance, and trains taking corners too fast, both resulting in derailment. The Federal ailroad Administration provides oversight on railroad safety issues, in order to minimize the number of accidents that occur on the rails. However, derailments still occur,…
FRA (2015). Safety fact sheet. Federal Railroad Administration. Retrieved June 25, 2015 from https://www.fra.dot.gov/Page/P0680
Kristiansen, S. (2013) Maritime transportation: Safety management and risk analysis. Elsevier: Burlington, MA
Public Administration: Presenting for the Future
Immigration Policy eform
The term "immigration reform" is used to collectively refer to all efforts that have been undertaken by a country to amend abuses and reduce faults in its immigration policy. These efforts could be geared at either promoting and encouraging immigration or reducing and even eliminating the same. A perfect example of the former is the UK's promotion of the absorption of foreign-educated health specialists in its National Health Service (Dodds, 2012). The U.S. has, however, almost consistently run an anti-immigration policy. As this text will demonstrate, numerous reform efforts have been undertaken since way back in the 18th century to reduce the number of aliens illegally or legally crossing into the U.S. through the country's border points. Most of these efforts were particularly speeded up after the 9/11 tragedy; however, the successful implementation of these has been hampered by a number…
Baker, B. & Rytina, N. (2012). Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2012. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved 17 March 2015 from http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/ois_ill_pe_2012_2.pdf
Camayd-Freixas, E. (2013). U.S. Immigration Reform and its Global Impact: Lessons from the Postville Raid. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan
Carens, J.H. (2013). The Ethics of Immigration. New York, NY: Oxford University Press
DHS. (2015). About DHS. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved 17 March 2015 from http://www.dhs.gov/about-dhs
Positive and Negative Influences of Legislation and egulation on Intermodal Transportation
Intermodal transportation is seen where goods, or people, travel across different forms or modes of transport. There are many influences on this type of transportation; the development of containers increased the demand for intermodal transportation, and technology that support longer supply chain has also increase demand. Another influence on the industry has been legislation and regulation, which has had both positive and negative impacts. This paper will look at the general concept in terms of the way regulation may impact both positively and negatively on intermodal transportation, and consider some specific examples of legislation or regulation and their potential influence.
Legislation and/or regulations have impacted directly and indirectly on intermodal transportation. Legislation has included statues to support the development and maintenance of a competitive environment, as well as controls on the movement of goods as standards for…
Carter, M, (2014, Feb 22), Why Whole Foods Market May Have a Big Problem, Motley Fool, accessed 22nd Feb at http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2014/02/22/why-whole-foods-market-may-have-a-big-problem.aspx
Lambert, T, A, (2008), Four Lessons from the Whole Foods Case, CATO Institute, accessed 22nd Feb at http://object.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/serials/files/regulation/2008/2/v31n1-4.pdf
MacKey, J; Robb, W, (2013). Letter to Stakeholders, accessed 22nd Feb 2014 at http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/sites/default/files/media/Global/Company%20Info/PDFs/WFM-2013-Letter-to-Stakeholders.pdf
Meador, Don; Britton, Mike; Phillips, Paige; Howery, Andrew, (2007), Case Analysis -- Whole Foods Market, accessed 22nd Feb 2014 at http://pnphillip.asp.radford.edu/whole%20Foods%20Case.pdf
TRANSPORTATION REVOLUTION IN THE UNITED STATES ETWEEN 1815 AND 1830?
This paper argues that, even prior to the advent of the railroads, a transportation revolution had taken place in the United States in the early nineteenth century. It argues that two developments were most important: steamboat navigation and the construction of the great canals. In particular, the building of the Erie Canal constituted a revolution in its own right. It was on account of the transportation revolution of the 1815-30 period that the American economy was decisively transformed in a capitalist direction.
In 1800, the United States did not lack a transport infrastructure, but it was a very poor one. With the exception of cities and towns located on the Atlantic coastline or along navigable waterways, there was literally no means of transporting agricultural produce and manufactured items to or from market centers other than country roads. These roads were…
Boyer, Paul S. et al. The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People. 4th edition. Houghton Mifflin, [YEAR?]
Cornog, Evan. The Birth of Empire: De Witt Clinton and the American Experience 1769-1828. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Frost, James Arthur. Life on the Upper Susquehanna 1783-1860. New York: King's Crown Press, 1951.
Majewski, John. A House Dividing: Economic Development in Pennsylvania and Virginia Before the Civil War. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
September 11th and Transportation Law
On the morning of September 11th, 2011, the United States of America felt the full fury of an enemy which had been lying in wait for decades, planning an attack of spectacularly tragic proportions that would shake the nation to its core. The weapons of choice for Osama bin Laden and his Al-Qaeda terrorist network were not bullets or bombs, but airplanes which were ruthlessly hijacked and flown as missiles into New York's World Trade Center, the Pentagon in Washington, D.C., and fatefully, an empty field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania. With the collapse of both of the Twin Towers and the immediate loss of over 3,000 lives, the American aviation industry was suddenly transformed from a once proud symbol of our national strength into a scapegoat for society's shattered complacency. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, with images of smoldering rubble streaming live on television…
H.R. 3110 -- 107th Congress: Transportation Security Enhancement Act of 2001. (2001). In GovTrack.us (database of federal legislation). Retrieved June 25, 2012, from http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/107/hr3110
107th United States Congress, (2001). Public law 107 -- 71 -- nov. 19, 2001: The aviation and transportation security act. Retrieved June 25 from U.S. Government Printing Office website: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-107publ71/pdf/PLAW-107publ71.pdf
Evolution of Transportation
Transportation is one of the tools obligatory by civilized man to get order out of disorder. It arrives into each segment and facet of our continuation. Considered as of every point-of-view, economic, political and military, it is indisputably the most significant industry in the world.
You can no more function a grocery store or a brewery than you can win a war devoid of transportation. The more multifaceted life turns out to be, the more essential are the effects that make up our transportation systems (Moulton, 1949).
History Of Transportations
In the sixty years as of the 1790s to the 1840s, the United States acknowledged what has been appropriately phrased a 'transportation revolution'. Revolutionary it in fact was, for the social, economic, as well as political consequences of the alterations in transportation were extensive and transformative.
More often than not historians recognize actions such as the enlargement…
H.G. Moulton, Controlling Factors in Economic Development. The Brookings Institution, 1949, esp. Chapter VIII.
Stanley I. Fischler, Moving Millions. New York: Harper and Row, 1979.
William D. Middleton. The Time of the Trolley. Milwaukee, WI: Kalmbach Press, 1967.
Solomon et al. History of Transit and Innovative Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1971.
Logistics Design Alternatives
Intermodal transportation essentially refers to the process of transporting passengers and cargo by means of multiple, inter-linked transportation modes. It capitalizes on the comparative advantage of the individual modes to bring about high productivity at considerably low freight costs. Intermodalism has gained prominence over recent years, and is currently an integral component of international trade and global supply chain management. The U.S. Penal Code (49 USC, Chapter 55, Sec 5501, 1998) presents the government's commitment towards delivering a National International Transportation System that is not only environmentally fit, but also economically efficient and in congruence with ongoing attempts geared at making the U.S. economy more competitive on the global front. According to David Collenette, the former Transport Minister of Canada, intermodal transportation is about efficiency and safety in transportation. Canada and Mexico are among America's leading trade partners; in fact, trade volumes between the three have risen…
Dewitt, W. & Clinger, J. (n.d.). Intermodal Freight Transportation. Committee on Intermodal Freight Transport. Retrieved 15th October 2014 from http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/millennium/00061.pdf
MIT. (2014). The Export Administration Regulations (EAR). Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Retrieved 15th October 2014 from http://osp.mit.edu/compliance/export-controls/the-export-administration-regulations-ear
Weigel, K.J. & Schwartz, J.M. (2009). International Government Contractor: News and Analysis on International Public Procurement and Export Controls. Thomas Reuters, 6(4), 1-9.
Yevdokimov, Y.V. (n.d.). Measuring Economic / benefits of Intermodal Transportation. Mississippi State University. Retrieved 17th October 2014 from http://ncit.msstate.edu/PDF/7-Measuring-Economic-Benefits-of-IntermodalTransportation.pdf
The vehicle snarl-up can also lead to blocking of important vehicles such as ambulances that if do not reach their destinations urgently lead to loss of people or other important resources.
The motorists especially of passenger vehicles will always try to find alternative ways or routes to reach their destinations leading to them using pedestrian footpaths and side streets and this affects the neighbouring structures. When a footpath turns out to be used as a road the effects to the residents is increased real estate prices due to the proximity to means of transport. The dwellers therefore experience increased living standards.
In trying to solve the problem of traffic congestion, governments have tried to come up with a market-based solution which involves expansion of roads and building of fly overs that can be used by all citizens. Private companies have been contracted to facilitate efficient construction of the roads. This…
5. Many popular models of vehicles (i.e. large SUVs and trucks) are difficult to produce with high-mileage capability.
Possible Solutions to Anticipated Implementation Problems
1. Subsidizing consumer purchases with cash rebate incentives and tax credits would probably increase voluntary compliance substantially.
2. Subsidizing vehicle manufacturers for the research and development costs associated with producing more high-mileage vehicles could decrease their reluctance to do so independently.
3. Sufficient purchase subsidies and tax credits issued directly to consumers by the federal government could substantially increase their willingness to make purchases of newer more efficient vehicles.
4. Federal guarantees issued to financial lending institutions in connection with eligible loans to consumers for the purchase of high-mileage vehicles could reduce the difficulty that many consumers are currently experiencing when applying for financial loans.
5. Public relations campaigns to encourage a shift to higher-mileage vehicle models and financial incentives could be a "carrot" to promote…
Despite these constraints, China does in fact have an impressive transportation infrastructure already, and China's rankings relative to the rest of the world in various transportation infrastructure categories is provided in Table 1 below.
Current Status of China's Transportation Infrastructure
3,583,715 km (includes 53,913 km of expressways)
110,000 km navigable
Ports and terminals
Dalian, Guangzhou, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Tianjin (see map at Appendix a)
Source: China, 2010
The network of paved highways and roads that extends throughout China, though, is not the same type of national and unified transportation system that exists in the U.S., Japan and Europe that are characterized by uniform standards and regulatory guidelines and many of the roadways are in bad condition . Notwithstanding the current state of the roadways throughout China,…
Bibliography." The American Journal of Economics and Sociology 65(3):
Tian, R.G. & Wang, C.H. (2010). Encyclopedia of the Nations. Retrieved from http://www. nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Asia-and-the-Pacific/China.html.
These sheets contain information regarding a substances hazard class and steps an employee or organization should take if any person is exposed to the hazardous substance in question. Also provided is detailed information regarding the handling and care of hazardous materials.
HAZMAT Training equirements
It is absolutely essential to the livelihood and well being of employees and organizations that anyone involved in transporting hazmat is adequately tested, trained and certified. Training can mean the difference between life and death for individuals working with hazardous materials. Fortunately there are federal and state regulations that currently govern the types of training employers must offer with respect to hazmat. This training is standardized to ensure that ell people handling hazardous materials are adequately informed and trained regarding transportation, handling and any problems they might encounter during daily operations with hazmat materials.
HAZMAT training is any training for employees that operate a motor vehicle…
CDL. (2005). DOL - CDL FAQs." CDL Department of Licensing. 25, Sept 2005:
EHS. (2005). "DOT definition of hazardous material." 26, Sept 2005:
Rawl confessed that it was "bad judgement involved in even putting a person with a critical skill back in that kind of work...It is pretty clear we have to tighten those things up" (Loeb pp).
hen asked what advice he had for other CEOs, Rawl stated that they had better prethink which way they are going to jump from a public affairs standpoint before they have any kind of a problem, and cautioned that they should always have a public affairs plan, no matter how hard it is to think in terms of disasters (Loeb pp).
Davis, Nancy Y. The Exxon Valdez oil spill, Alaska. Retrieved October 30, 2005 from http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu21le/uu21le0l.htm
Details About the Accident. Retrieved October 30, 2005 at http://www.evostc.state.ak.us/facts/details.html
Loeb, Marshall. (1989 May 08). In ten years you'll see 'nothing.' (interview with Exxon CEO Lawrence Rawl about the Valdez oil spill). Fortune. Retrieved October 30, 2005…
Davis, Nancy Y. The Exxon Valdez oil spill, Alaska. Retrieved October 30, 2005 from http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu21le/uu21le0l.htm
Details About the Accident. Retrieved October 30, 2005 at http://www.evostc.state.ak.us/facts/details.html
Loeb, Marshall. (1989 May 08). In ten years you'll see 'nothing.' (interview with Exxon CEO Lawrence Rawl about the Valdez oil spill). Fortune. Retrieved October 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Roth, Alan T. (2003 April 08). Managing Risk Issues vs. Managing Risk:
Sustain High Performance Public Organizations
Highly Interdependent Work
Why? Because We LUV You. Different types of work and the organization of types of work have been studied by those interested in business leadership and organization development for decades. When a categorically new business emerges on the scene, or when a mature business invents a strikingly effective new approach to business, the textbooks and Harvard Business Cases get dusted off and circulated anew. Such is the case with the study of Southwest Airlines, a company that turned the airlines business on its head -- or rather, on its hub and spokes orientation -- by developing a more efficient and economical way to approach the business of domestic airlines (Goudreau, 2007). Southwest isn't necessarily an innovative company, but it has worked to establish systems that work and then has diligently protected those systems. The company's determination to stick with what works against…
Braneatelli, J. (2008, July 8). Southwest Airlines' seven secrets for success. [Web]. Wired, Cars 2.0: Future Transport. Retrieved http://www.wired.com/cars/futuretransport / news/2008/07/portfolio_0708
Gittell, J.H. (2003). The Southwest Airlines Way: Use the Power of Relationships to Achieve High Performance. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Gittell, J.H. (2010). Relational Coordination: Guidelines for Theory, Measurement, and Analysis. The Heller School for Social Policy and Management. Waltham, MA: Brandeis University. Retrieved http://jodyhoffergittell.info/content/rc.html
Goudreau, K. (2007). Hub and spoke system: A good idea…again. Retrieved http://www.burnsmcd.com/portal/page/portal/Internet/Content_Admin/Publications%20Repository/Aviation%20SR%20Link%20Repository/Article-HubandSpokeSystemAGoodIdeaAgain.pdf
Answering the posed question depends on one's understanding of "substantially different." On the one hand, there is the basic commonality of a recognition of the threat that natural hazards and man made activities pose upon environmental safety. Also, there is the common element of intensified efforts made in the direction of attaining environmental sustainability. What differs however is the extent to which researchers, lawmakers, organizations and individuals will go to protect the environment. Additionally, differences are obvious in terms of the emergence of new threats, such as bioterrorism. So yes, even if they refer to environmental threats and protection, the issues throughout this course will be substantially different from those forwarded in 1996.
Charlesworth, a., 29 September 2009, Cost-Cutting Takes Precedence Over Environmental Concersn, Computing, http://www.computing.co.uk/computing/news/2250303/cost-cutting-takes-precedence last accessed on October 2, 2009
Logue, J.N., 1996, Disasters, the Environment, and Public Health: Improving Our esponse, American Journal of Public Health,…
Charlesworth, a., 29 September 2009, Cost-Cutting Takes Precedence Over Environmental Concersn, Computing, http://www.computing.co.uk/computing/news/2250303/cost-cutting-takes-precedence last accessed on October 2, 2009
Logue, J.N., 1996, Disasters, the Environment, and Public Health: Improving Our Response, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 86, No. 9
Revkin, a.C., January 22, 2009, Environmental Issues Slide in Poll of Public's Concerns, New York Times
2009, Fuel Economy Website, http://www.fueleconomy.gov last accessed on October 2, 2009
Organizations or corporations enlisted as parties to the investigation report to the NTSB though individuals in legal positions are not permitted to be designated to the investigation.
While the enlisted agencies conduct their own investigations for enforcement, the determination of the actual cause of transportation accidents and incidents remains the sole responsibility of the Safety Board ("What is the National Transportation Safety Board?" n.d.). Through the party system, much of the background technical information is collected to be used in the factual reports by the National Transportation Safety Board. The Safety Board uses its staff to supervise all investigative activities in order to accomplish its objectives. The head of each investigative group or organization basically prepares and documents a factual report upon completion of their respective tasks. Each of the parties in the specific investigative organization or unit is requested to verify the accuracy of the factual report. After the…
"The Investigative Process at NTSB." (n.d.). Accident Investigations. Retrieved from National
Transportation Safety Board website: https://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/process.html
"What is the National Transportation Safety Board?" (n.d.). National Transportation Safety
Board. The Washington Post. Retrieved April 5, 2014, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/metro/documents/whatisntsb0091710.pdf
Management Account in the Public Sector and Management Accounting in the Private Sector: A Comparative Review
The late 20th and early 21st centuries have brought increasing change to almost every country in the world, Australia included. Globalism describes, in fact, the increasing unification of the world through economic means (reduction of trade barriers, support of international trade, and mitigation of export and import quotas). They goal for globalization is to increase material wealth and the distribution of goods and services through a more international division of labor and then, in turn, a process in which regional cultures integrate through communication, transportation and trade. The overall theory is that if countries are tied together cooperatively economically, they will not have needed to become political enemies. Additionally, the idea of globalism and international trade has changed the way Australian's view public and private businesses and the opportunities afforded them because of investment,…
Alexander Performance Management, Inc. 2004, Private vs. Public Sector, viewed May 2012, .
Broadbent, J & Laughlin, R 1988, 'Public Private Partnerships: An Introduction', Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, vol 16, no. 3, pp. 332-41.
Financial Accounting Standards Board 2012, Convergence with the International Accounting Standards Board, viewed May 2012, http://www.fasb.org/international/convergence_iasb.shtml .
Funnell, W & Cooper, K 1998, Public Sector Accounting and Accountability in Australia, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.
UK Public Limited Company
Goals, mission of the company
The vision of Vodafone PLC is to enrich customers with products and services that are unique through power mobile communication. This vision spells the innate intention of the company from its generation up to any near future. The vision statement lets the company anticipate for global existence and dominion through its profit elicitation while delivering quality products to customers. The vision brings to us the real picture of the organization. It is made up of the aspirations and hopes the organization aims to achieve after a certain period. It is a framework for the present and future performance of the organization. The vision of Vodafone PLC is to make mobile network systems a "nervous system" that incorporates connected markets within Europe, U.S. And Japan.
The mission statement of Vodafone PLC helps to explain the reason why the company exists…
Antill, N., & Lee, K. 2005, Company valuation under IFRS: interpreting and forecasting accounts using international financial reporting standards. Petersfield: Harriman
Balmer, J.M.T., Mukherjee, A., Greyser, S.A., & Jenster, P. 2006, Corporate marketing insights and integration drawn from corporate branding corporate identity corporate communication and visual identification. Bradford, England, Emerald Group Pub.
Retrieved on 28th January, 2013, from
Sea Cargo and Transportation
Maritime Transportation is the main channel of international trade; however, the share of its weight sustained by the sea is difficult to come across. Increase in population, increasing living standards, quick industrialization, congestion of roads, over-exploitation of local resources, and removal of trade barriers all play a role in the ongoing development in maritime transportation. In nations with passable rivers or long shorelines, or in nations made up of several islands, water transportation might play a vital role in domestic trades, for instance, Japan, Greece, Indonesia, USA, and Norway (UNCTAD, 2004).
The load carrying capacity of the world fleet reached 857 million tons at the conclusion of 2003, which is an increase of 25% over 1890. There was also a rapid growth in the capacity of the container ships fleet with about 727% increase. These substituted the general cargo ships in main liner trades. To…
European Commission, (1997). Green paper on seaports and maritime infrastructure, COM (97) 678 Final, European Commission, Brussels.
Fisenko, A. I. (2013). CONDITION AND PROSPECTS OF MARITIME FREIGHT TRANSPORTATIONS IN THE SOUTHERN ZONE OF THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST.Asia-Pacific Journal Of Marine Science & Education, 3(1), 59-65.
Higginson, J. K., & Dumitrascu, T. (2007). Great Lakes Short Sea Shipping and the Domestic Cargo-Carrying Fleet. Transportation Journal (American Society Of Transportation & Logistics Inc.), 46(1), 38-50.
Persson, J.A. & Gothe-Lundgren, M. (2005). Shipment planning at oil refineries using column generation and valid inequalities. European Journal of Operational Research 163, 631-652.
Most state and federal regulations related to the transportation of hazardous materials were first established in 1975 with the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act. The Act broadly defines hazardous materials as anything that “may pose an unreasonable risk to health and safety or property,” (OSHA, 2017). In practice, hazardous materials generally include explosives, hazardous waste, gasses, radioactive material, flammable or combustible materials, and harmful chemicals. However, each state would have its own regulations, which sometimes conflicted with neighboring states or federal regulations. Further complicating the issues related to safe transport of hazardous materials was the fact that a large number of federal, state, and local agencies would have different jurisdictions and subject to different regulations or laws, such as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), Federal Railway Administration (FRA), Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), and the United States Coast Guard (USCG) (Federal Motor Carrier…
Ehrenreich notes how girls who must work for hours cleaning houses often select a bag of Doritos over a sandwich for lunch, presumably because the Doritos are cheaper and taste good.
Of course, for the workers at the lowest end of the pay scale, Doritos or the free burger Ehrenreich gets as a waitress for lunch is an undreamed-of luxury. Lunch might instead be some store-brand hot dog or hamburger rolls. Public food assistance is distinctly unhelpful -- like the bag of food containing candy and Hamburger Helper but no hamburger, Ehrenreich dryly observes, to 'help' it out. Ehrenreich, although health-conscious, often finds herself eating fast food like Wendy's, simply because of a lack of time and cooking space and the fact that the food is filling and cheap. The poor are often criticized for eating fattening food, not cooking, and not getting enough regular exercise. Ehrenreich's struggle to stay…
Ehrenreich, Barbara. (2002). Nickel and dimed: On (not getting by in America). New York: Holt.
CBVH then continues to work with VESID to assess performance on an ongoing basis, participate in on-site reviews, and provide technical assistance or recommend adjustments to contracts as needed.
In the near century that these agencies have been in place, they have worked together in their efforts to assist those with disabilities to find employment. The current supported employment delivery system has allowed all eligible individuals with the most significant disabilities who are interested in supported employment to obtain services. A joint policy statement between the CBVH, the State Education Department, and VESID was initiated in 1985. At this time, the two State agencies agreed that only by working together could they address the needs of individuals who are deaf and blind. Through the memorandum of the agreement in 1999, CBVH and VESID reaffirmed their commitment to joint efforts to better serve this unique group of individuals. While there are…
American Foundation for the Blind. "Statistics and Sources for Professionals."
Retrieved November 26, 2010.
Belote, L. Low Vision Education and Training: Defining the Boundaries of Low
Vision Patients. A Personal Guide to the VA Visual Impairment Services
Professional Medical Transportation:
In order to prepare a Business Plan, it is worthwhile to note that professional medical transportation can be offered both as an emergency as well as non-emergency service. Services offered could be Priority Medical Dispatch, 911 Pre-arrival instructions, Emergency Ambulance Service, Wheelchair service and Scheduled Ambulance Service. Since Priority Medical dispatch will be taking the 911 calls, it has to be ensured that ambulance possessing the most sophisticated equipment and qualified medical experts reach during emergency situations. As regards 911 pre-arrival instructions, the dispatchers will be answering 911 callers, the information they require to tackle an emergency medical situation till arrival of the ambulance. (Services we offer)
Under Emergency Ambulance Service, paramedics and emergency medical specialist have to attend to emergency calls and deal with transfers among health care facilities, round the clock, all seven days in a week. Under Wheelchair service, non-emergency patients using…
Medicaid/Reach up Program. Vermont Public transport Association. Retrieved from http://www.vpta.net/publicservice_medical.html Accessed on 6 February, 2005
Medical Transportation. Prince William Health System. Retrieved from http://www.pwhs.org/patients/transportation / Accessed on 6 February, 2005
Services we offer. Allina Hospitals and clinics. 2004. Retrieved from http://www.allina.com/ahs/transport.nsf/page/AMT_services Accessed on 6 February, 2005