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Accounting Laws in Puerto Rico
The Rovira Biscuit company has been a mainstay in the Puerto Rican snack market for more than 80 years. First established in 1929, the company specializes in a wide range of cookies, crackers and other comestibles that have continue to be enjoyed by Puerto Rican consumers even to present day. Additionally, Rovira is a company which continues to push forward, striving for additions to its already extensive product line, working to improve packaging and varying its delivery to satisfy the demands of an increasingly diverse cross-section of customers. According to Rovira (2013), "our constant growth during the past seven decades attests to the success of our commitment to customer service. Presently the 4th generation of the Rovira family, together with a highly qualified professional staff, looks into taking the business to the next generation of demanding consumers with new and exciting…
National Association of State Boards of Accountancy (NASBA). (2013). Puerto Rico. NASBA.org.
PricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC) (2012). Puerto Rico's Excise Tax: New Regulations and Accounting Considerations. Pharma and life sciences tax news, 9(8).
Rovira Biscuits. (2013). Homepage. Rovirabiscuits.com.
Secretary of State of Puerto Rico (SoS). (2013). Laws of Puerto Rico Unannotated. Lexis Nexis.
(Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)) "After spending 85 days in jail for not giving up the name of source Lewis 'Scooter' Libby as part of the controversial CIA leak case in 2005, former New York Times reporter Judith Miller could say she has a vested interest in getting a federal journalism shield law on the books. Since leaving the Times, Miller has become an advocate for the shield law." (Schwab, Judith Miller: The Media Shield Law Is Long Overdue)
How have they protected or failed to protect them?
The whistle blower statutes are silent on basic issues in jurisprudence. The practice of the courts relying on precedents creates difficulty in the act because earlier established laws and precedents are what determine the outcome of the issue. There are many issues that are yet to be solved in the act in the United States. Following the U.S. laws, Puerto ico too…
Alford, C. Fred. Whistleblowers: Broken Lives and Organizational Power.
Cornell University Press, 2002.
Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ). Journalist Judith Miller released; CPJ relieved, but troubled by message in case. 30 September 2005.
The first immigrants came with the intention of making it rich and then going back to their home country, but many stayed, which did create a more prosperous island, as more wealth was being circulated in the island's borders, rather than exported back to Spain. This second chapter of coffee prosperity was then followed by a third story told by the children of these agrarian people, who became professionals or bureaucrats. Most of them settled upon the coastline, where the cities necessary for Puerto Rico's trade were concentrated. The working classes continued to prefer the less securely controlled areas of the island, where vagrancy laws that mandated employment or landowning for all residents were less likely to be enforced.
The wealth of the developing wealthy, bureaucratic and agrarian populations enabled these immigrants to become a new kind of elite, educated capitalists. However, although many members of this did become nationalists…
Juan Gonzalez has described the Latino experience in the United States. One of the important things that he discusses in the demographics of Latino population in the United States, noting that Latinos are going to be a major demographic nationwide by 2050 and that half of all Americans could have Latino ancestry by the end of the century. This is something that is likely to be transformative in terms of culture, and will have a strong influence on the United States.
He discusses, for example, the current influence of Latino-Americans on immigration policy. He notes that there is tremendous resistance in conservative circles in particular to the recognition of the strong influx of Latinos to America, in particular undocumented immigrants, but that this policy is something that affects all Latinos, usually negatively. Yet, it is also at odds with the overwhelming demographic shift in America, where Latinos are going to…
Gonzalez, J. (2008). Juan Gonzalez on Puerto Rico's overlooked primary and a bitter divide within the SEIU. Democracy Now. Retrieved March 31, 2014 from http://www.democracynow.org/2008/6/3/juan_gonzalez_on_puerto_ricos_overlooked
Gonzalez, J. (2011). Harvest of empire. YouTube/Democracy Now. Retrieved March 31, 2014 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ORz75JKlJ5g
Both Hurricane Irma and Hurricane Maria hit Puerto Rico hard, with Maria being especially devastating. As of October 24—many weeks after the hurricane hit—the island has barely recovered its essential services. The majority (80%) of the electrical system is back on, and third of the island is without safe drinking water (Saldaña, 2017). As Nedelman (2017) also points out, diseases like Leptospira are spreading through contaminated water. The hurricane is one of the biggest crises Puerto Ricans have faced in recent history. With the deplorable lack of responsiveness exhibited by the American government, families in Puerto Rico need to access additional resources in the private, nonprofit, and public sectors. Using the ABC-X model of stress and coping can help guide Puerto Rican families towards the institutions that support them.
The ABC-X model begins with the (A), the stressor, which in this case is the Hurricane but also the widespread devastation…
Nedelman, M. (2017). Suspected leptospirosis cases increasing in Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria. CNN. Retrieved online: http://www.cnn.com/2017/10/24/health/leptospirosis-puerto-rico/index.html
Rosino, M. (2016). ABC-X model of family stress and coping. Encyclopedia of Family Studies. Wiley Blackwell. DOI: 10.1002/9781119085621.wbefs313
Saldaña, J.M. (2017). Hurricane hammers home need for Puerto Rican statehood. The Hill. Retrieved online: http://thehill.com/opinion/international/356964-hurricane-hammers-home-need-for-puerto-rican-statehood
Homicide in Puerto ico
Puerto ico has been showing a higher number of Homicides in past two decades. ecently, its homicidal number is found to be 50% more than the Mainland figure. The main reasons identified are presence of gangs involved in drug and ammunition trafficking and domestic violence.
Analysis of the Possible Causes
Presence of Gangs
Puerto ico has been the hub of major homicides in United States in the past decade. Where New York has shown the homicidal number of 600 casualties; the number reflecting statistics in Puerto ico was almost 50% higher as compared to the statistics of 2003. In 2012, the similar statistics for homicides have reached 900. In order to combat this issue, it is necessary that the possible causes for this wave of violence should be identified (Godoy, 2008).
Buss, D.M., & Duntley, J. (1998). Evolved homicide modules. Paper presented to the Annual Meeting of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society, Davis, California, July 10.
Duntley, J.D & Buss, D.M. (2011). Homicide Adaptations. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 16, pp. 399 -- 410
Duntley, J.D., & Buss, D.M. (1999) The evolutionary psychology of anti-homicide: Why the mind is designed to prevent getting killed. Department of Psychology, University of Texas.
Godoy, R. (2008). Is Homicide rate in Puerto Rico is high? Homicide Studies. Sage Publications. Retrived from http://www.primerahora.com/XStatic/primerahora/docs/espanol/estudio_homicidios_pr_eeuu.pdf
Second, there is a language and cultural divide between Puerto Rico and the rest of the United States that has created some issues in the area of statehood. Looking at Phyllis Schlafly's comments regarding Puerto Rican statehood, it becomes clear that this cultural divide is a significant part of the political question regarding Puerto Rico's status. Schlafly points out that, "The Puerto Rican independence faction is small, but that doesn't mean its members would acquiesce in being outvoted in a democratic election. They are among the most militant groups in the world and are responsible for domestic terrorist incidents in the United States.' (Schlafly). However, her greatest concern is the fact that Puerto Ricans are unwilling to accept assimilation as the price for statehood. According to Schlafly, "The most important issue about Puerto Rico statehood is that it would transform the United States overnight into a bilingual nation. Puerto Ricans…
Commonwealth." Webster's II New Riverside Dictionary: Revised Edition. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 1996.
Marino, John. "Puerto Rico Report: Status Goes National." Puerto Rico Herald. 2004. Puerto
Rico Herald. 19 May 2008 http://www.puertorico-herald.org/issues/2004/vol8n36/PRR0836-en.html .
Freshmen Students in Puerto ico: Speaking English
The objective of the research proposed in this study is to examine the problem of student in Puerto ico being unable to speak English.
The theoretical/conceptual framework for this study is based on the relevancy of the content used in ESL instruction in Puerto ico schools and such that calls for English written material with content that is both interesting and pertinent to Puerto ican students. The work of obertson (2011) relates that culturally responsive content is critically important in promoting and motivating ESL learners. This is also termed as 'Content-Centered Language Learning' in the work of Crandall (1994) who states that the theory of Krashen (1992) held "Krashen suggests that a second language is most successfully acquired when the conditions are similar to those present in first language acquisition: that is, when the focus of instruction is on meaning rather…
Claudio, AM (2006) CRITIQUE NO. 1. Resnick, M.C. (1993). ESL and language planning in Puerto Rican Education. Tesol Quarterly, 7 (2), 259-273
Crandall, J. (1994) Content-Centered Language Learning. Center or Applied Linguistics. Retrieved from: http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/cranda01.html
English Language Valorization in Puerto Rico: A Review of Literature. Rivista Kalathos. Retrieved from: http://kalathos.metro.inter.edu/Num_4/ArticuloValorizacion.pdf
Principe, HR (2005) Factors Influencing Students' Academic Performance in the First Accounting Course: A Comparative Study Between Public and Private Universities in Puerto Rico. Retrieved from: http://ponce.inter.edu/cai/tesis/hrodriguez/index.pdf
English Puerto Rico
Fostering English Instruction in Puerto Rico
Language can carry powerful cultural and economic implications. The use of language as a political weapon against ethnic minorities, the imposition of language as a way of asserting occupational authority over a colonized culture or the use of linguistic barriers to exclude certain groups from the economic and power structures of a society all demonstrate that language can be an apparatus of broader and more insidious agendas. Simultaneously though, language can be an instrument through which barriers are broken down, cultural gaps are bridged and shared opportunities are realized. This is the dichotomy defining the issue impacting my home province of Puerto Rico, where the English language has experienced a history of divided interests. The present discussion provides a brief overview on the central divides shaping the debate over the fostering of English language instruction in Puerto Rico and subsequently offers…
Pousada, Dr. A. (1999). The Singularly Strange Story of the English Language in Puerto Rico. Milenio, 3, 33-60.
Pousada1, Dr. A. (2006). Fostering English Instruction in Puerto Rico From a Global Perspective. PRTESOL Metro Chapter Conference: Universidad Metropolitana.
Suarez, S.L. (2005). Does English Rule? Comparative Politics, 37(4).
Lillian Mecado Henandez
Poblem Statement Comment by Jose Otaola: Peliminay evidence that povides justification that this poblem is meaningful to both the local setting as well as to the education pofession and discipline. Povide thee to five key citations that highlight the In Pueto Rico, teaches lack pepaation to teach English. Teaches of Pueto Rico ae not cetified as English teaches. She o He is not able to teach English because they have not taken the equied couses fo teaching English. In my opinion it is necessay to pove that ESL teaches cannot teach efficiently to thei students because they do not have the needed pepaation. In this eseach, I will exploe the deficiencies in pepaation teaches do have and I will exploe at the same time ways to fix this poblem.
The most impotant eason fo leaning English is social, political and economic pespective and stong elations…
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Community. Kappan Magazine Online. Retrieved in:
Gagne, N., & Parks, S. (2013). Cooperative learning tasks in a Grade 6 intensive ESL class: Role of scaffolding. Language Teaching Research, 17(2), 188-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1362168812460818
He, Y. (2015). Learning in the Community: ESL Teacher Preparation Beyond University Classrooms. International Journal Of Research On Service-Learning In Teacher Education, 3(0), 1-11. Retrieved from http://journals.sfu.ca/ijrslte/index.php/IJRSLTE/article/view/42
Although the earliest reported sightings of the chupacabra were in the 1990s, the legendary creature has become deeply entrenched in the public consciousness. Those who believe that chupacabra exists insist on its reality in spite of there being no photographical or scientific evidence that it is an actual species (Radford, 2012). Yet “flesh and blood chupacabras have allegedly been found as recently as June” of 2017, making the “monsters eminently more accessible for study than, say, the Loch Ness monster or Bigfoot,” other stalwarts of the cryptozoology community (Than, 2010). The term chpacabra, or chupacabras as they are often called, means goat sucker, referring to the reports of the creature killing goats and drinking their blood. Therefore, the chupacabras has some symbolic link to the vampire as well as to its cryptozoological compatriots like bigfoot. As interesting as the chupacabra itself might be, equally as fascinating are the sociological and…
“Chupacabra,” n.d.. Paranormal Encyclopedia. Retrieved online: https://www.paranormal-encyclopedia.com/c/chupacabra/
“Chupacabras,” 2001. Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved online: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chupacabras
Delsol, C., 2011. El chupacabras. SF Gate. Retrieved online: http://www.sfgate.com/mexico/mexicomix/article/El-Chupacabras-Tracing-Mexico-s-most-infamous-2331802.php
Derby, Lauren, 2008. “Imperial Secrets: Vampires and Nationhood in Puerto Rico.” Past and Present 2008(3).
Gabbatiss, J., 2016. The truth about a strange blood-sucking monster. BBC Earth. 10 Nov, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20161109-the-truth-about-a-strange-blood-sucking-monster
Moye, David. “Living Chupacabra Captured By Texas Couple?” Huffington Post: Weird News. April 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/04/03/living-chupacabra-capture_n_5085942.html
Radford, Benjamin, 2011. Tracking the Chupacabra. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
teachers address English as a second language must be considered. Traditionally, teachers of English as a second language (ESL) have used grammar exercises in an effort to teach children how to speak, read, and understand English (Adesope, et al., 2011; Iwai, 2011; Kumaravadivelu, 2012). While that may have seemed like the best choice, it has been shown in multiple studies not to be an effective means of actually teaching students to speak English as their second language (Adesope, et al., 2011; Allison & ehm, 2011; Mukoroli, 2011; Oxford, 2013). That is important for the students, but this paper does not focus on the learners. Instead, the teachers themselves and how they are going to handle teaching students is the issue at hand. While it is true that this also directly relates to the value the learners receive, it is significant to note that teachers who do not have effective strategies…
Adesope, O.O., Lavin, T., Thompson, T., & Ungerleider, C. (2011). Pedagogical strategies for teaching literacy to ESL immigrant students: A meta-analysis. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(4), 629-653.
Allison, B.N., & Rehm, M.L. (2011). English Language Learners: Effective Teaching Strategies, Practices for FCS Teachers. Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences, 103(1): 22-27.
Foote, J.A., Holtby, A.K., & Derwing, T.M. (2011). Survey of the Teaching of Pronunciation in Adult ESL Programs in Canada, 2010. TESL Canada Journal, 29(1): 1-22.
Haley, M.H., & Austin, T.Y. (2013). Content-based second language teaching and learning: An interactive approach. NY: Pearson Higher Ed.
The genetic factors were also excluded as having a major influence in the medical condition according to studies that showed that genetic factors that may influence the illness are overcome in proportion of 3:1 by environmental factors (uaranaccia, 1981, 11).
In her study, Laura onzales points out that Puerto Rican migrants are keeping in close contact with their relatives, friends and acquaintances from the islands, traveling back and forth, being engaged in what Christenson had defined as a "circulatory migration"(onzales, 2008, 2). The fact that the first language on the Puerto Rican Island is Spanish, English being widely taught in schools, but as a second language, made things harder for the older generations who migrated to the mainland. On the other hand, in a city like New York, one of the most targeted cities for the Puerto Rican migrators, Spanish is one of the languages "most commonly heard" after English,…
Guarnaccia, P. 1981. Puerto Ricans, Asthma, and the Health-Care System. Medical Anthropology Newsletter, Vol. 12, No. 2 (Feb., 1981), pp. 9-17
Landale et al. Migration and Infant Death: Assimilation or Selective Migration among Puerto Ricans? American Sociological Review, Vol. 65, No. 6 (Dec., 2000), pp. 888-909
Zayas, L.H. Palleja, J. 1988. Puerto Rican Familism: Considerations for Family Therapy. Family Relations, Vol. 37, No. 3 (Jul., 1988), pp. 260-264
The hite House Office of the Press Secretary describes Sonia Sotomayor as being an exemplar of the American Dream. hile it may be described as a rags-to-riches tale, there is more to the story of Sonia Sotomayor because she has channeled her energy and intelligence into the field of law and the pursuit of social justice. As such, Sotomayor is certainly one that may inspire others who grow up disadvantaged due to social class status, race, ethnicity, and gender.
Now one of the most powerful and influential people in the United States as a Justice of the Supreme Court, Sonia Sotomayor was raised in a public housing project in the South Bronx. Yet Sotomayor remained undeterred. She read a lot as a child, and was "driven by an indefatigable work ethic," (hite House Office of the Press Secretary 1). Sotomayor graduated from high school at the top of…
Abcarian, Robin. "Sonia Sotomayor Gets it Right in Michigan Affirmative Action Dissent." Los Angeles Times. 23 April, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.latimes.com/local/abcarian/la-me-ra-sonia-sotomayor-affirmative-action-dissent-20140423,0,897526.story#axzz30FdjcNWf
De Vogue, Ariane. "Justice Sonia Sotomayor: Affirmative Action 'Opened Doors in My Life.'" ABC. 22 April 2014. Retrieved online: http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/politics/2014/04/justice-sonia-sotomayor-affirmative-action-opened-doors-in-my-life/
Fontana, David. Sonia Sotomayor: How She Became the Public Face of the Supreme Court's Liberal Wing. New Republic. Retrieved online: http://www.newrepublic.com/article/politics/91013/sonia-sotomayor-supreme-court-liberal-voice
Sotomayor, Sonia. My Beloved World. New York: Vintage, 2013.
The people of Puerto Rico have a unique history in the US immigration. Indeed, Puerto Rico has a special, if not distinct place in the civil society of the American nation. Puerto Rico has been owned by the US for over a century. However, it has not ever acquired a state status. Puerto Ricans have been part of the US population for over a century. Puerto Ricans do not have a vote in the US congress. Puerto Ricans can move freely throughout the US states. Such movement is regarded as internal migration. However, when Puerto Ricans move to the mainland, they leave a distinctive homeland and a culture. Such a movement comes with numerous cultural transition conflicts. Indeed, the movements come with similar conflicts that occur with actual immigration (History Team, 2017).
According to the census conducted in 2010, Puerto Ricans are some of the most densely populated communities in…
In the city of New York there was a strong Italian, Jewish, and Black presence but nothing along the same lines ever developed for the Puerto ican community. The concerns of the Puerto ican community failed to ever gain a political foothold in the city where nearly 90% of all migrated Puerto icans lived (odriquez-Morazzani, 1999).
As the vast wave of migrating Puerto icans began to reach middle age in the 60's and 70s they had still not achieved a standard of living that was remarkably improved from what they enjoyed when they first migrated to the United States. Their numbers had increased significantly as migration had continued and their birthrates had skyrocketed but the typical Puerto ican family still made far less than the typical White American (Wilson, 1996). The rate of employment among Puerto icans was twice that of White Americans and Puerto ican women were virtually non-existent…
Lewis, O. (1965). La Vida: A Puerto Rican Family in the Culture of Poverty. New York: Random House.
Perez, G. (2004). Know Your Fellow American Citizen from Puerto Rico. In G. Perez, The Near Northwest Side Story (pp. 61-91). Berkeley: University of California Press.
Rodriquez-Morazzani, R. (1999). Political Cultures of the Puerto Rican Left in the United States. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Whalen, C. (2001). From Puerto Rico to Philadelphia: Puerto Rican Workers and Post War Economics. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Puerto ico is a Caribbean Island which was formerly settled by two Native American tribes, Caribe and Arawak. In 1493, this Island was captured by Spain and up until about 400 years it was ruled by the Spanish. The native settlers during this time period had become slaves to the Spanish and with time as their population began to lessen, outsiders including black slaves were imported and the Indian race became less prominent. (Whalen)
The association between the United States and Puerto ico goes back to the times of the Spanish-American war which took place in 1898. As a result of this war and due to the terms which were presented under the Treaty of Paris in 1898, Spain had to let go of Puerto ico. Since then it has been an unincorporated territory of the United States of America. (Duany)
For Puerto ico, the 20th century started under the…
Aranda, Elizabeth. Emotional Bridges to Puerto Rico: Migration, Return Migration, and the Struggles of Incorporation. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2006. Print.
Duany, Jorge. The Puerto Rican Nation on the Move: Identities on the Island and in the United States. The University of North Carolina Press, 2001. Print.
Flores, Juan. Divided Arrival: Narratives of the Puerto Rican Migration, 1920-1950. Markus Wiener Publishers, 2003. Print.
Whalen, Carmen. The Puerto Rican Diaspora: Historical Perspectives. Temple University Press, 2005. Print.
Puerto Rican, by Esmeralda Santiago. Specifically, it will answer five questions about the book, based on the reading and sociological principles. Esmeralda Santiago's autobiography "hen I was Puerto Rican" is a compelling story about the culture, mores, and societal influences that all rained down on a young girl torn between two worlds. Negi, a young Esmeralda, searches for her identity in the book, and as she does she paints a graphic sociological picture of two cultures in two different places that eventually meld into one coherent and strong young woman.
hen I was Puerto Rican
Discuss how each theoretical perspective is reflected in this book. 1B. Discuss the theoretical perspective that you believe is predominant and support your answer. There are several theoretical perspectives in the book, including interactionism, feminism, post-structuralism and postmodernism, and rational choice theory. Interactionism plays a role in the novel in the relationships between the family,…
Augenbraum, Harold, and Fernandez, Margarite Olmos, eds. U.S. Latino Literature: A Critical Guide for Students and Teachers. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.
Santiago, Esmeralda. When I was Puerto Rican. New York: Vintage Books, 1994.
For many first generation immigrants, Spanglish is a necessary evil that corrupts their native language but allows them to assimilate into the diverse community in which they live. To second generation immigrants tend to think of Spanglish as a way in which they can communicate in the language of the home, to some degree but still do so in an manner that translates into the diverse community. To first and second generation immigrants Spanglish is a tool. Third generation immigrants on the other hand are increasingly seeing Spanglish as a way to express their transnational heritage. This is despite the fact that they are at least to some degree fully capable of being truly bilingual, speaking and writing in both English and Spanish, if Spanish is spoken in the home or monolingual in English, owing to their birth and education being primarily English.
Spanglish' Speakers Mix Home" A01) Though this…
Arado, Matt. "Spanglish in the Suburbs People Are Split on a Trendy, Slangy Blend of Spanish and English." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 17 Oct. 2004: 1.
Ardila, Alfredo. "Spanglish; an Anglicized Spanish Dialect" Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences. 27 (2005): 60-81.
Callahan, Laura. "The Role of Register in Spanish-English Codeswitching in Prose." Bilingual Review 27.1 (2003): 12.
Duany, Jorge. The Puerto Rican Nation on the Move: Identities on the Island & in the United States. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.
Puerto ico became a possession of the United States after the Spanish-American War in 1898, but has never been fully incorporated into the Union (Pantojas-Garcia, 2013). It later became a Commonwealth in 1952, a status it maintains to this day. The subject of the status of Puerto ico has, since that time, been controversial. There have been multiple referendums on the subject, the latest in 2012, but as yet there has not been a change in the status of Puerto ico. The 2012 referendum indicated a majority of Puerto icans want the status of their territory changed, with most preferring full statehood. Yet this number is not sufficient to break what is essentially a stalemate, and there are other options as yet on the table. This paper will look at the issue of the stalemate, its causes, and will explore the ideas of solutions.
Analysis of History
Puerto icans are…
Davilla, A. (1997). Sponsored Identities: Cultural Politics in Puerto Rico. Temple University Press: Philadelphia.
Garrett, R. (2011). Political status of Puerto Rico: Options for Congress. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved November 18, 2014 from http://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL32933.pdf
Pantojas-Garcia, E. (2013). The Puerto Rico status question: Can the stalemate be broken? Caribbean Journal of International Relations & Diplomacy. Vol. 1 (2) 41-52.
Puerto Rican Gangs in Chicago
The history of Puerto Rican gangs in Chicago is indelibly linked to politics. Many gang members of today might forget that fact, but the origins of those gangs and some of the more fundamental aspects of their formations were related to politics. Additionally, the racial situation in the United States contributed a lot to those early gangs. The reality was that as each new immigrant group came to the country, it found a land diversified by nationality and ethnicity. The two most prominent Puerto Rican gangs in Chicago -- the Young Lords and Latin Kings -- were based upon those lines of segregation and ultimately came to reflect it from a Puerto Rican perspective.
Although there are stories that Puerto Rican gangs existed as far back as the earliest part of the 20th century and the 1930's, they did not truly emerge to prominence until…
moved to Puerto Rico, away from my family and friends, I had no idea of the hardships that I would face. Because of them, I am writing to you today to ask for your assistance in allowing me to transfer back to where my home is. Please, allow me to tell you why this is so important to me and my future. My ex-fiancee is from Puerto Rico. I met her in college, and we fell in love. After my undergraduate studies I moved here with her. We thought that we would have a wonderful life together, but she soon began to struggle with the demanding school schedule that I had. She also saw the life that my mother and her mother were living, and they are both married to physicians. She decided that she could not live that kind of life -- that it was not what she wanted…
What is Money?
Money is anything that is accepted as a form of payment and in the modern world this typically currency. Today's currency is essentially created by governments, and backed by their ability to tax. Thus, money today derives from both the legitimacy of the state and from the revenues of the state. Money is typically issued by a central bank, and it has considerable leeway with respect to how much money it issues. The value of money is determined by the supply of and the demand for money.
The supply of money is controlled, as we've said, by the central bank. Demand for money is based on the need for that currency to make transactions. So demand for Japanese yen is in part related to how much yen people need to buy goods and services from Japan. The same is true of all currencies, including the U.S.…
CIA World Factbook: Puerto Rico. (2013). Retrieved May 3, 2013 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rq.html
Investopedia (2013). What is money. Investopedia. Retrieved May 3, 2013 from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/basics/03/061303.asp
CUBAN CASE STUDY Mrs. Demetilla Hernandez a 63-year- Cuban woman seeks consultation Liberty health-maintenance organization (HMO) clinic weakness, lethargy, fatigue experienced 2 months. A week ago, cooking dinner daughter, Mariana's house, momentarily lost balance slipped kitchen floor.
CUBAN CASE STUDY
As a health-care provider, what are the typical Cuban communication patterns you need to be aware of in dealing with Mrs. Hernandez?
Latino families are often multigenerational in their composition. As the grandmother, Mrs. Hernandez assumes control over the family meals. This is a very important part of her identity. ather than communicating directly, food is love and emotions and feelings are communicated through food.
Q2. Describe the traditional Cuban food patterns. How would you assist Mrs. Hernandez
in developing a plan for a 1500-calorie diet and regular exercise?
People who have grown up in poor, food-insecure settings often develop patterns of eating high-calorie, high-carbohydrate comfort foods and many Latino…
Ortiz, B. (et al. 2007). Complementary and alternative medicine use among Hispanics in the United States. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 41(6):994-1004.
Dura-Vila, Gloria, and Matthew Hodes. (2011). Cross-cultural study of idioms of distress among
Spanish nationals and Hispanic-American migrants: susto, nervios and ataque de nervios. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 1-11. Retrieved: http://www-ncbi-nlm-gov.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/pubmed/22270268 .
Lopez, Aide and Thomlinson (2001) discuss how the shift towards urbanization and away from an agriculture-driven economy has affected Puerto Rico. The authors note that in the 1930s, 43% of the island's gross national product came from agricultural products. This has shifted such that by 1996 that figure was 1.2%. This is in line with most urban, developed economies, but to an extent there was no major industrialization of Puerto Rico. The territory has a far lower GDP per capita than any U.S. state (CIA orld Factbook, 2013). In recent years, Puerto Rico has experienced a shrinking economy and it has a high level of unemployment.
Puerto Rico once competed on the basis of two things -- its comparative advantage in the production of tropical agricultural products and its preferential access to the U.S. market. The island became a major seller of sugar to the U.S. The expectation…
CIA World Factbook. (2013). Puerto Rico. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved April 25, 2013 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rq.html
Lopez, T., Aide, M. & Thomlinson, J. (2001). Urban expansion and the loss of prime agricultural lands in Puerto Rico. Ambio. Vol. 30 (1) 49-54.
Trading Economics. (2013). Puerto Rico inflation rate. Trading Economics. Retrieved April 25, 2013 from http://www.tradingeconomics.com/puerto-rico/inflation-cpi
The theme of gende and sexuality is elated to social powe. In Repoducing Empie: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Impeialism in Pueto Rico, Biggs shows how ace, class, gende, and powe ae inteelated and inteconnected. Pueto Rican cultue has been sexualized, and the sexualization of Pueto Rico has been lagely o exclusively the pojection of white Anglo-Saxon Potestant values placed upon a dake-skinned, Catholic populace. The esult has been the conceptualization of an exotic otheness, coupled with a simultaneous fea. Pueto Ricans have been citicized as developing a cultue of povety in the United States, and Pueto Rican families ae blamed.
Regading the theme of gende and sexuality and how it is elated to citizenship and immigation, Biggs shows that white Ameicans have pojected the cultue of povety on Pueto Rico by blaming Pueto Ricans, athe than acknowledging the sociological oots of the poblem that can be taced to…
references to the Cold War. However, the main gist is related to the theme of global apartheid.
The strengths of this article in relation to the theme is that it is about global apartheid, linked thematically to other analyses thereof. Moreover, this article has a strong sense of time and place, which is important for a reliable and valid historiography. The weakness of the article is that it is not inclusive of gender issues.
Analyze strengths and weaknesses for essay themes, see above each book.
gender and sexuality how is related to citizenship (violence, abuse, immigration)
2. meaning of citizenship in the U.S. Empire (immigration laws change culture)
Hispanics Groups in the United States
While many people speak of the Hispanic population, there really is not a single Hispanic population in the United States. The term Hispanic generically refers to Spanish-speakers. Therefore, there is a wide variety in the Hispanic people one may find in the United States. Therefore, this paper will examine four different Hispanic groups, Mexican-Americans, Puerto icans, Cuban Americans, and South Americans. It will do so by looking at the linguistic, political, social, economic, religious, and familial conventions of these different cultures.
When many people think of Hispanics in the United States, they think of Mexican-Americans. This is because Mexican-Americans are the largest U.S. Hispanic group; in fact, the U.S. has the second-largest population of Mexicans, second only to Mexico. Mexican-Americans tend to be Spanish speakers, though they may actually speak a variety of Native American languages, depending on where in Mexico the person originated.…
Buffington, S. (2011). Cuban Americans. Retrieved September 30, 2011 from Countries and their Cultures website: http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr./Cuban-Americans.html
Camarota, S. (2007). Senate amnesty could strain welfare system. Retrieved September 30,
2011 from Center for Immigration Studies website: http://www.cis.org/articles/2007/welfarerelease.html
Pinon, F. (Unk.). Mexican-American politics. Retrieved September 30, 2011 from Cengage
Attaining higher education from a decent college has always been my dream, even when I was living in Puerto Rico. But after moving to the U.S. four years ago, I realized that joining a decent college was not enough. For student like myself with a different ethnic background, it was important to get admission in a college that was ethnically and culturally very rich and vibrant. This was because I realized that only such a college could understand the needs and dreams of immigrants and could provide them with college environment where they felt safe and comfortable. XXX University, by all means, is one such place and therefore it is my utmost desire to become a part of it. By joining this college, I know I would be making a useful contribution to its culture, which is a beautiful amalgam of different ethnicities.
I was 14 when my family decided…
Especially now, as I stare outside at another bleak New Jersey winter's day, I know that one of the hugest challenges for those who must adapt to new surroundings is to differentiate between adaptation and assimilation, to embrace change without sacrificing core elements of our identity.
Welcoming necessary change once again, I hope to advance my career and further my professional interests in clinical psychology. My Masters Degree in Social Work and my subsequent professional work applying psychological principles toward helping others has prompted me and prepared me to turn my attention toward more theoretical knowledge and inquiry. While I appreciate the groundwork I have already laid as a social worker, I desire to now shift my attention toward active academic and clinical awareness of specific psychological problems. Therefore, with my continual hunger for scientific inquiry and understanding, I am seeking admission into the graduate program in clinical psychology.
Thus, for many people in Hispanic society, especially women, playing a role in the Church gives their life additional meaning and purpose, and it only increases their faith and belief in the Church and its doctrines. Increasingly, the Church is relying on laypeople, representative of their respective communities and parishes, to help spread and maintain the message and support of the Church. Many of these laypeople are women, and it offers additional meaning and purpose to their lives - spiritually and personally.
Besides being actively involved in the Church, it is often the women of a family that establish and maintain the traditions, and pass on the beliefs and traditions associated with religion. These authors continue, "My grandmother and the women of her generation exercised their religious leadership in the Hispanic community as healers, prayer leaders, and dispensers of blessings. They were also the main persons responsible for passing on…
Burgaleta, Claudio. "Preaching the Teaching: Hispanics, Homiletics, and Catholic Social Justice Doctrine." Theological Studies 67.3 (2006): 702+.
Deck, Allan Figueroa, Yolanda Tarango, and Timothy M. Matovina. Perspectivas: Hispanic Ministry. Kansas City, MO: Sheed & Ward, 1995.
Warren, Mark R. "Chapter 4 How Social Capital Contributes to Democratic Renewal." Religion as Social Capital: Producing the Common Good. Ed. Corwin Smidt. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2003. 49-68.
Hawaiian Ethnic Cultures
When people think about Hawaii, they tend to think in terms of its island people. Polynesian or Asian perceptions often come to mind because of our familiarity with the influence of the Japanese, Chinese and Filipino peoples. But the fact is that Hawaii is very much flavored by other national and ethnic influences too, including the those of two distinct Hispanic groups, the Puerto icans and the Portuguese, whose impacts have been all but forgotten (Mira, 2008).
In the simplest of terms, the differing historical perceptions of these two groups arises from the fact that one (the Portuguese) was seen positively viewed before their initial influx occurred. The other, the Puerto icans, suffered more from the timing of their migration in regards to other non-Hispanic ethnicities and because of the degree of surprise that came from their more forced integration. The Portuguese were basically blessed with having…
Baker, Susan. Understanding Mainland Puerto Rican Poverty. Temple University, 2002.
Camacho Souza, Blase. Trabajo y Tristeza: "Work and Sorrow:" The Puerto Ricans of Hawaii, 1900-1902.
Lopez, Iris and David Forbes. Borinki identity in Hawai'i: present and future. Centro Journal, Vol. XIII, Num. 1, 2001, pp. 110-127. New York.
McDermott, John, F., Wen-Shing Tseng and Thomas Maretzki, People and cultures of Hawaii: A Psychocultural Perspective.pp. 100-110. (1980).
This emphasis on technology is especially important to Benetti, who pays consideration to the fact that this force is very much a symptom of the inevitability of trade liberalization. Namely, it has the effect of inherently driving certain commercial interactions which will thereafter have an inescapable bearing on the interactions of nations. As Benetti describes it, "the introduction of the technology factor as an element favorable to business itself, brings about the possibility to interpret the cyclic phenomena linked to business itself, such as the learning, development, and imitation-lag of certain product typologies actually inter-linked by technological factors." (20)
Naturally, the claimed expectation is that participating nations on the receiving end of this development will experience a diversification of the trade market, an expansion of the labor market and a greater access to products, services, ideas and innovations theretofore not seen. For many developing nations, this will be…
Benetti, R. (2004). Survival of the Weak Countries in the Face of Globalization: Puerto Rico and the Carribean.
counselors practice and learn how to properly handle each client's situation. Clients have a variety of issues that they are dealing with at any given time and sometimes need help. Clients may seek help from a counselor, allowing the counselor to help that person manage their particular areas of concern. Case studies are valuable to any counselor and require much thought and careful consideration.
In the case of Tony Cepin, who is a 45-year-old Hispanic male, we are able to evaluate a unique case study, in which Tony, a nontraditional student, has various issues going on in his life in which he needs help. His presenting problems are that he feels as if he is too old, he has little of a support system, has difficulties finishing tasks, suspects ADD diagnosis, has conflicts with his spouse and immediate family, and often overspends money. We can look at Tony's case in…
Corey, G. (1996). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. International:
Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
Myers, David (2001). Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers.
Myers, David (1992). Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers.
The Margarita Case Study: An Application of Adlerian Theory and Therapeutic Techniques
Margarita is a twenty-six-year-old Puerto ican woman who has lived in the United States since she was a teenager and is married to a thirty-six-year-old African-American male. The couple has two children, a three-year-old boy and a one-year-old girl, and Margarita has also recently been accepted into law school following earning her MBA. Both members of the couple hold prominent positions in their community. ecently, Margarita has been prone to bouts of depression and fits of inexplicable rage against her husband, including one incident in which she threatened her husband with a knife. No actual violence has occurred, according to Margarita, and she herself cannot explain why she has these outbursts against her husband -- she only knows that she feels a sense of relief after they occur.
The relationship between Margarita and her husband is…
Adler Graduate School. (2011). The theory and application of Adlerian psychology. Accessed 13 March 2011. http://www.alfredadler.edu/overview/adlerian.htm
Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. New York: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Eischens, A. (1998). The dilemma of the only child. Accessed 13 March 2011. http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/eischens2.html
Hazan, Y. (2001). About the psychotherapy of Adler. Accessed 13 March 2011. http://www.centroadleriano.org/publicaciones/ABOUT%20THE%20PSYCHOTHERAPY%20OF%20ADLER.pdf
Unlike the culture of my interviewee, African-American isn't really broken into subgroups. I was born and raised in Buffalo, New York, which is very close to the Canadian Border and the "U.S. Peace Bridge." I grew up speaking English, and it is the only language I speak.
My religion is not typical of most African-Americans, who tend to be Baptist, Methodist, or Lutheran. I was raised as a Catholic and still practice that religion today. I'm not the only African-American I know who is Catholic, but it's not common in my subculture.
Like my interviewee, I think the media is generally doing a good job of representing African-Americans in the media. However, I still see instances when African-Americans seem to be portrayed as being ruthless and slovenly, which in my opinion makes all African-Americans appear to be the same way (association assimilation).
I believe that all cultures have something that…
My old home in the Bronx was a Tower of Babel -- filled with the warble of more languages than the United Nations. Every house I walked past on my way home from dinner poured forth different sounds, different smells. The pungency of curry powder, the sun-baked scent of saffron, the strange fermented odor of kimchi -- none of these were of my culture, but all of these smells became part of my world, my soul, my sense of identity.
Then my family moved to the land of odorless bologna and tasteless white bread. I feared my Spanish heritage would become a social liability. What was I to do about my funny name, my parents with their heavy accents and unapologetic celebration of the ways of their homelands? I was an extrovert in my old neighborhood. Now, suddenly I worried about making friends and being accepted. Bringing kids to my…
A fourth foundational element is the strength of the Starbucks brand itself and is ubiquity globally. As a result of rapid and well-defined strategies for opening up retail stores, Starbucks is now considered one of the most preeminent and strongest brands globally.
Starbucks has generated the strength of their brand through combining high-quality coffee and tea beverages with the third-place concept to generate customer loyalty and world-of-mouth among customers and their friends. It is common to hear students mention they will have a team meeting at the local Starbucks, for studying or completing projects.
In summary the Starbucks model is strengthened by the company's coffee expertise, impressive new product development record, and the development of Starbucks locations as "third places" where friends can meet and enjoy coffee and pastries. Underscoring all these points is the strength of the Starbucks brand.
What were the key issues and the decision by Starbucks…
Patrick Burnson (2002, December). Amsterdam's key role in Starbucks' global strategy. World Trade, 15(12), 40-41. Retrieved December 7, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 241805271).
Deutsche Bank (2006) - Starbucks Overview. Deutsche Bank Securities Research. New York, NY. 10 July 2006.
Geoffrey a. Fowler (2003, July 14). Starbucks' Road to China; Prime Locations Are the Key, but So Is Using Snob Appeal to Lure Nation of Tea Drinkers. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. B.1. Retrieved December 7, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 369860271).
Jeffrey S. Harrison, Eun-Young Chang, Carina Gauthier, Todd Joerchel, et al. (2005). Exporting a North American Concept to Asia: Starbucks in China. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 46(2), 275-283. Retrieved December 7, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 832085141).
A gratefully accepted and began attending the family meetings regarding this upcoming event. Apparently there had been previous meetings but I was only made aware of the event as part of this project so I got to go to the final four meetings.
he first thing that happens during this event is that the girl renews her commitment to God and to the church before her family and friends and congregation members.
he ceremony is serious with bells ringing and music playing at the church which can be decorated for the event.
In the case of this family the church was decorated with white satin and ribbon and flowers. On addition when the church part was over there were a dozen white doves released into the sky as the girl made her way outside among the onlookers.
Following the church service the family throws a large party. It was explained…
This immersion project provided me with the opportunity to learn about Hispanic culture in a way that was much more enjoyable and interesting than reading it in a book. Through this project I got to live as a Hispanic for short times and really feel what they feel during various times of family life. Whether it was attending festivals, church or going to a young girl's coming out party I was surrounded with Hispanic family members that went out of their way to help me understand. I came away with the understanding that the Hispanic culture is about love, celebration and enjoyment of life, something I think many of us could learn from.
Good News from the Hispanic Church (Accessed 10-29-06) http://www.ctlibrary.com/bc/2004/julaug/9.18.html
Letter of Application for Transfer
The purpose of this letter is to formally request a transfer from the medical school in Puerto Rico where I am currently studying, to a medical school in the tri-state area NY NJ PA. I realize that in order to implement a transfer it will undoubtedly involve a fair amount of administrative effort; however your kind assistance in this matter will be greatly appreciated. If it were not that I have a sound conviction that this move is in my best interest, I would not have deemed to put forward this request. Please be assured that I have invested much thought in the matter and have concluded that my decision to pursue my studies in the tri-state area NY NJ PA is a positive one.
I would like to take this opportunity to reiterate my conviction regarding my personal philosophy about my chosen profession. Medicine…
personal statement for application for college. The qualities of the individual are listed with previous problems in High School.
TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN
It is my desire to apply for college for several reasons that will affect my destiny. First, my love for physical education can be met by getting my degree to be a physical education teacher. Secondly, I will be the first person to attend college in my family. Third, I realize education is important even though my grade point average does not show this. I have learned many valuable lessons during my high school education even if it does not reflect on my transcript. It is my desire to attend your college and to work toward the goals of being a coach.
First, I must acknowledge my transcripts poor showing. I have the potential to be a success in any field that I choose. My SAT…
Juan Antonio Corretjer was born March 3, 1908 into a very political family. His father and uncles were involved in the Ciales Uprising in 1898, which protested the United States occupation of Puerto ico. Corretjer was introduced to politics early in his life, when he accompanied his father and uncles to political rallies (Wikipedia). His political career continued in elementary school, when Corretjer joined the Literary Society of Jose Gautier Benitez, which was later renamed the Nationalist Youth ("Juan Antonio Correjter"). By eighth grade, Corretjer had more fully assimilated the beliefs of his family and was already demonstrating the beginnings of his career as a political activist; he organized a student protest against American authority in his town (Wikipedia). As result, Corretjer was expelled from school. In fact, Corretjer was not permitted to attend any schools in his municipality. Instead, he had to go to school in Vega Baja.
Corretjer, Juan Antonio. "Boricua en la luna." Poemas. 2003. Patriagrande.net. 23 Apr. 2005
Corretjer, Juan Antonio. "Oubao-moin." Poemas. 2003. Patriagrande.net. 23 Apr. 2005
As with other Hispanic groups, there may be a greater reluctance to seek professional help in dealing with psychological issues because of a belief that the church, rather than Western psychological medicine, should address such problems. The greater economic security of middle-class Cuban immigrants and their children thus has not meant an entirely uncomplicated relationship with the new American homeland.
Although it is a small island, the history of Puerto ico has been marked by many influences, spanning from Africa to Spain to Latin America. "There is an essential dichotomy [in] Puerto ico's relationship with the United States. Within American jurisdiction, as reflected by common citizenship, flag, currency and numerous applicable Federal laws, Puerto ico might seem in everything but name a State of the Union. But on the other side you will find a culture and society profoundly different from that in the mainland. It is a…
Bachay, Judith & Rafael Montes. (2010). Article 14: The Cuban-American grieving process
Counseling.org. Retrieved September 17, 2010 at http://www.counseling.org/Resources/Library/VISTAS/vistas04/14.pdf
The declining economic status of Puerto Ricans. Health Affairs. Retrieved September 17,
2010 at http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/focus/pdfs/foc102d.pdf
These texts help reinforce the importance of Spanish in New York Puerto Ricans' lives. The authors continue, "When visiting the Bronx, Spanish is inescapable; it is on the radio, in the stores and on the streets. Even if you are speaking English to a Bronx Puerto Rican, many times they will respond back to you in Spanish, especially if you are of Latino descent" (Garcia and Nieves-Ferreri). Spanish is the language that makes the people comfortable, and the text also shows that other nationalities, like Chinese and Arabs, who do business in the area, learn to speak Spanish and English to help give them a better rapport and understanding of their customers.
Spanish is the language of the family, and it is the language of the working class in New York. Another author continues, "It [Spanish] is used more in working class families, while English is more frequent in middle…
Cuban Americans have made communities in Florida since the first half of the nineteenth century, but have remained in this country only in small numbers until relatively recently. Still, they have managed to achieve greater success in the United States than many other Hispanic groups by certain measures; Cuban Americans have higher college completion rates and are generally better off economically than most other Hispanic groups. In part due to the history of Cuba and the Communist regime established there -- and the backlash against this regime that caused much of the Cuban migration to this country -- many Cuban Americans also hold more conservative political views than do other Hispanic-Americans.
Central and South Americans
Though comprising a diverse group in and of themselves, Hispanic-Americans hailing from Central and South America make up a small yet growing proportion of the Hispanic-Americans living in the United States. Hispanics from…
Many of those who came here in the first wave after the revolution believed they would be returning home, perhaps within a few months, but as the years have passed the Cuban population has become more socially and economically integrated into the U.S. culture in Florida even while maintaining ties with Cuba and while trying to keep alive the hope that Castro could be overthrown and democracy restored in Cuba. These Cuban ex-patriates still constitute a potent political force in Cuba with considerable influence on the federal government, especially when there is a epublican administration. To a degree, the population in Cuba is better off economically than most of the Mexican-American population in the Southwest, but evidence also shows that migration to Miami is strongest for the elderly, foreign-born Cubans, and more disadvantages Cubans, with a concentration in the Metropolitcan Miami area (McHugh, Miyares, & Skop, 1997). While Miami faces…
Aysa-Lastra, M. (2007, May). Diaspora philanthropy: The Colombia experience. www.tpi.org/downloads/pdfs/Colombia_Diaspora_Philanthropy_Final.pdf.
Bourgois, P. (1996). In Search of Masculinity. British Journal of Criminology, Volume3 36, Number 3, 412-426.
The city in crisis (1992). Los Angeles: Board of Police Commissioners.
Del Pinal, J. (2004). The Hispanic population. U.S. Census Bureau, retrieved September 9, 2007 at http://www.census.gov/population/www/pop-profile/hisppop.html .
Access and Availability
The biggest problem in terms of access to healthcare is in rural areas. Our investigation found that there are very few if any rural clinics or healthcare facilities.
Access to healthcare is also limited to those that can afford insurance or qualify for Medicare or Medicaid. The unemployed and the poor are at a major disadvantage when it comes to gaining access to healthcare. The location of healthcare facilities is limited to the larger municipalities.
The entity that is responsible for the healthcare system is the United States Government. In addition, Puerto ico has a governor and a cabinet in place to ensure that the appropriate laws are carried out. The entity that makes laws concerning healthcare is outside of the country but the entity that enforces these laws is inside the country. Services are evaluated by state run entities and agencies of the United States…
The World Factbook -- Puerto Rico. Retrieved November 8, 2004 from; http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/rq.html#People
Puerto Rico: Estimated Number of Persons Living with AIDS at the End of 2002. Retrieved November 8, 2004 from; http://www.statehealthfacts.kff.org/cgi-bin/healthfacts.cgi?action=profile&area=Puerto+Rico&category=HIV%2fAIDS&subcategory=Persons+Living+with+AIDS&topic=All+Ages
HIV / AIDS Among Hispanics. Retrieved November 8, 2004 from; http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/PUBS/Facts/hispanic.pdf
Puerto Rico: Total Number of Adults with Diagnosed Diabetes, 2002. Retrieved November 8, 2004 from;
Author Negr n notes, "Hundreds of FBI agents sealed off the town of Hormigueros, Puerto ico, where Ojeda lived with his wife. The FBI surrounded his house and opened fire, killing him. He was 72 years old" (Negr n, 2005). Ojeda had been a fugitive since he jumped bond after the Wells Fargo obbery, and he had still been active in independence organizations, including the Macheteros, and his death helped bring some of the former members closer together in a more cohesive unit, as their continued existence even today indicates.
In conclusion, this terrorist organization did not threaten the United States mainland as much as it threatened Puerto ico, but they targeted American servicemen and government officials, and Puerto icans that supported the U.S. Government, so they seemed to pose a threat to the country. The FBI weeded most of the group out in the 1980s, but the independence movement…
Atkins, S.E. (2002). Encyclopedia of modern American extremists and extremist groups. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Editors. (2008). Puerto Rican Macheteros warn of FBI onslaught. Retrieved 13 Sept. 2008 from the New York City Independent Media Center Web site: http://nyc.indymedia.org/en/2008/05/97509.html.
Hewitt, C. (2002). Understanding terrorism in America: From the Klan to Al Qaeda. New York: Routledge.
Negr n, a.C. (2005). The Macheteros and the Puerto Rican independence struggle. Retrieved 13 Sept. 2008 from the Socialism and liberation Web site: http://socialismandliberation.org/mag/index.php?aid=503 .
shifting seas of global social consciousness and worldwide political hierarchy have only recently brought the word 'terrorism' to the quotidian mind of Americans, it has long enjoyed a cemented place in the construct of civilization. Daily associations between the word terrorism and the frightening images of gore and destruction rampant on the 24-hour news networks affirm the complicated understanding of terrorism in the modern world; bombings on an Israeli bus, explosions outside a Pakistani supermarket, and subway atrocities mingle with recent memories of the World Trade center and recollections of the bloody IRA, Black Liberation Army, and Basque independence movements. Personal reaction and affiliation to the events, movement, and goals of each group's paradigm resonates inside a loose definition of political violence, while governmental response is chiseled, monochromatic, and decisive. While the motives and end-results always differ, the path to terrorism is marked by similar goal posts. These similarities and…
O'Brien, Sean P. "Foreign Policy Crisis and the Resort to Terrorism: A Time-Series Analysis of Conflict Linkages." The Journal of Conflict Resolution. Vol. 40, No. 2. (Jun., 1996.) p. 329.
Ibid, p. 330.
Down These Mean Streets believe that every child is born a poet, and every poet is a child. Poetry to me was always a very sacred form of expression. (qtd. In Fisher 2003)
Introduction / Background History
Born Juan Pedro Tomas, of Puerto Rican and Cuban parents in New York City's Spanish Harlem in 1928, Piri Thomas began his struggle for survival, identity, and recognition at an early age. The vicious street environment of poverty, racism, and street crime took its toll and he served seven years of nightmarish incarceration at hard labor. But, with the knowledge that he had not been born a criminal, he rose above his violent background of drugs and gang warfare, and he vowed to use his street and prison know-how to reach hard-core youth and turn them away from a life of crime.
Thirty years ago Piri Thomas made literary history with this lacerating,…
Anonymous. "Piri Thomas" (2000). 09 December 2003. http://www.peacehost.com
Coeyman, M. "In a Largely Minority School, Literature Helps Students Confront Complex
Issues of Race and Culture" (2002). The Christian Science Monitor. 10 December 2003. http://www.csmonitor.com
Fisher, S. "Mean Streets Author Launches Latino Month" (2003). 10 December 2003. http://www.advance.uconn.edu/htm
Ponce De Leon
Ponce de Leon is born in a rural village in Southern Spain to an aristocratic family. He was the great grandson of Vermudo Nunez. (Nobleman, 2004)
Early to Late 1480s: At an early age, Ponce de Leon became a member of the royal court by serving as an aide to Pedro Nunez de Guzman. He was a Knight Commander in the Order of Calatrava. This was a papal-based militia which served the interests of the Catholic Church and the Pope. (Nobleman, 2004)
Late 1480s to 1492: In this time, Ponce de Leon was actively fighting against the Moors from the late 1480s until 1492. He was at the Battle of Granada and witnessed the decisive victory. (Nobleman, 2004)
After the war against the Moors was over, many soldiers and mercenaries were no longer needed. Ponce de Leon decided to uses these skills in the New…
Agueybana. (2012). Wikipedia. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Agueybana.JPG
Ponce de Leon. (2012). USF. Retrieved from: http://fcit.usf.edu/florida/lessons/de_leon/de_leon1.htm
Ponce de Leon. (2012). Wikipedia. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Juan_Ponce_de_Le%C3%B3n.jpg
Nobleman, M. (2004). Ponce de Leon. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press.
(Sources: Hayes-Bautista, 1988; Perez y Gonzalez, 2000).
Conclusions - General characteristics of immigrant families - Most Latino immigrants fall into two solid groups when coming to America -- rural and seasonal farm workers; many following the crops from Texas through California and back, and many into the cities where better paying, and more stable, jobs are available. Luis and Maria moved to a larger city because they were told that it would be "easier on them." Cities exist for many reasons and the diversity of urban form and function can be traced to the complex roles that cities perform. Cities serve as centers of storage, commerce, and industry. The agricultural surplus from the surrounding country hinterland is processed and distributed within the city. Urban areas have also developed around marketplaces, where imported goods from distant places could be exchanged for the local products. Throughout history, cities have been founded at…
Aquirre-Molina, M., et.al. (2001). Health Issues in the Latino Community.
Begolla, L.G. (2009). Introduction to Latino Politics in the U.S. Polity Press.
Brandel, J.R., ed. (2010). Theory and Practice in Clinical Social Work. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
The field of counseling is very complex and multi-dimensional. This report includes a general description of counseling, how cultural insensitivity can occur within the construct of counseling, the impacts of cultural of said insensitivity in counseling as well as the broader workplaces of Australia and the broader world, the types and forms of cultural insensitivity that a counselor can endure and encounter while working and two ways in which cultural insensitivity can be addressed and responded to in a counseling setting. While some people project their insensitivities on others and counselors can be both good and bad in terms of cultural sensitivity, it is always best for counselors and indeed everyone else to be sensitive to the religious, cultural and societal differences that exist between us.
To be sure, there are going to be situations in the lives and careers of therapists and counselors where a counselor…
Atkin, K. (2003). Ethnicity and the politics of the new genetics: principles and engagement. Ethnicity & Health, 8(2), 91-109.
Brinson, J.A. (2004). Recognizing Our Cultural Biases as Counsellor Supervisors: A
Reflective Learning Approach. Guidance & Counseling, 19(2), 81-91.
Lopez, S.A. (2011). Culture as an Influencing Factor in Adolescent Grief and Bereavement. Prevention Researcher, 18(3), 10-13.
" (AAF, nd)
The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAF, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAF, nd)
One example of the community healthcare organization is the CCO model is reported as a community cancer screening center model and is stated to be an effective mechanism for facilitating the linkage of investigators and their institutions with the clinical trials network. It is reported that the minority-based CCO was approved initially by the NCI, Division of Cancer revention Board of Scientific Counselors in January 1989. The implementation began in the fall of 1990 and the program was…
Principles for Improving Cultural Proficiency and Care to Minority and Medically-Underserved Communities (Position Paper) (2008) AAFP -- American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/policy/policies/p/princcultuproficcare.html
Volpp, Kevin G.M. (2004) The Effect of Increases in HMO Penetration and Changes in Payer Mix on In-Hospital Mortality and Treatment Patterns for Acute Myocardial Infarction" The American Journal of Managed Care. 30 June 2004. Issue 10 Number 7 Part 2. Onlineavaialble at: http://www.ajmc.com/issue/managed-care/2004/2004-07-vol10-n7Pt2/Jul04-1816p505-512
Darby, Roland B. (2008) Managed Care: Sacruificing Your Health Care for Insurance Industry Profits: Questions You must ask before joning an HMO. Online available at: http://www.rolanddarby.com/br_managedhealth.html
Temporary Disability Law
What laws apply to temporary disability at the workplace?
Temporary Disability Insurance (TDI) programs are designed to provide wage replacement for non-work-connected sickness or injury. The TDI program complements the UI program by providing benefits to individuals who do not meet the UI program's "able" to work requirement. Although Federal law does not provide for a Federal-State TDI system, the SSA and the FUTA both authorize the withdrawal of employee contributions from a State's unemployment fund for the payment of TDI. (Temporary Disability Insurance, n.d..)
Another law providing for temporarily disabled workers injured on the job is Workers' Compensation. Workers' Compensation laws are designed to ensure that employees who are injured or disabled on the job are provided with fixed monetary awards, eliminating the need for litigation. These laws also provide benefits for dependents of those workers who are killed because of work-related accidents or illnesses. Some…
Workers compensation: an overview. Retrieved from:
'Temporary Disability Insurance" Retrieved August 10, 2005 from
There's an attitude that if you're doing something you usually do with women, then you are not gay" (hoads, 1999, p. 136). This notion of homosexuality among Puerto ican community is reflective of the perception elsewhere in Latin America. For instance, hoads adds that, "Such a perspective exists throughout much of Latin America, where activos (sexual aggressors in same-sex encounters) are typically not considered to be gay, whereas pasivos are seen as subordinate and are considered to be gay" (1999, p. 136). Finally, Nicholas is even confronted with some differences in perception among the gay community itself that may account for his reluctance to openly reveal his sexual orientation to most of his peers. For example, hoads addsd that, "Queer students from diverse cultural backgrounds not only face possible rejection from their racial communities for being queer, but they also face racism within the gay community. A student commented: 'On…
Christiansen, S.L. & Palkovitz, R. (1998). Exploring Erikson's psychosocial theory of development: Generativity and its relationship to paternal identity, intimacy, and involvement in childcare. The Journal of Men's Studies, 133.
Hoare, C.H. (2002). Erikson on development in adulthood: New insights from the unpublished papers. New York: Oxford University Press.
Linn, S. (2003). Children and commercial culture: Expanding the advocacy roles of professionals in education, health, and human service. The Journal of Negro Education,
Spanglish is a combination of Spanish and English, with each of these two languages having more or less of an influence on the final product depending on the circumstances. The speech of Spanghlish users involves them bringing together the two languages and creating a dialect that is not native to the country they inhabit. Spanglish is widely used in Hispanic communities in North America, as they prefer it as an intermediary dialect assisting them to connect with the English-speaking community.
Living in two cultures can have a strong impact on a person, as he or she gradually comes to switch back and forth between cultural values promoted in each of these respective environments. This is perfectly demonstrated by individuals speaking Spanglish, taking into account that they need to concentrate on adopting attitudes that enable them to improve their relationship to both English and Spanish-speaking communities.
Although Spanish plays an integral…
Betz, Regina M., "Chicana "Belonging" in Sandra Cisneros' The House on Mango Street," Retrieved November 23, 2013, from http://rmmla.innoved.org/ereview/SI2012/Betz.pdf
Canas, Alberto, "Spanglish: The Third Way," Retrieved November 23, 2013, from http://www.hokuriku-u.ac.jp/jimu/kiyo/kiyo25/209.pdf
Cisneros, Sandra, "The House on Mango Street," (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2004)
Johnston, Bethany, "Code Switching as Spanglish," (GRIN Verlag, 14 Jan 2011)
"Child psychiatry has unwittingly contributed to reifying children's mental health," the author explains, and this situation is creating "mental distress" (Timimi, 2009, p. 5). An example of the changes in society due to "aggressive free market global economic systems" is a 14-year-old girl in London who has been behaving in a bizarre way, the author explains. She is from the Indian culture and her parents have arrived in England from the Indian subcontinent. The girl laughs at times that don't seem appropriate and she has not been interacting with her peers; she seems preoccupied so "an urgent psychiatric assessment is arranged" (Timimi, p. 6).
The psychiatrist who studies her concludes that she is suffering from a psychotic illness and he recommends she be sent to a psychiatric unit for treatment including "antipsychotic medications." However, her parents believe that their daughter is not sick at all but "suffering the manifestations of…
Bergh, Andreas, and Karlsson, Martin. (2010). Government size and growth: Accounting for Economic Freedom and Globalization. Public Choice, Vol. 142, 195-213.
Global Policy. (2009). Globalization / General Analysis on Globalization. Retrieved Dec. 5,
2009, from http://www.globalpolicy.org .
International Monetary Fund (IMF) (2009). Globalization: A Brief Overview. Retrieved Dec.
This is designed to help support individuals who are dealing with financial challenges. The problem is that select amounts of recipients will use as a way to live off of the government. (Wolf, 2005)
How might a socialist and a capitalist government differ in its treatment of the problem of unemployment?
Socialists want to see massive amounts of government spending to create new jobs, training programs and provide unemployment benefits. A capitalist is opposed to these kinds of programs and believes that charities / private enterprises can address these issues.
In your opinion, should the government have the responsibility of providing health care for every citizen? Why or why not?
Yes, the government should provide health care. The reason why is because prices are increasing exponentially and the number of uninsured is rising. These factors are a sign that there is very little competition inside the sector. To address these…
2012 Puerto Rico Statehood Amendment. (2012). Boards. Retrieved from: http://www.boards.ie/vbulletin/showthread.php?p=77582334
Commerce Clause. (2012). Britannica. Retrieved from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/127865/commerce-clause
Principles of Constitutional Construction. (2010). Constitution.org. Retrieved from: http://constitution.org/cons/prin_cons.htm
Sin Taxes. (2005). Six Taxes. Connecticut Voices for Children. Retrieved from: http://www.ctkidslink.org/publications/bud05sintax02.pdf
Alberty, the First Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the district court's grant of summary judgment in Defendant's favor, holding that under 42 U.S.C. § 2000e (Title VII of the Civil Rights Act) and P.R. Laws Ann. Tit. 29, 146 et seq. And 467 et seq., there was no genuine issue of material fact that Plaintiff was an "independent contractor," not an "employee." The issue on appeal was whether there were any genuine issues of material fact evidencing Defendant's unlawful discrimination against Plaintiff in violation of Title VII and Puerto Rico's anti-discrimination laws. The Court, however, used a de novo standard of review to side-step the issue of discrimination and focus instead on the parties' legal relationship. Using First Circuit Court precedent, the Court reasoned that since it could affirm a summary judgment ruling "on any basis apparent from the record," it would focus its analysis on the parties' legal relationship.…
Management Analysis of JCPenney
One of America's iconic department store fixtures is J.C. Penney which has provided American consumers with a wide range of family clothing and other merchandise for more than a century. In recent years, though, JCPenney has been experiencing some difficult times as its core market continues to be eroded by competitors and an aging business model. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature to develop a description and history of the company, its recent financial performance and to identify some of the managerial decisions that were made in response to changes in its market or competitive environment by JCPenney in recent years. A summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are presented in the conclusion.
Description and History of the Company
According to JCPenney's promotional literature, "More than a century ago, James Cash Penney founded his company on the principle of…
About us. (2013). JC Penney. Retrieved from http://www.jcpenney.net/About-Us.aspx.
Company profile. (2013). Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved from http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=
Elasticity of demand. (2012). BusinessDictionary.com. Retrieved from http://www.