ESL And EL Difficulties In Puerto Rico Essay

Length: 4 pages Sources: 5 Subject: Film Type: Essay Paper: #61836331 Related Topics: Esl, Teaching Assistant, Second Language Acquisition, English Language Learners
Excerpt from Essay :

¶ … ESL Teachers

Lillian Mercado Hernandez

Problem Statement Comment by Jose Otaola: Preliminary evidence that provides justification that this problem is meaningful to both the local setting as well as to the education profession and discipline. Provide three to five key citations that highlight the In Puerto Rico, teachers lack preparation to teach English. Teachers of Puerto Rico are not certified as English teachers. She or He is not able to teach English because they have not taken the required courses for teaching English. In my opinion it is necessary to prove that ESL teachers cannot teach efficiently to their students because they do not have the needed preparation. In this research, I will explore the deficiencies in preparation teachers do have and I will explore at the same time ways to fix this problem.

The most important reason for learning English is social, political and economic perspective and strong relations to the United States over 100 years (Celce-Murcia, 2001). Even though people recognize that adequate English ability provides advantages for the citizens in Puerto Rico Spanish is the language and the medium through which most daily affairs are conducted out (Pousada, 2008) the individual that has the ability to communicate in two languages has the opportunity to develop in professional aspects. In Puerto Rico schools English is studied as the second language in Puerto Rico. Teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) refers to teach English to a person who's native or primary language is one other than English (Celce-Murcia, 2001). The problem is that ESL teachers lack the preparation to teach English to students whose first language is Spanish Lopez, (2012). An example, school X in the district of Arecibo has 488 students in tenth and employs 34 licensed teachers three English for upper school The academic proficiency in English of students in tenth 2011 was 49% and in 2012 the proficiency rate was 44%. (Gobierno de Puerto Rico Departamento de Educacion, 2012 -2013 ).

In a study conducted by the Columbia University Teachers College (2000), it was discovered that in Puerto Rico Upper School student's complete high school lacking skills to be fluent in English. The Education System in Puerto Rico requires all students from grades K to 12 grade to take English. Students have exposure in English through television programs, Internet and still these experiences may not be enough for students to master English. Currently, only 10% of the population fluent in English (Brunymarie, 2013). The problem is that ESL teachers lack the preparation to teach English to students whose first language is Spanish (Lopez, 2012). I want to show the relationship between Teacher's preparation and students' scores.

Puerto Rico is a common wealth that experiences issues on a continual basis concerning ESL students and English language learning. ESL students while having access to English media, English entertainment, and English language learning programs, have failed to retain much of what they observe, are taught, and learn. Only a small percentage of Puerto Rican ESL students learn English and speak and write it fluently. The problem then becomes what can be done to assist ESL and ELL students in learning English and what techniques have been utilized successfully in the past.

Teacher preparation has long been touted as the most crucial element in preparing ESL students effectively for English language learning. In an article by Mercado (2012), she argues that in order to improve ESL programs, schools must focus their attention on the recruitment and preparation of high quality teachers both in Puerto Rican communities outside the United States (Puerto Rico) and inside the United States. "Although teacher quality is the one factor that has consistently had the largest impact on student success, policies and practices that affect teacher recruitment and preparation are barriers to increasing teacher quality" (Mercado, 2012, p. 1). These policies and practices are of main concern since recruitment of teachers can only be done effectively with changes in these areas. When policies and practices change to include demand for teachers with a college background in education and English, then it can prove to be effective in recruiting such teachers to employ their techniques to help ESL and ELL students learn effectively.

While Puerto Rico has not yet learned how to employ successful English language learning techniques within a broader context, there exists some successful approaches that can be used to help build an effective standard of teaching for ESL programs. In a 2015 article, a basic English...


Their implementation of literature circles not only increased student participation, which helps engage students and allows better retention of material, but also allowed for discussion of topics that students felt were relevant to them.

Within increased participation both in the oral and written form within these literature circles, student initiative and self-choice increased allowing for English language retention to increase. This is because they analyzed the text in their first language (Spanish) so they can later on understand what the English meant. "Findings suggest that students benefited from the use of their first language, since it served as a cognitive tool that allowed them to collaboratively scaffold while also enabling the instructor to gauge reading comprehension" (Sambolin & Carroll, 2015, p. 193). Furthermore, choosing a text whose content interested students as well as tapped into their funds of knowledge encouraged classroom participation concerning issues and topics students deemed pertinent both outside and inside the English classroom.

Reflection as a mediator within conceptual development offers a rationale for the utilization of metaphor as pedagogical intervention (Wan & Low, 2015, p. 93). By understanding and then applying approaches that contain within its framework, sociocultural theory, it will help create interest in ESL and ELL students in wanting to learn because it creates subject matter that applies to their belief systems and struggles. It is not easy learning a new language, especially when this language comes in a way that seems foreign and unfamiliar. If there is a disconnect in the subject matter and the student, there will be a decrease in desire to learn further.

Significance Comment by Jose Otaola: Provide one to two paragraphs, informed by the topic in the problem statement, which describe(s): How will this study contribute to filling the gap in practice identified in the problem statement? What original contribution will this study make in the local setting? How will this research support professional education practice at the local site? Who benefits from your findings/project deliverable and how (positive social change)? Remember job market

Although it is important to recruit ESL teachers that are well educated, it is also important to seek teachers that desire to engage with the students in a way that piques their interest when it comes to English language learning. Teachers must come prepared to understand the needs of the students as well as way to cultivate interest by presenting them literature they can connect with, even movies and songs that will appeal to them. By dissecting English text of material that they are interested in, they will be more willing to take the extra steps and perform the necessary actions to learn the language versus simply writing down vocabulary and remembering phrases and grammar.

If teachers engage more with their students and a standard of learning includes techniques like literature circles, this may prove to finally help alleviate the problem of ESL students and English language learning. Many ESL and ELL students fail to learn English fluently. If such a problem can be avoided by hiring more educated teachers that can then be prepared for ESL instruction with techniques like literature circles, the whole process of teaching and learning can become not only effective, but efficient. This is what needs to be done as it relates to ESL programs.

The population of ESL has grown in recent years. While the population has grown, they have continually underperformed when it came to ESL classes and exams. ESL teachers must be better prepared and educated to deal with the hurdles ESL students experience as they learn English. They must also learn to adopt new strategies that provide a better learning outcome. Puerto Rico is a common wealth connected to the United States. Many of its people experience poverty and have a separate culture than that of Americans. To help ESL learners connect with the learning material, these differences and circumstances must be identified.

Background Literature Comment by Jose Otaola: Need to stablish the relation of this literature with the variables of the study.Use proper APA citations

1. Backgr Tran, 2015, informs teachers are the key to better learning. If teachers are not trained properly, students like ELLs will have a more difficult time adapting to and absorbing the curriculum.

2. Gagne & Parks, 2013. Provide strategies associated with arbitration of gist in an interactionist viewpoint. This is an important thing to note…

Sources Used in Documents:

references are not correctly formatted

Community. Kappan Magazine Online. Retrieved in:

Gagne, N., & Parks, S. (2013). Cooperative learning tasks in a Grade 6 intensive ESL class: Role of scaffolding. Language Teaching Research, 17(2), 188-209.

He, Y. (2015). Learning in the Community: ESL Teacher Preparation Beyond University Classrooms. International Journal Of Research On Service-Learning In Teacher Education, 3(0), 1-11. Retrieved from
Junqueira, L., & Payant, C. (2015). "I just want to do it right, but it's so hard": A novice teacher's written feedback beliefs and practices. Journal of Second Language Writing, 27, 19-36.
Ortiz, E. (2010). Exemplary English Teachers in Puerto Rico (16). Retrieved from:
Sambolin, A., & Carroll, K. (2015). Using literature circles in the ESL college classroom: A lesson from Puerto Rico. Colomb. Appl. Linguist. J, 17(2), 193.
Samson, J., & Collins, B. (2012). Preparing All Teachers to Meet the Needs of English Language Learners: Applying Research to Policy and Practice for Teacher Effectiveness. Center for American Progress. Retrieved from
Thompson, A., Li, S., White, B., Loewen, S., & Gass, S. (2012). Preparing the Future Professoriate in Second Language Acquisition. New Forums Press, 137-168. Retrieved from
Tran, Y. (2015). ESL Pedagogy and Certification: Teacher Perceptions and Efficacy. Journal of Education and Learning, 4(2).
WOODALL, B. (2010). Simultaneous Listening and Reading in ESL: Helping Second Language Learners Read (and Enjoy Reading) More Efficiently. TESOL, 1(2), 186-205. Retrieved from:

Cite this Document:

"ESL And EL Difficulties In Puerto Rico" (2016, January 31) Retrieved January 26, 2022, from

"ESL And EL Difficulties In Puerto Rico" 31 January 2016. Web.26 January. 2022. <>

"ESL And EL Difficulties In Puerto Rico", 31 January 2016, Accessed.26 January. 2022,

Related Documents
Puerto Rico Accounting Laws in Puerto Rico
Words: 997 Length: 4 Pages Topic: Accounting Paper #: 50426897

Puerto Rico Accounting Laws in Puerto Rico Roger Stein The Rovira Biscuit company has been a mainstay in the Puerto Rican snack market for more than 80 years. First established in 1929, the company specializes in a wide range of cookies, crackers and other comestibles that have continue to be enjoyed by Puerto Rican consumers even to present day. Additionally, Rovira is a company which continues to push forward, striving for additions to

Puerto Rico Ethical Standards for
Words: 2412 Length: 7 Pages Topic: Business - Law Paper #: 40617897

(Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)) "After spending 85 days in jail for not giving up the name of source Lewis 'Scooter' Libby as part of the controversial CIA leak case in 2005, former New York Times reporter Judith Miller could say she has a vested interest in getting a federal journalism shield law on the books. Since leaving the Times, Miller has become an advocate for the shield law."

Puerto Rico Gonzalez, Jose Luis.
Words: 943 Length: 3 Pages Topic: Literature - Latin-American Paper #: 51894832

The first immigrants came with the intention of making it rich and then going back to their home country, but many stayed, which did create a more prosperous island, as more wealth was being circulated in the island's borders, rather than exported back to Spain. This second chapter of coffee prosperity was then followed by a third story told by the children of these agrarian people, who became professionals

Puerto Rico USA
Words: 982 Length: 4 Pages Topic: Literature - Latin-American Paper #: 30174612

Juan Gonzalez has described the Latino experience in the United States. One of the important things that he discusses in the demographics of Latino population in the United States, noting that Latinos are going to be a major demographic nationwide by 2050 and that half of all Americans could have Latino ancestry by the end of the century. This is something that is likely to be transformative in terms of

Puerto Rico Hurricane and ABC X Crisis
Words: 521 Length: 2 Pages Topic: Sociology Paper #: 47936621

Both Hurricane Irma and Hurricane Maria hit Puerto Rico hard, with Maria being especially devastating. As of October 24—many weeks after the hurricane hit—the island has barely recovered its essential services. The majority (80%) of the electrical system is back on, and third of the island is without safe drinking water (Saldaña, 2017). As Nedelman (2017) also points out, diseases like Leptospira are spreading through contaminated water. The hurricane is

Puerto Rico Hurricane Maria Crisis Intervention
Words: 577 Length: 2 Pages Topic: Sociology - Human Services Paper #: 73551924

Crisis Intervention Plan: Hurricane Relief in Puerto Rico I. Goals The goals of the crisis intervention plan are to improve overall resilience. Resilience factors include improvements to public infrastructure, especially water treatment, waste and wastewater services, the power/electricity grid, and the telecommunications grid. Another critical aspect of resilience is inter-agency communications before, during, and after a hurricane. Hospitals, social workers, law enforcement, coast guard, insurance agencies, community leaders, public servants, and the