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West Bay Lagoon
A Success Story
Privatization of the Business Concern
Demerits of Government-Owned Model
Introduction of Entrepreneurship & Innovation
Qatar has been a hub of investment in the Arab Countries, especially in the sector of real estate. With complete support of government, the country has managed to excel in the field of Oil and gas and was pursuing for beneficial interests in the field of real estate as well. However, due to laborious procedures, lack of supervision and planning, undefined goals and absence of a concrete business model, lucrative ventures such as West Bay Lagoon failed to meet their desired success.
However, it was in 2002, when the development of this region was privatized with the management and the engaged human resource of the concerned department remaining the same. As a result of this intervention, Qatar now, has an established residential and commercial region in…
Bhattacharya, B.W. 1996. Trends in privatization in the Arab world and its problems and prospects. Savings and Development, 20(1). pp.5-32.
GlobalInvestment House. 2006. Qatar Real Estate Sector-Reaching New Height. Retrieved from http://www.globalinv.net/research/QatarRealEstate-092006.pdf
Heinrich, C.J. And Lynn, L.E. eds. 2000. Governance and performance: new perspectives. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
West Bay Lagoon -- A Success Story Page 2
Qatar Forward Thinking
Presently the Arab world has not been according high priority to reading ahead of the Holy Koran. Absence of significance accorded to the field of education, has resulted in the Arab world to fall behind the advanced nations in the sphere of human resources development. Presently in North America the Gross Domestic expenditure on research and development accounts for 2.5% of GDP while it is 2.3% in Japan, 1.8% in Western Europe, and 0.3% in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. In contrast to this in respect of the Arab world it is merely 0.2%. But in the Arab countries, developmental efforts have now being started to promote educational activities. This could be specifically be visualized in Qatar, where the emir of Qatar, Sheikh Hamad Bin Khalifa al-Thani has accorded high priority in revolutionizing this gloomy feature by laying emphasis on earmarking a considerable fraction of GDP to…
Sobhani, Rob. Qatar's Forward-Thinking: Welcome to 'Education City'. National review. December 17, 2003. http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/sobhani200312170844.asp
Qatar World Cup
There is little doubt that the Doha skyline is one of the world's most impressive; Qatar is a great place to work if you are an architect. But if you are one of the people building those towers, Qatar may not be such a great place to work. The same goes for any of the two million foreign workers in the country -- some 94.1% of all employed in Qatar are foreign nationals (Bel-Air, 2014). The human rights abuses faced by the workers who work to keep Qatar running, especially in the construction sector, have come into even greater focus with the country being awarded the 2022 World Cup (Bel-Air, 2014). This paper will examine the human rights abuses of foreign workers in Qatar.
Migrant Workers in Qatar
The native population of Qatar is relatively small -- Qataris account for only a few hundred thousand of the…
Amnesty International (2016) Qatar: Abuse of World Cup workers exposed. Amnesty International Retrieved November 29, 2016 from https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2016/03/abuse-of-world-cup-workers-exposed/
Bel-Air, F. (2014) Demography, migration and labour market in Qatar. Cadmus Exploratory Note No. 8. Retrieved November 29, 2016 from http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/32431/GLMM_ExpNote_08-2014.pdf?sequence=1
CIA World Factbook (2016) Qatar. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved November 29, 2016 from
Corporate social responsibility is a set of business practices, which involve initiatives that benefit society. A firm's corporate social responsibility (CS), may include a comprehensive array of tactics such as charity donations, implementation of 'greener', environmentally friendly business operations, and community participation. CS is a way for companies to give back to society that can benefit not just the public, but also the brand and image of the company. Furthermore, it may even help a company's competitive advantage along with improving employee satisfaction. This literature review will highlight a theoretical framework involved in CS and why CS can be beneficial to a company's organizational performance.
The influence of corporate social responsibility on organizational performance
Companies engage in CS for a variety of reasons. From branding strategies to higher levels of public engagement, companies will perform CS-related activities to meet their needs. A 2012 study attempting to understand company participation in…
Du, S., Swaen, V., Lindgreen, A., & Sen, S. (2012). The Roles of Leadership Styles in Corporate Social Responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 114(1), 155-169. doi:10.1007/s10551-012-1333-3
Farooq, O., Payaud, M., Merunka, D., & Valette-Florence, P. (2013). The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Organizational Commitment: Exploring Multiple Mediation Mechanisms. Journal of Business Ethics, 125(4), 563-580. doi:10.1007/s10551-013-1928-3
Ghoul, S. E., Guedhami, O., & Kim, Y. (2016). Country-level institutions, firm value, and the role of corporate social responsibility initiatives. Journal of International Business Studies. doi:10.1057/jibs.2016.4
Kirat, M. (2015). Corporate social responsibility in the oil and gas industry in Qatar perceptions and practices. Public Relations Review, 41(4), 438-446. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2015.07.001
This project is expected to greatly enhance the countries' economic interdependence with its neighbors (Owen, 2000).
Currency and its rate with U.S. Dollar. The Qatari iyal (Q) is the official currency; the Q is divided into 100 dirhams (A Dictionary of Business, 1996).
Major industries. Major industries include crude oil production and refining, ammonia, fertilizers, petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement, and commercial ship repair (Qatar, 2005).
Telephone system. Telephones in use: 184,500 (2003 est.); general assessment: modern system centered in Doha. Tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and UAE; submarine cable to Bahrain and UAE; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (State of Qatar, 2005).
adio broadcast stations. AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 1 (1998) (State of Qatar, 2005).
Television broadcast stations. Qatar has one television broadcast station (plus three repeaters) (2001) (State of…
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Anthony, J.D. (2005). In Encyclopedia Britannica Book of the Year 2004/5. Encyclopedia Britannica [premium service].
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Benthall, J. (1999). Financial worship: The Quranic injunction to almsgiving. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 5(1), 27.
Al Thani family ruled Qatar from the mid-1800s. It slowly changed itself from a poor British territory renowned mainly for pearling into an independent state with large oil and natural gas revenues. The Qatari economy was weakened during the late 1980s and early 1990s, by a constant tapping off of petroleum revenues by the Amir, who ruled the country from 1972 onwards. His son, the present Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani conquered him in a bloodless takeover in 1995. Qatar solved its very old border clashes with both Bahrain and Saudi Arabia in 2001. Oil and natural gas revenues make Qatar to have one of the utmost per capita incomes in the world. Oil and gas report for more than 55% of GDP, around 85% of export earnings, and 70% of government revenues. Qatar has a per capita GDP of about 80% through oil and gas and it is…
Makar, Ragai N. New Voices for Women in the Middle East. Retrieved at http://www.lib.umich.edu/area/Near.East/makar65.html . Accessed on 4 March 2005
Qatar. 10 February, 2005 Retrieved at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/qa.html . Accessed on 3 March 2005
Qatari women Embassy of State of Qatar in Washington dc. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.qatarembassy.net/women.asp. Accessed on 4 March 2005
Qatar Past and Present. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved at http://english.mofa.gov.qa/details.cfm?id=8Accessed on 3 March 2005
Wasta has a long history as a way to manage relations through mediation and interception, but has implications as being a measure of corruption for both citizens and government officials. Citizens use wasta to get what they want from politicians and to make their decisions for them instead of taking responsibility for making their own decisions. Government officials use wasta to gainfully employ family and tribal members as well as to gain Parliament votes from citizens.
An Arabian blog viewed wasta as, "Friend of the bright lawyers and enemy of the ordinary, and virus plagued the community (Ocha). Instead of wasta working to promote people to independence, it is promoting people to be lazy and dependent by solving their problems and meeting all their needs for them. Wasta takes responsibility and the right to live independently away from citizens by doing everything for them. If wasta would teach them how…
Al-Nabit, s. Expanding the Capacities of Quatari Youth. Jan 2012. Article. 22 Mar 2013.
Huda, NV. Can wasta bring in success? Many tells survey so. 4 May 2011. Article. 22 Mar 2013.
Ocha. Wasta..Enemy of the ordinary people and emitter to be lazy. 14 July 2012. Blog. 22 Mar 2013.
Vitamin W 5 July 2009. Article. 22 Mar 2013.
Over 90% of Qatari citizens live in Doha, the capital. (State of Qatar, 2007)
The "Big" Picture
Figure 3: Map Qatar, Middle East - From a Distance (Map of Qatar, 2007)
Figure 4: Qatar, Middle East - From a Star's Distance (Map of Qatar, 2007)
Figure 5: Qatar, Middle East - View from a Satellite (Map of Qatar, 2007)
Figure 6: Qatar, Middle East - From the Clouds (Map of Qatar, 2007)
Figure 7: Qatar, Middle East - From the Window of a Plane (Map of Qatar, 2007)
Figure 8: Qatar, Middle East - Bird's Eye View (Map of Qatar, 2007)
Figure 9: Qatar, Middle East - Mapping Where to Visit (Map of Qatar, 2007)
Aims and Objectives
To utilize the literature research method to explore and examine components relating to tourist development strategy and policy in Qatar.
To fulfill the aim of this thesis, this researcher set specific…
Review of Policymaking in a Transformative State
Policy-Making in a Transformative State: The Case of Qatar is a collection of scholarly essays, edited by Tok, Alkhater and Pal (2016). The collection addresses the need of Qatar to examine more critically how policies related to health, education, and economic development are being addressed in the country to help it meet its Qatar National Vision to be an advanced country by 2030. The challenge thus far is that Qatari leaders have focused primarily on foreign policy and oil/gas policies. This leaves a large swath of progressive issues untouched.
One of the main challenges that Tok et al. (2016) point out is that the country is populated by more foreigners (working expatriates) than by native Qatari citizens (the latter making up only 300,000 off the 2.3 million population). Qatar is essentially a host of contradictions: it practices Wahhabist Sunni Islam, like Saudi Arabia,…
Gremm, J., Barth, J., Fietkiewicz, K. J., & Stock, W. G. (2018). Qatar in a Nutshell. In Transitioning Towards a Knowledge Society (pp. 37-65). Springer, Cham.
Kassem, L. M., & Al-Muftah, E. (2016). The Qatari family at the intersection of policies. In Policy-Making in a Transformative State (pp. 213-239). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
Lambert, J. (2011). Political reform in Qatar: Participation, legitimacy and security. Middle East Policy, 18(1), 89.
Qatar-America Institute. (2019). Women’s Rights and Leadership Roles in Qatar. Retrieved from https://qataramerica.org/projects/womensrights/
Tok, M. E., Alkhater, L. R., & Pal, L. A. (2016). Policy-making in a transformative state: the case of Qatar. In Policy-Making in a Transformative State (pp. 1-35). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
One can therefore expect that Israel will benefit from an increase in knowledge-based industry that will continue to power employment and GDP growth.
Investment is a triple indicator: relative attractiveness of the country, the type of investment being attracted, and political stability or instability. In comparison to the U.S., all countries save Saudi Arabia are attracting more investment. One would expect that the U.S., as a relatively mature first-world economy, would be at a relatively lower level. The surprise in this analysis exists in both extremes: Saudi Arabia on the low side, and Qatar, Kuwait and Dubai on the high side. Israel's relatively low investment can be explained by the type of knowledge-intensive industrial development it is experiencing now.
Qatar and Kuwait are experiencing resource-extraction investment at record levels. The primary driver is natural gas expansion. Unlike oil, natural gas must be processed extensively by capital-intensive facilities before it…
CIA. (2007). World Fact Book. Retrieved August 3, 2007, from CIA:
3.2.3 Portfolio Diversification of Investment in Global Property Markets
ecause the global property markets are affected by globalization and specific country / regional factors, means that the overall amounts of risks will vary, the most notable include: transparency and efficiency. Where, each country / region has different on laws and regulations pertaining to the real estate markets. This means that the risks in a number of different markets will depend upon specific market conditions themselves, reflecting these two factors. To protect themselves against these kinds of risks, many investors will often seek to diversify their portfolio. Diversification is: when you are investing a number of different asset classes in real estate, across a variety of countries / regions. The idea is that if a risk occurs in a specific country or region, the other areas that you are diversified in will protect you against the severity of the declines. For…
2009 A Year of Revival for Property Sector, 2010, Visit Kuwait. Available from: . [30 March 2010].
Barwa Real Estate, 2010, Arabian Business. Available from: . [30 March 2010].
Business Risk, 2010, Invest Words. Available from: [29 March 2010].
Dubai Property Companies Called Merger Off, 2009, Property Wire. Available from: [30 March 2010].
What are the different layers/dimensions of corporate social responsibility?
Evaluate your organization's current CR strategy.
Discuss your suggested improvements to your organization strategy. What beliefs and social values are driving them.
What would be the consequences of your suggested CR strategy on business strategy and on society at large?
Corporate social responsibility (CR), as Mrs. Gentile remarks, has to be closely linked to the organization to be work well, to please the stakeholder, and to be a not one-off effort. Only in this way, does it become true philanthropy since it is congruent with the organization's goals.
In order to assess whether my organization coheres to this standard, I would first need to explore the concept of CR and then investigate ways that my organization does / does not meet its tenets.
Corporate social responsibility, in short, is the manner in which the business goes beyond itself to care,…
Qatar Petroleum. http://www.qp.com.qa/en/Homepage/QPActivities/QPOperations/Environmentandsociety.aspx
Qatar Petroleum. 20th World Petroleum Congress Issues Final Call for Projects http://www.qp.com.qa/en/homepage/mediacentre/news/archive/11-05-17/20th_World_Petroleum_Congress_Issues_Final_Call_for_Projects.aspx
Qatar Petroleum. QP Activities. http://www.qp.com.qa/en/homepage/qpactivities/qpoperations/environmentandsociety/10-1665770607.aspx
Qatar Petroleum. Media Center
Discuss at least 1-2 ratios that you believe are important to ascertain the financial position of the company. Do you believe this company has the means to pay its debt?
Financial ratio analysis makes it possible to examine the financial health of a company. The financial statements of a company provide limited understanding and knowledge into its performance. So as to attain a much stronger and richer insight of what takes place, there has to be a relevant basis of evaluation and appraisal. Various financial ratios are key to ascertaining the financial position of XYZ Company. One of these ratios are profitability ratios, which indicate the ability of a firm to convert its sales into profits. The return on assets of the company is 12.0%, return in equity 21.82% and gross margin 32.21%. This indicates that the company is profitable and therefore in a financially stable position. For instance, for…
Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.
It is the intention of this…
Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.
Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Tamino.com. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.tamimi.com/lawupdate/2001-01/intprop.htm
Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.
ole of Private Banker
What is the typical role of a Private Banker?
A private banker is someone who will help affluent clients to invest their money effectively. This involves focusing on a number of areas to include: financial planning, probate, asset protection, reducing taxes and transferring wealth from one generation to the next. At the same time, the private banker has a fiduciary responsibility to reduce risks for their customers and offer sound advice. This means that they must provide objective analysis and recommendations. That will help the client achieve a variety of goals over the long-term. ("Private Banker," 2012)
Moreover, private bankers assist their customers to connect with other services they require (i.e. accountants and lawyers). This ensures that the strategy is effectively coordinated. When this happens, there is less risk and greater amounts of stability associated with the client's net worth. In the future, this…
How to Become a Private Banker. (2012). E How. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.co.uk/how_6403015_become-investment-banker-college.html
Investment Advisor. (2012). E How. Retrieved from:
Political Framework of Islam
The Peninsula states of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, ahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Oman are under growing pressure from outspoken critics who use the language and authority of Islam in these overwhelmingly conservative Muslim societies to call for political and economic reform. The rise of a radically activist Islamic politics predates the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran, but Sunni and Shia Muslim radicals received significant boosts from the establishment of Islamic government in Tehran and, more recently, from the Gulf War in 1990-91.
Regional specialists from the government, the academic community, and the private sector debated the impact of radicalized Islamic politics on the regimes and U.S. interests in recent roundtables at the Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS). They agreed that Islamic radicals throughout the region have common perceptions of the causes of their societies' ills. These include dissatisfaction with ruling families that…
WO and Canada
conference in Havana in 1948 adopted a complex charter for an international body to preside over issues of trade called the International rade organization (IO). U.S. Congress never signed the IO charter so it was never ratified but GA not requiring U.S. ratification continued to exist. By default GA became the international body dealing with trade. GA had three main objectives:
o help trade flow as freely as possible,
o achieve further liberalization gradually through negotiation,
And to set up an impartial means of settling disputes.
For 47 years GA helped establish a prosperous multilateral trading system. But by the 1980s an overhaul was due. he Uruguay Round brought about that overhaul. It was the largest trade negotiation ever. he Uruguay Round has produced the most fundamental reform of the world trading system since the establishment of the GA in 1947. he establishment of the WO in…
TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO) RULES ON UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICES: ANTI-DUMPING AND SUBSIDIES)
The Commerce Department has reported the Bush administration is "still opposed to any weakening of World Trade Organization rules on antidumping and countervailing duty trade measures," and will not renegotiate the rules at the World Trade Organization's conference in Doha, Qatar.Faryar Shirzad, assistant secretary of commerce for import administration, said the Bush administration is opposed to the provision meant to clarify and improve WTO disciplines on the use of antidumping and countervailing duty measures. Shirzad said, "we think it's premature, given the complexity of the Uruguay Round agreements in those areas, to launch negotiations." http://www.txfb.org/TexasAgriculture/2001/111601agricurrents.htm
Canada should collect reports and evidences, which could prove that their trade and business is been affected by the unfair practices of trade and therefore, the WTO who is the responsible body, should take action against such practices and should provide the people with effective trade environment. It has also been noted, "Calculating the extent of dumping on a product is not enough. Anti-dumping measures can only be applied if the dumping is hurting the industry in the importing country. Therefore, a detailed investigation has to be conducted according to specified rules first. The investigation must evaluate all relevant economic factors that have a bearing on the state of the industry in question. If the investigation shows dumping is taking place and domestic industry is being hurt,
(Jabal Omar Development Corporation 2010)
Since 2008, the real estate market in Kuwait has been continually declining. The reason why is because the economy was largely depending upon oil revenues. However, in 2010 the sector began witnessing an increase in prices. This is because of the Kuwaiti government was aggressively promoting the tourism industry. As developers are expecting a strong increase in foreign direct investment, due to the governments push to expand the sector. As a result, holiday and residential areas in Kuwait are continuing to boom. (Finkelstein)
In the housing industry, there are large numbers of shortages that are affecting prices. What has been happening is the residential sector has been facing restrictions over the last several years, surrounding building permits. As the government was slow to endorse them, which created a rush on new areas that were approved for development. At the same time, the government has…
Alexandria Real Estate, 2010.
Egypt Property, 2010, Select Property. Available from: [19 Mar. 2011].
Egypt Real Estate Attracts Interest From Foreign Investors, 2010, New Investors. Available from: [19 Mar. 2011]
Jabal Omar Development Corporation, 2010
Intenational Tade Between Bahain and Saudi Aabia
This is a pape on Tade between Bahain and Saudi Aabia, focusing on how it affects thei intenational tade elations with special attention to OPEC, GCC and the Qata dispute. It uses 22 souces in MLA fomat.
Both Saudi Aabia and Bahain ae membes of the Gulf Coopeation Council along with Qata, UAE, Kuwait and Oman. Unde the GCC Ageement, pefeential taiffs apply among the membe states. Since independence in 1971, Bahain has essentially pusued a libeal tade and investment policy, and has integated its economy closely with those of othe counties in the egion, though the Unified Economic Ageement of the Gulf Coopeation Council (GCC).
Tade and economic gowth in Bahain is stongly affected by vaiations in intenational enegy pices. Real GDP gowth, as a esult, was slowe duing the 1990s compaed with the pevious decade, aveaging aound 3.6% annually since 1994.…
2. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE: BAHRAIN ECONOMIC POLICY AND TRADE PRACTICES. FEBRUARY 1994.
abaasso, C., Briars, M. & abasso, J. (2015). oyal family business in Qatar and the Emirates through sports club management: Green washing or a sustainable model? The cases of FC Barcelona and Manchester City. IJES Vol. 23 (2) 5.
This paper explores a couple of concepts. The authors look at two examples of sports teams -- FC Barcelona and Manchester City -- that are owned by royal families, one in Qatar and the other in Abu Dhabi. The first premise is that the authors contend these sporting clubs engage in "sustainable" and "responsible" activities. The second element of the article ponders whether those activities will affect a culture shift in these home nations, with the royal families essentially learning things about these concepts from the West and then applying them to their own nations.
On the first point, the author does not do a particularly good job at outlining the…
Mera, X. (2010). Factor prices under monopoly. Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics. Vol. 13 (1) 48-70.
Rabaasso, C., Briars, M. & Rabasso, J. (2015). Royal family business in Qatar and the Emirates through sports club management: Green washing or a sustainable model? The cases of FC Barcelona and Manchester City. IJES Vol. 23 (2) 5.
The UAE and IsraelIntroductionIsrael has been, for most of its existence, involved in some form of conflict with the Arab world. However, the Arab world itself is largely conflicted between the Sunni and Shia states. Israels recent pivot toward forming greater relations with the Sunni states has indicated an improvement in relations between Israel and at least part of the Arab world. Yet, making matters more complicated is the fact that Palestine remains largely Sunni, and Palestine has viewed the Sunni states relations with Israel as a betrayal of the Palestinian peoples fight for independence and autonomy. For that reason, Palestine has disapproved the new relations between Israel and the UAE. As a Sunni majority state, the UAE has long sided with the rest of the Sunni Arab world in support of Palestine (Soriano, 2014). But now that has changed to some extent. This paper will discuss why the UAE…
ReferencesAlshuwaiter, M. (2020). President Hadi and the future of legitimacy in Yemen. Retrieved from https://www.mei.edu/publications/president-hadi-and-future-legitimacy-yemen Alterman, J. (2020). The Significance of the Israel-UAE Deal. Retrieved from https://www.csis.org/analysis/significance-israel-uae-deal Arnone, M & Padoan, P. (2007). Anti-Money Laundering by International Institutions: A Preliminary Assessment. CIDEI Working paper No. 74Bahi, R. (2018). Qatar Crisis: A Genuine struggle for power. Retrieved from shorturl.at/xBT89Baker, P., Kershner, I., Kirkpatrick, D. & Bergman, R. (2020). Israel and United Arab Emirates Strike Major Diplomatic Agreement. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/13/us/politics/trump-israel-united-arab-emirates-uae.html BBC. (2017). Qatar crisis: What you need to know. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-40173757 Belenkaya, M. (2019). Why did UAE foreign minister go to Russia following his meeting with Pompeo? Retrieved from https://www.al-monitor.com/originals/2019/06/russia-uae-us-iran-egypt-peace-plan.html Bowen, J. (2020). Five reasons why Israel\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s peace deals with the UAE and Bahrain matter. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-54151712 Khakhar, P., & Rammal, H. G. (2013). Culture and business networks: International business negotiations with Arab managers.International Business Review,22(3), 578-590.Neuman, S. (2021). Intelligence Chiefs Say China, Russia Are Biggest Threats To U.S. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2021/04/14/987132385/intelligence-chiefs-say-china-russia-are-biggest-threats-to-u-s Ramani, S. (2020). Russian and Chinese views on the Israel-UAE normalization deal. Retrieved from https://www.mei.edu/publications/russian-and-chinese-views-israel-uae-normalization-deal Reuters Staff. (2020). Israel, U.S. near deal to exclude China from Israeli 5G networks: U.S. official. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-israel-usa-5g-china/israel-u-s-near-deal-to-exclude-china-from-israeli-5g-networks-u-s-official-idUSKCN25A2CF Scollon, M. (2015). Who has a stake in Yemen fight? Retrieved from https://www.rferl.org/a/who-has-a-stake-in-yemen-fight/26925287.html Sly, L. (2018). Princely feuds in the Persian Gulf thwart Trumps efforts to resolve the Qatar dispute. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/princely-feuds-in-the-persian-gulf-thwart-trumps-efforts-to-resolve-the-qatar-dispute/2018/05/13/7853cc88-39cf-11e8-af3c-2123715f78df_story.html?utm_term=.ebe5fd3adafa Soriano, M. A. (2014). United Arab Emirates & Mexico: Do\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s and dont\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s in negotiation strategies,\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" A Mexican perspective\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\".The Business & Management Review,5(1), 378.Tasmin News. (2020). Envoy: Iran-Russia Military Cooperation to Enter New Level. Retrieved from https://www.tasnimnews.com/en/news/2020/08/22/2333123/envoy-iran-russia-military-cooperation-to-enter-new-level Weir, D. T. H. (2003). Management development and leadership in the Middle East: An alternative paradigm. Leadership in the Management Theory at Work Series Conference, JuneWilson Center. (2020). Russia in the Middle East: National Security Challenges for the United States and Israel in the Biden Era. Retrieved from https://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/report-russia-middle-east-national-security-challenges-united-states-and-israel-biden Zhenqing, H. (2019). Turkey or generals aid Libya, the dispute over the delimitation of the Eastern Mediterranean has become a regional hot spot. Retrieved from https://www.thepaper.cn/newsDetail_forward_5252577 Zhongming, L. (2020). Professor Liu Zhongmin was interviewed by Shangguan News on the normalization of relations between Israel and the UAE. Retrieved from http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/06/8e/c3991a132750/page.htm
Perl (2008), the goals of terrorists are economic as well as political in nature. In addition to protecting high-profile political targets of the kind that were the focus of the 9/11 bombers, it is also essential to prioritize economic targets in a security policy. Perl argues that terrorism is given a relatively low ranking in terms of threats to energy infrastructure, it is often listed behind such factors as political instability and organized crime. Yet one could argue that many of these factors, particularly civil unrest, are critically linked to the risks posed by terrorism. In terms of recommendations, Perl suggests pursuing a more sustainable energy strategy regarding green power as the ultimate long-term 'back up' solution to the risks posed to sources of fossil fuels.
In the short-term, given the critical interdependence of the energy structures of the world on one another, cooperation between different nations is vital for…
Dhakal, S. (2011). Political anthropology and anthropology of politics. Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 5: 217-34. Retrieved from:
Galimberri, K. (2015). Impending monsoon season creates dire situation for Nepal's post-
earthquake tent cities. Accuweather. Retrieved from:
Social E-Commerce on the Innovative and Entrepreneurial Capabilities in the GCC
The advancement of social media has changed how individuals and companies conduct their business. The increase in use of smartphones has made it possible for more users to advertise their products on social media and provide links to their sales pages. Statistics indicate that by 2015, goods and services sold through online social networks globally attained the $30 billion mark. The research aims at evaluating the effects of social e-commerce on the innovative and entrepreneurial capabilities in the GCC. This research study indicates that social e-commerce has had a positive impact on the level of innovation and entrepreneurship in Gulf nations. It is recommended that through social e-commerce, entrepreneurs ought to lay more emphasis on engagement, which is generating relationships, communication and connections with an audience. What is more, embracing comments and conceptions from users, far and wide, is…
References Comment by babyliza: Not in alphabetical order
Al-Alawi, A. I., & Al-Ali, F. M. (2015). Factors Affecting eCommerce Adoption in SMEs in the GCC: An Empirical study of Kuwait. Research Journal of Information Technology, 7(1), 1-21. doi: 10.3923/rjit.2015.1.21
Crowther, D. & Lancaster, G. (2008) Research Methods: A Concise Introduction to Research in Management and Business Consultancy. Butterworth Heinemann
Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use and User Acceptance of Information Technology. MIS Quarterly 13(3), 319-340.
Hashim, N. A., Nor, S. M., & Janor, H. (2016). Riding the waves of social commerce: An empirical study of Malaysian entrepreneurs. Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 12(2): 83-94.
Emirate Airline Analysis
What follows in this report is a review and summary of the customer services aspect of Emirates Airline. The firm in question has most certainly established a name for themselves and there is the common refrain about how adept they are. Even so, there are opportunities for them to get better and all firms should commit to a culture and mindset of continuous improvement, fettering out what problems what do exist and finding common sense solutions for dealing with the same. Regardless of what problems are found, there need to be evidence-based and realistic solutions put forth, and that shall be the goal of this report. While Emirates Airlines does a lot of things well when it comes to their customer services, they could do even better and strive to do so whenever possible.
Before getting into the minutia of what should change and why,…
A large body of literature has treated many different aspects of these influences on Asia, Europe and the United States (Busser & Sadoi, 2003). The importance of the study relates to the current trends taking place in Libya where aggressive steps have been taken in recent years to normalize relations with the international community. For example, Libya opened up its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction to international scrutiny and renounced terrorism as a political tool (Libya, 2010). Moreover, the country's political leadership has been equally forthcoming in its efforts to normalize their relations with Western nations since 2003 (Libya, 2010). More recently, Libya has been removed from the U.S. State Department's list of states that sponsor terrorism in 2006 and in 2008, Libya joined the United Nations as a nonpermanent member on the UN Security Council during the 2008-2009 term (Libya, 2010).
Other signs that clearly point to…
About us. (2010). Mobil. Retrieved from http://www.exxonmobil.com/Corporate/about.aspx .
Al-Waha Oil Company overview. (2010). Al-Waha Oil Company. Retrieved from http://www.
Announcement of oil discovery. (2010, July). National Oil Corporation. Retrieved from http://en.noclibya.com.ly/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1423& ;
As the term suggest, liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been reduced to a liquid by cooling it to minus 161°C thereby eliminating oxygen, carbon dioxide and other unwanted components to achieve almost pure methane (Liquefied Natural Gas 2012). According to one LNG producer, "In the liquefaction process, impurities are removed from the gas before it is cooled. The cooling of natural gas to -162°C causes it to liquefy at which point it takes up 1/600th of its original volume. This allows the gas to be stored and transported safely and economically in large vessels" (LNG Liquefaction Process 2012, p. 2). Interestingly, Chandra (2012) points out that after natural gas is cooled to -- 161.5° C ( -- 260° F) and reduced, the actual volume shrinkage is about 610 times; however, 600 times reduction is typically cited in the literature. Because of its highly cooled and liquid…
Akimoto, K., Sano, F., Odo, J., Homma, T., Rout, U.K. & Tomoda, T. (2008). 'Global Emission
Reductions through a Sectoral Intensity Target Scheme.' Climate Policy, vol. 8, pp. 46-
Ben-Moshe, S., Crowell, J.J., Gale, K.M., Peace, B.A., Rosenblatt, B.P. & Thomason, K.D>
Economic Integration of GCC Countries: Developments Since
Economic Integration of GCC Countries: Latest Developments Since 2010
It is important to examine the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Key Economic Indicators. Primarily, 2014 Key economic indicators will present statistical information, which will seek to foster economic determination and engineer the determination of current and future performances. A collective economic indicator examines aggregate earning reports, list of economic summaries relating to this region and as well as, reflecting on various macroeconomic indices. This report will prove that the GCC (2014) economic indicators are collective in answering aggregate macroeconomic challenges. This study is a collective possible research leading to the construction of key economic indicators (2014) analysis as adopted by GCC partners. GCC economies have been growing tremendously in the past ten years. This study focuses solely on some of the serious economic developments and polices evident in the region in the past four…
Al-Busaidi, Samir. "Modelling Macroeconomic Shocks in the GCC: Is Monetary Unification Viable?" Review of Middle East Economics and Finance 9.1 (2013): 1-36
Cevik, Serhan, and Katerina Teksoz. "Lost In Transmission? The Effectiveness Of Monetary Policy Transmission Channels In The GCC Countries." Middle East Development Journal 05.03 (2013): 1350018. Print
Espinoza, Raphael A, Ghada Fayad, and A Prasad. The Macroeconomics of the Arab States of the Gulf. 2013. Print
Espinoza, Raphael. Williams, Oral., & Prasad, Ananthakrishnan. Regional Financial Integration in the GCC. New York: International Monetary Fund, 2010. Print.
Business Plan for Green Tongues
Environmental and Industry Analysis
Products or Services
Marketing esearch and Evaluation
Manufacturing and Operations Plan
Critical isks and Assumptions
Benefits to the Community
Green Tongues is an advertising company that provides environmentally friendly advertising solutions to all those companies that value their environment and want to give back to the society in which they exist. Green Tongues envisions itself to be the premier advertising company in the near future in the entire Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region as consumers and businesses in this region are slowly beginning to realize the importance of environmental conservation. The six member states that comprise the GCC (i.e., Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) are shown to be well situated to take advantage of their political and economic clout in ways that promote environmentally…
Bains, K. (2008, January 9). Solar powered billboards in San Francisco, Africa, and Canada.
Solar Power Authority. Retrieved from http://solarpowerauthority.com/solar-powered-billboards-in-san-francisco-africa-and-canada/ .
Blanche, E. (2011, February). Gulf rail network: The dream becomes reality. The Middle East,
5TH FLEET IN BAHAIN AND THE U.S. AND EU OIL EMBAGO IN IAN
OLE OF THE U.S. 5TH FLEET IN BAHAIN AND THE U.S. AND EU OIL EMBAGO IN IAN
ole of the U.S. 5th fleet" in Bahrain
ole of the U.S. 5th fleet" in Bahrain
foreign aid to Bahrain, where the U.S. Fifth Fleet is centered, constitutes directly to the U.S. Government's aims to maintain safety in the Persian Gulf. Bahrain is the only Arab state that has led one of the Coalition Task Forces that move around the Gulf, and has issued to move its flagship in support of the formation counter-piracy mission. As suggested by Edward & Marolda (1998) U.S. aids assists Bahrain, which have no oil wealth of its neighbors, get the training and equipment it requirement to operate alongside U.S. air and naval forces. U.S. military access to Bahrain also uplifts the operations in Iraq,…
1. Michael A. Palmer, On Course to Desert Storm: The U.S. Navy and the Persian Gulf (Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Center, 1992), 122.
2. OPLAN 1019 Arabian Gauntlet," GlobalSecurity.org. Available from http://www. globalsecurity.org/military/ops/arabian-gauntlet.htm (accessed November 1, 2009).
3. Edward J. Marolda and Robert J. Schneller Jr., Shield and Sword: The United States Navy and the Persian Gulf War (Washington, D.C.: Naval Institute Press, 1998), 33.
4. Edward J. Marolda and Robert J. Schneller Jr., Shield and Sword: The United States Navy and the Persian Gulf War (Washington, D.C.: Naval Institute Press, 1998), 32-35.
Leadership and Change Management
Consider a change that has been recently introduced in your organization. Using relevant change and leadership theories, critically analyze the benefits and problems that introduction of this change has brought. TO WHAT EXTENT HAS LEADERSHIP CONTRIUTED TO THE RESULTS OF THIS PROCESS?
RasgGas is a joint venture gas company between Qatar Petroleum, the State of Qatar's national oil and gas company (majority stakeholder), and ExxonMobil, an American Integrated Oil and Gas company. The company is about fifteen years old and has been involved in all aspect of exploration, development, production, liquefaction and marketing of gas from the North Field. RasGas is a major contributor to the State of Qatar's worldwide leadership in the production and marketing of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) export. The company has utilized technologies to drill high capacity gas well and build the largest and most efficient liquefaction trains in the world. These…
Brisson-Banks, C.V. 2010. "Managing Change and Transitions: A Comparison of Different Models and the Commonalities." Library Management, Vol. 31, No. 4/5, pp.241-52.
Brown, A.D. 1994. "Implementing MRPII: Leadership Rites and Cognitive Change." Logistics Informational Management, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 6-11.
Drew, S. And C. Coulson-Thomas 1996. "Transformation through Teamwork: The Path to the New Organization?" Managerial Decision, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 7-17.
Eisenbach, R. et al. 1999. "Transformational Leadership in the Context of Organizational Change." Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 80-88.
Entrepreneurial Intentions: Factors Influencing Intentions Among Arab Students
Factors Influencing Intentions among Arab Students: Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship can be defined as the process and mindset to initiate and develop economic activity. Studies have shown entrepreneurship to be a crucial driver of economic growth. This study sought to examine the factors that influence entrepreneurial attitudes among students in Arab countries. More specifically, it sought to examine the role of universities, role models, the entrepreneurial curriculum, and students' demographic characteristics in promoting Arab students' entrepreneurial attitudes. The study employed a quantitative research design, where data was gathered from a sample of 1500 undergraduate Arab students in government universities, and subjected to one-way ANOVA tests. Descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations) was used to draw additional conclusions from the gathered data. The results showed that Arab students acknowledge the role played by universities, the entrepreneurship curriculum, role models, and demographic variables in influencing their…
Albomaireek, W. N. & Manolova, T. S. (2012). Who Wants to be an Entrepreneur? Entrepreneurial Intentions among Saudi University Students. Africa journal of Business Management, 6(11), 4029-4040.
European Commission. (2003). Green Paper: Entrepreneurship in Europe. The European Commission. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/invest-in-research/pdf/download_en/entrepreneurship_europe.pdf
Fayolle, A., Gailly, B., & Lassas-Clerc, N. (2006). Assessing the Impact of Entrepreneurship Education Programs: A New Methodology. Journal of Industrial Training, 30(9), 701-720.
Gallant, M., Majundar, S. & Varadarajan, D. (2001). Outlook of Female Students towards Entrepreneurship -- An Analysis of a Selection of Business Students in Dubai. Research Paper.
The already shaky relationship between the Qatar state and Iranian society was further undermined by the Western exploitation of Iranian resources during the second half of the nineteenth century.
From 1918 until 1921 "British subsidies kept the government afloat, and British military and administrative advisers attempted to reorganize Iran's army and to manipulate the various political factions within the country to British advantage" (Cleveland, 185)*. When Britain added insult to injury by offering Iran a loan in exchange for exclusive advisory privileges, anti-imperial demonstrations broke out in several cities. Widespread discontent grew further. The Qatar government was regarded as ineffective and pro-British. A determined military commander finally took action and put a stop to the chaos.
Reza Khan used the political climate to advance from the position of commander and chief of the army in 1921 to that of the shah of Iran in 1925. His election overthrew the Qatar…
Based on the assessment of the sample features in terms of capital size and value of the property portfolio, an observation is made in the fact that a proportion is kept between the two. In other words, the property companies in Jordan, Egypt and Syria seem to be prudential and correlate their capital sizes with the values of their portfolios.
3. esults and analysis of the Jordanian property companies
The results of the implemented questionnaire are revealed throughout the table below:
c d e f g
x x x
x x x
x x x
Shortage of commercial properties
Availability and choice
2011, the world factbook, Central Intelligence Agency,
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
As the worldwide economic crisis of 2008 demonstrated, the economies of governments the world over are highly interdependent. Within this context, the World Trade Organization is coming under closer scrutiny. Negotiations are repeatedly failing and governments continue to violate commitments under WTO agreements with a dispute resolution process many countries find unsatisfactory. This paper reviews both the theoretical and practical economic and political implications of the faltering -yet ongoing -DOHA Round trade liberalization negotiations.
Recent WTO Negotiations: Seattle, Cancun, and Doha
Difficulties during WTO negotiations over the last decade can be attributed to three primary factors: the sheer numbers of member countries who all want to actively participate, the divergent interests between developed and developing nations, and finally the bureaucratic and management complications which arise from the increasing scope of WTO regulations. The most recent round of trade negotiations in the WTO began in the winter of 2001 in…
Clapp, J., 2006. WTO Agriculture Negotiations: Implications for the Global South. Third World Quarterly, 27(4), pp. 563-577.
Couglin, C.C., 2010. Measuring international trade policy: A primer on trade restrictiveness indices. Review, 92(5), pp. 381-394.
Cuyvers, L., Dumont, M., Rayp, G., and Stevens, Katrien, 2003. Wage and Employment Effects in the EU of International Trade with the emerging economies. Review of World Economics, 139(2), pp. 248-275.
Devadoss, S., Sridharan, P., aAnd Wahl, T., 2009. Effects of trade barriers on U.S. And would apple markets. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics. 57(1), pp. 55-73.
Middle East comprises a diverse group of regions, countries, peoples, customs, and cultures. On the one hand, it is daunting to offer a semester-long course that treats all Middle Eastern issues with clarity and fairness. The risk of oversimplification, however, is outweighed by the risk of ignorance. This course will explore the Middle East with as much depth and breadth as possible, stimulating student thought on political, social, religious, historical, ethnographic, and economic issues related to the region. Included in the course rubric will be current events ranging from gender issues to terrorism. In between the heavier topics, lighter lessons on local customs, culture, music, and food will reveal the ordinariness of daily life in the part of the world we call the Middle East.
Islam will be covered from a multidisciplinary perspective, allowing for nuanced and rich class discussions about the unique interface between politics, religion, and social norms.…
Anderson, Lisa. "Demystifying the Arab Spring." PDF Available: http://www.ssrresourcecentre.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Anderson-Demystifying-the-Arab-Spring.pdf
Henry, Clement Moore and Springborg, Robert. Globalization and the Politics of Development in the Middle East. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Kuran, Timur. "The Islamic Commercial Crisis: Institutional Roots of Economic Underdevelopment in the Middle East." The Journal of Economic History (2003), 63(2).
The spirit of competition also negatively impacted the manner in which employees communicated. The lack of specific definition as well as the highly isolationist company mentality ultimately resulted in a communication breakdown which prevented the effective running of the company.
Knowledge Sharing: Mentoring and cross-training have been declining leading to less knowledge sharing and familiarization opportunities for younger less experienced staff. Section members lack the opportunity to share knowledge and to share in lessons learned. This enforced specialization of employees will ultimately result in poorer results. Cross discipline work is essential in the successful integration and most efficient use of employed experts (Forrester, 1971). It could potentially take months longer to reach a favorable outcome if indeed the most efficient and effective outcome is ever reached at all.
Compartmentalizing of Data and Ideas: There are silos / compartments of information that was not readily communicated across departments (ichmond, 2001). As…
1. Ackoff, R.L. 1981 Creating the Corporate Future. New York: John Wiley, and Son.
2. Ackoff, R.L., & Emery, F. 1972 On Purposeful Systems. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton.Beer, Stafford, Brain of the Firm. Harmondsworth: Penguin Press, 1967.
3. Boulding, K.E. 1956 The image, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press
4. Churchman, C. 1971 Design of Inquiring Systems. New York: Basic Books.
Arumemi-Ikhide believes that Arik can succeed due to a combination of the opportunity -- helped by economic and air transport reforms in Nigeria -- and the capability to deliver a high quality product." (Dunn, 2009) Also stated by Arumemi-Ikhide is that this "will be a key in differentiating it in the international market and providing feeder traffic. That will be the lifeline for the international network. That's what sets up apart from our rivals." (Dunn, 2009)
Martin Russell states in the report entitled: "Arik Air: The Future of African Aviation" that both the "internal opinion of African air travel and that of onlookers overseas was bleak before the arrival of Nigeria's newest treasure, Arik Air." (2008) Russell states that the aviation industry is African is "hampered by somewhat less predictable weather and frequent storms" resulting in aviation in African being "far from predictable with temperamental skies that readily…
Nigeria's air traffic grows by 31% during 2008; defies global slump (2009) TradeInvest Nigeria Thu, 05 Mar 2009. Online available at: http://www.tradeinvestnigeria.com/news/957188.htm
Lawal, Lateef (2009)FG Invests Over N7b In Air Navigation, Safety, Search & Rescue - Nigeria Masterweb Daily News. Online available at: http://www.nigeriamasterweb.com/blog/
More Frequencies to Foreign Airlines Put Nigerian Carriers at Risk (2009) The Guardian -- Travels 17 Jul 2009. Online available at: http://www.ngrguardiannews.com/travels/article01//indexn2_html?pdate=170709&ptitle=More%20frequencies%20to%20foreign%20airlines%20put%20Nigerian%20carriers%20at%20risk
Dunn, Graham (2009) Arik Air: Pressing Ahead with International Plans. 3 June 2009. Airline Business. Online available at: http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2009/03/06/323508/arik-air-pressing-ahead-with-international-plans.html
Each onion router removes a layer of encryption to uncover routing instructions, and sends the message to the next router where this is repeated. This prevents these intermediary nodes from knowing the origin, destination, and contents of the message.
The predicted solution of the problems related to e-government administration depends on answering the following questions as brainstorming ideas to solve the problem and the features provided by the system or application.
1. An important step for processing of e-Government.
2. To ensure the confidentiality of information such as contracts for military weapons and other by Providing a high level of security as it is based on singing the data by combining multiple key values like user id, date stamp and transaction id which produce an encrypted key utilized and used only internally by the system for authentication and validation of user privileges. This procedure would make it…
Averyt, William. (2005). E-Government Reconsidered: Renewal of Governance for the Knowledge Age. American Review of Canadian Studies 35(4): 769-770.
Chaffee, a. (2000-08-17). "What is a web application (or "webapp")?"
Cohen, JE. (2000). Examined Lives: Informational Privacy and the Subject as Object. Stanford Law Review 52(5): 1373.
Bourquard, J.A. (2003, March). What's Up with E-Government? Digital Government Isn't a Silver Bullet, but as Part of a Long-Term Plan it May Provide a Means to Reduce State
All these factors have added too many variables to the Middle East, an important region for crude oil production" (Xuequan, 2008).
The improved standards of living have contributed significantly to an increase in the population's demands. And to satisfy these demands, with the ultimate scope of registering higher profits, the American corporations have abused the natural resources and are now moving towards the resources in other countries. Two such vital resources are crude oil and natural gas. The situation of gas is quite stable, but that of oil is critical. Based on limited natural resources, a weakening American dollar, speculative operations on the international market, but also the regulations implemented by OPEC and the conflicts in the Middle East, the price of oil has sky rocked - and it is likely to continue its ascendant trajectory.
Leonard, a., 2008, the Story of Stuff, http://storyofstuff.ethicalbrand.org/last accessed on May…
Leonard, a., 2008, the Story of Stuff, http://storyofstuff.ethicalbrand.org/last accessed on May 30, 2008
Wallace, E., May 13, 2008, the Reason for High Oil Prices, Business Week, http://www.businessweek.com/lifestyle/content/may2008/bw20080513_720178.htm?campaign_id=rss_topStorieslast accessed on May 30, 2008
Xuequan, M., April 18, 2008, Weak Dollar Not Sole Reason for High Oil Prices, Xinhua News Agency, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-04/18/content_7999121.html . Ast accessed on May 30, 2008
2004, Why are Oil Prices so High?, BBC News, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/3708951.stmlast accessed on May 30, 2008
Of course, the geography of the Middle East was greatly influenced in the later Twentieth Century by the ongoing conflict between the Arab states and Israel. The creation of Israel itself in 1948 made the greatest change, and the British were involved in that struggle as well. The state of Israel was created in 1948 in a battle between the newly declared state and her Arab neighbors, ending in 1949 with armistice agreements between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. Israel as a state developed out of the Palestinian question. hen the British wanted to turn the state of Palestine over to the United Nations, a solution to the issue of what people would reside in Palestine was reached in the form of partition, after which Jerusalem would be made an international city in which there would be free access for worship in Christian, Islamic, and Jewish shrines and…
Mahfouz, Naguib. Midaq Alley. New York: Anchor Books, 1992.
Consequently, his observations concerning the business climate in Saudi Arabia with respect to the significance of religion in the Kingdom can be considered authentic. According to Indris, with respect to the perception of performance and contractual obligations among Saudis, "It should be noted that the issue is not with the belief itself but rather with people's misguided interpretations of the belief and Islam teachings. While Islam teaches that ultimate control is in the hands of God, it also teaches that people should exert their utmost efforts to better their lives" (p. 38). These issues have special salience for foreign direct investors who may experience disputes based on such misinterpretations that cannot be predicted but must be expected. In this regard, Idris concludes that, "Misguided interpretations have a strong impact on the business environment and the commitment to setting and meeting goals and targets in the kingdom. Accountability in running businesses…
Aleisa, Eisa A. & Dibooglu, S. Sources of Real Exchange Rate Movements in Saudi Arabia.
26 Journal of Economics and Finance 1, 101-103 (2007).
Applications & Procedures, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Ministry of Commerce and Industry,
[online] available: http://mci.gov.sa/english/moci.aspx?PageObjectId=814 (2011).
global tax treaties, UN model and OECD model with the view of analyzing their consideration towards rights to capital and tax income. By throwing light on differences and similarities among the models, the fundamental logic of each of them is explained. The article explains the prospecting policies of consideration when tax treaties are to be signed. It is because there is strong need to enforce a flexible but more aggressive strategy. The Section 1 of the article discusses rights about tax earnings through immovable property. The Section 2 is about business profits. The Section 3 throws light upon income from investment channels like royalties, interests and dividends. The Section 4 describes the capital gains. The conclusion of the article is given in Section 5.
ight to tax income from immovable property
Because of well-known significant relationship between the country of source of the income and the source of income itself,…
Bin Yang, A Comparative Study on the Rules and Administration of the International Taxation System (China Tax Publishing House, 2003).
Bin Yang, International Taxation (Fudan University Press, 2004).
Commentaries on Paragraph 3, Article 7 of the OECD model.
Jin Zhi Liu (translator), Commentaries of UN model Tax Convention between Developed and Developing Countries (China Financial & Economic Publishing House, 1996) 56.
esource and Management
Project esource and Management
An operating budget is a strategy or basic blueprint of the manner in which the everyday activities within the nursing facilities will be monitored and undertaken together with the personnel, resources and also the supplies over a certain period of time. It is basically the approximation of revenues as well as expenses over a period of time (Foley, 2005; Clark, 2005). The following illustration will show the operating budget of the project for the nursing facility in the first five years of the operation.
Advertising and ecruitment
Orientation and Training
It is imperative to note that the budget does not include the revenue from the project. This is for the reason that prior to the inception and operation of…
Friedman, M.I., Delaney, M.M., Schmidt, K., Quinn, C., Macyk, I. (2013). Specialized New Graduate RN Pediatric Orientation: A Strategy For Nursing Retention And its Financial Impact. Nursing Economics, 31(4).
Clark, J.J. (2005). Improving hospital budgeting and accountability a best practice approach. Healthcare Financial Management.
Foley, R. (2005). Use key strategies for successful budget. Nursing Management.
Untalasco- Gealan, R. (2013). Budgeting Knowledge of Nurse Managers in selected units of Rumailah Hospital, Doha, Qatar. Qatar: Doha.
There are several models that identify different formats for international higher education, and the focus in this paper will be on just two of those models. hen looking at international educational models, there is a dramatic difference between the Cross Border Model (CBM) and International Student Mobility (ISM). Those two models will be compared and contrasted in this paper.
International Student Mobility
According to the Philippine APEC Study Center Network (PASCN) among the oldest models of international education is the model of "International Student Mobility" -- the model in which a student moves to another country in order to attend a higher educational institution in that foreign country (Bernardo, 2002). The countries that draw the most students from abroad include: the U.S. (which receives around 30% of all foreign students); France; Germany, the UK; Russia; Japan; Australia; Canada; Belgium; Switzerland; Austria; and Italy (Bernardo, 7). Bernardo explains that…
Altbach, P.G. (2012). Franchising -- The McDonaldization of Higher Education. International Higher Education, Number 66, 7-8. Boston College Center for International Education.
Retrieved April 24, 2015, from http://www.bc.edu .
Bernardo, A.B. (2002). International Higher Education: Models, Conditions and Issues.
Philippine APEC Study Center Network / De La Salle University-Manila. Retrieved April 24, 2015, from http://www.pascn.pids.gov.
South Sudan gained independence from Sudan in 2011, but has been embroiled in civil conflict ever since. This instability has hampered the ability of the country to lay the groundwork for developing its economy. The evidence shows that there is a pathway to economic development, even for the least-developed country, and this paper will elaborate on what those steps might be.
South Sudan is a landlocked country of 12.5 million people that split off from the Sudan in 2011. South Sudan is a multiethnic society, with different tribal groups living in the basin of the White Nile, which flows from Lake Victoria until it meets with the Blue Nile. The split of Sudan came after years of civil war. The north of Sudan was Muslim, the south Christian, and that is largely the fault line along which the border between Sudan and South Sudan is presently split. The country is…
Ooredoo Kuwait is one of the operating companies under Ooredoo Group, which is a global telecommunications firm headquartered in Doha, Qatar. The group was established in it’s current headquarters in 1987 as a telephone exchange company. Since its establishment, Ooredoo Group has developed to become one of the biggest telecommunications companies in Qatar. The company’s growth and development is also evident in its global expansion to various countries including Algeria and Kuwait. The global expansion initiatives and establishment of Ooredoo Group in 2013 are geared towards combining the firm’s assets in order to create an internationally-renowned telecommunications business. This paper focuses on examining one of the operating companies of Ooredoo Group i.e. Ooredoo Kuwait in terms of the firm’s profile, management, major competitors, and market share.
Ooredoo Kuwait is a company whose operations started in December 1999 after Ooredoo acquired Wataniya Telecom. Wataniya Telecom was the…
An Analysis of Relations between United Arab Emirates and Japan
In an era when American influence in the world is waning, the bipolarity of the Cold War years is being replaced by regional partnerships that are mutually beneficial for all stakeholders. Indeed, one important international partnership that has emerged over the past half century has been between the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Japan, with both countries expanding their diplomatic presence in each other’s capitals and investing heavily in exports, most especially oil and gas to Japan with the UAE importing electronics, vehicles and various types of machinery from Japan. Moreover, international analysts predict that this strategic partnership will continue to expand for the foreseeable future. The purpose of this research proposal was to provide an overview of the history of the relations between Japan and the UAE. A discussion concerning the origins of this modern relationship is followed by…
The main hazards related to LNG include:
upture due to Corrosion
upture while excavation
upture while excavation
upture during an earthquake
upture due to mechanical failure
upture at compressor
upture at inspection stations
Uncontrolled detonation of explosives
Blow-out of gas at head and subsequent fire
Gas leak from infrastructure
Fire involving combustible
LPG or Diesel
Diesel pump fire involving equipment brittle fracture valve Leaks
Welding failure welding casting failure
Mechanical overstressing of equipment Vibration
Failure due to external loading or impact
Underground pipe rupture of transmission pipeline
Pipe rupture at main line valve sites.
upture of adjacent gas pipeline
Uncontrolled detonation of explosives
Gas leak from pipeline infrastructure
Drop of pipe from pipe lifts
Accommodation fire involving combustible construction LPG or Diesel
Diesel fire involving mobile fuel tanker
Uncontrolled release of LNG
Uncontrolled release of refrigerant gas
Uncontrolled release of by- product…
Acutech Consulting (2009). The HAZOP (Hazard and Operability) Method
American Petroleum Institute (August 2009). Analysis of U.S. Oil Spillage. p26
There is no discussion of physical property rights in the annual report, and no insight is provided into physical property rights in a search of online resources either.
Corporate Social Responsibility Efforts
KBR generally has a poor CSR record. In recent years, the company has become embroiled in a number of scandals relating to its operations in the Middle East in particular. In addition to accusations of shoddy workmanship causing deaths, rape and subsequent cover-up, and human trafficking, the company has also committed environmental violations regarding so-called "burn pits" that contained a number of toxic chemicals to which American soldiers were exposed (ise & Olsen, 2010), has come under fire for essentially embezzling $12 billion (Newton-Small, 2007), and has been charged under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act for bribery in Nigeria (CNN, 2009). Over the past ten years, therefore, there is a profound pattern of lacking any semblance of corporate…
AFP. (2008). Nepalese man sues KBR on human trafficking charges. AFP. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5jmOzaTXaMkCsqiqqmIK6gc_rpg1g
Clanton, B. (2009). KBR profit jumps 40% on acquisition, government contracts. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/business/energy/6554652.html
CNN. (2009). KBR charged with bribing Nigerian officials for contracts. CNN. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from http://edition.cnn.com/2009/U.S./02/06/KBR.bribery/index.html
Cooper, L. (2008). KBR completes $550m acquisition of BE&K. Birmingham Business Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from http://www.bizjournals.com/birmingham/stories/2008/06/30/daily11.html
**These sections must be completed by the student / author:
**Expected outcomes of the project
**Budget and schedule
ADL, staff 2010, the United Nations General Assembly: Key Issues for 2010 Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations . 09-20, 2010. http://www.adl.org/main_International_Affairs/UNGA_2010.htm (accessed 12 5, 2010).
Best, a, Jussi H, Maioloand, J & Schulze, K 2004, International History of the Twentieth Century, outledge, London.
Chesler, P 2003, the New Anti-Semitism: The Current Crisis and What We Must Do About it, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Cohen, J 2009, 'The accusation of Anti-semitism as moral blackmail: conservative Jews in France and the Israel-palestinian conflict.' Human Architecture, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 23+.
Cravatts, 2010, Blaming the victim for Palestinian anti-Semitism. 09-16, 2010.
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Dershowitz, a 2003, the Case for Israel, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
ADL, staff 2010, the United Nations General Assembly: Key Issues for 2010 Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations . 09-20, 2010. http://www.adl.org/main_International_Affairs/UNGA_2010.htm (accessed 12 5, 2010).
Best, a, Jussi H, Maioloand, J & Schulze, K 2004, International History of the Twentieth Century, Routledge, London.
Chesler, P 2003, the New Anti-Semitism: The Current Crisis and What We Must Do About it, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Cohen, J 2009, 'The accusation of Anti-semitism as moral blackmail: conservative Jews in France and the Israel-palestinian conflict.' Human Architecture, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 23+.
Richard Reid, better known as the "shoe bomber" has nearly eight charges held against him. He was arrested as a result of his efforts to demolish a commercial flight using bombs concealed in his shoes. Richard was born in London in 1973. He had a Jamaican father who was in prison for a majority of his childhood. The early separation of his parents reflects family dysfunctionality. Even though he had been educated in one of UK's better schools, the lack of proper family support subjected him to getting involved in several crimes. An interracial background might have resulted in adjustment problems in an environment dominated by whites. He was imprisoned several times, and accepted Islam while at Feltham young offender's institution. On his release Reid became a part in the London based, Brixton Mosque. He made an effort to get involved in mosque proceedings but ended up getting…
Bajoria, Jayshree. "al-Qaeda (a.k.a. al-Qaida, al-Qa'ida)," cfr.org Web. 30 Dec. 2009. Web. 4 Dec. 2010.
Gillespie, Thomas W. "Finding Osama bin Laden:an Application of Biogeographic Theories and Satellite Imagery." MIT International Review. 17 Feb. 2009
Laden, Omar Bin."Chapter 4: Born the Son of Osama Bin Laden"
"Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri: Idol of the National Unity." The NEFA FOundation. Dec 14, 2009
They compete with each other for business, seek to build both aviation and non-aviation revenue streams and they must also deal with enhanced security requirements. This places significant pressure on the airport sector. The response within the sector has been twofold. Some airports have become privatized, which allows major airport operators to utilize their expertise across a range of markets. The other solution is the development of public airports that serve as branches of their governments, attracting passengers and investment to the region. Both types of airports have strong, multifaceted strategic mandates and are among the vanguard of modern air transportation.
Babu, V., Batta, R. & Lin, L. (2004). Passenger grouping under constant threat probability in an airport security system. European Journal of Operational Research. Vol. 168 (2) 633-644.
Barnard, B. (2010). Global air cargo revenue grows 40%. The Journal of Commerce. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.joc.com/air-expedited/global-air-cargo-revenue-grows-40-percent…
Babu, V., Batta, R. & Lin, L. (2004). Passenger grouping under constant threat probability in an airport security system. European Journal of Operational Research. Vol. 168 (2) 633-644.
Barnard, B. (2010). Global air cargo revenue grows 40%. The Journal of Commerce. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.joc.com/air-expedited/global-air-cargo-revenue-grows-40-percent
Cidell, J. (2004). Scales of airport expansion: Globalization, regionalization and local land use. Center for Transportation Studies. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.cts.umn.edu/pdf/CTS-04-01.pdf
Frost & Sullivan. (2010). 16th APSA International Conference Airport Security Market Overview. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.slideshare.net/tony.ridley/an-overview-of-the-airport-security-market
S.S.. This has resulted in a renewed tourist enthusiasm to visit these countries. The imaging process involved a portrayal of conformity to the European paradigm, a projection of a safe and friendly environment, and the development of niche tourism products to attract visitors. These efforts have culminated in countries such as Hungary and Poland becoming very attractive tourist markets. This creates a favorable climate for hotel chain expansion.
In a writing that dates ten years later, Hughes and Allen (2009: 188) also indicate this. Factors in favor of CEE countries and the tourist demand for travel in these countries include their EU membership and associated publicity, as well as the above-mentioned increase of "Europeanness," as opposed to communism, in these countries. Indeed, Hungary and Poland ranked 15th and 17th respectively in the world when surveyed for their international tourist arrivals (Hughes and Allen, 2008). Croatia, Estonia, and Lithuania also showed…
Bartl, H (1999) The hotel market in the former Eastern Bloc -- An overview. Journal of Vacation Marketing, Vol 3, No 4. Internet http://jvm.sagepub.com/content/3/4/341.full.pdf+html Accessed on 06/11/2010.
Chasan, E (2010) Extended Stay accepts Starwood reorganization bid. Reuters, 17 March. Internet http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSN1718200020100317 Accessed on 06/11/2010.
De Lollis, B (2008) CEO Profile: Starwood, Van Paasschen both on the move. USA Today, 23 June. Internet http://www.usatoday.com/money/companies/management/2008-06-22-starwood-ceo-paasschen_N.htm Accessed on 06/11/2010.
Drohan, R and Foley, A (2009) Towards A Resource-Based View Of The Firm Perspective On Enhancing Customer Relationships In The Hotel Industry. Internet http://repository.wit.ie/1381/1/TOWARDS_A_RESOURCE-BASED_VIEW_OF_THE_FIRM_PERSPECTIVE_ON_ENHANCING_CUSTOMER_RELATIONSHIPS_IN_THE_HOTEL_INDUSTRY_-_RIKON_Group.pdf . Accessed on 06/11/2010
The reliance on this location on the Persian gulf for both air and ship freight is expected to experience a 50% growth rate in the coming three years (Yoders, 2010). This will be reflected in an increase in investment for warehousing systems, supply chain management centers and the development of more efficient airline terminals specifically designed for the needs of air freight companies (Yoders, 2010). This will also translate into the need for greater services across the value chains of many of the world's most advanced and quickly changing industries, including the automotive industry (Sa Joe, 2006). A second example is that of professional services in construction and development (Donahue, 2007). Many American manufacturers have production centers in China and India, and need a more efficient route to European markets. The investments in supply chain infrastructure on the part of the UAE government are deliberately aimed at the needs of…
Frederik Balfour. (2006, December). Emerging Markets: Dipping a Toe In the Risk Pool. Business Week,(4015), 84.
Central Intelligence Agency, Research Division, The World Factbook. (2010). CIA, The World Factbook UAE Analysis (ISSN 1553-8133). Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. Retrieved from
Airbus A350 will consist of new all-combined wings that will be common to all the variations of the A350 airliner family. The newly designed wings will be the biggest wing to be ever created for a mid-size / wide-body aircraft capable of boosting the typical cruise speed and increasing the maximum operating speed. The new wings design will incorporate an innovative trailing-edge system and an improved dropped-hinge flap that allows the closure of the space between the trailing edge and flap with the spoiler.
The production of Airbus A350 family of airliners will incorporate a revised configuration of the cockpit to adopt LCD screens that are different from the Airbus A380-sized display. The revised design will include two central displays and a solitary flight/navigation display for each pilot. While the two central displays will be built up on top of each other, the solitary flight/navigation display will have…
"Airbus Letter." (2008, November). Airbus Media Relations. Retrieved September 17, 2010,
Barbosa, Q. (2008, January 21). Projet de Fin d'Etude. Retrieved September 17, 2010, from http://www.g-scop.inpg.fr/~bassetts/Master/Examples/RapportPFE-Airbus-QuirinoBarbosa-210108.pdf
Hamilton, S. (2006, April 4). Redesigning the A350: Airbus' Tough Choice. Retrieved September 17, 2010, from http://www.leeham.net/filelib/ScottsColumn040406.pdf
In order to resolve the problem of GDP measurement, Frank proposes the usage of the toil index which:
"Measures the number of hours that median earners must toil each month to be able to rent a house in a school district of at least average quality" (Frank, 2011). By using this index, Frank found that the actual situation was less positive than the one revealed by the measurement of the GDP and identified that the members of the middle class have to work significantly more in order to maintain their living standards. Also, the author found that the income inequality between the classes is increasing and that this is often overlooked.
All in all, Frank concludes that the positive and negative externalities are not adequately considered in the construction of the national and individual wealth with the aid of the GDP. At a personal level, it is found that obert…
Frank, R.H., Gauging the pain of the middle class, the New York Times, April 2, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/03/business/03view.html?_r=1&src=me&ref=business last accessed on April 6, 2011
The world factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2011,
These measures have helped the banking system to remain profitable and well-capitalized" ("2009 Article IV," IMF, 2009). This indicates that Saudi Arabia views low levels of speculation to be salutary for its own financial status, which is dependant upon economic growth and a high, steady worldwide demand for oil.
The main area of contention between Saudi Arabia and the IMF has been its undervaluation of its currency, the riyal, which it only recently agreed to peg to the U.S. dollar. This is also keeping with the IMF's policy on a free flow of capital: "The IMF has also generally opposed capital controls, which can help governments stem the loss of reserves, currency crashes, and other problems associated with large capital outflows" (eisbrot 2009, p.1).
Another criticism of the IMF is how its proportion of voting shares are allocated: the U.S. currently has 16.5%, while high oil producing nations, including Saudi…
"2009 Article IV Consultation with Saudi Arabia." International Monetary Fund.
Public Information Notice (PIN) No. 09/109. August 17, 2009.
December 2, 2009 http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/pn/2009/pn09109.htm
Weisbrot, Mark, Jose Cordero & Luis Sandoval. IMF Reform. CEPR. April 2009.
The second section, entitled Adante con moto has been described as having "a lyrical theme with a hymnal resonance, even festive" in quality which indicates a sense of hope, even in the midst of despair (Munteanu 2006). In contrast to earlier musical works, which can be analyzed purely in terms of musical structure, Beethoven's Fifth is often analyzed as a creation of Beethoven's own, unique psyche: desperate yet occasionally finding joy. It is a sprawling yet seamless whole, like his mind and life, rather than a composition of particular movements that carefully balance one another and deal with several unified themes in a structurally perfect manner.
The third section entitled simply Allegro "has a free form, neither scherzo nor intermezzo, but constitutes itself as an epilogue to the dramatism in Part I and a prologue to Part IV. This is considered to be the key moment of the entire symphony,…
Munteanu, Iulian. "Beethoven 5th Symphony." All about Ludwig van Beethoven.
2006. December 1, 2009. http://www.all-about-beethoven.com/symphony5.html
Rodda, Richard. "Program note: Fifth Symphony." Qatar Philharmonic Orchestra.
The Kennedy Center. February 24, 2009. December 1, 2009.
A study of e-government initiatives in Canada by Ayert, for example, found that, "Each department valued its own information system, its own database, and its own information culture. Malevolence was not involved; rather, the systemic goal was perceived through the departmental filter" (770). Moreover, despite mandates from the government's top authorities to develop seamless e-governmental systems and approaches to deliver services in an online setting, governmental departments engaged in a series of "turf battles" in order to protect their computer systems. In this regard, Ayert adds that, "Senior managers continued to hoard information and protect their own department's system. They declined to participate intensively with their peers in other departments, thus effectively ending the possibility of creating a new organizational culture cutting across departments" (770). In these types of environments, the cost savings that can be achieved using e-government techniques are not realized and the costs of administering governmental operations…
Averyt, William. 2005, "E-Government Reconsidered: Renewal of Governance for the Knowledge Age," American Review of Canadian Studies 35(4): 769-770.
Bourquard, Jo Anne, 2003, March, "What's Up with E-Government? Digital Government Isn't a Silver Bullet, but as Part of a Long-Term Plan It May Provide a Means to Reduce State
Spending." State Legislatures 29(3): 24-25.
Davidsson, Robert, 2008, April, "Welcome to the E-Government Library of the Future-Today."