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She theorized that the growth of bandit revolutionary groups was a logical progression of ongoing modes of resource competition that were being shaped by the natural and social composition of the area. Although the redirection of violence into rebellion against the state necessitated the intervention of precipitating historical events, the preconditions of recurring rebellion can be sought in longer lasting adaptive processes. Naturally, she added, the style of adaptation itself underwent changes over time, as new circumstances and past experiences altered the forms of human activity. Nevertheless, as long as society proved unable to shackle the forces of nature, an essential continuity prevailed. Once the rebellions started, the Qing government had greater difficulty to successfully carry out its intended reforms, which caused more hardship to the Chinese people. This motivated even more people to enter the revolutions. (Major).
Yet it was the arrival of the Western countries and modernization in…
Fairbank, John and Reischauer, Edwin. China. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1989.
Gernet, Jacques. History of Chinese Civilization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972.
Major, John. The Land and People of China. New York: J.B. Lippincott, 1989.
Perry, Elizabeth. North China, 1845-1945. Stanford, CA: Stanford University, 1980.
It would be thus that many of the inherently independent aspects of China's cultural makeup would find ways to retain and even advance autonomy under a central leadership. Indeed, the cause for China's long struggle against factionalism would be due to its geographical scale and the variations in its population. Under the long stretch of Qing rule, the conditions were diminished by a perceptive approach to delegation which did not seek to fully drive out local form of leadership. In fact, throughout the course of its rule, "the Qing dynasty (1644-1911) was forced to rely on chieftainship administrative space and its tribal inhabitants as unreliable bulwarks against incursions by 'wild' tribals and Myanmar primarily because Han Chinese vulnerability to malaria precluded a more stable and direct Qing official presence." (Bello, 283) And yet, all of the ingredients which maintained this unlikely balance would ultimately conspire to the end of the…
Bello, D.A. (2005). The go where no Han could go for long. Modern China, 31(3), 283-317.
Hansen, V. (2000). The Open Empire: A History of China to 1600. W.W. Norton.
Waley, C. (2000). Sextants of Beijing. W.W. Norton.
The creation of this compilation provided work for hundreds of Chinese scholars, yet it also served another purpose, being to establish the Manchus as the dominant force in China while making certain that any literary works which contained negative opinions on the Manchus be summarily destroyed.
An additional force which helped to consolidate the Manchus under Emperor Qianlong was based on its military organization, which at the time was considered as the quintessential military power in Asia. As a system, the Qing military organized its troops under separate banners with separate units and the fighting men "were personally attached to the emperor, in fact, he owned them." These men were also "incredibly loyal to the emperor" and often "functioned as a talent pool from which civil bureaucrats could be chosen." Another benefit related to the Qing military machine is that it "retained (its) military strength over the Chinese by separating…
Qing Dynasty." 2005. Internet. Accessed October 26, 2005. http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum / prehistory/china/later_imperial_china/qing.html.
The Imperial Era: III -- The Rise of the Manchus." China History -- East Asian Library -- Qing Overview. 2004. Internet. Accessed October 26, 2005. http://www-chaos.umd.edu/history/imperial3.html#qing .
Wakeman, Frederic. The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of the Imperial Order in 17th century China. Vol. 1. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.
Fall of Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty of China lasted for centuries and, for the most part, was very prosperous. They had long-tenured leaders, enjoyed a lot of good fortune for much of their existence and so forth. However, the dynasty was brought to an end by a combination of natural disasters, rebellions among the people, incompetent courts and invasions from outside. Even with its long success, the Qing dynasty eventually fell. No matter how far and high an empire has gotten in the history of the world, there always comes a point where revolution and/or disintegration of that empire comes to pass.
As noted in the introduction, the overall tenure of the Qing Dynasty was quite long. Indeed, the dynasty ran from 1644 and did not end until 1912. The beginning and middle parts of the dynasty were full of good times for the lion's share of the people.…
China Highlights,. (2015). History of the Qing Dynasty, Rise and Fall of Qing Empire. ChinaHighlights. Retrieved 11 December 2015, from http://www.chinahighlights.com/travelguide/china-history/the-qing-dynasty.htm
GWU,. (2015). Fall of Qing Dynasty A China's 1911 Revolution: A Centenary Retrospective A GW Libraries: Exhibits. Exhibits.library.gwu.edu. Retrieved 11 December 2015, from http://exhibits.library.gwu.edu/exhibits/show/1911revolution/fall-of-qing
Xian Feng emperor. A national monetary policy relates to issuing paper money. In the case of the emperor, this policy was done incorrectly and the government should not issuing paper money as the sole way to solve financial deficits. hat will be posed in this report will be some solutions and comparisons that would helped the country economically during that time period. The relevant time periods for this report shall be during the time of the Xian Feng emperor (1831-1861) and the later part of the Qing era
Xian Feng Emperor & Qing Government.
In general term, the 1700's was a prosperous point in time for the Qing government. Their empire was stable, China's borders were secured and agricultural production was strong enough to keep food shortages at bay and taxes for peasants low. However, during the 19th century, the Qing government was challenged by several threats and problems. These…
Horesh, Niv. Chinese Money In Global Context: Historic Junctures Between 600 BCE
& 2012. 1st ed., Stanford University Press, 2013.
Von Glahn, Richard. Fountain Of Fortune. 1st ed., Berkeley, Calif., University Of
California Press, 1996.
currency of the Qing Dynasty and why precisely the failure happened. It is reasonable to presume that the government made some mistakes when it came to their fiscal and monetary policies. Given that, there are surely some solutions that would emerge that could have been used to prevent that failure. Also important to consider is how the monetary policy and solutions regarding the same compare to paper money within the governments of the West. In light of things that have happened or could happen, which could include bank runs, faulty monetary policy and so forth, these are important questions. While the monetary policies of the East and China are good to look at, the same holds true for the paper money history and policy of the West.
At the beginning of the Qing dynasty, the monetary system was bimetallic and consisted of two types of money. One is yinliang…
But Mao trained his People's Army with great vigor and eventually the communists overcame their rival factions, both the Japanese and the Chinese nationalists, who later fled to Taiwan. Pu Yi was captured by the Russians during the war, and the Russians turned him over to the Chinese, as this supposed supporter of the Japanese was the 'enemy.' But it is clear from the film that despite the intense eternal strife within China and the terrible suffering inflicted upon the land during the Pacific ar by Japan, the emperor had little deeply held inner political convictions of his own, either communist or capitalist, nationalist or Chinese. He seems immune to the events and the greater, wider scope of history. He had little sense of how it was to live as an ordinary civilian, even to care for himself without constant overseeing by others. Until he lost his position as emperor…
The Last Emperor." Directed by B. Bertolucci. 1987.
In addition, the ceremony also contained firecrackers which were symbolic of purification and joy. The food that was served at a marriage ceremony was also symbolic. For example, fruit and longevity noodles were symbolic of harmony, happiness, and prosperity.
Indeed the marriage arrangement was detailed and extravagant (for the wealthy) during the Qing dynasty. Now that we understand the marital arrangement let us focus on the role of the ideal wife during Qing's Dynasty.
The role of the ideal wife (Qing Dynasty)
Once the transfer was complete, the wife was totally immersed in pleasing her husband and his family. All kinship ties to the wife's family were broken and when she visited her family, she was considered a guest not a relative. Smith (1994) asserts that this was a cause of distress for many new wives because they were usually amongst strangers and the mother in law had a great…
Atwill, D.G. (2003). Code, Custom, and Legal Practice in China: The Qing and the Republic Compared. China Review International, 10(2), 411+. http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=14304634' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
riters accused of composing subversive works were jailed, exiled, or executed" and thus silenced (Pamintuan, 2003).
Such puritanical attitudes on the part of the leadership seemed to be embraced by the common people. For example, a woman's virtue was held in particularly high regard during this period. The number of widows who honored their dead husbands by refusing to remarry or by committing suicide reached a historical high (Pamintuan, 2003). The government sponsored special female-only homes to support impoverished widows who refused to marry, to honor the memory of their dead husbands (Pamintuan, 2003).
The first Manchu emperor's successors, Yongzheng and Qianlong, were equally long-lived, ensuring stability of the regime and sustained peace. Also, they were quite effective in accumulating imperial intelligence in outlying areas of the empire. "Missives called 'memorials' were sent from trusted officials in these areas directly to the emperor with seals to guarantee that the document…
Nilsson, Jan-Erik. "Qing." Chronology. Text based on China: A Country
Study by Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, Edited by Robert L. Worden, Andrea Matles Savada and Ronald E. Dolan. Research Completed July 1987. Created 2002. Updated 23 Feb 2007. http://www.gotheborg.com/index1.htm?http://www.gotheborg.com/chronology/qing.shtml
Pamintuan, Tina. "Breaching the Great Wall: How the Manchu Took China."
Humanities. March/April 2003. Volume 24/Number 2. http://www.neh.gov/news/humanities/2003-03/greatwall.html
Tea was the third most important commercial product, and was also sold to the mainland. Research indicates that the Japanese, as well as other foreign powers, deeply coveted in Taiwan's wealth (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).
In 1886 Taiwan's defenses against foreign aggression were modernized, the government implemented tax reforms to make Taiwan financially independent, and educated its indigenous peoples. A general trade office was established to encourage foreign trade, and Western-style schools were set up (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).When Taiwan was ceded to Japan in 1895 under the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, the locals declared independence on May 25, 1895, and formed the Democratic Taiwan Nation to resist the Japanese take-over. A total of 7,000 Chinese soldiers were killed in the conflict and civilian casualties numbered in the thousands (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).These events also assisted in the creation…
Ballantine, Joseph. Formosa: A Problem for United States Foreign Policy. Washington DC: Brookings Institution, 1952.
Chih-ming, Ka. Japanese Colonialism in Taiwan: Land Tenure, Development, and Dependency, 1845-1945. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, Inc., 1995.
Government Information Office in Taiwan. "History of Taiwan." Taiwan.com. 2005.
Taiwan.com. 10 June 2005 http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html.
uring the Kuomingtang era, women's role in society expanded substantially. Jung explains that her mother worked within the communist underground and married a young communist who eventually became an official in Chengdu. The role of women in this era was expanded to the greater liberties permitted under Kuomingtang governance. They shared in the burdens of their husbands and had greater control over their lives, and their relationships. However, they were still severely limited especially in relation to the workplace.
Finally, during the era of communism, women were elevated to an much more equalitarian position within society. They were able to be employed within government and enjoyed many of the same rights as men. espite embedded social prejudice against women, the government recognized them as equals and it allowed Jung to able to have the freedom to explore relationships, employment opportunities and ultimately the liberty to control her…
During the Qing Dynasty, women had little influence in society. Jung Chang's grandmother was a concubine to General Xue in 1924. During this era, women were treated as little more than objects, and they were not given any significant rights during this era. Her grandmother was a beautiful young girl who had her feet tied and lived to serve General Xue. Women within this era clearly did not have significant control over their own lives. Their marriages were arranged by their parents and women were oftentimes bartered in exchanges and other forms of trade.
During the Kuomingtang era, women's role in society expanded substantially. Jung explains that her mother worked within the communist underground and married a young communist who eventually became an official in Chengdu. The role of women in this era was expanded to the greater liberties permitted under Kuomingtang governance. They shared in the burdens of their husbands and had greater control over their lives, and their relationships. However, they were still severely limited especially in relation to the workplace.
Finally, during the era of communism, women were elevated to an much more equalitarian position within society. They were able to be employed within government and enjoyed many of the same rights as men. Despite embedded social prejudice against women, the government recognized them as equals and it allowed Jung to able to have the freedom to explore relationships, employment opportunities and ultimately the liberty to control her life.
Not only does this benefit them as a port destination, but the influx of trade goes through Taiwan with the majority of manufactured goods of the Pacific region flowing through their ports. Since Taiwan has a favorable relationship with the Western states, it has been able to absorb the growth of the East Asian region and serve as an effective broker for traffic of goods. Thus it plays a central role within the region as a broker between lesser developed nations and the developed super powers.
Not only does Taiwan hold an enviable position within global trade, but it also has developed its internal capacity to become a manufacturing force. Taiwan has focused its industries on two key developments, high end technology products including semi-conductors and high end technology product development. The Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company is the world's largest independent semiconductor foundry. As a joint venture through subsidized state…
Lee, Pei-shan, "Regime Transition and Economic Governance: The End of Development. Annual Meeting of the Taiwanese Political Science Association, National
Sun Yat-sen University. 9-10 December 2000.
Paul Hirst and Grahame Thompson, Globalization in Question (London: Polity Press, 1999), p.241.
The Vairocana Buddha on the back wall has a Bodhisattva to his left wearing a crown and pearls. Bodhisattvas were still 'of the world,' beings in Mahayana Buddhism who temporarily did not seek Enlightenment to bring Enlightenment to the rest of the world. On his other side, a "divine general treads an evil spirit underfoot" ("acred Destinations," Longmen Caves, 2010). The combined images of the most spiritual and enlightened of all manifestations of the Buddha, a spiritual deity still striving to Enlighten those in the world, and national symbolism illustrate how Buddhism was not seen as innately contradictory with the aims of the nation-state.
"Longmen Caves." acred Destinations. March 1, 2010.
O'Brien, Barbara. "The Five Dhyani Buddhas: Vairocana Buddha" About.com.
ummarize the history of the porcelain traditions in China from the Yuan to the present. Give examples.
The Yuan Dynasty saw the development of what…
"Japanese architecture." Asian Info. March 2, 2010.
"Temples and Shrines." Japan Culture. March 2, 2010.
East Asian Civilizations
(1) Unequal Treaties
(2) sino-japanese war 3
(3) MARCH 1ST MOVEMENT
(1) CHINA IN DECLINE
(1) CHINA's CIVIL WAR 7
(1) UNEQUAL TREATIES
The growing demand for Chinese tea, silk and ceramics by ritish had created severe trade imbalance for ritain. The ritish were also losing their silver reserves in exchange for Chinese goods. In late 1930's government of Great ritain found "opium" as a solution for resolving trade imbalance. Opium, which is more addictive than tea, was being supplied to China by ritish merchants. As demand for opium increased in China, ritain's imports increased and in this way silver bullion was flowing out of the China into ritain.
However Chinese government (Qing government) took serious steps to stop the trade of opium. Lin Zexu, which was appointed as an Imperial Commissioner for the Destruction of Opium, started an anti-opium campaign. During the campaign, opium stores were…
CIIC. "Formation of the Chinese Civilization." 2001. China Internet Information Center. .
Devine, Richard. "Japanese Rule in Korea After the March First Uprising." Monumenta Nipponic 52.4 (1997).
Dyke, Van and Paul Arthur. Tha Canton trade: Life and Enterprise on the China Coast 1700-1845. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1998.
Liu, Li and Xingcan Chen. The Archaeology of China: From the Late Paleolithic to the Early Bronze Age. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
Today when one thinks of a country with explosive economic growth and a bright future both economically and politically, China comes to mind. China has risen in prominence on the global stage at an exceedingly fast rate. It is sometimes referred as the United States, next great potential rival, and with good reason. It is officially known as the People's epublic of China and is the world's most populated country in the world, with over 1.35 billion people (CIA). It is ruled by a single political party, the Communist Party, with Beijing being the capital and therefore, the epicenter of political power in China. China is also the second largest country in regards to land area. It is a diverse geological country, its landscape consisting of deserts, forests, to subtropical forests in the south (CIA). A country with vast natural resources, its population being of them, and a rising…
China. (n.d.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved March 13, 2014, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html
Keay, J. (2009). China: a history. London: Harper Perennial.
Wilkinson, E.P. (2000). Chinese history: a manual (Rev. And enl. ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: Published by the Harvard University Asia Center for the Harvard-Yenching Institute: .
Taiping ebellion vs. Boxer ebellion
The last two centuries are considered as the golden age of millenarianism in the sense that they brought about a change in the existing system, by means of overthrow of the system which existed. And the new system which evolved was considered as better than the old system which existed and was brought about by overthrowing the powerful. The reason is simple. As the sociologists and historians of the millenarianism say, one does not become sensitive to such ideas simply being oppressed or miserable. But instead, these ideas develop from those of whose expected and traditional lives have been destroyed and disrupted, uprooted and rendered rootless, even if they were having an unpromising and unpleasant life earlier.
As a result of the industrial revolution, many such people came to North America and Europe, but the nations which Europe was trying to bring under its control…
Boardman, E. Christian Influence upon the ideology of the Taiping Rebellion, 1851-1864. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, (1952). pp. 52-81
Chesneaux, Jean; Marianne, Bastid; and Bergere, Marie Claire. "China: From the Opium Wars to the 1911 Revolution" Pantheon Books, (1976) pp. 44-51
Ch'en, Jerome 'The nature and characteristics of the Boxer movement: a morphological study', Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies vol. 23, (1960) p.20-26
Ch'en, Jerome 'The Origin of the Boxers', in Jerome Ch'en and Nicholas Tarling (eds.), Studies in the Social History of China and South East Asia Cambridge, (1970) pp.45-57
Invention and Evolution of Porcelain in China
Although the precise origins of porcelain have been lost in the mists of time, most modern researchers believe that it was invented in China. Not surprisingly, then, many Chinese today boast that their ancestors were drinking tea from porcelain cups when their European counterparts were still wearing animal skins and living in caves, and it turns out that this pride is accurate and justifiable. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide a discussion concerning the technical and artistic history of porcelain drawing on four examples that span four different time periods in Chinese history. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings about the invention and evolution of porcelain in China are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Porcelain differs in fundamental ways from ordinary pottery known as earthenware that is formed from clay and then…
Bartlett, S. (2011, Annual). Robert Finlay, the pilgrim art: Cultures of porcelain in world history. Southeast Review of Asian Studies, 33, 229-232.
Chinese art. (2016). Development of Visual Arts in China. Retrieved from http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/east-asian-art/chinese.htm#tangpottery .
Porcelain. (1988, October). UNESCO Courier, 22-24.
Fitzgerald, C. P. & Seligman, C. G. (1938). China: A short cultural history. New York: D. Appleton-Century.
Ancient Chinese Architecture
Modern Chinese Architecture
Ancient Chinese architecture is considered to be an important part of the world architectural system along with architecture in Europe and Arabian architecture. Over centuries, the construction and architecture of China has developed in to a style of its own and is often characterized by the heavy timberwork that combines with stone carving and rammed earth construction and bucket arch buildings and other techniques that make it unique (Guo, 2005).
The Great Wall, Forbidden City and the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor are some of the examples of ancient Chinese architectural miracles that were created by the laboring people of the country.
The rampant use of timber framework was the primary and significant characteristic of ancient Chinese architecture. In order to make the buildings more beautiful and attractive the ancient Chinese architects used paintings and carvings that were put up into…
Guo, Q. (2005). Chinese architecture and planning. Stuttgart: Edition Axel Menges.
Lou, Q., & Chen, P. (2002). Ancient Chinese architecture. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.
Lu, D. (2007). Architecture and global imaginations in China. The Journal Of Architecture, 12(2), 123-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13602360701363411
Wang, Q. (2011). Chinese architecture. New York: Better Link Press.
One of those buildings was the International Foreign Trade Center -- Shenzhen's first skyscraper and the tallest building in China (36).
Hong Kong is commonly referred to as a place where "East meets West" because of its hybrid nature. That is, there is a culture mix occurring that is part traditional Chinese as well part ritish due to its colonization by the ritish. Hong Kong is quite a modern place, yet there is an infusion of traditional Chinese practices that makes the place unlike any other in the world. One example of how East may meet West in Hong Kong is how the art of feng shui may be utilized in constructing a modern piece of architecture. The old Chinese traditions are used to support newer ways of thinking and living. The architecture in Hong Kong is contemporary and reflects a more Western style as opposed to a Chinese traditional…
Campanella, Thomas. The Concrete Dragon: China's Urban Revolution. Princeton Architectural Press; 1st edition. 2008. Print.
Chen, Ming-Jer. Inside Chinese Business: A Guide for Managers Worldwide. Harvard Business Review Press. 2003. Print.
China Tour Online. "Shenzhen History." Retrieved on June 13, 2012 from http://www.chinatouronline.com/china-travel/shenzhen/shenzhen-facts/shenzhen-history.html. Web.
Ching, Julia. Chinese Religions. Orbis Books. 1993. Print.
U.S. Vs. China, cultural, historical differences
The history of China mainland and Hong Kong
Hong Kong has always grown under the wings of China owing to several reasons. One of the main ones is that the country was under the governorship of their close neighbors, China. Therefore, most of the direction that the country has currently is attributable to the influence of China. It was during the Qin Dynasty that the destiny of the country took shape. This is because it was during this period that the country was adjoined to become part of China. Throughout the subsequent dynasties like that of Tang, the country came to become one of the leading trade regions. However, it was the activities of the country under the Qing Dynasty that brought attention to the world of the existence of this small but potentially powerful country.
China is the country with the leading population…
All good things must come to an end, and at no time is this fact truer than in China in 1911, when the Xinhai Revolution resulted in the fall of the Qing Dynasty. This led to a period of unrest, as the world's powers engaged in orld ar I. Even though China had participated in the war on the side of the Allies, China was betrayed during the negotiations at the Treaty of Versailles. Instead of being given autonomy over a controlled sphere of interest in the Shandong district of China, the Treaty of Versailles instead gave this territory over to Japan. China's May 4th Movement ended up being an anti-est, anti-imperialist cultural shift that grew out of student demonstrations in 1919.
The weak response of the Chinese government to reclaim the Shandong province for itself in self-defense led to accusations of corruption. hether or not the government was…
Chen, Duxiu, "Our Final Awakening." (Essay, 1916). Retrieved from, http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/ps/china/chen_duxiu_final_awakening.pdf .
Chiang, Kai-shek, "Essentials of the New Life Movement." (Speech, 1934). Retrieved from, http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/ps/cup/chiang_kaishek_new_life.pdf .
Mao, Zedong, "Reform our Study." (Speech, 1941). Selected Works of Mao, Beijing Foreign Languages Press, 1971.
Living standards were poor in the overcrowded cities and "the emergence of political parties caused disputes with the emperor and his ministers, leading to frequent elections and political assassinations. Many intellectuals worried about the loss of identity in a changing world; others were concerned at lack of economic opportunities for the enlarged educated class" (Chapter 33, Pearson, 2009).
The Chinese government, however, had a much larger territory to govern, and far more internal strife with which to cope. It was weakened by the Opium ars with the est, which had left it carved into spheres of influence. It also had to pay interest on loans it had incurred fighting the war. Cheap, manufactured foreign goods put many local tradesmen out of business. The sheer expanse of China made it difficult for the ruling Qing Dynasty to control the different provinces in the country, much less create a system of unified…
"Chapter 33: Russia and Japan: Industrialization Outside the West." Pearson Education.
October 28, 2009.
19th Century China. USF. October 28, 2009.
According to Songchuan Chen’s essay, “An Information War Waged by Merchants and Missionaries at Canton: The Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge in China, 1834-1839,” while the increased ability to disseminate mass printed materials had notable effects within Europe, it also had a substantive impact upon the ways in which Europeans interacted with foreigners. The Qing Dynasty in China met with considerable resistance when it attempted to create protective trade barriers to prevent the facilitation of opium trade between itself and Europe. Of course, this eventually resulted in the decisive military conflict, ending in a victory of British economic interests.
But even before that, the British engaged in a war for Chinese hearts and minds. As noted by Chen, in British thought and writing, it was assumed that the Chinese regarded the British as uncultured barbarians, although this was a highly schematic view of how the Chinese actually perceived…
Japanese, Chinese and Russian empires from 1500-1800. We will look briefly at the kind of structures/bureaucratic arrangements that used to keep order and control and to manage their populations . We also will compare and contrast these empires and see that the major thing that paved the way for the eclipse of China and Japan by 1800 was an inward focus while Russia's westward glance gave it the ability to forge a viable Eurasian empire.
Ming and Qing China
In Ming China, the structure of government was built around a series of professional bureaucrats schooled in their designated skills areas and Neo-Confucianism with its ideas of individual morality and responsibility (this also influenced the Japanese and Chosun Korea). The bureaucrats were the glue that held the Ming Chinese empire together. This made the period until 1644 when the dynasty was overthrown a golden age where arts, culture and the economy…
R.W. Bullet, et. al, The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History: Since 1500, (New York, NY:
Houghton Mifflin Co., 2009), 485-519.
here is a clear sense that men and male children in particular were considered precious, and in many ways comparatively much more precious than women and girl children but this is in part because of women as the position of wife was subservient to the position of mother in law. he assurance that one day the wife would hold the household power of the mother in-law was only offered by a male child as female children when married left home for good and served their marriage family in direct orders of their new mother in-law. his is true of most classes but again was stricter in terms of the upper-class. (Mann 61) in other words if a female child is born she is expected in her lifetime to only contribute to her birth family for her childhood, and adolescence after this time the industry of her labour would…
Tamney, Joseph B. And Chiang Hsueh-Ling. Modernization, Globalization, and Confucian in Chinese Societies. Westpot, CT: Praeger Publisher, 2002.
Wasserlein, Frances. "Not Just Pin Money: Selected Essays on the History of Women's Work in British Columbia." Labour / Le Travail 17.(1986): 280-281. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 23 Feb. 2011.
Yao, Esther S. Lee. Chinese Women: Past & Present. Mesquite, TX: Ide House, 1993.
China's Taiwan Policy
China -- the most populous country in the world -- has exhibited remarkably high levels of sustained economic growth in the two decades since it reformed its economy following the death of Mao Zedong in 1976. According to some analysts, the country is poised to become the number one economy in the world sometime in the mid-twenty first century. There are, however, certain political issues that may affect China's rightful role in the future world affairs. One of them is the 'Taiwan affair' -- a problem that has defied a satisfactory resolution ever since the Communist forces defeated the Kuomintang (KMT) in the Chinese Civil ar in 1949 and Chiang Kai-Shek
retreated to Taiwan along with 2 million of his supporters from the Mainland China. The political status of Taiwan (or the state of Republic of China) has, since that time, been a source of concern for…
Lee, Lai To. The Reunification of China: PRC-Taiwan Relations in Flux. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1991
"The One-China Principle and the Taiwan Issue." White Paper On Taiwan Issue
Taiwan Affairs, Office of the State Council. 2001. April 23, 2005.
Pannell, Clifton W. "Taiwan." Article in Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2005. April 23, 2005.
Tibetan culture and language had always been distinct, yet had always been linked to China -- while the Dali Lama was seen as a worthy one for whom gifts and alms were necessary and the Manchu Emperor was also seen as a revered figure worthy of respect and lay patron, but not a spiritual teacher (Goldstein & Rimpoche 44).
But although it shares some cultural ties and history with China, Tibet today also maintains a distinct cultural, unique identity. Monasticism and the Tibetan Theravada Buddhist tradition in general are integral to Tibetan culture in a way that is anathema to modern, communist China. "During the Cultural Revolution, the Chinese government was responsible for the destruction of more than 6,000 monasteries in Tibet. The contents of these monasteries - religious images and statues - were destroyed or looted, and millions of ancient and priceless manuscripts burnt" (Thurman 9). This hostility continues…
Goldstein, Melvyn C. & Gelek Rimpoche. A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951: The Demise of the Lamaist State. Berkley: University of California Press, 1991
Thurman, Robert. No Faith in the State. Free Tibet. December 14, 2008. http://www.freetibet.org/files/NoFaithFINAL.pdf
Waley-Cohen, Joanna. The Sextants of Beijing. New York: W.W. Norton, 2000.
More recently two schools of military history have developed that attempt to consider its object from a more eclectic, objective perspective, dubbed the "New Military History" and "War and Society" history. New Military History "refers to a partial turning away from the great captains, and from weapons, tactics, and operations as the main concerns of the historical study of war," and instead focusing on "the interaction of war with society, economics, politics, and culture."
New Military History is a relatively broad category, and its perspective can be evinced both on the level of a particular methodology and ideology.
Along with the "War and Society" school of thought, New Military History seeks to uncover the multifarious factors driving and influencing military conflict, with a particular view towards the interaction between these factors and the actual practice of war. That is to say, these schools of thought do no entirely abandon any…
Alexander, Joseph G. "The Truth about the Opium War." The North American Review (1821-
1940) 163, (1896): 381-383.
Bello, David. "The Venomous Course of Southwestern Opuim: Qing Prohibtion in Yunnan,
Sichuan, and Guizhou in the Early Nineteenth Century." The Journal of Asian Studies.
The State has also established a string of both general and specific policies for improving and developing special education and set aside special funds for this purpose. Consequently, just like regular education, special education has also developed rapidly. Although local governments are encouraged to provide compulsory education to children with and without disabilities, the enacted policies do not necessitate that education be provided to all students.
Despite the fact that students with disabilities were earlier educated in special schools, China has adopted new channels of special education including the integration of disabled children into general education classes. Currently, the number of disabled children enrolled in schools has continued to experience a big increase since 1987. Although many articles in the laws formulated by the Chinese government call for the overall education of handicapped children, special education for children with autism or severe disabilities is not directly mentioned in these policies…
Baker, M. (2007, November 17). China's Bid for World Domination. Retrieved April 11, 2010,
Mu K, Yang H & Armfield A (n.d.). China's Special Education: A Comparative Analysis.
Retrieved April 11, 2010, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/13/16/25.pdf
Lai Shi, China's Last Eunuch
The movie Lai Shi, China's Last Eunuch was directed by Chi Leung "Jacob" Cheung which has been nominated for 4 awards at the Hong Kong Film Award. The story mostly follows the young Lai Shi on his quest to become a eunuch for the Manchu Emperor. The story is adapted from a somewhat autobiographical novel.
Lai Shi's quest of becoming a eunuch is very noble; the main goal behind his decision of castrating himself in order to become a eunuch was to be able to earn more money for his family to survive. The eunuchs were usually recruited from lower classes and castration was a necessary element for anyone wishing to become a eunuch during this era (Scholz, 131). In this regards, it would be true to say that Lai Shi is defined as the real hero archetype, as he was ready to do a…
Lai Shi, China's Last Eunuch. Dir. Chi Leung Jacob Cheung. 1988. Hong Kong Edition DVD.
Scholz, Piotr O. Eunuchs and castrati: a cultural history. Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2001. Print.
democratic system for governing a group of people, small or large, must maintain the best interests of all the individuals involved. This general criterion must be upheld regardless of whether specifically what these best interests are cannot be unanimously agreed upon. Ideally, a democracy allows everyone involved an equal voice and vote regarding every decision that concerns that organization. Robert Dahl identifies the five primary components of the ideal democracy: "1. Effective participation. 2. Equality in voting. 3. Gaining enlightened understanding. 4. Exercising final control over the agenda. 5. Inclusion of adults." (Dahl 38). Essentially, along every step of the decision-making process each member of this association must have an equal opportunity to voice their opinions, vote, learn about the issues, choose what matters are to be considered, and everyone of age must be involved.
These somewhat rigid requirements can be difficult for even small organizations to uphold, and nearly…
Dahl, Robert A. On Democracy. Harrisonburg: Yale University Press, 1998.
Downing, David. Democracy. Chicago: Heinemann Library, 2003.
Green, Robert. China: Modern Nations of the World. San Diego: Lucent Books, 1999.
Roberts, J.A.G. Modern China: An Illustrated History. Phoenix: Sutton Publishing Limited, 1998.
Neo-Confucianism is a philosophy which was born from the need to explain the existence of man and the universe in a manner which was just as complex as the Buddhist one. The philosophers which belong to this school of thought took the core of the Confucian philosophy and enriched it with contributions from other philosophies. It can also be stated that neo-Confucianism is a reaction to various provocations of philosophical character coming from Buddhism, neo-Daoism and the yin-yang tradition.
Its purpose was to come up not just with a comprehensive abstract explanation of the world, but also with the rightful principles and laws that would guide everyday behaviour. Naturally, there had to be a synergetic relation between the two categories. The revival of the Confucian thought began in the ninth century and reached important levels of creativity in the eleventh century during the northern Song dynasty.
It must be underlined…
Angurarohita, Pratoom (1989). Buddhist influence on the neo-Confucian concept of the sage. Retrieved from Sino-Platonic papers march 14, 2009 from http://www.sino-platonic.org/complete/spp010buddhistconfuciansage.html
Daoism, Retrieved from Encyclopaedia Britannica march 14, 2009 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/582972/Daoism/42165/Daoism-and-other-religions
Fung, YU-Lan (1952) . A history of Chinese philosophy. Trans. Derk Bodde. Princeton University Press.
Ivanhoe, P (2000). Confucian moral self cultivation. Indianapolis, Hackett Publishing Company.
Jiahua, Cheng, Buddhism and the Chinese culture. Retrieved march 14, 2009 from philosophy.cass.cn/facu/chengjianhua/09.do
Jensen, L. (1997). Manufacturing Confucianism: Chinese traditions and universal civilization. NYC, Duke University Press
Koller, John, M. (2006) Asian philosophies. Prentice Hall.
Neo-Confucian philosophy. Retrieved from The internet encyclopaedia of philosophy http://www.iep.utm.edu/n/neo-conf.htm
Kabul is a cosmopolitan center and demonstrates a willingness to modernize but outside Kabul old traditions remain strong and there is little interest in these rural areas for any change.
III. Social Factors
The rural nature of Afghan society cannot be over-emphasized. The population of the country is estimated at 24 million but it is highly fragmented into a variety of ethnic groups that are further broken down into tribal groups. This tribal fragmentation has been encouraged by the countries bordering Afghanistan that have, in order to promote their own political agendas, disturbed any efforts by the Afghan central government from uniting these tribes. hat has developed is a system of ethnically-based rivalries supported by localized Islamic religious sects.
Tribal traditions inside Afghanistan tend to be more powerful than either Islamic theology or political philosophy and these traditions can be harsh toward women (Rohde). Gender roles under tribal traditions are…
Bickers, Robert. The Scramble for China: Foreign Devils in the Qing Empire, 1832-1914. New York: Penguin Global, 2011.
Cleary, Thomas. The Essential Confucius: The Heart of Confucius' Teachings in Authentic I Ching Order. New York: Book Sales, 2000.
Countries and Their Cultures. Afghanistan. 2011. 4 May 2011 .
Ellis, Deborah. Women of the Afghan War. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2000.
scholars understand the quality and prospects of "democracy" in China?
Many people have different views concerning the exact nature of democracy. Scholars believe that democracy entails the act of the society choosing its own leaders to implement decisions, held responsible through elections, for the public. Others emphasize that democracy entails the rule by the people, in which the will of the people lies with the supernatural being. Nevertheless, while democracy may have varied meanings depending on every individual's definition, it is with certainty that if democracy shall prevail, ideas must flow, both from the majority and the minority. In absence of free flow of ideas, there will be absence of democratic ideal of governance by people if people are unaware of the occurrences. In the republic of China, some people knew this.
China reforms are developing very fast. Her exceptional political growth model is not only divergent from the…
Yu-tzung Chang and Yun-han Chu. 2002. Confucianism and Democracy: Empirical Study of Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong.
Yu-tzung Chang, Alfred Hu, and Yun-han Chu. 2002. The Political Significance of Insignificant Class Voting: Taiwan and Hong Kong Comparison.
Albritton, Robert B. And Thawilwadee Bureekul. 2002. Support for Democracy in Thailand.
Robert Albritton, and Thawilwadee Bureekul. 2002. The Role of Civil Society in Thai Electoral Politics.
Meantime, on page 107 (Chapter 2) a good character description of Ah Q. is provided by the narrator: "There was only a single instance when anyone had ever praised him," and that happened to be when Ah Q. was actually the butt of a joke. Ah Q. was looking "scrawny and worn out" so when the old many said "That Ah Q's some worker!" It could only be interpreted as folly, irony, and even though Ah Q. was "pleased as punch" he had been set up to be the fool. as China, in Xun's estimation, also the fool, the butt of international jokes? It seems likely in a literary way.
hile his adversaries taunted him, and he kept losing his fights, he turned to giving dirty looks. And when dirty looks didn't do it for him, he tried "snappy comebacks" and that didn't work either as the villagers continued to…
Xun, Lu. "Ah Q -- the Real Story." Diary of a Madman and Other Stories. Ed. William a.
Lyell. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990. 101-172.
Xun, Lu. "Diary of a Madman." Diary of a Madman and Other Stories. Ed. William a. Lyell.
Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990. 29-41.
Peach Blossom Fan
The legendary play created during the early Qing Dynasty by Kong Shangren has kept its integrity over three hundred years because of the quality of the material. And also it has maintained it's verve because of the dynamics between the characters and the themes that are so poignantly presented.
hat are some of the relationships between the citizen and the society (or the state), in this play? There are many examples of the relationships between individual citizens and the society (the state) in this play. In Scene 1, page 7, Ch'en sings that the royal authority is being tested in Nanking; indeed, there is war and battle and the drumbeats can be heard. It is so intense that citizens are afraid to cross the river albeit it is flowing so peacefully and entices people as it winds through the groves of the willows and the orchards. u…
Kong, Shangren. The Peach Blossom Fan. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1976.
There were many unsuccessful attempts to transition to examples put forth by other countries particularly in the west that received both acceptance and rejection. Some efforts proved fruitful but many were fought against by the intellectuals as those at the lowest end of the socioeconomic structure had no voice. The transition in East Asia has reached a level of plateau; however, national identity and unification continue to be a goal that East Asia strives to maintain.
Duiker, W., and Spielvogel, J. The Essential World History. oston, MA: Wadsworth,
Cengage Learning, 2011.
McNelly, Theodore. Induced revolution: The policy and process of constitutional reform in occupied Japan, in Democratizing Japan, pp / 76-106.
Rhoads, Murphey. East Asia: A New History. Pearson Longman, 2004.
Shillony, en-Ami. Politics and culture in wartime Japan. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1991.
Sommerville, Donald. The complete illustrated history of World War Two: An authoritative account of the…
Duiker, W., and Spielvogel, J. The Essential World History. Boston, MA: Wadsworth,
Cengage Learning, 2011.
McNelly, Theodore. Induced revolution: The policy and process of constitutional reform in occupied Japan, in Democratizing Japan, pp / 76-106.
Rhoads, Murphey. East Asia: A New History. Pearson Longman, 2004.
Japanese political history from the Meiji Restoration to Following the ousting of the Tokugawa shogun, the emperor embarked on his role as the "enlightened ruler" of Japan. From this point, known as the "Meiji Restoration," Japan began a transformation from an agriculturally based, feudalistic society to a nation that, by the 1912 death of the emperor, had a centralized government, developed infrastructure, well-educated general population, fast growing industrial sector, as well as a very powerful military.
Of course, one of the most striking developments of the period was Japan's "shaking off" of foreign influence in its trade and legal affairs, leading it to a full and independent standing in the world community. Arguably this transformation was only possible due to the nation's ability to transform itself from a fragmented nation, ruled by class distinction and feudalistic division, to a unified state -- represented by one national army and economic authority…
Theen, Rolf. Wilson, Frank. "Comparative Politics: An Introduction to Seven Countries." Fourth edition, Prentice Hall. 2000
All year-round, the smells of a coffin and coffin nails hover over her. Great-Grandmother does not brush her teeth. Great-Grandmother does not believe in airplanes. Great-Grandmother does not watch television
Great-Grandmother simply stands in front of the window of her Garret, or sits in the sun, a sun that does not penetrate her but simply casts a shadow behind her. She is very pale and does her hair in an archaic fashion, and has a face that the narrator describes as a set of wrinkles with archeological significance.
Each family treats the situation with different tactics but all show an inherent disdain for the very old, to the point of seeing and treating them as if they are inhuman, and with an irreverent lack of respect that is contrary to the culture from which they came. The only piece that offers a consoling look at the very old, throughout is…
Bi Feiyu, John Balcom, trans. The Ancestor in Goldblatt, Howard ed. Chairman Mao Would Not Be Amused. New York: Grove Press. 1996.
Su Tong, Howard Golblatt, trans. The Brothers Shu, in Goldblatt, Howard ed. Chairman Mao Would Not Be Amused. New York: Grove Press. 1996.
Kawabata Yasunari, George Seito' trans. The Moon on the Water in Sonu Hwi, Marshall, Pihl, trans. Thoughts of Home, in Peter Lee Modern Korean Literature, Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, 1990, pgs 203-215.
com. 2007. February 26, 2007. http://www.answers.com/topic/open-door-policy-1
Stueck, illiam hitney. The Road to Confrontation: American Policy toward China and Korea, 1947-1950. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981.
Tsou, Tang. America's Failure in China, 1941-50. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.
The facility of most-favored-nation was later extended by the Chinese to other foreign powers as well.
Although most countries did not formally agree with the "Open Door Policy," John Hay went on to unilaterally declare that they had endorsed the policy.
This consisted of an oil embargo and freezing of Japanese assets in the months preceding the Pearl Harbor attacks
The Americans had also misjudged the ideological commitment of the Chinese communists and over-estimated the pro-American among the Chinese masses, believing that any Chinese government (even a Communist one) would remain friendly with the Americans. Such misplaced optimism continues to be the Achilles heel of the U.S. foreign office:…
Open Door Policy." Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy: Answers.com. 2007. February 26, 2007. http://www.answers.com/topic/open-door-policy-1
Stueck, William Whitney. The Road to Confrontation: American Policy toward China and Korea, 1947-1950. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981.
Tsou, Tang. America's Failure in China, 1941-50. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.
The facility of most-favored-nation was later extended by the Chinese to other foreign powers as well.
How likely, for instance, would it be that someone would give up a great job or a new life in a new place just to remain home with a child? Instead, the modern woman would find day-care and attempt to balance both.
his theme of balance is another predominant philosophy from Ning. When Ning was younger, she deferred to the wisdom of the elders and the ideas put upon her as a youth -- namely that tradition and destiny are predetermined. It was interesting to chart the manner in which Ning grew emotionally as she aged to realize that she made her own existence, her own present, and her own future. As Ning turned from a victim waiting for a husband to bring home money for food to a working woman serving many families, she found she had to cast out any dependence upon others for her own welfare and…
This reader was aware of the importance of family in traditional Chinese culture, but not to the extend shown in Ning's life. For her entire lifetime, in fact, Ning's sole purpose was to remain close to her children and grandchildren -- to pass on the wisdom of the elders and to ensure that the lineage of the family was carried to the next generation. Little did her family know just how much Ning gave up just to ensure that her family would have enough to eat and the children could grow up and have families of their own. This, too, is something that is not really present in modern American culture. While families still get together at holidays, and some are closer than others, the idea of "family first" is not a pervasive idea like it was for Ning. How likely, for instance, would it be that someone would give up a great job or a new life in a new place just to remain home with a child? Instead, the modern woman would find day-care and attempt to balance both.
This theme of balance is another predominant philosophy from Ning. When Ning was younger, she deferred to the wisdom of the elders and the ideas put upon her as a youth -- namely that tradition and destiny are predetermined. It was interesting to chart the manner in which Ning grew emotionally as she aged to realize that she made her own existence, her own present, and her own future. As Ning turned from a victim waiting for a husband to bring home money for food to a working woman serving many families, she found she had to cast out any dependence upon others for her own welfare and actively take charge of her life and make the future for her children the way she envisioned it. However, it was this dichotomy between independence and reliance on traditional values that separated Ning from many of her friends and relatives. At the same time, it strengthened her, giving us all a life lesson to contemplate.
Many times during the reading of the book this reader had to stop and realize that this was not fiction -- that the things that happened here were ostensibly real and told to Ms. Pruitt by Ning herself. Too, one must ask why the memoirs of someone born in 1867 who told her story in the 1940s, would have any impact or relevance to contemporary society. In fact, we find ourselves saddened that the book ends in 1938 with the Japanese invasion of Beijing. This is primarily because we have come to know this character like a member of our own family, and taken wisdom, encouragement and advice from her, much as we might our own grandmother.
20. China must consult Japan whenever foreign capital is needed in improving the infrastructure of Fukien Province.
21. China must give Japanese the right to preach in China.
On May Fourth, some 3,000 students from Peking University and other schools gathered together in front of Tiananmen, the Gate of Heavenly Peace that fronts the Forbidden City complex in the center of eijing, and held a demonstration. They were furious at the news that had just come from the Paris Peace Conference. They shouted out such slogans as "Struggle for the sovereignty externally, get rid of the national traitors at home," "Do away with the 'Twenty-One Demands'," "Don't sign the Versailles Treaty." They demanded punishment of such figures as Cao Rulin, Zhang Zongxiang, and Lu Zongyu, who held important posts as diplomats. Despite the fact that China had sent nearly 100,000 soldiers to the Western front to assist the Allies, the…
Answer.com. "Twenty-one Demands." 14 May 2005. .
Buoye, Thomas and Bruce Denton. China: Adapting the Past Confronting the Future. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, 2002.
Chou, Tse-tsung. The May Fourth Movement: Intellectual Revolution in Modern China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1960.
Elleman, Bruce. Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795-1989. New York: Routledge, 2001.
S. And Russia initiated and encourage in the pursuit of their respective objectives, has gone out of control and is expanding to include not only conventional weapons but also space-based systems and nuclear missiles. It is this frightening arms race focused on the Taiwan Strait, which analysts predict as creating regional ripples or waves in Asia (lack). China's military expansion would also affect Russia, Australia and New Zealand, according to Taiwan Chen Shui-bian, who urged the international community to restrain eijing (Reuters 2005). He said that China could not use the 23 million Taiwanese's efforts at deepening democracy and securing a peaceful cross-strait as an excuse to expand its global military power. Last year, President Chen stopped Taiwan's 34,000-strong war games in order to ease tension in the Taiwan Strait, which security analysts consider one of the most dangerous places in Asia (Reuters).
Alexander, eth R.U.S. In Line of…
Alexander, Beth R.U.S. In Line of Fire in China-Taiwan War. United Press International: News World Communications, Inc., July 19, 2005. http://www.washtimes.com/upi-breaking/20-1926r.htm
Associated Press, The. Chinese General: We'll Nuke U.S. In Fight for Taiwan, July 24, 2005. http://www.newsmax.com/archives/ic/2005/7/15/94638.shtml blank, Stephen. China-Taiwan Arms Race Quickens. Asia Times Online, 2004. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/FB24Act01.html
Minnick, Wendell. The Year for Taiwan: 2006. Asia Times Online Co. Ltd. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/FD10Ad02.html
Reuters. China Eases Travel Rules to Taiwan. Cable News Network, 2005. http://edition.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/asiapcf/07/24/China.taiwan.reut
The objective of this study is to discuss and compare two legal transplants with reference to at least one African or Asian legal system. For the purpose of this work, Turkey and legal transplants will be examined.
The work of Orucu (2008) states that Chiba (1986) relates the "concept of legal pluralism…as an effective attack on the common sense of orthodox jurisprudence by rejecting the 'oneness of state law as law or university of western law." (p.1) Chiba is reported to proffer a model of official law "as always intersecting with unofficial law and legal postulates, and never existing in isolation." (Orucu, 2008, p.1) It is the expectation that the state laws will in cohesion with "society and its normative orders, and religion and worldviews…work together to achieve a balanced and sustainable legal order." (Orucu, 2008, p.1-2) However, according to Orucu "legal centralism reflects the ambition of the…
Dai, J. (2009) On Several Problems in Legal Transplantation. Journal of Politics and Law, Sept. 2009. Vol. 2, No. 3.
Gunderson, JL and Waelde, TW (1994) Legislative Reform In Transition Economies: Western Transplants -- a Short-Cut to Social Market Economy Status? ICQL 1994, 43(2), 347-378.
Oguz, A. (2005) The Role of Comparative Law in the Development of Turkish Civil Law. Pace International Law Review. 1 Sept 2005. Article 9. Vol. 17, Issue 2. Fall 2008.
Orucu, E. (2008) Judicial Navigation As Official Law Meets Culture in Turkey. Int J.L.C. 2008, 4(1), 35-61.
unrest in china?
According to page 63 the New Culture Movement "…was the result of intellectual, political, social and economic ferment. It was the climax of a mental awakening that had begun in 1915" (Leung). Japan had gained a large sphere of interest in northern China and Manchuria through its victories in the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, and had thus joined the European imperialist powers in their rush to establish political and economic domination over China. With the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty, and the establishment of the new Republic of China under General Yuan Shikai, Japan saw an opportunity to expand its position in China.
Sun Yat-sen repeatedly declared that the wenty One Demands were invited and even written by Yuan Shikai himself. he price Yuan was willing to pay Japan for recognizing him as Emperor. Although China later joined on the side of the Allies…
The Political Bureau of the CPC had determined that gross value of agricultural products should increase 270%; in fact, the gain was a considerably more modest 35%. Nevertheless, the plan was successful in some respects. The country saw increases in capital construction over those observed during the first Five-Year Plan and also saw significant increases in industry (doubling output value) and income (workers and farmers, increase by as much as 30%).
The Great Leap Forward, which moved millions of agricultural workers into industry, which led to an infestation of locusts, caused a huge decrease in food production. Simultaneously, rural officials, under huge pressure to meet their quotas, vastly overstated how much grain was available. As a result, most of it was allocated to urban areas, or even exported, as twenty million peasants starved to death.
Beginning in 1966, Mao and his allies launched the Cultural Revolution, which would last until Mao's death. His death was a decade later. The Cultural Revolution, motivated by power struggles within the party (and a fear of the Soviet Union) led to a major upheaval in Chinese society. In 1972, at the peak of the Sino-Soviet split, Mao and Zhou Enlai met Richard Nixon in Beijing to establish relations with the United States. In the same year, the PRC was admitted to the United Nations in place of the Republic of China for China's membership of the United Nations, and permanent membership of the Security Council.
U.S. FOEIGN POLICY
American Foreign Policy from 1890 to 1930
From neutrality to intervention
Early on in American history, President George Washington advised Americans not be become embroiled in foreign conflicts. However, at the end of the 19th century, it became increasingly difficult for America to remain isolated from the issues affecting its neighbors abroad. The period from 1890-1930 was characterized by a far more expansionist American foreign policy than had been the case before. Although this policy was often defended by the notion that the U.S. was making the world safe for democracy, self-interest rather than idealism was usually the real motivating force.
A good, early example of this in Latin America can be found in the form of the Spanish-American War (1898) which eventually resulted in the U.S. acquiring territories in the western Pacific and Latin America. Spain's repression of the Cuban pro-independence movement combined with the sinking…
Spanish-American War. (2015). History.com. Retrieved from:
U.S. foreign policy in Asia. (2015). KQED. Retrieved from:
Buddhist vs. Hindu Religious Ideals in Art and Architecture
Although Buddhist and Hindu art may appear to be the same to the eyes of an untrained observer, they are products of entirely different religious traditions. While Buddhism has its origins in India, it quickly spread outside of the birthplace of its founder, Siddhartha Gautama and gained greater traction elsewhere, including China and Japan. Buddhism also split into two distinct traditions, that of Theravada and Mahayana, the former of which emphasized the monastic tradition of strictly adhering to the teachings and life of the Buddha while the latter placed greater emphasis on the ability of laypersons as well as monks to obtain Enlightenment. In contrast, Hinduism is a distinctly Indian religion. Both religions embrace the concept of reincarnation, although it is Hinduism who uses this idea to justify a caste system, or the notion that the social class into which someone…
Grandmaster and Gong Er: Wong Kar Wai's Ip Man and the Women of Kung Fu
Wong Kar Wai's Grandmaster begins with a stylish kung fu action sequence set in the rain. Ip Man battles a dozen or so no-names before doing a one-on-one show with another combatant who appears to be at equal skill and strength. Ip Man handily defeats him and walks away unscathed. Thanks to fight choreography by Chinese director and martial arts choreographer Yuen Woo-ping (The Matrix, Kill Bill, Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon), the sequence would seem to set up a different sort of movie than what follows, which is a mostly soulful, introspective look at period in the life of Ip Man. Wong Kar Wai gravitates towards dramatic license in many places -- especially with the fictional character of Gong Er, who repeatedly enters and re-enters Ip Man's life in the film (even though no such…
As our textbook demonstrates, there were a range of factors that “loaded the dice of fate” in the favor of Britain to ensure that the industrial revolution occurred around 1800 in their nation. One of these factors were raw materials crucial for industrialization to occur. As our textbook illuminates, Britain had large quantities of coal and iron to use and invest in this revolution, and to ensure its success.[footnoteRef:1] There was also the advantage of accessibility of New World lands as means of financial investment and also to offer raw materials, should the movement of industrialization warrant it.[footnoteRef:2] However, perhaps the more compelling reason was social and environmental. Great Britain fostered an environment that was experimental and that frankly encouraged experimentation. For a great mind, this is a crucial. Even the most brilliant minds need the opportunity to try and fail repeatedly in order to create a more brilliant invention.…
Representation of Asian Women: American Television Sitcoms and Media
American Asian women exist within a culture that is at times resistant at providing a realistic portrait of what an Oriental woman is and how she expresses herself. This can be seen in personalities like Margaret Cho, whose sitcom, All-American Girl forced her to see the reality of how America perceived Asian American women and Oriental people in general. These negative images, stereotypes of Asian American women as 'demon women', 'hookers', and submissive, are translated not just in television sitcoms, but in movies like Ghost in the Shell and force cultivation of beliefs that stick to the minds of people long-term. It is through these shows and movies that people understand what is an Asian American and unfortunately, how badly they are depicted. This essay will shed some light on the potential origins of these negative stereotypes and why they…
edit this based on what I have.
Please do not change the paragraph. You can edit by each paragraph.
A more stable gold standard monetary system can be one of the solutions used to help the economy. However, given the lack of gold during the Opium War and the shortage of silver, the Qing government was not able to import gold at the time. Even so, the stable gold standard is a good way to develop a strong economic foundation. However, the Qing government should have stabilized the silver price so as to prevent inflation and deprecation.
Lijin was a system of taxation during the Taiping Rebellion in Qing China. The Qing government used this in order to expand the military budget and to collect more in taxes from the people. It was a 1% tax and was levied on all commercial transactions. As the tax became more widely practiced…
Because Confucianism arranged classes according to moral criteria rather than economic criteria, even a poor shenshi enjoyed enormous status and respect among the lower classes, so their position as higher-level shenshi probably helped gain cooperation. Shenshi held. Shenshi were members of the gentry in their own right, as well, with the wealth, honor, and tax-exempt status due their position. Shenshi handled taxes for the central government, as well, which helped supplement their income.
One could say that our country does engage in a meritocracy similar to the shenshi system. Our children all go to public schools. Though our schools' educational systems are supposed to be locally based, in reality we have a common national standard, especially in specific subjects, including nationalized textbooks. Public school teachers are specifically instructed to create good, obedient citizens (witness the whole Thanksgiving Pilgrim mythology). Those who test well then are paid to go to on…
The importance of ritual objects to the Shaolin is shown in how they react to the supernatural appearance of an incense burner. hen the survivors of the massacre woke up the next day, they saw on the surface of the water a white incense burner made of greenstone, which had two ears and three feet and weighed 52 "catties, thirteen ounces"; on the bottom of the incense burner, the four words Fan-Qing fu-Ming had been inscribed. The brothers immediately secured the incense burner and placed it in the third field in front of the temple gate (Baoqi & Murray 206). In this regard, the Shaolin monks of the day embraced the popular belief that Heaven could manifest its support of claimants to the Chinese throne or of founders of religious cults through the bestowal of precious objects, such as these incense burners, swords, or books. "The incense burner, as it…
Anderson, Mary M.
Hidden Power: The Palace Eunuchs of Imperial China. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1990.
Baoqi, Qin and Dian H. Murray. The Origins of the Tiandihui: The Chinese Triads in Legend and History. Stanford, CA: Stanford University, 1994.
Campany, Robert Ford. (October-December 2001). The Eminent Monk (Book review). Journal of the American Oriental Society, 121(4):656.
Improvements to The Chinese System and Ideals Done by Kublai Khan
Genghis Khan moved his troops into the quasi Chinese Chin-rule north China in 1211, and in 1215 they crushed the capital city. Hisson Ogodei vanquished all of North China by 1234 and ruled it from 1229 to 1241. Genghis Khan's grandson, Kublai Khan, vanquished the Chinese Southern Song in 1279, and out of the blue all of China was under foreign rule (Johnson, 2014).
In 1271 Kublai Khan named his administration Yuan which signifies "origin of the universe." The Yuan tradition in China kept going from 1279 to 1368. Kublai Khan took after a speculative approach of Sinicization, that is, he adjusted to the Chinese method for administering and when you take a look at his picture, he looks especially like other Chinese rulers. Then again, in spite of the fact that he utilized some Chinese in low…
Chinese Atist AI Weiwei
"Tuth, No Matte the Powe: China govenment's aggesso."
This pesentation will povide you with an intoduction to Ai's life and wok, including his pesonal backgound, some of his geatest woks of at and thei significance as well as the contovesies they have caused in his native China.
Although AI has faced temendous opposition fom the Chinese govenment, he is a foce to be eckoned with: he has dedicated his life to change and expanding awaeness about human ights abuses in China. His intenational fame has made him a global voice fo China's 1.3 billion people.
Fist, I will povide you with a bief backgound as to Ai's beginnings. Ai is known fo his conceptual at, at that emphasizes ideas ove aesthetics and visual appeal. Ai believes that being an atist is moe about a lifestyle and attitude than poducing an atistic poduct. His ealy, seminal influence…
During an intense period of social and political unrest among the western civilizations (roughly 1843-1853) it was a religious infiltration in China that created social and political turmoil, "the movement that finally overshadowed all other disturbances was really of a religious character." (illiams 279) the conflict is known as the Tai ping Rebellion and was in part spurned on by Protestant missionary teaching of rebels in China, yet another example of western infiltration of China.
illiams 278-280) the rebellion effectively replaced the Manchu dynasty, ending thousands of years of dynastic rule, asserting the capital at Nanking and creating an even more corrupt cruel government than had ever been present before.
Education in China was even influenced heavily by western powers, as adoptions of what was thought of as superior progress, clearly created the education system in China, as well as many other locations.
Since near the…
Albertini, Rudolf von, and Albert Wirz. European Colonial Rule, 1880-1940: The Impact of the West on India, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Trans. John G. Williamson. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982.
Blue, Gregory. "One the British Connection." Opium Regimes: China, Britain, and Japan, 1839-1952. Ed. Timothy Brook and Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2000. 31-47.
Cubberley, Ellwood P. The History of Education: Educational Practice and Progress Considered as a Phase of the Development and Spread of Western Civilization. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1902.
Porter, Jonathan. "Herbert S. Yee. Macau in Transition: From Colony to Autonomous Region." China Review International 9.1 (2002): 294.
Organized crime underwrites the bulk of political, social, and economic history in America. What has often been mentioned in passing as legitimate business activities can and often should be reframed as organized crime, such as the trans-Atlantic slave trade and the colonial mercantilism that it supported (Woodiwiss, 2003). When organized crime is taken out of its Hollywood context, which portrays organized crime as an immigrant problem, some patterns emerge that clarify the function and structure of organized crime in America. Organized crime tends to flourish in "societies that experience rapid and intense social change," (Albini et al. 1995, p. 213). This is why the United States has been a hot spring of organized crime in various manifestations throughout the nation's history. In only a few hundred years, the United States has gone from colonial outpost to global superpower. apid change and cultural transformation foment organized crime, as do…
Abadinsky, H. (2013). Organized Crime. Belmont: Wadsworth
Albanese, J.S. (2011). Organized Crime in Our Times. 6th Edition. Burlington: Elsevier.
Albini, J.L. et al. (1995). Russian organized crime: Its history, structure, and function. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 11(4), 213-243.
Cornell University Law School. (2014). 18 U.S. Code § 1961 -- Definitions. Retrieved online: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/1961
Fall of the Samurai: From the Tokugawa to Early Modern Japan
Fall of The Samurai: From The Tokugawa Era to Early Modern Japan
Japanese samurai are counted among the world's most popular military forces; they emerged in pre-medieval times and were active from the seventh to late nineteenth century. The samurai were initially employed as mercenaries, but quickly evolved to become the Japanese Empire's chief military force; before long, they transformed, in effect, into Japan's ruling class. While the transition of the samurai from leading ordinary military lives to being embroiled in inter-clan intrigues and elite political events was relatively rapid, their military-influenced moral principles and core values remained intact throughout. Their improved sense of devoted spirituality and integrity were, in fact, so well-known that they became the inspiration for great stories of courage, which resound even now with readers. This odd balance of deadly effective military strength with gentlemanly,…
Gordon, A. (2008). A modern history of Japan: From Tokugawa times to the present. Princeton, NJ: Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic.
Hane, M., & Perez, L. G. (2009).Modern Japan: A historical survey. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
James, DH (2010).The rise and fall of the Japanese empire. London: Routledge.
McLaren, W. W. (2013). Political history of Japan during the Meiji era. London: Routledge.
Indeed, the trajectory of the narrative involves exacting revenge on those who prevented her marriage from taking place.
Although the Bride's marital aspirations might suggest that she holds a conservative sensibility, this is far from the case and she is ultimately more aggressive than Jen. While Jen also exhibits physical prowess, her sacrificial gesture at the film's conclusion signifies how she maintains a strong reverence for the Confucian moral code, assimilating her within the wuxia genre. Physically, the Bride resembles a dominatrix; she is taller than many of the characters and fights in a relentlessly savage manner (even going so far as to bite her adversary in one scene.) in contrast, Jen is more diminutive and her face and eyes are softer and less predatory. Where the Bride looks much more imposing than an average person, Jen has an average size that is not dissimilar from the other characters. Indeed,…