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The relevance of evaluating the quality of qualitative research design cannot be overstated. To begin with, in seeking to evaluate the quality of qualitative research design, there is need to determine whether the research context has been defined or described in clear and certain terms. This is more so the case given that without a clear definition of the context, it may not be possible to subject the findings to meaningful analysis (Hammersley, 2013). One of the most important considerations to be made in relation to context includes, but is not limited to, the pertinent published literature that relates to the issues under study. Secondly, it is also important to note that in seeking to evaluate the quality of qualitative research design, the methods utilized ought to be appropriate in relation to the research question. In this case, the methods ought to be evaluated so as to determine whether they…… [Read More]
emotional labor within the workplace. We would like to study the impact of emotional labor on customer service employees within the organization. The study aims at establishing if the use of emotional labor has any impact on the employees and how employees cope with emotional labor. The study will only focus on the employees working in the customer service department comprising of 12 employees. The study will analyze how the employees employ emotional labor in the performance of their duties, the kind of emotional labor used and preferred by employees, and how they cope with the demands of using emotional labor. The study will make use of observation to identify when and for how long the employees use emotional labor. There will also be qualitative interviews used in order to identify the impact of using emotional labor at the workplace. The sample has more female employees than male employees, but…… [Read More]
Partiipant's Experiene: A Qualitative Researh Refleting How to Prevent Eating Disorders in Order to Support Current Patients
This artile aims to present a qualitative researh of one woman's experiene of anorexia, a kind of eating disorder, using interpretative phenomenologial analysis (IPA). The details of the women's personal experiene of anorexia supposed to be unique, but the general outline is as ommon as on other patients. The delay of orret medial and mental treatment seems to miss the best time for omplete reovery. Supports from soiety are indispensable assistane, espeially from her family. Anorexia is a ommon illness whih highly happened around female, and it is always hidden by patients toward their family, dotors. Antiipating the psyhologial therapy and onsult an help to minimize trauma and maximize reovery. Talking and intervention in early stage of anorexia may assist the way of the woman lower potential to suh a serious situation.
Introdution…… [Read More]
Spotlighting Samplings 4 Qualitative esearch
esearch Choices 6 the Phenomenology Method
The Ethnography Method
Four Qualitative Approach Comparison
Strengths and Critiques of Case Studies
"A research design indicates the full research process from conceptualization of the research problem, generation of data, analysis and interpretation of findings, and dissemination of results"
(Magilvy & Thomas, 2009, What and Why… Section, ¶ 4).
The Question of Interest
What type of research design should the researcher use?
To answer the study's critical research consideration, the researcher must first determine the question the study will ask. In the book, Essentials of esearch Design and Methodology, Geoffrey . Marczyk, David DeMatteo, and David Festinger (2010) explain that the type of research design the researcher chooses for a particular study primarily depends on the question the study will address. After the researcher formulates a research question, he "must choose a research design, collect and analyze the…… [Read More]
Proposed Qualitative Research: The National Nursing Shortage
The healthcare industry has a significant challenge ahead of it and most evidence suggests that the severity of this challenge will only get worse if resolutions aren't soon implemented. Here, we refer to the national nursing shortage that deprives hospital patients of quality care, that overburdens nurses on duty and that generally detracts from the performance of a healthcare facility on the whole. orse yet, evidence suggests that the continuing retirement of the baby boomer generation is increasing the patient population on a scale with which current nursing employment simply can't keep up. Indeed, according to the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) (2012), "the United States Registered Nurse orkforce Report Card and Shortage Forecast" published in the January 2012 issue of the American Journal of Medical Quality, a shortage of registered nurses is projected to spread across the country…… [Read More]
Qualitative esearch Critique over attached article
What is the phenomenon and is it clearly stated?
The phenomenon is the impact of the presence of a family while a patient is undergoing an intensive medical procedure. The phenomenon is clearly stated at the outset of the article. There is an option for registered nurses to have families present during these operations.
Is the context thoroughly described?
The context is thoroughly described, and includes N's working with patients and their families in care settings "including the emergency department, cardiac stepdown, intensive care…and labor and delivery" (Knott and Kee, 2005, p. 192).
Are the informants appropriate to inform the research and adequately described?
The informants were appropriate to inform the research, since they consisted of N's in acute care settings who worked on cardiac resuscitation operations with patients or who witnessed others doing so -- when there were family members…… [Read More]
qualitative research appraisal
What is it so stressful about caring for a dying patient? A qualitative study of nurses' experiences
Nurses undergo a lot of stress especially when they are caring for dying patients. A nurse is usually the first contact person for a patient when they need information regarding their ailment or progression of sickness. The reduced number of nurses has had a great effect on the workload for nurses and increased work-related-stress. Patients expect nurses to offer them more than just treatment. Nurses should offer social interactions and connection with patients. This interaction makes it easy for nurses to connect emotionally with the patients, which has been cited as a contributor to stress. With this background, there was a need to investigate what causes stress for nurses who care for dying patients.
eview of the qualitative research study
The research title is clear, and the reader…… [Read More]
Thirdly they used member checks in which participants were asked to comment on the data themes and the researcher's interpretations in a follow-up telephone call. Lastly an extensive literature review was conducted prior to the start of the research (Landreneau and Ward-Smith, 2007).
Philosophical and Theoretical Connectedness
The researchers stated that in reviewing the literature, there was only one study found that addressed patients' perceptions concerning their choices, and this choice was only related to renal transplant. This three pronged study explored discussions between patients and nephrologists regarding transplantation as a treatment option for kidney failure. This ground-breaking study concluded that treatment options, and the order of the presentation of the options, influenced renal transplantation as a choice. It is unclear if there was any mention of knowledge obtained from sources other than the nephrologists (Landreneau and Ward-Smith, 2007).
It is noted that the findings in this study support Waitkin's…… [Read More]
non-numerical qualitative data that include pictures, words, and actions to achieve the research objectives. The qualitative research is typically exploratory in nature to develop a hypothesis, and provide an insight into the qualitative research problem. Moreover, the qualitative research generates data from the grounded theory, classical ethnography, narratology, case studies, focus group and participant observation. Despite the strategies employed in completing the qualitative research, many novice researchers face challenges in completing a reliable and effective research based on stressors they encounter. The objective of this paper is to discuss the stressors and processes that influence a novice researcher in the educational studies.
Identification of Processes and Stressors in the esearch Approach
Effective qualitative research requires different processes, which the novice researchers should follow to complete a quality research, answering the research questions and achieve the research goals and objectives. The following steps provide the processes that can assist a novice…… [Read More]
Understanding the Value of Qualitative Research
Qualitative researchers have a number of different research strategies available to them, including case studies, phenomenology, grounded theory and ethnography. Each of these research strategies has its respective strengths and weaknesses, but ethnography in particular represents a special challenge since it seeks to learn more about a group of people from the perspective of an insider. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the relevant literature to identify and describe and benefits of ethnographical research as a strategy for developing a better understanding concerning the lived experiences of others. A critique of Dr. Loïc Wacquant’s ethnographical work and a discussion concerning its implications for social change are followed by a description concerning the potential impact of research in supporting positive social change through public policy in the paper’s conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Role of the qualitative researcher
The role of…… [Read More]
Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
A comparative analysis of quantitative and qualitative research designs
In the conduct of sociological research, the qualitative and quantitative research designs remain the predominant structures in which scientific studies on social phenomena are discovered, analyzed, and interpreted. However, the emergence of quantitative research design prior to the development of the qualitative design created a dichotomy in the field of social science research, wherein preferences for each research design emerged. This dichotomy had been the central focus of discussions and debates about social science research: quantitative research is commonly associated with rigid scientific methodology and analysis, while qualitative research is considered more intrusive and less rigid in terms of data collection and analysis.
The dichotomy and differences between the qualitative and quantitative research designs led to the emergence of specific perceptions about each design. Quantitative research is considered more scientific than qualitative, while the latter is considered…… [Read More]
This numerical data always involves judgments what the number means. For this reason, Trochim concludes that quantitative and qualitative data are virtually inseparable, since "(n) exists in a vacuum or can be considered totally devoid of the other."
Ferch (1998) also explores the difference between quantitative and qualitative research. He notes that q) uantitative research is objective; qualitative research is subjective. Quantitative research seeks explanatory laws; qualitative research aims at in-depth description. Quantitative research measures what it assumes to be a static reality in hopes of developing universal laws. Qualitative research is an exploration of what is assumed to be a dynamic reality. It does not claim that what is discovered in the process is universal and, thus, replicable.
Perhaps the most insightful finding Ferch discovers in his exploration is that research is conducted in the real world, and therefore often does not fit into the ideal paradigms of either…… [Read More]
The qualitative research by Johnson seeks to assess how teachers’ perceptions over Professional Learning Communities (PLC) interact with implementation of accountability reforms. The research is set on the background of increasing need for accountability in education management. It is therefore the premise of Johnson’s research that the teachers’ perceptions on PLC have a relevant relation with the instituted reforms (Johnson, 2011).
The research targets to give insights on the instituted reforms to the New Jersey education managers and to the overall national education taskforce on quality of teaching and learning. The research by Johnson’s 2011 will also facilitate in managing and implementing the reform efforts driven by call for accountability. The reform efforts come about owing to a change in guard over the previously independent school district currently being controlled at the federal and state level (Johnson, 2011)
Independent variable is the content of Professional Learning…… [Read More]
How African Customary and Social Practices have been Utilized to Enhance Coping Strategies in Times of Crisis, focus on health pandemic
Background of the Study
Centuries before missionaries and colonialists arrived in Africa and centuries before the slave trade commenced, Africans in Africa had cultural and social practices and mechanisms to sustain their societies and to prevent the loss of lives during crises. The practices and mechanisms included health education practices, procedures for managing illnesses, and procedures for preventing the spread of illnesses through societies (Iganus & Haruna, 2017). In cases where African mechanisms helped to handle and manage health crises, it is believed that it was because the successful mechanisms took into account the socio-economic situation on the ground and wholesomely addressed the health crises and the related social and economic effects. Most of the mechanisms were initiated after elders or senior members of African societies met and discussed…… [Read More]
Baxter P. & Jack S. Qualitative Case Study Approach: Design and Implementation for Inexperienced Researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13(4), 544-559
This paper treats case study as an approach in research. A qualitative case study approach avails tools for research in complex phenomena in context. If appropriately applied, the methodology is a valuable tool for health sciences in evaluating programs, crafting interventions and developing theory. This paper seeks to guide the inexperienced researcher in picking out the important elements for purposes of design and implementation of qualitative case study research tasks. There is a summary of the available designs of case study. The generalized recommendations for drafting the research questions, crafting propositions, binding the case, determination of the case in focus, triangulation and discussion of the sources of data are also availed. In order to apply the principles, there must be clear samples of research questions, propositions of study and various…… [Read More]
Qualitative research is different from quantitative research methodologies on the premise that it does not rely on numerical data. Qualitative research rely on text and image since it's a type of scientific research that seeks to provide contextual descriptions of the experiences of people regarding as specific research issue. In most cases, qualitative research methods are considered suitable in identifying intangible factors through a scientific inquiry such as socioeconomic status, religion, social norms, and ethnicity (College of Computer and Information Science, n.d.). In this regard, there are several aspects that distinguish qualitative research writing, which are brought by specific designs, steps of analysis, and data collection procedures. An understanding of these aspects of qualitative research writing helps in enhancing the effectiveness of the research process and research findings.
Salient Aspects of Qualitative Research Writing
In his discussion on qualitative research procedures, Creswell (2014) proposes ten aspects that differentiate qualitative research…… [Read More]
A slightly broader study was deployed for the quantitative study entitled "Multiple gestations: side effects of antepartum bed rest." This study found that high-risk pregnancies and bed rest significantly increased the stressors upon the women. It measured this by using the Antepartum Stressors Hospital Inventory, and depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The weekly rate of maternal weight gain during hospitalization was also significantly less than recent recommendations for multiple gestation weight gain and women on bed rest reported a high number of depressive symptoms than those patients not on bed rest. CES-D scores for depressive symptoms were high as were postpartum symptoms for women in the study.
This study also recommended that it is critical for hospitals to attempt to alleviate antepartum stress, but it focused on the physical risks posed by maternal weight loss, as well as psychological stress, stress, depression,…… [Read More]
According to Agostinho (2005), educational research which focuses on the efficacy of e-learning classes has lagged behind the implementation of this teaching approach and therefore a great need exists in this area. Although the integral use of computers and software in e-learning courses renders them ideally suited for quantitative research approaches, Agostinho argues that qualitative or naturalistic forms of investigation can play an important role in e-learning research as well. For example, qualitative research could provide details about the experience of online learning environments from the perspective of students and teachers, thus generating ideas on how to promote innovation that enhances e-learning efficacy.
Towards the goal of providing a deeper understanding of the value that qualitative research can offer to e-learning research, Agostinho (2005) analyzed an e-learning study in terms of its methodological structure using an intrinsic case study approach (Creswell, Hanson, Plano, and Morales, 2007,…… [Read More]
While the debate between the two is hot, and it seems quantitative research is the more valid, perhaps the best solution is to combine the two methods to come up with a more extensive and valid form of research. Combining facts and figures with interviews, objects, and images is a good way to see all sides of an issue or research subject. Instead of debating which type of research method is the most effective, it would serve researchers better to merge their ideas and methods to create a more well rounded type of research that could give more insight into a wider variety of topics.
It seems that any kind of detailed and well-planned research can be valid, especially if the researcher knows how to define their research and understands what they are hoping to accomplish with the research. Thus, either of these methods would serve many different types of…… [Read More]
FSB's holdings in Hansabank were 98% (Swedbank 2005). In 2007, Hansabank controlled 62% of the entire Baltic (Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia) card market which is located in a small, but quickly developing market which has a high amount of savings and low credit card usage. The 2006-year, as predicted was a particularly good year for Hansabank. They were first among banks in the credit card market in the Baltic and had the largest sector of the deposit market at 32% to back things up (Hansabank/Swedbank 2007 13).
Needless to say, the market research before entering potential markets is critical in predicting how much of a gamble is involved in that market penetration. The market research prior to the entry into the Nordic and Baltic markets was extensive and meticulous and paid off nicely the next year in 2006.
E. Performance During the ecession
Even good companies have their…… [Read More]
My learning in the field of qualitative research
1. In terms of qualitative methodology and the problems of scientism/positivism, what does it mean to recognize the limits of exactitude and certainty, but still to have respect for empirical work? Where do you presently locate yourself paradigmatically and methodologically in terms of your own investments in producing knowledge?
As a research strategy, positivism can be an approach that is based on the ontological principle and the concept that reality and truth are usually free and independent of the individual and observer. A large number of critics and philosophers who are concerned with the idea and concept of investigation and research agree with this statement. The definition of truth as an independent, objective and autonomous existence of positivism can be seen in various works. A positivist researcher believes that the world adjusts to the unchanging and perpetual rules and laws of circumstances…… [Read More]
Beyond Creswell's Five Approaches
According to Creswell, there are five basic approaches to qualitative research: case studies, phenomenology, narrative research, ethnographies, and grounded theory approaches. However, not all theorists classify qualitative research according to these categories. Some have a separate category for pure qualitative 'history' approaches whereby the focus of the study is upon a specific past event or phenomenon. This approach uses primary sources like letters, newspapers of the period, journals, interviews, recordings, and other types of information accumulated by past researchers. It is used to "describe and examine events of the past to understand the present and anticipate potential future effects" (Qualitative research designs, 2014, UMSL).
Another approach to qualitative research is symbolic interactionism or participant observation, in which the researcher becomes 'part' of the research process and data-gathering. "Participant observation is a period of intensive social interaction between the researcher and the subjects….Participant observers are trained in…… [Read More]
Criteria for Evaluating Qualitative Research
Qualitative research is different from quantitative in that the data analyzed and the methods by which the data are analyzed are unique. Qualitative research tends to be exploratory—the data obtained is used to describe the phenomenon under scrutiny, usually in thematic terms, while quantitative research tends to test a hypothesis—the data obtained can usually be statistically analyzed and understood in numeric terms. When it comes to evaluating the quality of research designs, reliability and validity are two considerations that have to be made: does the study measure what it purports to measure, and can the study’s findings be reproduced among the same population using the same method? Those are the questions to ask. For qualitative research, the criteria are a little different than for quantitative research, primarily because in the former the nature of the data is more subjective, more intuitive, more personal—it is difficult…… [Read More]
Coding and Data Analysis Process in Qualitative esearch
"Coding is the process of combing the data for themes, ideas and categories and then marking similar passages of text with a code label so that they can easily be retrieved at a later stage for further comparison and analysis. Coding the data makes it easier to search the data, to make comparisons and to identify any patterns that require further investigation" (Taylor & Gibbs 2010). Coding is a critical aspect of qualitative research as without effective coding there is nothing but a sea of potentially interesting but not necessarily useable data. It could also be argued that during the coding process analysis is already taking place, given that qualitative research is empirical and proceeds 'from the ground up:' during the coding process, the theory or ideas about the subject matter are only just beginning to take shape. Some codes before the…… [Read More]
No conceptual or theoretical framework was clearly identified. However, the authors do focus on patient-centered care within an evidence-based practice framework.
The research design is described as being descriptive and is therefore phenomenological. The authors use a focus group model, and operationalize the definition of the term focus group. A focus group for the purposes of this study is defined as a small group and has as its objective the "acquisition of information based on perceptions, beliefs, traditions, and values of its participants," (Heinrich & Karner, n.d., p. 31). Focus groups are one of the most commonly used study designs in qualitative research in health care (Gill, Stewart, Treasure & Chadwick, 2008). Furthermore, the focus group was selected for this qualitative research design because it permitted 'interaction and discussion" among the participants, leading to "rich data related to the learning needs of older adults living in…… [Read More]
defense of your choices.
Qualitative research: Human trafficking in the voices of its victims
In the recent debate over illegal immigration, a crucial component of the issue is often forgotten, namely the persistence of human trafficking amongst the flow of illegal bodies across the nation's borders. According to the ICE (Immigrations and Customs Enforcement, "in its worst manifestation, human trafficking is akin to modern-day slavery. Victims pay to be illegally transported into the United States only to find themselves in the thrall of traffickers. They are forced into prostitution, involuntary labor and other forms of servitude to repay debts -- often entry in the United States. In certain cases, the victims are mere children. They find themselves surrounded by an unfamiliar culture and language without identification documents, fearing for their lives and the lives of their families" (Human trafficking, 2013, ICE). In other scenarios, the situation may be more ambiguous…… [Read More]
Preventing Data Loss and Data Overload
A qualitative researcher may have to organize, document, and track large and diverse amounts of information. Consider this scenario: A researcher has interviewed 12 participants thus far and has decided to follow up with 4 of them for further interviews. Unfortunately, the researcher has placed all of the contact information on sticky notes around the computer and now cannot find the contact information for 2 of the participants. Moreover, the research supervisor is asking the researcher for a specific piece of interview transcript from one of the participants. These transcripts are all handwritten in a notebook, and the researcher has 15 unmarked notebooks where interview transcripts reside.
Would you like to be the researcher in this position? Can you think of potential problems with this organizational strategy (or lack thereof)? In this Discussion, you will consider data organization strategies so that you will not…… [Read More]
Anchored on the research objective of determining differences, if there are any, in human trafficking rates between male and female adults, the researcher will develop a tool (in-depth interview guide) that will cull out important insights into the issue of human trafficking, from the perspective of both the victims and representatives from organizations/agencies on preventing it.
An in-depth interview is the appropriate qualitative data collection method, as the issue of human trafficking is a very sensitive issue for its victims, and one that requires deeper discovery, thus the inclusion of interviews of experts on the issue. Two in-depth interview guides will therefore be developed for the study: a guide for interviewing human trafficking victims (both male and female) and another for the issue experts.
From these tools, the researcher is expecting that themes relevant to the focus of the two informant groups will emerge. From the victims, a deeper understanding…… [Read More]
Qualitative vs. Quantitative
Social science sometimes debates differences between quantitative and qualitative. On one side, positivists argue quantitative research is objective and measurable where post-positivists argue qualitative analysis allows for a rich understanding of the situation. Although qualitative and quantitative research differ in the techniques, types of data and ethical concerns, they both have their place in psychology. Let us begin by exploring the realm of quantitative research and then move on to qualitative research.
Quantitative research is research that uses numerical measures to evaluate the world. Often, this approach is used by positivists who believe in objective measures to predict the world. This epistemology says research can and should focus only on what can be observed and measured. Following is a discussion of features of quantitative research including techniques, types of data and possible ethical concerns.
There are multiple techniques used to collect quantitative data, but all techniques will…… [Read More]
Qualitative Business Case Study: A Discussion
Business case studies are valuable educational tools used by educators, institutions, students and corporations within continuing education programs. Creating a case study or analyzing one written by a professor or executive, forces one to examine the strengths and weaknesses, successes and pitfalls of a particular business by analyzing precise situations, formulating one’s own conclusions and then making recommendations or other such inferences based on the data or predictions drawn from the data.
Case Study Design
The case study will manifest in a narrative or story-centric structure. The “main character” will be introduced early on in the case study as someone with a necessary objective or a specific but perhaps somewhat confounding choice that needs to be addressed (Schweitzer, 2015). The story of the main character remains interwoven throughout the case study design, offering necessary information about the company in question, the overall situation, and…… [Read More]
Identify the data collection techniques used by Lenski et al. (2005) in this study. The researchers collected data by "learning about ethnography, conducting participation observation, making descriptive observations," conducting neighborhood observations, school site observations and interviewing participants.
Given the design of this study, do you think the students were participant observers or nonparticipant observers?
The students were participant observers because students and teachers were engaged in activities together.
How does this qualitative design differ from the quantitative designs that we have studied?
This design does not collect or analyze statistical data. The main method of data collection is the interview method. This is a one-on-one process of speaking to participants, asking questions, and receiving in-depth answers. The design is a type of examination: it looks in order to see more details and clarity regarding a process but it does not attempt to quantify the picture that emerges.
QUESTION…… [Read More]
Health and Safety Questionnaire
Qualitative research questions regarding health and policy issues are difficult to put together in a comprehensive fashion. For this reason, it is necessary to have a brief literature review to see how some scholars have dealt with this problem. Then it will be possible to put together a properly structured interview. Then, the author structured a sample interview.
Qualitative Interview Methodology Literature
In a journal article in the International Journal for Quality in Health Care, the authors put together a 32 item checklist to help set up competent focus group interviews with consolidated criteria for reporting The authors performed their comprehensive search in Cochrane and Campbell Protocols, CINAHL, Medline,, systematic reviews of studies of a qualitative nature, reviewer or author guidelines of major medical journals and also reference lists of the relevant journals and other publications for existing checklists that are widely used to assess qualitative…… [Read More]
Mixed Methods Research
Two important aspects of qualitative research relates to the role of the researcher and the manner in which knowledge is viewed. These two aspects fundamentally distinguish qualitative research from quantitative research (Creswell, 2014). In qualitative research, the researcher seeks to cultivate a closer relationship with the subject(s). This means that the researcher focuses on a single or a small number of subjects, and utilises designs that allow closer interaction with the subjects such as in-depth interviews, observations, and focus group discussions. Cultivating a closer relationship with the subjects is informed by the need to gain a deeper understanding of the research phenomenon (Denscombe, 2010). This arises from the assertion that knowledge is subjective (Bryman, 2008). In other words, different individuals tend to have different meanings and worldviews about a given phenomenon. The role of the researcher, therefore, is to understand the unique interpretation a subject holds about…… [Read More]
Discussion of the Differences Between Quantitative and Qualitative Research
Q1. How does a research problem/question guide the determination to conduct a quantitative versus a qualitative research study?
In general, qualitative research is exploratory in nature and seeks to understand a particular phenomenon from a particular subject’s perspective (McLeod, 2017). It is open-ended in its focus and the researcher has no predetermined conclusions before embarking upon the study. As a result, it focuses on a small rather than a large population. In stark contrast, a quantitative study seeks to understand a phenomenon in an objective fashion that is generalizable to a large population (McLeod, 2017). It is often framed in the form of a predetermined hypothesis and is narrow in its focus.
Q2. Discuss the value of using a conceptual framework or theory (grand or mid-range) to guide a quantitative research study. Address the debate of the appropriateness of using of…… [Read More]
Qualitative research is an assortment of various approaches, which have differences and commonalities. In qualitative research, the truth is not considered as an objective but as a subjective reality where various individuals experience differently. The aim of qualitative research is to address any of the problems found in the society. Psychology, education, and sociology are the subjects in which qualitative research methods are used. Qualitative research methods attempt to know why human beings exhibit specific behaviors and make certain choices unlike in the quantitative research method where such details are not shown (Lewis, 2015). The contents of a research paper written using qualitative method vary depending on the methods incorporated and focus in the study.
The introduction is the first part of the process, which sets down the direction of the paper. It lays out exactly what the researcher is trying to achieve at the end of…… [Read More]
Mixed methods research design is popular in many research settings because it offers a set of advantages as well as a flexibility that cannot be matched by other available methods. This method combines some of the features from both quantitative and qualitative research methods to create unique methods that can integrate many theoretical or conceptual frameworks. This analysis will use a case study form of a mixed methods approach from studies that were performed in different academic fields to illustrate this form of research. The case study approach is popular in various environments due to the fact that it has more flexibility to explore and explain complex social phenomenon that are difficult to account for in strict quantitative approaches. Furthermore, it also allows room for the social constructivist approach that allows participants some freedom to add information that is relevant to their particular perspective to be added to the data.…… [Read More]
infused my original assumptions with greater specificity over the course of the gathering of my information. At first, I conducted a literature review of my topic (human trafficking) to establish that there is a recorded tendency that women are more likely to be trafficked than men. But after exploring the data collection process further of these research studies, I began to understand that certain factors can affect even statistical evidence, such as the fact that certain forms of trafficking may be more likely to be detected than other forms. For example, women seem to be more apt to be trafficked into the sex industry. Since all forms of prostitution are illegal in most states, this makes it easier to detect than coerced labor in the agricultural and garment industries and in domestic service (Hepburn & Simon 2010). This highlighted that there will likely always be gaps in whatever data that…… [Read More]
Sustainability in Pharmaceutical Pricing
How Can Pharmaceutical Public-Private Partnerships Help to Achieve the Dissemination of affordable medicines - The Case of Anti Malaria Drugs in Nigeria?
Many individuals from developing countries who could benefit from pharmaceuticals products do not receive them due to high costs. Antiretroviral therapy's failure in reaching more than scant numbers of individuals in developing nations, suffering from AIDS, has drawn extensive publicity. However, even far cheaper medications that can be delivered easily aren't reaching numerous individuals who require them. Over a fourth of children all over the world and more than half of the children in a few nations do not receive vaccines, which come under the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Expanded Program on Immunization. Even though these vaccines only cost a family under a dollar a dose, they still cannot afford the medicine. The lack of access to beneficial pharmaceutical products and the…… [Read More]
.....standard indicators for which statistical time series data and targets are accessible, but also take into account social aspects, for instance, the fair apportionment of benefits and encumbrances of the energy transition amid social groups and even the participation of citizens in the transformation process. These social constructs are lacking in preceding approaches, which indicates a certain level of inefficiency. Taking this into account, the authors make the hypothesis that an all-inclusive indicator system is required as tool for analysis to examine the sustainability of the German energy system in addition to supporting the advancement of resilient political approaches for an efficacious energy transition (Rosch et al., 2017).
How would you describe the purpose of the study - What was the major purpose of the study -- descriptive, explanatory (investigating causal relationships)?
The purpose of this study is to make a contribution to the debate regarding indicators necessitated for making…… [Read More]
language facilitates criticism and understanding? hy or hy not?
Qualitative language, that is language that is not quantifiable and thus dwells in the realm of the sort of academic criticism and research "that produces findings not arrived at by means of statistical procedures or other means of quantification," remains a critical mode of expression, even in areas of study of the social sciences where "hard data" is a must. (Hoepfl, 1997, p.13) "here quantitative researchers seek causal determination, prediction, and generalization of findings, qualitative researchers seek instead illumination, understanding, and extrapolation to similar situations. Qualitative analysis results in a different type of knowledge than does quantitative inquiry. " (Hoepfl, 1997, p.13). But one must take precautions to make sure that the subjective nature of qualitative language does not impede, but rather facilitates understanding of a subject. To take just one example of how the qualitative association of words, can skew…… [Read More]
Ndunda (2004) defines research as the systematic use of several techniques to generate credible information regarding problems. This process helps in providing reliable and verifiable information rather than assumptions regarding the issue or problem being examined. Based on this definition, the research process can be defined as collecting and analyzing information regarding a specific issue to generate reliable information that leads to accurate conclusions. In most cases, the research process helps in generating information that can be utilized in effective decision making regarding a specific issue or problem. In the field of education, the research process involves the use of different techniques/methods to analyze an issue and provide reliable information about it.
In light of the definition of the research process, there are several steps involved with conducting research in order to generate reliable information. The first step in conducting research is identifying the issue or topic, which needs…… [Read More]
Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
According to Lopez-Alvarado (2017) and Muijs (n.d.), research design decisions are linked to ontology and epistemology. Ontology refers to the researcher’s beliefs about whether reality is absolute or contextual, universal or relative. Whether the researcher is a realist or a relativist determines research questions and designs, with an increased tendency for relativists to focus on phenomenological and qualitative methods and a realist to use quantitative methods. Muijs (n.d.) describes quantitative research as using numerical data and mathematical methods, showing how a realist will use these types of methods to seek for an objective truth. Likewise, epistemology refers to how the researcher acquires knowledge, or what sources of knowledge are deemed valid. A researcher who believes in absolutism and realism will veer towards quantitative methods, which yield absolute and generalizable results. On the other hand, a researcher who values subjectivity would take a phenomenological and qualitative approach.…… [Read More]
Sand-Jecklin, K., & Herman, J. (2014). A Quantitative Assessment of Patient and Nurse Outcomes of Bedside Nursing eport Implementation. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 23(19-20), 2854-2863.
This particular research piece is quantitative in nature. The basic analysis element in a study of this kind as Keele (2011) points out is statistical analyses and numbers. This is more so the case given that it generates data that could be transmuted into operational statistics, as it seeks to quantify the problem i.e. "quantify quantitative outcomes of a practice change to a blended form of bedside nursing report." It is clear that the authors in this case seek to quantify behaviors and opinions in an attempt to come up with results from a sample population that is significant. I selected this topic due to its relevance to clinical practice. This is particularly the case given that there are very few published studies that have…… [Read More]
Data Collection in Leadership
As a social science, leadership research may involve any type of quantitative or qualitative data collection method. Qualitative research data collection methods include observation, participant-observation, interview, and document or content analysis (“Data Collection Methods,” n.d.). Quantitative data collection methods used in leadership research may include surveys and experiments, which allow for statistical analysis, the establishment of causality between independent and dependent variables, and the tracking of results over time. Whereas quantitative data collection methods had once been the most commonly used in the social sciences, recent trends in leadership research have shifted towards qualitative methods (Antonakis, Schriescheim, Donovan, et al., 2003). Qualitative methods often reveal nuances, patterns, and ideas that quantitative methods overlook or take for granted, making mixed-methods approaches extremely attractive in emerging literature on leadership and organizational behavior.
Methods of data collection and research design trends eventually feed the formation of new theories in…… [Read More]
esearch instruments fall into two broad categories: those compiled by the researcher him or herself in the form of recorded observations, logs, and rating scales and those completed by the interview subject him or herself in the form of questionnaires and interviews. egardless of the instruments used, research studies should be guided by acceptable standards of validity and reliability. "Validity is the extent to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure and performs as it is designed to perform" ("Instrument, validity, reliability" 2014). Statistical tests are usually used to establish the external validity of an instrument. "External validity is the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized from a sample to a population" ("Instrument, validity, reliability" 2014). In contrast, internal validity is the extent to which the instrument is internally valid based upon the results obtained within the sample. An instrument may be…… [Read More]
Consider how qualitative and quantitative research methods complement one another, and consider the role of mixed methods designs.
Quantitative and qualitative social science study techniques have, for long, remained discrete, barely overlapping, spheres. But, of late, innovations have shed light on quantitative and qualitative techniques’ complementarity (Maxwell, 1998). Complementarily employing both methods offers broader understandings besides facilitating research findings’ confirmation or triangulation using different techniques, thus improving overall result validity and making the research more useful for targeted entities. However, the quest for genuinely complementary research techniques is also a greatly challenging task as it implies extra expenses, in terms of human as well as monetary resources, in addition to the development of ethical quandaries pertaining to follow- up and a need for collaboration and respecting diverse epistemological and methodological stands (Maxwell, 1998).
Using a qualitative process prior to engaging in survey work is, without a doubt, the most widely…… [Read More]
role of research problem in choosing an appropriate methodology. It also presents the research questions, methodology, and design that can be used by the researcher to analyze the research problem and proceed with his research study. The third section of the paper identifies two major qualities of team leaders that contribute to successful leadership and explains strategies that organization leaders can implement to develop these two qualities in their team leaders in order to achieve maximum performance. The paper also explains some advantages and disadvantages of these leadership skills or qualities.
Vietnam -- The Economy, Marketing Landscape, and Brand Perception of Consumers
Economic System and Macro-Economic Environment of Vietnam and its esponse to Globalization:
After the recent financial crisis hit the world markets, Vietnamese economy revived itself and became a market-oriented economy (Vietnam Centre for Economic and Policy esearch, 2010). All its manufacturing, industrial, and trade sectors have seen tremendous…… [Read More]
esearch Method and Design Proposal
A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments (Hodkinson, 2009).
Most importantly, qualitative data methods…… [Read More]
oles of Theory in Qualitative esearch & Application
Write a two page Journal entry on how well you are understanding the roles of theory in qualitative research and how this applies to your Final Project and to your Dissertation.
Thinking About Qualitative esearch Theory. Qualitative research approaches are grounded in theoretical frameworks that make certain assumptions about the world, about how qualitative research is best conducted, and about the type of research questions and solutions are acceptable for the research approach, and about the criteria that appropriate for trustworthiness (which is the equivalent proof in quantitative research approaches). When researchers take a qualitative approach, they consider the world to be socially constructed by people's individual perceptions. Qualitative researchers depend on respondents' accounts to provide explanations for observed behaviors and shared thoughts. The qualitative research approach does not begin with a hypothesis to be proven or disproved -- a…… [Read More]
This is yet another reason we cannot assume that data is 'objective' because it is quantitative in nature. For example, when constructing an experiment "an extreme groups design (e.g., assigning participants to high or low conditions) maximizes the variances of the components of the product term, it also results in much more power with respect to the interaction effect than would the corresponding observational design" (Cortina 2002: 343). Conversely, doing an experiment 'in the field' is likely to yield a less statistically-significant impact because of the inability to control the extremity of the variables. A recent study of the statistical power of research in the social sciences revealed that only 40% of all MIS studies had adequate statistical power to ensure that the probability that the null hypothesis would be rejected correctly at all times (Baroudi & Orlikowski 1989: 87). Significance criteria, sample estimate, and effect size, can all influence…… [Read More]
Ethics in esearch
For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).
Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into…… [Read More]
("Applied Research") This involves primary sources, as Mary is going to be using actual cases to understand what is happening. ("What is the Difference between Primary and Secondary Sources")
Which two techniques of data collection do you feel would be more beneficial for Mary to use?
The primary data collection is more useful to Mary. The reason why, is because they are focusing on real cases and statistics surrounding juvenile crime. This will make her findings and analysis more realistic by looking at the actual numbers. ("What is the Difference between Primary and Secondary Sources")
Would this project be more suited to quantitative or qualitative research methods? Support your opinions with reasons.
Qualitative research would be more suitable for this kind of project. This is because we are looking at the environment that these individuals are living in. At which point, we are seeking to address the underlying problems by:…… [Read More]
Unlike primary data that are time-consuming, the secondary data is less time consuming, and a research could collect secondary data to answer the research questions as well as achieving research objectives. Boslaug (2007) argues that the economy is the major advantage of secondary data. Since data have already been collected by another researcher, a researcher does not need to devote his/her resources to collect the data. More importantly, the saving of time is another major advantage of secondary data. Since the data has already been collected and analyzed, the research only needs to collect the data for his or her research study. Boslaug (2007) further points out that secondary data are characterized with the informed expertise, which may not be available with primary data.
Despite the advantages that this research derives from secondary data, there are still disadvantages associated with secondary data. The secondary data may not be suitable to…… [Read More]
Managing Different Perspectives in the Literature
One of the strengths of qualitative literature -- as well as one of its frustrations -- is its innate subjectivity. Different authors may present the reader with different approaches, both of which can be equally valid and still be characterized as qualitative. The variety of perspectives offered on qualitative research from diverse sources allows the individual researcher to tailor his or her approach to the specific subject of his or her research study. Unlike a quantitative, statistical approach which requires passing certain mathematical tests to be valid, the validity of a qualitative approach depends on the needs of the specific study. For example, for a primarily narrative qualitative study that is merely designed to showcase experiences, having a research question might not be particularly useful. However, for a grounded theory approach, a research question would likely be required to focus the research process and…… [Read More]
Falter in Quality
The strength of the use of interviews as a data collection device is that they ensure a high rate of response; that the interviewer can tailor his or her response to the subjects' responses over the course of the interview; and the interviewer can clarify any ambiguous responses. Problems with interviews can arise when the subjects make their responses conform to the unintentionally communicated expectations of the interviewer, based on a desire to 'please' the researcher. To ensure quality control in my process of interviewing I tried to adhere to a relatively similar script between interviews for comparison of subject responses. I did not want to be overly directive during the interview and only intervened if the subjects were confused and had no response to my queries. I transcribed and recorded the interviews to ensure I was not missing any critical word choices that might be revelatory…… [Read More]
These individuals will be recruited via email, similar to that of the journal recruitment email. However, the email will only detail that they have been selected to participate in a free shopping spree at a given time and place in appreciation for their loyal patronage. Another possibility is to set up a drawing at the selected store. From the individuals who register, random participants can be selected.
The experiment itself will utilize a simulated shopping environment will be set up. Half the participants will be bombarded with advertisements while shopping and prior to shopping (such as having ads mailed and emailed to them). The other half will not be bombarded with the advertisements for that particular brand and products. All other variables will be the same. After the experiment, the observer will be able to compare the purchases of the two groups to see if the advertisement group purchased the…… [Read More]
Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows:
(1) How have quantitative and qualitative elements been related? What type of combined designs have been sued? What is the level of integration between qualitative and quantitative aspects of studies?
(2) Why have the authors chosen to prefer multimethod or mixed design to monomethod approach? Do they offer a rationale for their choice? What is the purpose of the combination of different approaches?;
(3) What are the complications that the use of different combined designs brings about?; and (4) How do design characteristics influence the inferences and conclusion the authors draw? (Niglas, 2004)
ryman (2006) reports that research study conducted for the justification of combination of quantitative and qualitative research finds the following five justifications in the combination of research of both qualitative and quantitative types:
(1) Triangulation -- convergence, corroboration, correspondence…… [Read More]
Also as noted before, not everyone is willing and able to volunteer the most relevant information and this is where an adept mental health professional (in the case of a mental health intake situation) or a researcher (in research of the same) comes into play and is very important (Nakash & Alegria, 2013).
The line of thought espoused in the QH article is echoed when assessing the California State University at Long Beach website section regarding qualitative research. They, much like the author of this response would suggest, advocate the importance and necessity of qualitative research but at the same time caution about using it correctly and in a way that yields proper and verifiable results. Simple conjecture and blind assumptions are not part of any good research, qualitative or quantitative, and that slippery slope that exists is much more pervasive and prone to come to pass when…… [Read More]
Qualitative, quantitative, mixed methodologies
Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methodology research
Quantitative methodologies tend to be data-driven in nature. The presumption of the correct 'way of knowing' in quantitative research is positivistic in nature. It is assumed there is an objective, concrete truth that can be learned through empirical observation and the careful construction of an experiment. Quantitative methods of research often use the scientific method or quasi-scientific methods of study design. The researcher has a clear idea of the phenomenon he or she is attempting to study. The researcher's primary tools include questionnaires, objective measurements and other methods of gathering statistical results. Often there is a control group to see if the results are statistically significant in nature. The study is carefully designed before the research takes place to isolate specific variables of inquiry and its focus of study is narrow, rather than broad. The types of knowledge…… [Read More]
Value of Shifting from Qualitative to Quantitative and Back Again
Qualitative research is considered hypothesis generating, whereas quantitative research is designed to test hypotheses. Based on this perspective, the natural direction of research flow would be from qualitative to quantitative study designs (Black & Fauske, 2008). Qualitative research tends to focus on experiences, rather than the measuring and tracking of objective factors, but there are times when it makes sense to base a qualitative study on quantitative findings. This essay will examine the value of transitioning from qualitative to quantitative study designs and vice versa.
Qualitative to Quantitative
A qualitative study is traditionally conducted when little is understood about a phenomenon, such as the experiences of patients during treatment. For example, Black and Fauske (2008) were interested in understanding the experiences and practices of case managers during advanced care planning. A focus group design was used to conduct semi-structured interviews,…… [Read More]